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Korean Romanization Reference


The attached PDF file contains the new Korean romanization system promulgated in 2000. It also includes for your reference several of the older systems and the equivalent International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) symbols.

The column marked Yale stands for Yale University's romanization scheme. This is the standard used in linguistic circles. Other diacritical marks are used that do not appear in this reference. These include long vowel markings and disappearing consonants such as 'n' and 'l' at the beginning of syllables. A period is also used between syllables where boundaries are ambiguous. The Yale system does not take into account morphophonemic changes sticking as close as possible to Hangul spelling, as these changes are surface realizations which Korean speakers are able to produce naturally; it is meant to represent the underlying phonetic values.

The column marked McCune-Reischauer (named after its founders) has been a popular one in Korea for a long time. The next column, Lukoff, is named after the system Fred Lukoff designed for his educational books, Spoken Korean. 1959-SK is the system that South Korea's Ministry of Education developed.

Korean Romanization Reference (Download or View) 131k

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