Physics 7C:
Electromagnetic waves, physical optics, relativity and quantum physics
Key Ideas by Lecture
This is a summary of some of the main ideas. The links point
to sites that might be of interest: some are more detailed explanation of
what we did in lecture, others are more advanced material than we'll cover
in lecture. This is not an official syllabus!
 Electromagnetic waves (Giancoli Ch. 32)

 Maxwell's Equations in integral form
 Div, Grad, Curl and Maxwell's equations in differential form
 Electromagnetic waves
 The electromagnetic spectrum
 Poynting Vector
 Radiation Pressure
 Some links for further reading (also see general
links):
 Reflection and Refraction (Giancoli Ch. 33)

 geometric optics approximation
 speed of light in different media
 reflection angle equals incidence angle
 mirrors: flat, curved
 mirror equation, defintions and sign conventions
 refraction: snell's law
 dispersion
 total internal reflection
 Some links for further reading (also see general links):
 Lenses and Optical instruments (Giancoli Ch. 34)

 Thin lens approximation
 Types of lenses
 lens equation and sign conventions
 multiple lenses
 lensmaker's equation
 Some links for further reading
(also see general
links):
 Interference (Giancoli Ch. 35)

 Huygen's Principle, relation to diffraction and refraction
 Interference
 Young's Double Slit Experiment
 Coherence
 Examples of interference, (possible) phase shift upon reflection
 interferometers
 Holography
 Some links for further reading (also see general
links):
 Huygen's principle and diffraction, Launceston College

Huygen's principle applet, by W. Fendt (click on next step to get
whole discussion)

Huygen and Fresnel's principles, University College London
 Huygen's
principle in a lot of detail, mathpages.com
 Huygen's principle explanation of why it
shouldn't work and why it should, by Melvin Schwartz
 More pictures on diffraction and double slit experiment,
by D. Lee
 MSU applet on
Interference (vary the distance between 2 sources)
 superposition applet (a reminder), and
Young's double slit example, by Hwang
 two more young's double slit expt applets are
here and
here.

Double Slit by Vtorov
 Young's
Paper on his double slit experiment, 1803 (access restricted to
computers at institutions subscribing to jstor database)
 Interferometry
using Natural light (ie how to get a coherent source), from optics for
kids (PDF)

LIGO, an interferometer looking for gravity waves caused by
colliding black holes (and other things)

Hologram information, Univ. of South Carolina
 Holograms,
from a thesis on holography by Olsen
 White light reflection
hologram, from 3dimagery.com
 The
Edible Hologram, Optics for Kids (PDF)
 Diffraction and Polarization (Giancoli Ch. 36)

 Single slit diffraction
 Diffraction plus interference for double slit
 Multiple slits, diffraction gratings
 Resolution limits due to diffraction
 Polarization, intensity of transmitted light
 Some links for further reading (also see general
links):
 Special Relativity (Giancoli Ch. 37)

 Postulates of Special Relativity
 Why? Michelson Morley experiment
 Time Dilation and Lorentz Contraction
 Lorentz Transformations
 Observer dependence: events, clocks
 "distance" agreed upon in all intertial frames
 Spacetime Diagrams
 Simultaneity
 paradoxes
 Velocity Addition
 Mass and Energy
 massless particles
 (maybe, if time permits) doppler shift
 Some links for further reading (also see general
links):
 Quotations about
the end of science right before relativity and quantum mechanics were
discovered, and other "ends", amateur science web page.
Note: it is more supportive of "unconventional science" than I (JDC)
would beit is very hard to change a theory just "a little bit" and any
explanation you give does have to agree with all previous measurements (which
provided the earlier theories)....
 some context for the MichelsonMorley experiment, from U. Va.

Special and General Relativity notes, Mount Allison University

Special Relativity Notes, Virginia Tech

Some more relativity notes, includes discussion of causality
using spacetime diagrams touched upon in class (pages 57).
Lots of pictures. (PDF)
 fun java movies on relativity, Univ of Winnipeg
 Fun with simultaneity, U.C. Riverside

Introduction to spacetime diagrams,
Visualizing proper time and
twin paradox applet, Syracuse U.

Special Relativity Notes, U. Colorado, lots of pictures
 Notes on
special relativity, Univ. of Virginia
 Spacetime lab, CalTech

relativity and
Relativistic Doppler Effect, hyperphysics
 History of special and general relativity discoveries.
 Motivations for
Quantum Mechanics (Giancoli Ch. 38)

 Blackbody spectrum
 Planck's Hypothesis
 Photoelectric effect
 Compton effect
 Waveparticle duality, numberphase duality
 Rutherford's scattering experiment
 Atomic Spectra
 Bohr atom: definition, successes and failures
 Some links for further reading (also see general
links):

Quantum Mechanics (Giancoli Ch. 39)

 Uncertainty principle: position/momentum, energy/time, etc.
 Wavefunction
 Predictions using wavefunction: probabilities in q.m.
 Schrodinger equation, time dependent and time independent
 Free particle, wave packets
 Particle in a box, some probabilities for measurements
 Harmonic Oscillator
 Particle in a finite well
 Particle and a step
 Tunneling
 Some links for further reading (also see general
links):

Wave packet spread, Hyperphysics
 Biographical
background for Schrodinger.
Schroedinger equation concepts, hyperphysics
 free particle wavefunction, U. Guelph
 Simple
quantum models, posed and solved, funny gifs (U. Guelph)
 expectation or average values of quantities in quantum mechanics,
Hyperphysics

Comparison of Classical and Quantum Probabilities for
a Harmonic Oscillator, Hyperphysics
 finite well applet, Davidson. Well is between x = 0.5 and
+0.5.

Particle in a finite height box, hyperphysics

Physics 137a, Quantum class here, links to lots of things, plus
animations at bottom.

Animations of QM wave packets, U. Rochester,
in particular the spread of a Gaussian.
 Scattering of
a QM wave packet, Silicon graphics

Scanning Tunneling Microscope, Nobel prize emuseum

Quantum Atomic Tunneling, Cornell group
 Diagram of how STM works, IAP/TU Wien

STM image gallery, IBM
 Notes on
tunneling, esp in NH3, Syracuse
 Barrier penetration and tunneling notes, UIUC

Tunneling in the sun, hyperphysics
 Tunneling of wavepackets, UIUC

New Scientist's Guide to the quantum world, New Scientist Magazine
(like Scientific American, but in the UK)

Schroedinger's cat , Ecole Normale, France
 Decoherence web site, Joos
 Hydrogen atom and other atoms (Giancoli Ch. 40)

 review of particle in a box
 Hydrogen Schroedinger equationparticle on a sphere
 Properties of solutions, quantum numbers
 angular momentum
 spin: SternGerlach
 properties of spin systems, quantum computing/cryptography
 multielectron atoms
 exclusion principle
 nomenclature
 Xrays
 Some links for further reading (also see general
links):
 Some details of solving hydrogen Schroedinger eqn, Hyperphysics
 Hydrogen atom wavefunctions Applet, Davidson
 Hydrogen Atom wavefunctions pictures, Univ. Bonn
 Atomic Orbitals
Applet, MIT
 Everything you
always wanted to know about the H atom but were afraid to
ask, Johns Hopkins U
 Combining some orbitals,
D. Dauger

Electron Spin, Hyperphysics

Behavior of spin under rotations and exclusion discussion at
U Missouri
 Atomic structure properties, Hyperphysics
 Rules for filling up shells in atoms (Hund's rules), UCSD

Masers and lasers page, from Omni magazine

The Quantum Computer, Caltech
 Quantum
Computing, Pro and Con, CalTech (technical article but also
just overview)
 Tutorial on
Quantum Cryptography, Dartmouth
 Molecules and Solids (Giancoli Ch. 41)

 Bonds in Molecules:Covalent and Ionic
 Orbital overlap
 Dipoles: Van der Waals Bonds
 Potentials for nuclei in molecules
 Molecular rotation/vibration, quantum descriptions
 Types of bonds in crystals
 Madelung const
 Metals
 Free electron gas, density of states, Fermi energy, probability factor f
 Band theory for solids: conductor, insulator, semiconductor
 holes and particles, doping, transistors
 Some links for further reading (also see general
links):
 Orbitron, molecular and atomic orbitals, Sheffield, UK.

Molecular orbital pictures for many types of molecules, McMaster, Ontario

links on molecular orbital theory, Eth Zurich

Molecular Spectra, Hyperphysics

Lecture notes with many advanced discussions on spectroscopy,
Rutgers

Molecular bond notes, Wisconsin (PDF)

Fermi Energy E_{F}, Hyperphysics

Notes on MaxwellBoltzmann distribution, i.e. how to derive it.
(Univ. of South Dakota)

Band theory,
bands for solids,
metals in periodic table,
Hyperphysics
 Introduction
to superconductors, Queensland (these are not closely related to
conductors and semiconductors but were asked about).
 Solid State Physics Course lecture notes, UIUC

Semiconductors, Hyperphysics
 Semiconductors,
rough guide to electronics (pictures of holes/electrons)
 Nuclear Physics
(Giancoli Ch. 42,43)

 Four forces of naturestrong, weak, electromagnetic, gravitational
 Conservation laws
 nucleus decay: alpha, beta, gamma particles (He nuclei, electrons, photons)
 stability (shell model)
 binding energy
 half life
 fusion
 fission
 MRI
 Some links for further reading (also see general
links):
 Particle Physics (Giancoli Ch. 44)

 Wavelength and particle momentum
 Particle creation
 Conserved Charges
 Detecting particles
 Particle Zoo
 Quarks, Color
 Leptons (electron, neutrino, etc.)
 Photon and particle exchange, range of interaction
 Particles for other 3 forces
 Standard Model
 Questions: Higgs, neutrino masses, quark masses
 Symmetry and symmetry breaking
 Frontiers: unification,gravity, supersymmetry, strings, extra dimensions
 Some links for further reading (also see general
links):

What is Matter?, hypermind, several cutting edge researchers giving
nontechnical descriptions of particle physics models today
 Particle Adventure and
Clickable chart of particle properties, LBL
 Review of Particle Physics, lists of
known particles and their properties and review articles (advanced), LBL
 Article
on using particle tracks, CERN (accelerator in Switzerland/France)
 little movie of exchange forces, particle adventure
 Dave's Microcosmos, on particle physics, Saginaw Valley State University, also
lots of links to other particle physics pages
 www.superstringtheory.com,
string theory web site, esp the intro
pages here
and
here.

slides from intro talk on extra dimensions (Chicago/Harvard)
 Cosmology (Giancoli Ch. 453 to end)

 General Relativity: spacetime as an entity itself
 spatial curvature
 expanding universe
 expanding universe + matter + dark energy
 universe today:expnding, cooling, getting more clumpy
 back in time to big bang
 forward in time
 nucleosynthesis, cmb
 structure formation
 Some links for further reading (also see general
links):
