I. EAST CENTRAL EUROPE, 1914-1945 (Cienciala, revised Feb.-March 2004).
  • Section 1.Reference Works
  • Section 2. SURVEYS
  • Section 3. World War I. The Great Powers
  • Section 4. East Central European Peoples in World War I and the Peace Treaties


  • II. EAST CENTRAL EUROPE, 1914-1939

    Section 1. Reference Works

    (See beginning of Part I of this Bibliography, to 1914).

    New: ENCYCLOPEDIA OF EASTERN EUROPE. From the Congress of Vienna to the Fall of Communism, edited by Richard Frucht, Garland Publishing, Inc., New York and London, 2000.

    (Richard Frucht, of Northwest Missouri State University, a specialist in Modern Balkan History, is to be congratulated on coordinating and editing the work of many contributors. The longer history entries on countries are of high quality. However, it is regrettable that in such an important reference work with specialists in Czech Hungarian and Romanian history on the Advisory Board, there was no specialist on Polish history. It is not surprising, therefore, that some of the shorter entries on Poland are unsatisfactory. Two examples will suffice: Katyn, gives the number of Polish prisoners murdered there in spring 1940 as 15, 000, although this is the old total number of Poles from the 3 special camps, who were shot in different locations, and there is no mention of the Russian documents published in English and Polish in 1992-2001. 2. the entry for Teschen speaks of Polish seizure of part of the area, but omits the local Polish and Czech National Councils' agreement of 5 November 1918 on an ethnic demarcation line leaving the then preponderantly Polish-speaking part of Western Teschen or "Zaolzie" on the Polish side. For short items relating to Poland up to 1945, it is advisable to consult: George J. Lerski, Historical Dictionary of Poland, 966-1945, Greenwood Press, Westport CT, and London, 1996; for the period 1945-1996, see: Piotr Wrobel, Historical Dictionary of Poland, 1945-1996, Westport CT, 1996.

    Section 2. SURVEYS

    (A). General Surveys of the Region, 1914-39

    R. J. Crampton, Eastern Europe in the Twentieth Century, London, New York, Routledge 1996.

    (For information on author, see Pt. I Historical Atlases). This is a very good, brief history beginning with pre-World War I period and ending with the revolutions of 1989-91, with a very good, up-to-date bibliography. There are some errors. e. g. the secret Polish Military Organization, POW, is confused with Jozef Pilsudski's Polish Legion; the underground military organization, POW, was not dissolved, but founded in Aug. 1914 p. 10.

    Joseph Held, ed., The Columbia History of Eastern Europe in the Twentieth Century, New York, Columbia University Press, 1992

    Joseph Held (b. 1930) is of Hungarian origin. The book has chapters by country, mostly by historians, but also political scientists; there is a schematic, bare bones sketch of Polish history. The selective bibliography is undifferentiated by period or topic, but includes maps of the region: 1914, 1923, 1945 and a useful chronology for May 1918-December 1990.

    (B). Economic History of the Region

    Ivan T. Berend and Gyorgy Ranki, Economic Development in East Central Europe in the 19th and 20th Centuries, New York, Columbia University Press, 1974

    Written by two Hungarian economic historians (Ranki d. 1988), this is a good survey, but with almost exclusive emphasis on the Danubian basin.

    M. C. Kaser and E. A. Radice, eds., The Economic History of Eastern Europe 1919-1975, 3 vols., Oxford, Oxford University press, 1985, 1986.

    An excellent, detailed history by specialists; vols. 1, 2, cover the interwar and vol. 3, the post-World War II. period. At the time of publication, M. C. Kaser was a Professorial Fellow at St. Anthony's College, Oxford; E. A. Radice, C. B. E., became a Fellow at the same college afer a distinguished career in government service.

    Wojciech Roszkowski, Land Reforms in East Central Europe after World War One, Warsaw, 1995.

    The author is a prolific Polish historian in ISPPAN (the Institute of Political Studies of the Polish Academy of Sciences), Warsaw, and from the Fall of 2,000 to 2003, holder of the Kosciuszko Chair of Polish Studies at the Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA. The book covers land reform in the Baltic states, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and in the Balkan countries with special attention to Romania, also the economic, social and political effects of the reform.

    (For other histories, see under period and country; for Balkan countries, see under Balkans).

    (C) Photographic Albums

    1. The Jews of Interwar Eastern Europe

    Lucjan Dobroszycki and Barbara Kirshenblatt-Gimblett, IMAGE BEFORE MY EYES. A Photographic History of Jewish Life in Poland Before the Holocaust, New York, Shocken Books, 1977.

    Fascinating photographic record of Jewish life on Polish territories from the mid- 19th century to 1939, with commentary by L. Dobroszycki (1926-1996), an outstanding scholar of Polish-Jewish origin.

    Educated in Poland; he worked for many years at the Yivo Institute, New York.

    Roman Vishniac, with foreword by Elie Wiesel, A VANISHED WORLD, New York, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1983.

    Moving photographs of Jewish life taken in late 1930s Poland, Slovakia, Subcarpathian Ruthenia. R. Vishniac was born in the Jewish Pale, Russia, then lived in Germany and U. S.

    2. East European Jews after World War II.

    Remnants. The Last Jews of Poland, Written by Malgorzata Niezabitowska, Photographed by Tomasz Tomaszewski. Translated from the Polish by William Brand and Hanna Dobosiewicz, New York, 1986.

    Moving portraits of mostly elderly Polish Jews in the mid-1980s; excellent interviews and photographs.

    Section 3. World War I. The Great Powers

    (A). Austria-Hungary in the War and its Collapse, October-November 1918

    The Austrian History Yearbook, 1967, pt. 3 : "The Disintegration of the Monarchy," (articles by Hajo Holborn, Victor S. Mamatey, Hans Kohn).

    This is an excellent collection of articles, originally papers read at a conference held at Indiana University, Bloomington, IN. Hajo Holborn (1902-1969) was an American historian of German origin, who left Germany when Hitler came to power. He taught at Yale University. V. S. Mamatey (b. North Braddock, PA, 1917) is an American historian of Russia and Eastern Europe. Hans Kohn (1891-1971) was an American historian of Jewish origin born in Prague, who wrote on Nationalism and always regretted the passing of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

    Austrian History Yearbook, v. IV-V, 1968-69 (articles by Fritz Fellner, Robert F. Hopwood, Alfred D. Low, Stefan Pascu, and Comments, pp. 3-100).

    Fritz Fellner is an Austrian historian; Alfred D. Low [b. Vienna, 1913] is an American historian of E. Europe. Stefan Pascu (b. Cluj, Transylvania, 1913) is of Romanian origin.

    F. R. Bridge, THE HABSBURG MONARCHY AMONG THE GREAT POWERS, 1815-1918, Oxford, Munich, Berg, and New York, St. Martin's Press, 1990 (ch. 8, 9).

    E. R. Bridge, is a specialist on the History of the Habsburg Empire and on British foreign policy. At the time of publication, he was Reader in International History, University  of Leeds. The focus is on international relations; the book has 16 portraits of Habsburg monarchs and statesmen, maps, also a good bibliography.

    Arthur J. May, The Passing of the Habsburg Monarchy, 1914-1918, 2 vols., Philadelphia, University of Philadelphia Press, 1966.

    Detailed study, by an American historian written with sympathy for the empire. For more recent evaluations, see:

    Alan Sked, THE DECLINE OF THE HABSBURG EMPIRE. 1815-1918, New York, Dorset Press, 1989 (ch. 6).

    Alan Sked, was at the time of publication, Senior Lecturer in International History, London School of Economics and a Fellow of the Royal Historical Society. His book focuses on domestic history. There is a useful chronology and maps, but no bibliography.

    Clifford F. Wargelin, "The Economic Collapse of Austro-Hungarian Dualism," East European Quarterly, vol. XXXIV no. 3, Fall 2000, pp. 261-288.

    The author contends that it was not only the strain of war on the economy of Austria-Hungary which led to its collapse, but also, and even more, the fact that the dual system itself was outdated, reactionary and unable to secure the economic development of the Empire.

    For studies by participants, see:

    Oscar Jaszi, The Disssolution of the Habsburg Monarchy, Chicago, 1929, reprint Phoenix edition, Chicago, 1961.

    Analysis by a sociologist and liberal Hungarian politician, who dreamed of a liberal Hungary leading a Danubian federation. After the First World War, he taught at the University of Chicago.

    Count Michael Karolyi, Fighting the World: The Struggle for Peace, London, 1924, 2nd ed., London, 1956, New York, 1957.

    M. Karolyi (1875-1955), was a Hungarian politician, head of H. govt. Nov. 1918 and briefly President of Hungary (early 1919). He had supported a separate peace in WWI, later tried but failed to keep old Hungary together with extensive cultural rights for minorities.



    B. German policy in World War I

    Fritz Fischer, Germany's Aims in the First World War, With Introduction by Hajo Holborn and James Joll, New York, Norton, 1967.

    Fritz Fischer (1908-1999) was a prominent German historian. His thesis that Germany was most responsible for the outbreak of war in 1914, and that her war aims were imperialistic, aroused great controversy, esp. among German historians. For his replies to factual and methodological criticism, see:

    Fritz Fischer, WORLD POWER OR DECLINE. The Controversy over Germany's Aims in the First World War, New York, Norton, 1974.

    Same: WAR OF ILLUSIONS. German Policies from 1911 to 1914, transl Marion Jackson, New York, Norton, 1975.

    C. British attitudes toward Austria-Hungary and E. Europe in World War I

    Kenneth J. Calder, Britain and the Origins of the New Europe, 1914-1918, Cambridge, University Press, 1976.

    A very useful study by an English historian, based on British archival sources.

    Wilfried Fest, PEACE OR PARTITION. The Habsburg Monarchy and British Policy, 1914-1918, New York, St. Martin's Press, 1978.

    A thorough treatment of the subject based on archival sources by a German scholar.

    Harry Hanak, Great Britain and Austria Hungary During the First World War. A Study in the Formation of Public Opinion, London, Oxford University Press, 1962.

    An excellent study of the subject based on a thorough analysis of the British press, various national and British publications, also private British collections. H. Hanak is a British historian of Hungarian origin.

    Harold I. Nelson, LAND AND POWER. British and Allied Policy on Germany's Frontiers, 1916-1919, London, Routledge and Kegan Paul, Toronto, University of Toronto Press, 1963.

    A pioneering study in diplomatic history by a Canadian author who taught at the University of Toronto, based on American and Canadian archival collections.

    Hugh and Christopher Seton-Watson, THE MAKING OF A NEW EUROPE. R. W. Seton- Watson and the last years of Austria-Hungary, Seattle, WA, University of Washington, Press, 1981.

    R. W. Seton-Watson (1879-1951), was the first, and to date, the most prominent British expert on Eastern Europe. His two sons, both historians (Hugh died in the early 1990s), give an account of his studies and activities in the region between 1905 and 1919, citing his correspondence. He knew the leaders of, and was the spokesman for the Czechs, Serbs, Croats, and Romanians. The title of the book comes from the periodical he published and wrote for, with the goal of informing educated Britons about this part of Europe. (See also his correspondence with Yugoslavs and Romanians in section on the Balkans, below).

    D. U. S. policy towards East Central and Souteastern Europe in World War I.

    M.B.B. Biskupski, "Strategy, Politics, and Suffering: The Wartime Relief of Belgium, Serbia and Poland, 19124-1918," in,

    same, ed., Ideology, Politics and Diplomacy in East Central Europe, University of Rochester Press, 2003, pp. 31-57.

    Biskupski holds the Chair of Polish and Polish American History at the Central State University of Connecticut, New Britain, CT.

    V. S. Mamatey, The United States and East Central Europe, 1914-1918: A Study in Wilsonian Diplomacy and Propaganda, Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, 1957.

    A pioneering study on the subject by an American historian.

    E. Russian policy in World War I

    Ronald Bobroff, "Devolution in Wartime: Sergei D. Sazonov and the Future of Poland," International History Review, vol. XXII, no. 3, 2000, pp. 505-528.

    Author shows the politics of the Polish Question in Russian policy, and that Foreign Minister Sergei D. Sazonov's plans to gain Polish and Western support for Russia by granting autonomy to the Poles of Russian Poland were finally canceled by Tsar Nicholas II; some archival documents are cited. Bobroff was then a graduate student in 19-20th century Russian History and International Relations at Duke University, Durham, N.C.

    Alexander Dallin et al, eds., Russian Diplomacy and Eastern Europe, 1914-1917, New York, King's Crown Press, 1963.

    Good surveys, especially on Russian policy and aims regarding Poland and Austria- Hungary. Alexander Dallin (b. Berlin, 1924, d. California 2000) was an American historian of 20th c. international relations, esp. Russian; he was a Senior Fellow at the Institute of International Studies, Stanford, CA.

    Wiktor Sukiennicki, East Central Europe During World War I: From Foreign Domination to National Independence, 2 vols., edited by Maciej Siekierski, East European Monographs, CXIX, 1984. This detailed work deals mainly with the policy of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Russia toward the Poles, Belorussians, Ukrainians, also the Baltic peoples; it has useful translations from hard-to-find documents. W. Sukiennicki (1901-1983) studied, then taught law at the Stefan Batory University, Wilno/Vilnius; was deported to the USSR 1940-42, then worked in Great Britain, then Radio Free Europe, and lastly at the Hoover Institution, Stanford, CA, 1959 ff. Maciej Siekierski (b. 1949), an American scholar of Polish descent, is the curator of East European collections in the Hoover Institution Archives and Library, Stanford, CA.

    F. War and Society in Eastern Europe in World War I, (covering the Empires and nations of the region):

    Bela K. Kiraly and Nandor F. Dreisziger, eds., East Central European Society in World War I, , vol. XIX, New York, 1985.

    This is part of a very valuable series. B. F. Kiraly (b. Budapest, 1912) was Commander of the Hungarian garrison Budapest, 1956, then emigrated to U. S. where he became a historian; he returned to Budapest after the collapse of communism in E.Europe. N. Dreisziger is a Canadian scholar of Hungarian origin.

    G. Jewish views/goals regarding future Eastern Europe, also British policy on:

    Eugene C. Black, "Squaring a Minorities Triangle: Lucien Wolf, Jewish Nationalists and Polish Nationalists," in: Paul Latawski, ed., The Reconstruction of Poland, 1914-23, Basingstoke and London, UK, 1992 (ch. 2, pp. 13-40). [See also Mark Levene work, below]

    At the end of WWI, Lucien Wolf was the leader of the Jewish community in Britain. Eugene Charlton Black (b. Boston, Mass, 1927) is an American historian of modern Britain; Paul Latawski is an American historian of Poland working and living in Great Britain.

    Norman Davies, "Great Britain and the Polish Jews, 1914-1920," Journal of Contemporary History, 8 (1973), pp. 119-142.

    Norman Davies b. 1940, is the pre-eminent British historian of Poland. For a detailed study of the topic, see:

    Mark Levene, WAR, JEWS, AND THE NEW EUROPE. The Diplomacy of Lucien Wolf, 1914-1919, Oxford, 1992.

    Mark Levene (b. London, 1953) is Lecturer in Modern Jewish History at Warwick University, UK.

    A History of Polish Jewry during the Renewal of Poland, contains: Isaac Lewin, "The Political History of Polish Jewry, 1918-1919"; Nahum Michael Gelber, "The National Autonomy of Eastern-Galician Jewry in the West-Ukrainian Republic, 1918-1919," New York, 1990.

    Isaac Lewin is Professor emeritus of Jewish History at the Bernard Revel Graduate School, Yeshiva University, New York. He has published works on the history of Jews in Poland. Nahum M. Gelber (died 1963), was a leading historian of 19th c. Polish Jewry.

    Section 4. East Central European Peoples in World War I and the Peace Treaties

    [NOTE: generally, Poland will be listed first as the largest country in Eastern Europe, also the one endowed with the most extensive English language historical literature].


    Margaret Macmillan, Paris 1919. Six months that Changed the World, New York, 2002.

    The author, the great-granddaughter of British Prime Minister David Lloyd George, upsets the old, negative stereotype view of the Peace Conference as led by short-sighted statesmen who produced a bad peace treaty, as well as the connected stereotype view that the Versailles Treaty produced Hitler. There are good surveys of East European questions and problems. This book, which won the Samuel Johnson Prize and the PEN Hessell Tilman and Duff Cooper Prizes, is a "must read" for all teachers of 20th c. European history.

    Macmillan if Professor of History and Provost of Trinity College at the University of Toronto.

    (A).The Rebirth of Poland, 1914-21:

    (i) Much useful data on Polish territories before 1914 can be found in:

    Handbooks Prepared under the Direction of the Historical Section of the Foreign Office: no. 46, Austrian Poland; no. 52, Prussian Poland; and no. 44, Russian Poland, Lithuania and White Russia, London, 1919-20.

    These handbooks were prepared by historians for the British Delegation to the Paris Peace Conference, 1919. Also useful is

    The Polish Encyclopedia prepared and published by the Committee for Polish Encyclopedic Publications, Fribourg, Switzerland, and the Polish National Committee of America, 3 vols., 1920-22; has hard-to-find maps and statistics.

    (ii). Poles and Poland in World War I and in the Peace Settlements 1919.

    Anna M. Cienciala and Titus Komarnicki, From Versailles to Locarno, Keys to Polish Foreign Policy, 1919-1925, Lawrence, KS, 1984.

    Anna M. Cienciala, (b. Danzig/Gdansk, 1929) is a historian of European international relations, 1914-45, specializing in Polish foreign policy, who taught at the University of Ottawa, 1960-61, the University of Toronto, 1961-65 and the University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS., 1965-2002. Titus Komarnicki (1896-1967) was a Polish diplomat and historian. This book, based on a mss. written by Komarnicki, was revised by Cienciala and amplified with the addition of British and French diplomatic archival documents inaccessble at the time of his research; she also added two new chapters on Poland and the Locarno treaties (see Preface).

    Patricia A. Gajda, Postscript to Victory. British Policy in the German-Polish Borderlands, 1919-1925, Washington, DC, 1982.

    Based on British archives, this study tends to favor the British point of view. See also Cienciala, and Cienciala and Komarnicki works. Gajda (b. 1941) is of Polish descent; she teaches at the University of Texas, Tyler, TX, and specializes in Texas history.

    Bela Kiraly and Nandor F. Dreisziger, East Central European Society in World War I, War and Society in East Central Europe, vol. XIX, New York, 1985, Part III, Home Front, Poland, and Part IV, Military Affairs, Poland.

    Titus Komarnicki, Rebirth of the Polish Republic. A Study in the Diplomatic History of Europe, 1914-1920, London, 1957. (Part I, ch. 1-V).

    On T. Komarnicki, see first title in this section. This is the most detailed diplomatic history of the subject, still useful, though partly outdated due to the publication of works based on British and French archival sources unavailable to the author, see Cienciala Komarnicki book above.

    Paul Latawski, ed., The Reconstruction of Poland, 1914-23, Basingstoke and London, UK, 1992.

    This collection of conference papers (London, Dec. 1988), covers a broad spectrum of topics: Roman Dmowski; the Jewish Question; Polish-Ukrainian relations; American policy toward Poland; Danzig and the Polish Corridor at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919" (Cienciala); Roman Dmowski at the Paris Peace Conference (Wandycz); the establishment of a National Government, 1918;The Economic Integration of Poland, 1918-23; Reconstruction of the Government and State Apparatus, and the Origins of the Polish Foreign Ministry.

    Polish Women in the Fight for Independence, 1880-1921.

    Robert M. Ponichtera, "Feminists, Nationalists, and Soldiers: Women in the Fight for Polish Independence," International History Review, vol. XIX (19), no. 1, Feb. 1997, pp. 16- 31.

    R. M. Ponichtera, Yale University Ph. D., studied under Professor Piotr S. Wandycz. The first part of the article deals with the late 19th and early 20th century; pp. 22 ff. recounts Polish women's participation in the fight for independence, 1914-18, then the Polish-Ukrainian and Polish-Soviet Wars of 1918-21.

    For the most detailed account of Polish questions at the Peace Conference, 1919. see:

    Kay Lundgreen-Nielsen, The Polish Problem at the Paris Peace Conference. A Study of the Polices of the Great Powers and the Poles, 1918-1919, Odense, Denmark, 1979.

    The author, a Danish historian of Poland, gives a detailed account of the establishment of Poland's western frontier with Germany, and a very critical assessment of Poland's eastern policy. (Compare with the chapters on Wilno and East Galicia in Cienciala-Komarnicki, From Versailles to Locarno). See also:

    H. W. V. Temperley, ed., A HISTORY OF THE PEACE CONFERENCE OF PARIS, 6 vols., Oxford, London, 1920, reprint Oxford, 1969.

    Written by British and American experts immediately after the Paris Peace Conference and the signing of the Versailles Treaty,this series has some very useful information on Poland at the Peace Conference (vol. VI, ch. II, pt. II, pp. 233-283); Germany's loss of territory to Poland (v. II, ch. IV, pt. II, pp. 207-215); The Teschen Question (vol. IV, ch. VI, pt. I, pp. 348-367); the Polish Minorities Treaty, 28 June, 1919 (vol. V, ch. II, C, pp. 132-143; the Letter from G. Clemenceau to I. Paderewski, 24 June 1919, and text of Minorities Treaty, App. IV, pp. 432-445).


    French Policy on Poland in WWI and at the Peace Conference

    Piotr S. Wandycz, France and her Eastern Allies 1919-1925. French-Czechoslovak- Polish Relations from the Paris Peace Conference to Locarno, Minneapolis, MN, 1962.

    Wandycz (b. in Poland 1923), educated in Poland, France and UK, formerly professor at Indiana University, professor emeritus Yale University, is the pre-eminent American historian of modern Poland and specialist in interwar European diplomatic history.

    U. S. Policy on Poland, WW I and Peace Conference.

    M. B. Biskupski, "The Wilsonian View of Poland: Idealism and Geopolitical Traditionalism," in: John Micgiel, ed., Wilsonian Central Europe, NY, 1995, pp. 123-145.

    Biskupski is a specialist on the U.S. and Poland, 1914-19; he hold the chair of Polish and Polish American History at the Central State University of Connecticut, New Britain, CT.

    ohn Micgiel, who is of Polish descent, is a political scientist and the director of the European Studies Institute, Columbia University, New York.

    Piortr S. Wandycz, The United States and Poland, Cambridge, MA, 1980, ch. 3, Wilson and the Rebirth of Poland, pp. 194-169.

    (iii) Special studies on disputed areas of Poland in 1919-21.

    (A). Poland and Germany: Danzig at the Paris Peace Conference, 1919, also in 1920-21

    Anna M. Cienciala, "The Battle of Danzig and the Polish Corridor at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919," ch. 5, in: Paul Latawski, ed., THE RECONSTRUCTION OF POLAND, 1914-23, (Basingstoke, London, UK, 1992, pp. 71-94).

    and same, with T. Komarnicki, FROM VERSAILLES TO LOCARNO, (Lawrence, KS, 1984), ch. 4, (pp. 91-104).

    also same: "An Aspect of the German-Polish Problem in the Interwar Period: The Secret Anglo-French Agreement on Danzig and the Saar and its Consequences, 1919- 1926," Zeitschrift fur Ostforschung, Heft 3, Marburg, 1978 (pp. 434- 455);

    Sir James Headlam-Morley, A Memoir of the Paris Peace Conference 1919, edited by Agnes Headlam-Morley, Russell Bryant and Anna M. Cienciala, London, 1972.

    Headlam-Morley (1863-1929) was the author of the Versailles Treaty articles on the Free City of Danzig. Agnes, his daughter, was a British historian, was; R. Bryant is an American historian.

    see also:

    John Brown Mason, THE DANZIG DILEMMA. A Study in Peacemaking by Compromise, Stanford, CA, 1946.

    The author (b. Berlin, 1904), a political scientist and historian, gives a good introductory survey to the settlement, based on sources published up to 1945; the book is useful for published documents and on how the Danzig settlement worked out in practice, but is many respects outdated.

    Upper Silesia at the Paris Peace Conference:

    Richard Blanke, "Upper Silesia, 1921; The Case for Subjective Nationality, " Canadian Review of Studies in Nationalism, 2, 2, spring 1975 (pp. 241-260)

    by an American historian of German descent; sympathetic to German views. See his book on the German minority in Poland, The Orphans of Versailles, section dealing with Minorities in interwar Poland.

    Cienciala and Komarnicki, FROM VERSAILLES TO LOCARNO, ch. 3 (pp. 59-90).

    Joseph F. Harrington, Jr., "The League of Nations and the Upper Silesian Boundary Dispute, 1921-1922," Polish Review, vol. 23, no. 3, 1978 (pp. 86- 101);

    by an American historian sympathetic to Poland.

    same, "Third Polish Uprising in Upper Silesia, 1921: A Case Study in Anglo-French Relations," New Review of East European History, 14, 1974 (pp. 78-91);

    same: "Upper Silesia and the Paris Peace Conference," Polish Review, vol. 19, no. 2, 1974 (pp. 25-45);

    Peter Lesniewski, "Three Insurrections in Upper Silesia, 1919-21," in: Peter D. Stachura, ed., Poland between the Wars, 1918-1939, Basingstoke UK and New York, 1998.

    Good account of British policy based on archives, but without showing interaction with France. Lesniewski is a British scholar of Polish descent.

    Robert Machray, The Problem of Upper Silesia, London, 1945.

    Robert Machray (1857-1946) was a British historian specialising in Poland. Written in support of Polish claims, this little book has some hard-to-find ethnic maps and statistics.

    William J. Rose, The Drama of Upper Silesia: A Regional Study, Brattelboro, Vt., 1935 and London, 1936.

    gives history before and after 1921, sympathetic to Poland. William J. Rose (1885-1968), a Canadian Christian Student Movement organizer caught by the war in Teschen Silesia, was involved in drawing up the local Polish-Czechoslovak agreement on Teschen of November 5, 1918, and then in representing the Polish case in Paris. He obtained a Ph.D. in Polish history at the Jagiellonian University, Krakow, and became a historian of Poland. In the 1930s and 1940s, he was the Director of the School of Slavonic Studies, University of London. See The Polish Memoirs of William J. Rose, edited by Daniel Stone, Toronto, 1976 (review by Cienciala, Canadian Slavonic Papers, vol. XVIII, no. 2, 1976, pp. 339-40).

    Sarah S. Wambaugh, Plebiscites since World War I, 2 vols, Washington, 1933.

    Wambaugh (b. 1882) was an American scholar. This is a very useful account based on sources available at the time, with maps, and statistical tables.

    (B) Poland and Czechoslovakia, 1919-20:

    For a balanced treatment of the Teschen (Tesin, Cieszyn) Dispute between Poland and Czechoslovakia in 1918-20, see:

    Piotr S. Wandycz, France and her Western Allies, 1914-1925., Minneapolis, MN, 1962, ch. 3 (pp. 104-134); also:

    Zygmunt J. Gasiorowski, "Polish-Czechoslovak Relations, 1918-1922," The Slavonic and East European Review, v. 38, no. 84, London, 1956, pp. 172-193.

    Z. J Gasiorowski (b. Poland, 1919) taught at the University of Georgia, Athens, GA.

    B. Kozusznik, The Problem of Cieszyn Silesia. Facts and Documents, London, 1943.

    Dr. Boguslaw Kozusznik ( 1901-1998), was a Polish native of Teschen (Tesin, Cieszyn) Silesia. and at this time a member of the Polish National Council (surrogate Parliament), attached to the Polish government-in-exile. He presents arguments in support of Poland's claim to western Teschen (Zaolzie). This is a good presentation of the Polish claim to the western Teschen area (Polish: Zaolzie), with useful maps and statistics:

    W. J. Rose, "Czechs and Poles as Neighbors," Journal of Central European Affairs vol. 11, 1951, no. 2, pp. 153-171.

    Daniel Stone, ed., THE POLISH MEMOIRS OF WILLIAM JOHN ROSE, Toronto, 1975 (ch.3).

    Daniel Z. Stone (b. 1942) is a historian of modern Poland, who teaches at the University of Winnipeg, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. On Rose, see biogr. note in section A above.

    (C) Poles and Lithuanians: the dispute over Vilna/Wilno/Vilnius 1919-23.

    Cienciala and Komarnicki, From Versailles to Locarno, ch. 5. See also:

    M. K. Dziewanowski, JOSEPH PILSUDSKI A European Federalist, 1918-1922, Stanford, CA, 1969, ch. V-VIII (pp. 79-178) sympathetic to Poland

    Marian Kamil Dziewanowski, (b. Ukraine, 1913), served in the Polish army in World War II, obtained a Ph. D. in history at Harvard, is Professor Emeritus University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. He is the author of several books, including a history of World War II.

    Alfred Erich Senn, THE GREAT POWERS, LITHUANIA, AND THE VILNA QUESTION, 1920-1928, Leiden, 1966

    A. E. Senn (b. Madison, WI, 1932) is an American historian, author of several books sympathetic to Lithuania.

    Timothy Snyder, The Reconstruction of Nations (2003), ch. 4. The First World War and the Wilno Question (1914-1939), pp. 52-72,

    a balanced account of the Lithuanian-Polish dispute and Polish rule 1920-39.


    (D) The Polish-Soviet War, 1919-1920

    (i) Diplomatic history of the Polish-Soviet War of 1919-20

    Piotr S. Wandycz, Soviet-Polish Relations, 1917-1921, Cambridge, Mass., 1969;

    By the pre-eminent historian of Poland in U. S., author of several books, prof. emeritus Yale University, this is the best English language study to date on the subject.

    (ii) Military history of the Polish-Soviet War, 1919-20, see:

    Norman Davies, White Eagle Red Star. The Polish-Soviet War, 1919-1920, London, New York, 1972, and reprints:

    by the pre-eminent British historian of Poland, (b. 1940), London School of Slavonic Studies, University of London. This revised Ph. D dissertation, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, is written in a lively style, has illustrations and excellent documentation, but the book should be updated in light of post-1989 Polish studies.

    Thomas C. Fiddick, Russia's Retreat from Poland, 1920. From Permanent Revolution to Peaceful Coexistence, New York, 1990.

    Fiddick, an American historian of Russia teaching at the University of Evansville, IN., portrays the Soviet leadership as not wishing to defeat the Poles and Tukhachevsky as going against their wishes in forging ahead (see Piotr S. Wandycz critique, The Russian Review, v. 51, no. 1, Jan. 1992, pp. 130- 131)

    Adam Zamoyski, The Battle for the Marchlands, East Eur. Monographs. LXXXVIII, New York, 1981.

    A. Zamoyski, (b. New York, 1949), was educated in UK. He is the author of several books dealing with Polish history and lives in London. This is a good, lively account of the Polish-Soviet War; compare with N. Davies.


    Did French General Maxime Weygand and the Western Powers "save" Poland and Europe from the Bolsheviks in summer 1920?

    F. Russell Bryant, "Lord D'Abernon, the Anglo-French Mission, and the Battle of Warsaw, 1920," Jarhbucher fur Geschichte Osteuropas, v. 38, 1990, h. 4, pp. 526-547.

    The author, an American historian, claims that Pilsudski's counter-offensive could not have succeeded without general Weygand's input, and that the mission of which he was a member, was the result of British Premier Lloyd George's foresight.

    For a very different view, see:

    Norman Davies, "Sir Maurice Hankey and the Inter-Allied Mission to Poland, July- August 1920," The Historical Journal, London, 1972, v. XV, no. 3, pp. 553- 561

    The author, the pre-eminent British historian of Poland, shows that the myth of the Western Powers saving Poland from the Bolsheviks in 1920 originated with Sir Maurice Hankey.

    Zdzislaw Musialik, General Weygand and the Battle of the Vistula - 1920, (trans. from Polish) edited by Antoni Jzef Bohdanowicz, Jzef Pilsudski Institute of Research, London, 1987.

    The work is based on Polish and French military archives, also on U. S. documentary sources, but is marred by typographical errors and omissions in the footnotes. Musialik, a historian, is a Catholic priest living in Poland.

    Piotr S. Wandycz, "General Weygand and the Battle of Warsaw of 1920," Journal of Central European Affairs, vol. XIX, no. 4, Jan. 1960, pp. [357] 365.

    This seminal study in English, demonstrates that Weygand should not be credited with the Polish victory over the Red Army.

    M. B. Biskupski, "Paderewski, Polish Politics, and the Battle of Warsaw, 1920," Slavic Review, 1987, vol. 46, no. 3-4, pp. 503- 512.

    Biskupski, a Polish-American historian, is a specialist on interwar Poland and U. S. policy toward Poland; he taught for many years at St. John Fischer College, Rochester, N. Y. and nowholds the chair of Polish and Polish American history at the Central State University of Connecticut, New Britain, Ct. since fall 2003.

    For the accounts of the two key military leaders in the Polish-Soviet War, see:

    Jozef Pilsudski, Year 1920 and its Climax: Battle of Warsaw during the Polish-Soviet War, 1919-1920, with the Addition of Soviet Marshal Tukhachevski's March beyond the Vistula, New York (Jozef Pilsudski Institute of America), 1972.

    Tukhachevsky's account should be read first; Pilsudski's essay was his answer to it.

    For Pilsudski's federal projects regarding Belorussia, Ukraine, Lithuania see:

    K. M. Dziewanowski, Joseph Pilsudski. A European Federalist, 1918-1922, Stanford (Hoover) CA, 1969.

    The author stresses Pilsudski's long range plans before and during the war.

    Piotr S. Wandycz, "Polish Federalism 1919-1920 and its Historical Antecedents," East European Quarterly, Boulder, CO., 1970, vol. IV, no. 1, pp. 25-39.

    U. S. Policy toward Russia and the Polish-Soviet War

    Piotr W. Wandycz, The United States and Poland, Cambridge, Mass., 1980, ch. 3, section: The Polish-Soviet War, pp. 143-156.

    Boguslaw W. Winid, "After the Colby Note: The Wilson Administration and the Polish-Bolshevik War," The Presidential Studies Quarterly, v. 26, no. 4, Fall 1996, pp. 1165-1169.

    The author, a Polish diplomat and historian, comments on David McFadden's article "After the Colby Note: The Wilson Administration and the Bolsheviks, 1920-1921," published in the same journal in fall 1995. This refers to American Secretary of State Bainbridge Colby's note to Italian Ambassador Romano Avezzana that the U. S. could not recognize the Bolshevik regime or sign treaties with it, also that all means should be used to preserve Poland's independence and integrity.

    On American pilots' participation in the Polish-Soviet War, see:

    "American Pilots in Polish Uniform," in: Henryk Wilecki, Silver Eagle Golden Eagle. Polish-American Military Traditions since 1776, Warsaw, 1999, pp. 92- 95.

    There is no information on the author, who seems to be a military historian. This is an illustrated, popular history of the subject with some useful information.

    Kenneth M. Murray, WINGS OVER POLAND: The Story of the 7th Kosciuszko Squadron of the Polish Air Service, 1919, 1920, 1921, New York, 1932.

    On the American pilots, formerly of the Lafayette Squadron, France, who fought for Poland.

    (E) Poles and Ukrainians - the struggle for East Galicia, 1918-22:

    Cienciala and Komarnicki, FROM VERSAILLES TO LOCARNO, ch. 6-8

    M. K. Dziewanowski, JOSEPH PILSUDSKI. A European Federalist, ch. XII-XV (pp. 217-288).

    Michael Palij, The Ukranian-Polish Defensive Alliance, 1919-1921. An Aspect of the Ukrainian Revolution, Edmonton, Toronto, 1995.

    The author, a Ukrainian born and raised in Poland, who studied in Germany and is a Slavic bibliographer emeritus at the University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS., focuses on the Ukrainian side of the story. He views Jozef Pilsudski's Ukrainian policy as purely instrumental and charges him with betraying the cause of a free Ukraine. The book includes treaty texts and an extensive bibliography. (See: Anna M. Cienciala, American Historical Review, vol. 102, no. 2, April 1997, pp. 484-485).

    For a Ukrainian nationalist view of the Polish-Ukrainian struggle for East Galicia, see:

    Michael Yaremko, GALICIA-HALYCHYNA (A Part of Ukraine). From Separation to Unity), Toronto, New York, 1967.

    For a moderate Ukrainian view, see:

    Ivan L. Rudnytsky, Essays in Modern Ukrainian History, Edmonton, 1987, (pp. 375-417).

    (See also Polish-Ukrainian relations in section 3 A, Poland).

    (iv) On U. S. policy and aid to Poland, 1919-22, see excellent survey in:

    Piotr S. Wandycz, The United States and Poland, Cambridge, Mass., 1980, ch. 3, Wilson and the Rebirth of Poland, also annotated bibliography for ch. 3, in Suggested Reading. See also:

    A. B. Barber, Report on American Technical Advisers' Mission to Poland, 1919-1922, New York, 1922.

    This is an interesting account by a member of the Mission; it deals mainly with railways, but also with the early days of the Free City of Danzig, where the author spent some of his time.

    Alfred A. Cornebise, Typhus and Doughboys: The American Polish Typhus Relief Expedition, 1919-1921, Newark, 1982

    This expedition saved thousands of lives. A. F. Cornebise (b. 1929, Brownfield, TX), has published books on the Weimar Republic and U. S. military journalism. He taught at the University of Northwestern Colorado, where he was chairman of the History Dept., 1984-86.

    Harold H. Fischer, America and the New Poland, New York, 1928.

    by an American YMCA officer sympathetic to Poland.

    William R. Grove, War's Aftermath. Polish Relief in 1919, New York, 1940

    Diary and reports of author and associates, members of theAmerican Relief Administration; pictures, portraits, maps. W. R. Grove was awarded the Medal of Honor.

    George J. Lerski, comp., Herbert Hoover and Poland: A Documentary History of a Friendship, Stanford, CA, 1977

    based on Hoover papers in Hoover Archives, Stanford, CA. Herbert Hoover was treated as a hero in Poland and there is a statue of him in Warsaw. George J. (Jerzy) Lerski (1917-1992), was an active member of the Polish Democratic Party (SD), fought the Germans in September 1939, joined the Polish army in France, was parachuted into Poland 1942 and traveled as a courier to London, 1943, then worked for the Polish government there. He obtained his Ph. D. in history at Georgetown University, 1953, and taught at several U. S. universities before joining the faculty at the University of San Francisco, 1966. He published books and articles, also a bibliography on Polish-Jewish relations. He died when revising the Historical Dictionary of Poland, 966-1945, completed by Piotr Wrobel and Richard J. Kozicki, (Greenwood Press, Westport, CT, and London, 1996; Lerski's biographical sketch, ibid., pp. 298-299).

    B. The Birth of Czechoslovakia, 1914-1918

    (i). Detailed Studies

    Dagmar Perman, The Shaping of the CzechoSlovak State. Diplomatic History of the Boundaries of Czecho-slovakia, 1914-1920, Leiden, 1962.

    sympathetic to Czechoslovakia.

    Josef Kalvoda, The Genesis of Czecho-slovakia, East European Monographs, 209, New York, 1986;

    This is a"revisionist" work. The author, a Czech historian, is, critical of over-emphasis on the role of T. G. Masaryk; he details the work of other Czech politicians, mainly in the home country.

    Louis H. Rees, The Czechs during World War I: The Path to Independence, East Eur. Monographs, 1992.

    deals with domestic situation in last two years of war. (Reviewed by Jiri Koralka, Austrian History Yearbook, vol. XXVI, 1995, pp. 276-277).

    Betty Miller Unterberger, The United States, Revolutionary Russia and the Rise of Czechoslovakia, Chapel Hill, 1989.

    B. M. Unterberger (b. Glasgow, Scotland), studied in U. S. and teaches at Texas A and M University. This is an excellent study with a most useful bibliography on the Czechoslovak question in 1914-21.

    For a contemporary view of the Czechoslovak struggle for independence, 1914-18, by a participant, see:

    Vladimir Nosek, Independent Bohemia. An Account of the Czecho-Slovak Struggle for Liberty, London, Toronto, New York, 1918

    The author was Secretary at the Czechoslovak Legation, London at the time.

    See also:

    R. W. Seton-Watson, "The Formation of the Czechoslovak State," in: H. W. V. Temperley, A History of the Peace Conference of Paris, Oxford, 1920, 1968, vol. VI, Part III (pp. 286-278).

    R. W. Seton-Watson was the pre-eminent British historian of East Central and South-Eastern European peoples at this time. This is an account written just after the events it describes.

    For a reassessment of T. G. Masaryk's WW I ideas on future Europe, see:

    Francesco Leoncini, "T. G. Masaryk's 'Nova Evropa:' A Reinterpretation, " in: Historical Reflections on Central Europe. Selected Papers from the Fifth World Congress of Central and East European Studies, edited by Stanislav J. Kirschbaum, Warsaw, 1995, pp. 65-73.

    F. Leoncini is professor of Slavic History at the Universita Ca'Foscari di Venezia; among his publications is an edited Italian translation of T. G. Masaryk's work: The New Europe. A Slavic Point of View.

    [NOTE: For the memoirs of Masaryk and Benes, see sec. 3, Czechoslovakia, below].

    (C) Hungary, War, the Hungarian Revolutions, 1918-19, and the Treaty of Trianon, 1920

    (i) Surveys and collective works on period

    Peter F. Sugar, Hanak and Frank, eds., A History of Hungary, Bloomington, IN, 1990, ch. XV and XVI (pp. 267-318);

    Bela K. Kiraly and Nandor Dreisziger, eds., East Central European Society in World War I. War and Society in East Central Europe, New York, 1985;

    Istvan I. Mocsy, The Effects of World War I, the Uprooted: Hungarian Refugees and their Impact on Hungarian Domestic Politics, 1918-1921, East Eur. Monograph no. 147, New York, 1983.

    (ii) On the Hungarian Revolutions of 1918-19 and the Hungarian Soviet Republic see:

    Tibor Hajdu, The Hungarian Soviet Republic, Budapest, 1979;

    useful, though written and published under some political restrictions.

    Alfred D. Low, The Soviet Hungarian Republic and the Paris Peace Conference, Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, new series, vol. 53, part 10, Philadelphia, 1963;

    A. D. Low (b, Vienna 1913), studied in Vienna and U. S. taught at various U. S. universities. He has published books on modern European history.

    Peter Pastor, ed., Revolution and Intervention in Hungary and its Neighbor States, 1918-1919, East Eur. Mon. 240, New York, 1988.

    Pastor is an American historian of Hungarian descent, then teaching at Montclair State University, Upper Montclair, N. J.

    Gyorgi Peteri, "Effects of World War I: War Communism in Hungary, 1919," in War and Society in East Central Europe, vol. XVI, New York, 1984.

    Gyrogy G. Peteri was then a Professor at The Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Ranheim, Norway.

    Rudolf L. Tokes, Bela Kun and the Hungarian Soviet Republic: the Origins and Role of the Communist Party of Hungary in he Revolutions of 1918-1919, New York, 1967.

    R. Tokes, (b. Budapest, 1935) is a Political Scientist, author of several books, teaching at the University of Connecticut; this is the standard American work on the topic.

    (iii) On the Treaty of Trianon, 1920, see:

    Bela Kiraly and Laszlo Veszpremy, Trianon and East Central Europe, East Eur. Monographs, no. 418, New York, 1995.

    by Hungarian-American historians; sympathetic to Hungary.

    Maria Ormos, From Padua to the Trianon, 1918-1920, East Eur. Mon. no. 298, New York, 1991;

    translation of a detailed history by a Hungarian-American historian.

    for a contemporary British view, see:

    H. W. V. Temperley, The New Hungary, in: same, ed., A HISTORY OF THE PEACE CONFERENCE OF PARIS, Oxford, 1921, 1969, vol. IV, ch. IX, pt. II, (pp. 485-497), and: The Hungarian Treaty, ibid., ch. VII, C (pp. 415-428).

    (D) The Balkans in World War I.

    1. For an overview, see:

    Barbara Jelavich, HISTORY OF THE BALKANS. Twentieth Century, vol. 2 Cambridge, UK, 1993 (reprint of 1983 edition), ch. 4 (pp. 106-133).

    B. Jelavich (1923 1994?), was the leading American historian of the Modern Balkans and Balkan-Russian relations. She often published jointly with her husband, Charles Jelavich, also an American historian of the Balkans.

    2 For Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro in World War I, see chapters on these countries in:

    Bela F. Kiraly and Nandor F. Dreisziger, eds., EAST CENTRAL EUROPEAN SOCIETY IN WORLD WAR I. War and Society in East Central Europe, vol. XIX, New York, 1985.

    For contemporary British experts' accounts and views, see:

    H. W. V. Temperley, ch. VII, V, pt. II, Albania, in, same, ed., A HISTORY OF THE PEACE CONFERENCE OF PARIS, vol. IV, Oxford, 1921, 1969, (pp. 338-347); W. J. M. Childs, The New Bulgaria, pp. 444-461, ibid., also: The Bulgarian Treaty, pp. 411-415, ibid., ; R. G. D. Laffan, ch. IV The Liberation of the New Nationalities, on Yugoslavia, pp. 172-212, ibid; Rumania, pp. 213-256, ibid


    (iii) For Balkan diplomatic history 1919-20, see:

    (A) Bulgaria, Treaty of Neuilly.

    Georgi P. Genov, Bulgaria and the Treaty of Neuilly, Sofia, Danov, 1935;

    An older, still useful study by a Bulgarian historian.

    (B) Romania, 1914-21

    Richard Frucht, Dunarea Noastra; Romania, the Great Powers, and the Danube Question, 1914-1921, Boulder, CO, East European Quarterly, 1982;

    Frucht is an American historian specializing in the Balkans; he teaches at Northwest Missouri State University, Maryville, MO. He is the editor of: Encyclopedia of Eastern Europe, Garland, New York, 2000.

    Sherman D. Spector, Rumania at the Paris Conference: A Study of the Diplomacy of Ioan I. C. Bratianu, New York, 1962;

    Spector is an American historian, specialist in Romanian and Russian history; he was Professor Emeritus of Russell Sage College and lieved in Orange County, CT. Ioan I. C. Bratianu (1864-1927) was the most prominent Romanian statesman in the period 1900-1927, several times Prime Minister, including the period in question (except 1920-21).

    For R. W. Seton-Watson's activities and correspondence with Romanian politicians, 1906-20 see:

    Cornelia Bodea and Hugh Seton-Watson, eds., R. W. SETON-WATSON AND THE ROMANIANS, 1906-1920, 2 vols, Bucharest, 1988.

    R. W. Seton-Watson was the pre-eminent British historian of East Central and S. E. Europe in the early 20th century. C. Bodea is a prominent Romanian historian; the late Hugh Seton-Watson, a British historian of Russia, was the son of R. W. Seton-Watson.

    (C) Yugoslavia, 1914-21.

    Dmitrije Djordjevic and Stephen Fischer-Galati, eds., The Creation of Yugoslavia, 1914-1918, Santa Barbara, 1980;

    Djodrjevic is an American historian of Yugoslav origin teaching at the University of California, Santa Barbara; Fischer-Galati is an American historian of Romanian origin, Professor Emeritus the University of Colorado at Boulder; he edits the East European Quarterly.

    Ivo J. Lederer, Yugoslavia at the Paris Conference: A Study in Frontier- Making, New Haven, CT, 1963.

    Lederer (b. Zagreb, Croatia, 1929) studied in U. S. and is an American historian specializing in E. Europe.

    For R. W. Seton-Watson and the Yugoslavs, 1906-41, see:

    Hugh Seton-Watson et al, eds., R. W. SETON-WATSON AND THE YUGOSLAVS. Correspondence 1906-1941, 2 vols., London-Zagreb, 1976.

    On R. W. Seton-Watson, see Part I, sections on Hungary 1867-1914 and late 19th c. Balkans.


    A. Surveys

    For good, short, surveys, see:

    R. J. Crampton, EASTERN EUROPE IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY, London, New York, 1996, has an introductory survey, short chapters by country, and a chapter on ideological currents

    (On Crampton, see pt. I., Historical Atlases, pt. II, General Surveys).

    Robin Okey, Eastern Europe 1740-1985, Feudalism to Communism, 2nd ed. Minneapolis, MN, 1986, ch. 7, (pp. 157-180).

    R. Okey is a British historian; he treats E. Europe within the general European context.

    Piotr W. Wandycz, The Price of Freedom. A History of East Central Europe from the Middle Ages to the Present, N. Y., 1992, pb. 1993.

    ch. 7, (pp. 201-235) is a brief, cogent survey of Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Poland in the interwar period by an eminent American historian of Polish origin, Professor emeritus Yale University.

    b. More detailed

    C. A. Macartney and A. W. Palmer, Independent Eastern Europe. A History, London, New York, 1962

    C. A. Macartney was the pre-eminent British historian of Hungary (for biographical information, see Part I, Habsburg Empire 1815-1918); A. W. Palmer is a British historian who has written on 19-20th century European history. This is a mostly diplomatic history, sympathetic to Hungary. See also

    Joseph Rothschild, East Central Europe Between the Two World Wars, Seattle, Wash., 1974, and reprint 1990, vol. IX of the History of Eastern Europe, edited by Peter F. Sugar and Donald F. Treadgold of the University of Washington, Seattle, Wash. See also 2nd edition, New York, Oxford University Press, 1993, and updated version edited by Nancy M. Wingfield, New York, 2000.

    This work by an American political scientist, Professor Emeritus of Columbia University, New York, (d. 1999) gives excellent, detailed, chapters on each country but does not deal with foreign policy.

    [NOTE: Until the publication of the Rotschild book, the best known survey was. by the British historian, Hugh Seton-Watson (1916-1984), Eastern Europe Between the Wars, 1918-1941, London, 1945, and reprints. As the author admits in the preface to the 3rd edition (1962), this book reflects the views of his generation, that is, their admiration of the Soviet Union both then and during World War II. He states that if he were to write the book again, he would acknowledge that much of what he saw as national shortcomings in East European countries stemmed from the heritage of the past].

    Antony Polonsky, The Little Dictators. The History of Eastern Europe since 1918, London, 1975.

    balanced survey by a South African-born historian of Polish-Jewish descent, a specialist on Polish and 20th c. Polish-Jewish history, and editor of a series of very valuable, scholarly annual volumes on the history of Jews in Poland, Polin. Polonsky is the Albert Abrahamson Professor of Holocaust Studies at Brandeis University and the U.S. Holocaust Museum, Wash. D.C..

    Peter F. Sugar, ed., Native Fascism in the Successor States, 1918-1945, Santa Barbara, 1971.

    Peter Sugar, b. in Hungary (d. 1999) taught for many years at. Washington University, Seattle; he was an outstanding American historian of E. Europe, especially the Balkans.

    c. Art in interwar E. Europe

    S. A. Mansbach, Modern Art in Eastern Europe: From the Baltic to the Balkans, 1890-1939, Cambridge, UK, 1999.

    A useful study of modernism in the art of E. European countries. (see Alla Rosenfield's review, Slavic Review, vol. 59, no. 3, Fall 2000, pp. 647- 648).


    d. Economies of interwar E. Europe.

    Gabor Batonyi, Britain and East Central Europe, 1918-1933, Oxford, 1999.

    Batonyi, a historian of Hungarian descent who teaches at the University of Bradford, UK, details British interest in reconstructing the economic unity of the Danube Basin, centering on Vienna, then Budapest. There is much interesting economic information in the book, but the author exaggerates British commitment to this project. (See Cienciala, Slavic Review, vol. 59, no. 3, Fall 2000, pp. 644-645).

    Nicolas Spulber, The State and Economic Development in Eastern Europe, New York, 1966, (pp. 12-42).

    A good, short, survey of state-sponsored industrial development to 1945 by an American Economist. Spulber, (b. Romania, 1915, d. US, 2003) was the author of numerous books on East European Economics and Distinguished Professor Emeritus, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

    M. C. Kaser and E. A Radice, eds., The Economic History of Eastern Europe 1919- 1975, vols. I, II, Oxford, 1985-86.

    Kaser was then Professorial Fellow of St. Anthony's College, Oxford; Radice was a fellow of the same college, after a distinguished career in British government service. This is an informative and competent survey.

    Wilbert E. Moore, ed., Economic Demography of Eastern and Southern Europe, League of Nations, Geneva, 1945, reprint 1972

    still valuable for rare data.

    Sidney Pollard, Colin Holmes, eds., Documents of European Economic History. The End of the Old Europe 1915-1939, New York, 1972.

    At the time of publication, Pollard was Professor of Economic History, University of Sheffield, UK, while Holmes was Lecturer in Economic History there. These documents focus on France, Germany, German Reparations, and Soviet Russia, but also include a few items on the effects of the war on Austria-Hungary, and the postwar problems of these countries.

    Wojciech Roszkowski, Land Reforms in East Central Europe after World War One, Warsaw, 1995. A good sketch of the background before 1914, including Baltic States, then a study of postwar land reforms, their implementation, and effects. In 2, 000-2003, the author held the Kosciuszko Chair of Polish Studies at the Miller Center for Public Affairs, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA., then returned to Poland.

    Alice Teichova and P. L. Cottrell, eds., International Business and Central Europe 1918-1939, Leicester and New York, 1983.

    Teichova is a Czech historian; Cottrell is a British historian. The book has much valuable material on foreign, especially German investments in the region.


    A. Interwar Czechoslovakia.

    (i). General see relevant chapters in

    Joseph Korbel, Twentieth Century Czechoslovakia. The Meanings of Its History, New York, 1977 (ch. one through seven).

    very readable, condemns Benes policy of accepting the Munich Agreement in late September 1938. Korbel was a Czechoslovak diplomat in the interwar, war and immediate postwar period; he emigrated to the U. S. and taught political science at the University of Colorado. He was the father of Madeleine Albright.

    Victor S. Mamatey and Radomir Luza, eds., A History of the Czechoslovak Republic 1918-1948, Princeton, N. J., 1977

    excellent contributors, still a very useful volume. (For Mamatey's biographical information, see section on World War I). Luza, the son a Czech general killed during the war, fought in the Czech resistance; see his book: The Hitler Kiss. A Memoir of the Czech Resistance, Baton Rouge, La., 2002.

    Vera Olivova, The Doomed Democracy: Czechoslovakia in a Disrupted Europe, 1918-38, Montreal, 1972.

    written by a Czech scholar; good illustrations.

    H. Gordon Skilling, ed., Czechoslovakia, 1918-88. Seventy Years from Independence, New York, 1991.

    Skilling ( 1912-2002) was a Canadian political scientist, Professor Emeritus University of Toronto, specialist on 20th century Czechoslovakia.

    [On the Czechoslovak Crisis, 1938, see under B. Appeasement and Eastern Europe, below]

    On Czechoslovakia after Munich, see:

    Theodore Prohanka, The Second Republic: The Disintegration of post-Munich Czechoslovakia, October 1938-March 1939, East European Monographs no. 90, Boulder CO, and New York, 1981.

    (ii). For useful chapters on culture, education, government, history, nationalities, politics, religions in interwar Czechoslovakia written by contemporary specialists, see:

    Robert J. Kerner, ed., Czechoslovakia. Twenty Years of Independence, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1940.

    R. J. Kerner (1887-1956) was an American scholar of Central Europe.

    For a contemporary Czech presentation on education and culture, see:

    Dr. R. Stransky, The Educational and Cultural System of the Czechoslovak Republic, Prague n. d. (probably 1935-37).

    (iii). For a good, short study of the Czechoslovak interwar government and political parties, see:

    Edward Taborsky, Czechoslovak Democracy at Work, London, 1945.

    Taborsky was a Private Secretary to President Edvard Benes, 1940-45. (See his memoirs under Czechoslovakia in World War II, below).

    (iv). OnCommunism in interwar Czechoslovakia, see:

    Bernard Wheaton, Radical Socialism in Czechoslovakia: Bohumir Smeral, the Czech Road to Socialism, and the Origins of the Czechoslovak Communist Party, East Eur. Mon. 213, New York, 1986.

    Bohumir Smeral (1880-1941) was the leader of the Czech Social Democratic Party and one of the founders of the Czech Communist Party.

    Paul E. Zinner, Communist Strategy and Tactics in Czechoslovakia, 1918- 1948, Westport, CT, 1963, reprint, Westport, CT, 1975.

    P. Zinner (b. Kosice, Czechoslovakia, 1922) was educated in U. S., served in U. S. army, has published on communism in Central Europe, USSR and world. He taught at the University of California, Davis, CA.

    (v) On Fascism in interwar Czechoslovakia,

    Jan Havranek and Joseph F. Zacek chapters in: Peter F. Sugar, ed., Native Fascism in the Successor States, (1971), pp. 47-62.

    Havranek (d. 2003) was a Czech scholar; Zacek is an American historian of Czechoslovakia who taught at SUNY, Albany.

    (vi). On the Czechoslovak interwar economy, see:

    Alice Teichova, The Czechoslovak Economy, 1918-1980, London, 1988.

    by a Czech economic historian.

    same: An Economic Background to Munich: International Business and Czecho slovakia, 1918-1938, Cambridge, UK, 1974. The author was criticized for overemphasizing the economic causes of Munich.

    (vii) On Czech historiography, see:

    Andrew Rossos, "Czech Historiography, Part 1," CANADIAN SLAVONIC PAPERS, vol. 24, no. 3, 1983 (pp. 245-260) and Part 2, same, vol. 24, no. 4, 1982 (pp. 359-85).

    Rossos teaches at the University of Toronto. (see also Part I, Historiography).


    There are several works by and on T. G. Masaryk (1850-1937), the father of the Czechoslovak state, and President 1918-35:

    (A)Works by T. G. Masaryk and conversations with him

    Tomas G. Masaryk, The Making of a State: Memories and Observations, 1914- 1918, London, New York, 1927, reprint New York, 1969;

    same, The Meaning of Czech History, Chapel Hill, NC, 1974. -lectures.

    Draga B. Shillinglaw, ed., The Lectures of Professor T. G. Masaryk at the University of Chicago, Summer 1902, Lewisburg, Pa., and London, 1978.

    Karel Capek, Talks with T. G. Masaryk, trans. Dora Round, London, 1935.

    Karel Capek (1890-1938), was a famous Czech novelist, playwright and journalist, author ofThe Good Soldier Schweik.

    Same, Masaryk on Thought and Life. [conversations with Karel Capek], London, 1938, New York, 1971.

    Same, Talks with T. G. Masaryk, Michael Henry Heim, ed. and transl., North Haven, CT, 1995

    (B) Works about T. G. Masaryk.

    Milic Capek and Karel Hruby, eds., T. G. Masaryk in Perspective: Comments and Criticism, Flushing, N. Y., 1981.

    Hanus J. Hajek, T. G. Masaryk Revisited. A Critical Assessment, East Eur. Monographs, no. 139, New York, 1983.

    Peter Hanak et al, eds., Thomas G. Masaryk, 3 vols, New York, 1985.

    Eva Schmidt-Hartmann, Thomas G. Masaryk's Realism: Origins of a Czech Political Concept, Munich, 1984 (on his philosophy);

    H. Gordon Skilling, T. G. MASARYK, 1882-1914, University Park, Pa., 1993.

    excellent study of TGM before the outbreak of the First World War by a Canadian specialist on Czech politics and history.

    Roman Szporluk, The Political Thought of Thomas G. Masaryk, East European Monographs no. 85, Boulder Co. and New York, 1981.

    Szporluk is a specialist in modern Polish, Ukrainian and Czech history; he teaches at Harvard University.

    Zbynek A. Zeman, The Masaryks: The Making of Czechoslovakia, London, New York, 1976 and later reprint

    Zeman is a Czech historian living in UK, Professor Emeritus Oxford University. This is a good, popular account of T. G. M. and his son Jan.

    (ix) On Edvard Benes (1884-1948), who was Masaryk's right hand in World War I, Foreign Minister in 1918-35, President 1935-38, then head of the government-in-exile, London, 1940-45 and President again, 1945-48, see:

    (A)Works by E. Benes:

    Edvard Benes, My War Memoirs, London, New York, 1928, and reprint, Westport CT, 1971; also:

    same, Memoirs of Dr. Edvard Benes: From Munich to New War and New Victory, London, New York, 1954

    the second memoirs were written so as not to offend the USSR.

    (B)Works on E. Benes

    Edvard Taborsky, President Edward Benes Between East and West, 1938- 1948, Stanford, CA, 1981

    insightful memoirs by one of his private secretaries.

    Jan Opocensky, ed., EDWARD BENES. Essays and Reflections presented on the occasion of his Sixtieth Birthday, London, 1945

    by a number of his, mostly English, admirers.

    Zbynek Zeman with Antonin Klimek, The Life of Edvard Benes, 1884-1948. Czechoslovakia in Peace and War, Oxford, 1997.

    For Zeman, see book on the Masaryks, above. A. Klimek is Senior Research Fellow, Institute of History of the Czech Army, Prague. The book portrays Benes as a cold person, friendless except for his wife Hanna; as driven by the ambition to become President, which he achieved; also as totally confident that he was master of the art of politics. There is no bibliography, but sources are cited in footnotes, there is a note on sources and the abbreviations list the archives used. There are 7 illustrations.

    (x) Masaryk and Benes's foreign policy, 1918-38,

    Piotr S. Wandycz, "The Foreign Policy of Edvard Benes, 1918-1938, " in Mamatey and Luza, A HISTORY OF THE CZECHOSLOVAK REPUBLIC, pp. 216-238.

    balanced account by the pre-eminent American historian of French-Polish-Czechoslovak relations.

    (i) Czechoslovak German relations, 1919-33

    F. Gregory Campbell, CONFRONTATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE. Weimar, Germany and Czechoslovakia, Chicago, 1975.

    An excellent study by an American scholar. See also

    (ii) Czechoslovak-French-Polish Relations, 1918-38.

    Wandycz, France and her Eastern Allies, 1919-1925, Minneapolis, 1962.

    although written before the opening of the French archives, this work is still a most valuable study. The book was awarded the AHA Henry Beer Prize.

    Wandycz, THE TWILIGHT OF FRENCH EASTERN ALLIANCES 1926-1936. French- Czechoslovak-Polish Relations from Locarno to the remilitarization of the Rhineland, Cambridge, Mass, 1988.

    most detailed and reliable study. This book was also awarded the AHA Henry Beer Prize.

    See also:

    Zygmunt J. Gasiorowski, "Polish-Czechoslovak Relations, 1922-1926," The Slavonic and East European Review, v. 35, no. 85, London, 1957, pp. 473-504.

    By a Polish historian working in the U. S. Professor emeritus of the University of Georgia, Athens, GA.

    [NOTE: On Munich, see section 5 on APPEASEMENT below]

    (xi) On the constituent nationalities and ethnic minorities of interwar Czechoslovakia, see:

    Carol Skalnik Leff, National Conflict in Czechoslovakia. The Making and Remaking of a State, 1918-1987, Princeton, N. J., 1988.

    Skalnik Leff, an American political scientist, was then teaching at the University of Illinois, Urbana, IL; ch. 2 is a good overview of the nationalities problem in interwar Czechoslovakia.

    (a) Slovaks in interwar Czechoslovakia.

    James R. Felak, At the Price of the Republic: Hlinka's Slovak People's Party, 1929-1938, Pittsburgh, PA., 1994.

    excellent study; Felak teaches at the University of Washington, Seattle.

    Yashayahu A. Jelinek, The Lust for Power: Nationalism, Slovakia and the Communists, 1918-1948, East European Monographs, no. 130, New York, 1983;

    Jelinek obtained his Ph. D. at Indiana University, 1966. He is an Israeli researcher living in Beer-Sheva, Israel.

    same, The Parish Republic: Hlinka's Slovak People's Party, East European Quarterly, Boulder, CO., 1976.

    Owen V. Johnson, SLOVAKIA 1918-1938; Education and the Making of a Nation, East European Monographs no. 180, New York, 1985.

    Johnson teaches in the School of Journalism, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN. He is a specialist on the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

    Stanislav J. Kirschbaum, A History of Slovakia, New York, 1995

    Kirschbaum is professor of political science and coordinator, International Studies Programme York University, Toronto. This is a survey written from the Slovak point of view.

    Jozef Lettrich, History of Modern Slovakia, London, 1956

    favorable to union with Czechs.

    Joseph A. Mikus, SLOVAKIA. A Political History, 1918-1950, Milwaukee, Wisc., 1963

    very anti-Czech.

    (b) The Ruthenians in interwar Czechoslovakia

    Paul Robert Magocsi, THE SHAPING OF A NATIONAL IDENTITY. SUB-CARPATHIAN RUS', 1848-1948, Cambridge, Mass., 1978 (Part 1 ch. 4, Part 3, ch. 10-12). 1982.

    Magocsi, who authored the excellent Historical Atlas of East Central Europe (Seattle, WA, 1994, new eds. 2001, 2003), Ukraine. A Historical Atlas, (Toronto, 1985), and A History of Ukraine (Toronto, 1996), teaches at the University of Toronto. He is a specialist on modern Ukraine

    (c) Poles in interwar Czechoslovakia: Zaolzie (Trans Olza)

    Boguslaw Kozusznik, The Problem of Cieszyn Silesia, London, 1943.

    good presentation of Polish point of view. Kozusznik was then a member of the Polish National Council attached to the Polish government-in-exile. He worked in Poland after the war, died in 1999.

    Ellen L. Paul, "Czech Teschen Silesia and the Controversial Czechoslovak Census of 1921," Polish Review, vol. XLIII, no. 2, 1998, pp. 161-171.

    The author obtained her Ph. D. at the University of Kansas, 1999. This work is based on her dissertation research, done with the aid of Fulbright and Irex fellowships in the Polish and Czech republics.

    (d) The Germans in interwar Czechoslovakia:

    Herman Kopecek, "Zusammenarbeit and Spoluprace: Sudeten German-Czech cooperation in Interwar Czechoslovakia," in: NATIONALITIES PAPERS, vol. 24, no. 1, ed., Nancy M. Wingfield, March 1996, pp. 63-78;

    Radomir Luza, THE TRANSFER OF THE SUDETEN GERMANS. A Study of Czech-German Relations, 1933-1962, New York, 1964 (Introd., Part I, II, through the Munich Crisis of 1938, pp. 1-186).

    for R. Luza, see Mamatey and Luza book on the Czechoslovak Republic, above.

    Elizabeth Wiskemann, CZECHS AND GERMANS. A Study of the Struggle in the Historic Provinces of Bohemia and Moravia, London, Oxford, New York, Toronto, 1938, 2d sed., 1967 a classic.

    E. Wiskemann was a British journalist and scholar; she originally wrote the book for the Royal Institute of International Affairs; it is still a valuable study.

    (e) The Jews in interwar Czechoslovakia.

    "The Jewish Question and Other Aspects of Modern Czechoslovakia," (esp. articles on J. Q. in Slovakia), EAST CENTRAL EUROPE, vol. 10, Parts 1-2, University of California, Irvine, CA, 1983.

    C. Interwar Hungary.

    (i). Surveys

    For a briefoverview, see:

    Peter F. Sugar et al, eds., A History of Hungary, (Bloomington, IN, 1990). ch. XVII and part of XVIII.

    See also:

    Jorg K. Hoensch, A History of Modern Hungary. 1867-1996, London, 2nd ed., 1996

    Hoensch (d. 2003) was Professor of East European History at the University of the Saarland, Saarbrucken, Germany. The book is translated from German by Kim Traynor. This edition covers the post-communist period to mid-1994. There is a useful chronology of Hungarian history through July 1994, and a bibliography listing works, most in German.

    Paul Ignotus, HUNGARY, New York, 1972

    very good on intellectual history by a Hungarian. Ignotus (b. 1901) was imprisoned in communist Hungary after World War II (see his memoirs, published 1960).

    The most detailed study is :

    C. A. Macartney, October Fifteenth. A History of Modern Hungary 1929-1945, 2 vols., Edinburgh, 1961.

    Macartney, a British historian of the Habsburg Monarchy and Hungary, was a Magyarophile.

    (ii). On Hungarian statesmen of the interwar period, see:

    (a) Istvan Bethlen (1874-1947 Prime Minister, 1921-31; reportedly died in USSR):

    William A. Batkay, Authoritarian Politics in a Transitional State: Istvan Bethlen and the Unified Party in Hungary, 1919-1926, East Eur. Mon. 102, New York, 1982;

    Ignac Romsics, Istvan Bethlen. A Great Conservative Statesman, 1874-1945, East Eur. Monographs, New York, 1995.

    (b) Nicholas de Nagabanya Horthy (1868-1957 Regent of Hungary 1920-1944; died in exile, Portugal).

    Nicholas Horthy, Memoirs, New York, 1957;

    This is his own story, written in old age and in exile. His remains were reburied in his native Hungary in the 1990s.

    Thomas L. Sakmyster, Hungary's Admiral on Horseback: Miklos Horthy, 1918- 1944, East European Monographs/ Columbia University Press, 1998.

    Sakmyster is professor of history at the University of Cincinnati. This is a balanced study of a controversial statesman. (See excellent review of this book by Istvan Deak, "Survivor in a Sea of Barbarism," New York Review of Books, April 8, 1999, pp. 53-56).

    (c) Pal Teleki (1879-1941 Premier 1920-21, 1939-41, committed suicide when Horthy decided to invade Yugoslavia, spring 1941).

    Lorant Tilkovszky, Pal Teleki (1879-1941): a Biographical Sketch, Budapest, 1974.

    the official, negative view of the time, but useful.

    (iii). On Hungarian interwar politics, see:

    Istvan Deak, "Hungary," in: Hans Rogger and Eugene Weber, eds., THE EUROPEAN RIGHT, Berkeley, CA, 1965; (pp. 346-407);

    I. Deak (b. Hungary, 1926) is a prominent American historian of Hungary. He teaches at Columbia University, New York, N. Y.

    Zsuzsa L. Nagy, The Liberal Opposition in Hungary, 1919-1945, Budapest, 1983;

    Ferenc Poloskei, Hungary after Two Revolutions, 1919-1922, Budapest, 1980

    by a Marxist historian.

    (iv). On Hungarian interwar communism, see relevant chapters in:

    Bennett Kovrig, COMMUNISM IN HUNGARY: FROM KUN TO KADAR, Stanford, CA, 1979

    B. Kovrig (b. Hungary, 1940), university studies Toronto and London; Professor Political Sciences. University of Toronto.

    Miklos Molnar, From Bela Kun to Janos Kadar. Seventy Years of Hungarian Communism, (English edition), New York, 1990.

    by a Hungarian scholar, professor at the Institute of International Studies, Geneva.

    (v). On Hungarian interwar fascism, see:

    George Barany, "The Dragon's Teeth; the Roots of Hungarian Fascism," in: Peter F. Sugar ed., Native Fascism in the Successor States, 1918-1945, Santa Barbara, 1971;

    Barany, b. Hungary, Professor Emeritus University of Denver, CO, was an American historian of Hungarian origin, author of the classic biography of 19th c. Hungarian statesman Istvan Szechenyi. (See this Bibliography, Part I).

    Miklos Lacko, ARROW-CROSS MEN, NATIONAL SOCIALISTS, 1935- 1944, Budapest, 1969;

    -written under some political restrictions.

    Nicholas M. Nagy-Talavera, THE GREEN SHIRTS AND OTHERS. A History of Fascism in Hungary and Rumania, Stanford, CA, 1970.

    Nagy-Talavera (b. Hungary, 1929), studied in Austria and U. S, taught at California State University, Chico, CA; this is an excellent study of the fascist movements in these two countries.

    (vi). On Hungarian interwar foreign policy, see:

    Nandor A. F. Dreisziger, HUNGARY'S WAY TO WORLD WAR II, Toronto, 1968.

    good study by a Canadian scholar of Hungarian descent.

    Gyula Juhasz, Hungarian Foreign Policy 1919-1945, Budapest, 1979

    By a Hungarian specialist. ch. 1 through 4 cover the interwar period; generally balanced history though written under some political constraints.

    Stephen D. Kertesz, DIPLOMACY IN A WHIRLPOOL. Hungary between Nazi Germany and Soviet Russia, Notre Dame, IN, 1953 (ch. 1-3).

    S. D. Kertesz (b. Hungary, 1904), Political Scientist educated in Hungary, France, U. S., Switzerland, in Hung. dipl. service 1931-47, then U. S; taught at University of Notre Dame. This is a partly outdated but still useful study.

    C. A. Macartney, HUNGARY AND HER SUCCESSORS: The Treaty of Trianon and its Consequences, 1919-1937, Oxford, London, 1937, reprint 1968

    by the late British historian of Hungary who agreed with the Hungarian point of view.

    John Flournoy Montgomery, Hungary: the Unwilling Satellite, New York, 1947.

    by a former U. S. ambassador in Hungary, 1933-41; has some information on interwar Hungary.

    Thomas L. Sakmyster, Hungary, The Great Powers, and the Danubian Crisis, 1936-1939, Athens, Ga., 1980.

    Sakmyster is rather negative on Hung. foreign policy in this period; see also his biography of Horthy listed above.

    (vii) Germans in interwar Hungary and German-Hungarian relations.

    Thomas Spira, German-Hungarian Relations and the Swabian Problem: from Karolyi to Gombos, 1919-1936, East Eur. Mon. 25, New York, 1977

    focuses on the German minority in Hungary.

    same, The German-Hungarian-Swabian Triangle, 1936-1939: the Road to Discord, East Eur. Mon. 285, New York, 1990, is the continuation of the work listed above.

    (viii) On the Jews in interwar Hungary, see:

    Nathaniel Katzburg, HUNGARY AND THE JEWS: Policy and Legislation, 1920- 1943, Ramat-Gan, Israel, 1981.

    Nicholas M. Nagy-Talavera, THE GREEN SHIRTS AND OTHERS. (1970) ch. II.

    (On N-Talavera, see above).

    (ix) On the Hungarian interwar economy, see:

    Ivan T. Berend and Gyorgy. Ranki, Hungary. A Century of Economic Development, New York, 1974.

    by two Hungarian historians; G. Ranki (d. 1988) taught at Indiana University, Bloomington, IN. As of 2003, Berend has published books on the history of E Central Europe and Hungary.

    Joseph L. Held, ed., The Modernization of Agriculture; Rural Transformation in Hungary, 1848-1975, East Eur. Mon. 63, New York, 1980.

    Held, an American scholar of Hungary, also edited the Columbia History of Eastern Europe.

    Andrew C. Janos, The Politics of Backwardness in Hungary, 1825-1945, Princeton, N. J., 1982.

    A. C. Janos (b. Hungary, 1934), studied in Hungary and U. S; taught Political Science at the University of California, Berkeley, CA; this is a readable and well documented study.

    (x). On Hungarian historiography, see:

    Stephen Bela Vardy, Clio's Art in Hungary and and in Hungarian-America, East Eur. Mon. 179, New York, 1985.

    see also article on Hungarian Historiography in American Historical Review October 1992 (see Part I, Historiography).


    C. Interwar Poland, 1918-1939.


    For a brief survey of Modern Poland, see:

    Mieczyslaw B. Biskupski, The History of Poland, Greenwood Press, Westport, CT, 2000, chapters.

    An excellent, succinct history focusing on the 20th c., with a glossary and bibliography. Unfortunately, there are no maps.

    Norman Davies, GOD 'S PLAYGROUND. A HISTORY OF POLAND vol. II, New York, 1982, 2003, ch. 19 (pp. 393-434).

    N. Davies (b. UK, 1940) is the pre-eminent British historian of modern Poland, but the interwar years are not as well covered in this work as other periods of Polish history.

    For a more extensive survey of the period 1863-1976, see:

    R. F. Leslie, The History of Poland since 1863, ch. 4-7 (by Antony Polonsky), Cambridge University Press, 1980 (pp. 112-226).

    A useful survey; see Polonsky's book on the politics of independent Poland.

    (ii) Useful information on Polish interwar constitutional development, political parties, politics, minorities, economic, social, and cultural development, is to be found in:

    Bernadotte E. Schmitt, ed., POLAND, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1945.

    B. E. Schmidt (1886-1969) was an eminent American historian of international relations. At the time of publication, he was teaching at the University of Chicago. The book has valuable short studies of various aspects of interwar Poland by contemporary specialists.

    see also:

    Stanislaw Stronski, The Two Polish Consitutions of 1921 and 1935, The Polish Library, Glasgow, 1944.

    Stanislaw Stronski (1883-1955) was a prominent National Democratic politician, opponent of J. Pilsudski and the post-1926 Polish governments. He was a close adviser of General W. Sikorski, head of the Polish government-in-exile, Sept. 1939 -July 1943, a deputy Premier, 1939-40, and Minister of Information, 1940- 1943. He settled in the UK and died there. These are his views of the two constitutions.

    For views of interwar Poland from the perspective of 1985, see papers in:

    Timothy Wiles, ed., POLAND BETWEEN THE WARS, 1918-1939, sec. I, History and Society, Bloomington, IN, 1989 (Conference, Indiana University Polish Studies Center, Feb. 1985, pp. 3-64).

    Timothy Wiles (d. 2003) was a long time Director of the Polish Studies Center, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN. The book contains papers by Polish and American scholars.

    See also section iii below.

    (iii) Polish Interwar Politics.

    Antony Polonsky, Politics in Independent Poland, 1921-1939. The Crisis of Constitutional Government, Oxford, 1972

    balanced, detailed study by a formerly British, now American historian of Polish Jewry and modern Poland; unsatisfactory on foreign policy. Polonsky is the Albert Abrahamson Professor of Holocaust Studied at Brandeis University and the U.S. Holocaust Museum..

    Edward D. Wynot, Polish Politics in Transition. The Camp of National Unity and the Struggle for Power, 1935-1939, Athens, Ga., 1974

    Wynot, a Polish-American historian of Poland and East Central Europe, teaches at Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL. He shows the rejection of fascism by most followers of Pilsudski (see: Anna M. Cienciala review in Reviews in European History, vol. 2, no. 1., March 1976, p p. 87-94).

    Richard M. Watt, Bitter Glory. Poland and Its Fate, 1918-1939, New York, 1979.

    -Richard M. Watt (b. Berwyn, IL., 1930) had a career as a sales representative, with history as his avocation. This is a well written book very sympathetic to interwar Poland, but with a stereotype, negative view of Polish foreign policy. His other books are:Dare Call it Treason, 1963 and Kings Depart, 1969

    (iv) Polish interwar statesmen.

    (a) Jozef Beck (1894-1944), Polish Foreign Minister, Dec. 1932 Sept. 1939.

    John H. Harley, The Authentic Biography of Colonel Beck, based on the Polish by Conrad Wrzos, with introduction by Count Edward Raczynski, London, 1939.

    a good, short biography written by John H. Harley, an English journalist who worked for the Polish cause in UK in World War I, then for the Polish government in the interwar period. Conrad Wrzos was a well known Polish journalist; Edward Raczynski (1891-1993) was Polish ambassador in London, 1933- 1945, also acting Foreign Minister in the Polish government-in-exile, London, 1940- 43, and President of Polish emigre government, London, 1979-1986. The book was withdrawn from circulation after the establisment of a new Polish government in France on 30 September 1939.

    (b) Roman Dmowski (1864-1939) statesman; leader of right-wing National Democratic Party, chief rival of Pilsudski)

    There is no English work dealing specifically with Dmowski in the period 1914- 1939, but see Part I, for Marcus A. Fountain's biography up to 1907 and works on National Democratic movement (Poland, 1864-1914).

    (c) Ignacy Jan Paderewski (1860-1941), pianist-composer who worked for Polish independence in World War I, was Prime Minister, then Foreign Minister in 1919, but opposed Pilsudski and his supporters after 1926, see:

    Janina W. Hoskins, Ignacy Jan Paderewski, 1860-1941; A Biographical Sketch and a Selective List of Reading Materials, Library of Congress, Washington, D. C., (1990?)

    J. M. Hoskins (d. 1995) was born and studied in Poland, came to the U. S. after World War II. She was for many years head of the Polish section, European Division, Library of Congress.

    David Taylor, "Paderewski's Piano," Smithsonian, March 1999, pp. 30-34.

    amusing and informative essay on Paderewski's piano playing, the pianos he used on his concert tours of the U. S. 1891-1900, and the "Paddymania" of New York Ladies.

    Adam Zamoyski, Paderewski. A Biography of the Great Polish Pianist and Statesman, New York, 1982.

    Adam Zamoyski (b. New York, 1949), studied in UK, lives in London. He is the author of several books on Polish history.

    (d) Jozef Pilsudski (1867-1935), soldier and statesman- Socialist fighter for Polish independence, 1892-1918; Head of State and Commander-in-Chief, 1918-22; leader of an authoritarian regime, 1926-35.

    M. K. Dziewanowski, "Joseph Pilsudski 1867-1967," East European Quarterly, vol. II, no. 4, January 1968, pp. 359-383. "

    -deals with the period Nov. 1918- Dec. 1922. See also his book: Joseph Pilsudski. A European Federalist.

    Andrzej Garlicki, Jozef Pilsudski, new abridged version edited by John Coutovidis, London, 1995.

    -A. Garlicki (b. Poland, 1935) is a contemporary Polish historian teaching at the University of Warsaw. This is the translation of an abridged version of his generally negative biography of Pilsudski.

    Przemyslaw Hauser, "Jozef Pilsudski's Views on the Territorial Shape of the Polish State and His Endeavours to Put them into Effect, 1918-1921," Polish Western Affairs, Poznan, 1992, no. 2, pp. (235)-249, trans. Janina Dorosz.

    Przemyslaw Hauser is a specialist on interwar Polish-German relations; he is a Professor of History at the Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan.

    Waclaw. Jedrzejewicz, Pilsudski. A Life for Poland, New York, 1982

    Waclaw Jedrzejewicz (1892-1993) was a Pilsudski legionnaire in 1914-17, fought in the Polish-Soviet War of 1919-20, and held various posts in the interwar Polish army, diplomatic and government service. In U. S. since 1940, he was active in Polish-American politics. He was also a historian who authored and edited several books and articles. He was a co-founder and served as a long-time director of the Jozef Pilsudski Institute of America for Research in Modern Polish History, New York

    Aleksandra Pilsudska, Pilsudski. A Biography by his Wife, New York, 1941.

    Aleksandra Pilsudska, (1882- 1963), nee Szczerbinska, was the 2nd wife of Pilsudski. The book gives her view of Pilusdski, but is also important for the author's own biography. She worked in the socialist underground for Polish independence before 1914, and that is how she met her husband. She was also a member of the Polish Military Organization (P.O.W) during the war. She escaped from Poland with their two daughters in September 1939 and settled in the U.K.

    W. F. Reddaway, MARSHAL PILSUDSKI, London, 1939.

    W. F. Reddaway (1872-1949) was a British historian of Modern Europe; the book, while partly outdated by more recent research, is still useful.

    (v) On Communism in interwar Poland:

    M. K. Dziewanowski, The Communist Party of Poland; An Outline of History, Cambridge, Mass., 1976 (revised edition).

    Marian Kamil Dziewanowski (b. Poland, 1913), authored several books on modern Polish history; he is Professor Emeritus of the University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI. This is a good study, first published in 1959.

    Gabriele Simoncini, Revolutionary Organizations and Revolutionaries in Interbellum Poland. A Bibliographical and Biographical Study, The Mellen Press, Lewiston, NY, Queenstown, Ont. 1992.

    G. Simoncini is a historian of the Polish Communist Party. This is a bibliography of the Polish language works by Polish Communists divided into types of publications, regional, organizational, trial, prison, publications, and publications by revolutionaries. There are no biographies.

    Jan B. de Weydenthal, The Communists of Poland: An Historical Outline, Revised ed., Stanford, CA, 1986.

    Weydenthal, a political scientist b. in Poland, worked for many years in the Polish section of Radio Free Europe, Munich.

    (vi) On Fascism in interwar Poland, see chapters by:

    Henryk Wereszycki and Piotr S. Wandycz, in: Sugar, ed., NATIVE FASCISM IN THE SUCCESSOR STATES, pp. 83-100.

    H. Wereszycki (1898-1990), an eminent Polish historian, fought in the Pilsudski Legions and the Polish- Soviet War, also in the Polish-German War 1939, after which he was a prisoner in Germany. He was a specialist in diplomatic history, but wrote a highly respected textbook on Polish political history, 1864-1918. It was judged inimical to the communist party line, so could not be published until after the "Polish October" of 1956. Later, he taught at the University of Wroclaw, and received an Alfred Jurzykowski Foundation award for History, 1969.

    (vii) On Interwar Polish economic history, see:

    Zbigniew Landau and Jerzy Tomaszewski, The Polish Economy in the Twentieth Century, trans. by Wojciech Roszkowski, New York, 1985 (ch. 2)

    Z. Landau, (b. Poland, 1931) is a respected economic historian; J. Tomaszewski, (b. Poland, 1930) has published widely on various historical topics concerning interwar Poland. This is a good, short survey. On Roszkowski, see below.

    Z. Landau, "Review of Works on the Economic History of the Second Republic published in the Years 1962-1971," Acta Poloniae Historica, vol. 28, 1973, pp. [137] 167.

    a very useful overview.

    Wojciech Roszkowski, Landowners in Poland, 1918-1939, East. Eur. Monographs, 299, Boulder CO, and New York, 1991.

    -Roszkowski is a Polish historian of modern Poland who held the Kosciuszko Chair of Polish Studies at the Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA. in 2000-03. This is an excellent study.

    Daniel Stone, "The Big Business Lobby in Poland in the 1920s, "Canadian Slavonic Papers, vol. XXXII, no. 1, 1990, pp. 41-58.

    D. Stone is a specialist in modern Polish history; he teaches at the University of Winnipeg, Mnitoba, Canada.

    J. Taylor, The Economic Development of Poland, 1919-1950, Westport, CT, 1952.

    Jack Taylor was an American writer on business and government; this is somewhat outdated but still very useful.

    Ferdynand Zweig, Poland Between Two Wars. A Critical Study of Social and Economic Changes, London, 1944.

    F. Zweig (b. Poland 1896) published many works on economic, also social life, e. g. Women's Life and Labour, London, 1952.

    (viii) Interwar Polish Army, Navy, Air Force

    Mieczyslaw B. Biskupski, "The Military Elite of the Polish Second Republic, 1918- 1945: A Historiographical Review," War and Society, vol. 14, no. 2, October 1996, University of New South Wales, pp. 49-81.

    This is a solid contribution to the subject. Biskupski is a Polish-American historian of interwar Poland, who taught for many years at St. John Fisher College, Rochester, NY. Since fall 2003, he holds the chair of Polish and Polish-American History at the Central State Connecticut University, New Britain, CT.

    Same, "A Prosopographical Analysis of the Polish Naval Elite, 1918-1945," The Journal of Slavic Military Studies, vol. 12, no. 1, London, 1999, pp. 166-179.

    The author is too harsh on the Polish government for not spending much money on the navy; after all, the Polish coastline was only 160 kilometers long while its land frontiers ran into thousands of kilometers. Even so, the minuscule Polish navy, evacuated to Britain in Sept.1939, gave a very good account of itself in World War II.

    Jerzy B. Cynk, Polish Aircraft 1893-1939, London, 1971.

    J. b. Cynk (b. Warsaw, 1925), joined the Polish Home Army in German-occupied Poland, was arrested and imprisoned for two years, including over a year in Auschwitz. He settled in the U.K. after the war and devoted all his spare time to research on Polish Aviation. This is a detailed account of the subject by an expert with many illustrations, drawings, and photographs.

    Same, History of the Polish Air Force 1918-1968, Reading, Berks, 1972. (ch. 1-3).

    The author rejects economic factors as an explanation for the poor state of the Polish air force, blaming Polish military leaders for not moving beyond the era of the Polish-Russian War of 1920 (p. 99). However, Poland's underdeveloped economic-industrial infrastructure and lack of adequate foreign investment in its armament industry were at least as important, if not more so, in accounting for Polish weakness in the air in 1939.

    Michael Alfred Peszke, Poland's Navy, 1918-1945, New York, 1999.

    M. A. Peszke (b. Poland, 1932), is a psychiatrist by profession and a historian by avocation. He has published on psychiatry and Polish military history. This is an excellent study.

    (ix) Very little is available to date in English on Interwar Polish educational, family, social and urban life, but see:

    Feliks Gross, THE POLISH WORKER. A STUDY OF A SOCIAL STRATUM, New York, 1945 F. Gross ( b. Poland 1906) is a sociologist; he was a member of the prewar Polish Socialist Party, taught for many years at New York University and was a long-time President of the Polish Institute of Arts and Sciences of America, resigning in 1999.

    Jan Slomka, trans. ed., William J. Rose, FROM SERFDOM TO SELF- GOVERNMENT; Memoirs of a Polish Village Mayor, 1842-1927, London, 1941. gives interesting insights into the life and views of Polish peasants over a long period of time, including Poland's transition from foreign rule to independence. W. J. Rose, a Canadian, was a historian of modern Poland. (For a biographical note see Poland, 4 B above).

    Seweryn Turosienski, Poland's Institutions of Higher Education, Bulletin 1936, no. 24, U. S. Dept. of the Interior, Office of Education, Washington, D. C. , 1937. A contemporary study.

    Edward D. Wynot, Jr. Warsaw Between Two World Wars: Profile of the Capital City in a Developing Land, 1918-1939, East Eur. Monographs, 129, New York, 1983.

    E. D. Wynot Jr. (b. New York, 1943) is a Polish-American historian who has published works on modern Poland and Eastern Europe; he teaches at Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL.

    See also papers in

    Timothy Wiles, ed., POLAND BETWEEN THE WARS, Mimeo, Bloomington, IN, 1989, sec. II. Social Groups: Mainstream and Minority (pp. 109-148).

    papers by experts on interwar Poland; T. Wiles (d. 2003) was then the Director of the Center for Polish Studies at Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

    See also:

    Acta Poloniae Historica vol. 79, 1999; has articles on children's upbringing and education in Poland from early modern times through 1956. This is a high quality English-language historical journal edited by the Polish historian Maria Bogucka and published by the History Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw.

    (x) Interwar Polish Foreign Policy:

    Anna M. Cienciala, "Polish Foreign Policy, 1926-1939; 'Equilibrium,' Stereotype and Reality," Polish Review, vol. XX, no. 1, 1975, (pp. 42-58);

    A. M. Cienciala (b. Free City of Danzig, now Gdansk,Poland, 1929) is a historian of European International Relations 1914-45 with sp. emphasis omn Poland, and Prof. Em. of History at the University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS. She shows that the stereotype view of Polish foreign policy in the period 1933-39 as pro-German and anti-Soviet is unjustified.

    Roman Debicki, Foreign Policy of Poland 1919-1939. From the Rebirth of the Polish Republic to World War II, New York, 1962

    Kazimierz Roman Debicki, (1896-1980) was a Polish diplomat; this is a useful, basic, survey.

    See also:

    Thaddeus V. Gromada, ed. Essays on Poland's Foreign Policy, 1918- 1939, New York, 1970

    T. Gromada, (b. 1929) is a Polish-American historian, Professor Em. Jersey State College; long-time Secretary General, later Exec. Director of the Polish Institute of Arts and Sciences of America, New York. This is a set of useful essays on the Treaty of Riga, 1921, the Weimar Republic the German-Polish border, and the impact on the Franco-Polish alliance of the Remilitarization of the Rhineland; first published in the Polish Review, fall 1969.

    Alexander Korczynski, ed., Poland Between Germany and Russia, 1920- 1939: The Theory of Two Enemies, New York, 1975

    same published in the Polish Review, vol. 20, no. 1, New York, 1975.

    See also works by

    Titus Komarnicki, Anna M. Cienciala and Titus Komarnicki, listed above and below.

    Piotr S. Wandycz, Polish Diplomacy: Aims and Achievements, 1919-1945, London, 1988.

    A succinct overview by a master diplomatic historian. (see his books on Polish- French relations below).

    (xi) British attitudes and policy toward interwar Poland:

    Anna M. Cienciala, "Wilsonian East Central Europe: The British View with Reference to Poland," in: John S. Micgiel, ed., Wilsonian East Central Europe. Current Perspectives, New York, 1995, pp. 81-112

    see also works by A.M.Cienciala in section on Free City of Danzig in Polish-German Relations, and section on Appeasement below. John S. Micgiel, (b. 1953), a Polish-American political scientist is the Director of the Institute on East Central Europe, Columbia University, New York,since 1994. He has published and edited works on modern Polish history and political science.

    Anna M. Cienciala and Titus Komarnicki, From Versailles to Locarno: Keys to Polish Foreign Policy, 1919-1925, Lawrence, KS., 1984.

    British policy is discussed on every aspect of Polish frontiers and security problems in 1919-25.

    Patricia A., Gajda, Postcript to Victory: British Policy and the German-Polish Borderlands, 1919-1925, Washington, 1982

    the author was influenced by British views as expressed in Foreign Office documents. Gajda (b. 1941), is Professor of History, University of Texas at Tyler, TX., and has also published on the history of Texas.

    (xii) Interwar Franco-Polish relations:

    Piotr S. Wandycz, France and her Eastern Allies. French-Polish-Czechoslovak Relations, 1919-1925, Minneapolis, MN, 1962, reprint, Westport, CT, 1974.

    same: The Twilight of French Eastern Alliances, 1926-36. French-Czechoslovak-Polish Relations from Locarno to the Remilitarization of the Rhineland, Princeton, N. J., 1988.

    Piotr S. Wandycz (b. Poland, 1923), Prof. Em. Yale University, is the pre-eminent American historian of Franco-Czechoslovak-Polish relations and interwar Polish foreign policy. These are the best studies of the subject; each received the Am. Hist. Assoc. George Louis Beer award.

    (xiii) Interwar Polish-German relations:

    (a) from the Middle Ages to 1939, see:

    Jerzy Krasuski, "The Key Points of Polish-German Relations up to 1939," Polish Western Affairs, 1992, no. 2., pp. 291-304.

    Jerzy Krasuski (b. Poland 1930), has published several works on on German history and Polish-German relations; he is professor of History at the Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan.

    There is, so far, no satisfactory English language study of these relations for the whole interwar period, but see:

    W. W. Kulski, Germany and Poland: From War to Peaceful Relations, Syracuse NY, 1976.

    Kulski was a legal expert in the Polish Ministry of Foreign Affairs; after World War II, professor of Political Science, U. S. The book covers the interwar years, World War II, and after

    Harald von Riekhoff, German-Polish Relations, 1918-1933, Baltimore and London, 1971.

    H. von Riekhoff, b.1937, of Baltic-German descent, then taught at Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada. This is a detailed, balanced study of these relations in the pre-Nazi period.

    See also: Michael Burleigh, Germany Turns Eastwards. A Study of the Ostforschung in the Third Reich, Cambridge, UK, 1988

    M. Burleigh (b. London, 1955) is a specialist in modern German history. He was then lecturer in International History, London School of Economics, and director of the BW TV Company, London. This book gives a good account of government- financed interwar German studies on Poland and German minorities in E. Europe.

    Anna M. Cienciala, "The Significance of the Declaration of Non-Aggression of January 26, 1934, in Polish-German and International Relations," East European Quarterly, vol. I, no. 1, 1967 pp. 1-30. The author takes issue with the negative stereotype of Polish interwear policy (see also works by same in section on Appeasement below).

    Karol Fiedor, Janusz Sobczak and Wojciech Wrzesinski, "Image of the Poles in Germany and of the Germans in Poland in Inter-War Years and its Role in Shaping the Relations Between the Two States," Polish Western Affairs, vol. 19, no. 2 Poznan, 1978, pp. 203-228.

    -Karl Fiedor was a German historian; the late J. Sobczak worked at the Institute of Western Affairs, Poznan, authored books on Weimar and Nazi German anti-Polish propaganda; Wrzesinski (b. 1934), Professor of History, University of Wroclaw, has published on Poles in Warmia and Mazury, also on Polish political thought and German stereotypes of the Pole.

    (xiv) The Danzig question in interwar Polish-German and international relations:

    Anna M. Cienciala, "German Propaganda for the Revision of the Polish-German Frontier in Danzig and the Corridor; Its Effects on British Opinion and the British Foreign Policy-Making Elite in the Years 1919-1933, "ANTEMURALE, v. XX, Rome, 1976 (pp. 77-129);

    The author shows how German propaganda fitted in with the general British view on the need to revise the Polish-German frontier, esp. the return of Danzig and Corridor to Germany. Antemurale (Bulwark), was edited and published by the Polish Historical Institute, Rome, which was established in Rome, 1945, by Monseignor Walerian Meysztowicz (1893-1982), a medievalist and former diplomat, together with Karolina Lanckoronska (1898-2002), a Polish art historian who had survived imprisonment in the German concentration camp at Ravesnbruck. They edited and published documents on Polish history culled from European archives. (Elementa ad Fontium Editiones). She established the Lanckoronski Foundation, 1967, to support Polish research and scholarly publications first in the West, and after 1989 also in Poland.

    Christoph M. Kimmich, The Free City in German Foreign Policy, 1919- 1934, New Haven and London, 1968.

    Chr. M. Kimmich (b. Germany, 1939) studied in U. S. and UK, co-edited the German edition of Documents on German Foreign Policy, ser. B., vols. I, II. (1966, 1967); he also published Germany and the League of Nations (1976) and is now a top administrator at Brooklyn College, N. Y. This is an excellent study based on German documents.

    H. S. Levine. Hitler's Free City, Chicago, 1971.

    H. S. Levine (b. New York City, 1938) has also published The Modernization of Japan and Russia (1975) and co-edited works on the Soviet economy. He taught in the Dept. of Economics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA. This is an excellent work based mostly on German documents.

    Carl Tighe, Gdansk. National Identity in the Polish-German Borderlands, London and Concord, CT, 1990.

    by a German historian; this is a useful but uneven and occasionally opinionated work

    Roman Wapinski, "Gdansk in Polish Political Mythology; the Formation of Political Consciousness," Acta Poloniae Historica, vol. 81, 2000, pp. 29-36.

    R. Wapinski, a specialist in Polish interwar political history, and biographer of General W. Sikorski, taught at Gdansk University. This paper was delivered at the 14th International Congress of Historical Sciences, Oslo, 2000.

    (xv) Interwar Polish-Soviet relations:

    Bohdan B. Budurowycz, Polish-Soviet Relations 1932-1939, New York, 1963 .

    B. B. Budurowycz (b. of Ukrainian parents, Poland, 1921), worked at the University of Toronto as Slavic Bibliographer, then Professor of Slavic Studies (1977). The book, a revised version of his Ph. D. dissertation for Columbia University, New York City, fails to consider Polish perceptions and concerns; it is now largely outdated.

    Josef Korbel, Poland Between East and West. Soviet and German Diplomacy towards Poland, 1919-1933, Princeton, N. J. 1963.

    J. Korbel (b. Czechoslovakia 1909, d. U. S. 1977), father of Madeline Albright, was a Czechoslovak diplomat until 1948, then came to U. S, taught at the University of Colorado and published several books, mainly on Czechoslovakia. The same criticism applies to this book as to that by B. Budurowycz above.

    Anna M. Cienciala, "The Nazi-Soviet Pact of August 22, 1939: When did Stalin Decide to Align with Hitler, and was Poland the Culprit?" in: M.B.B. Biskupski, ed., Ideology, Politics and Diplomacy in East Central Europe, Rochester University Press, 2003, pp. 147-226.

    Using British, French, German, Polish and Russian sources, the author takes issue with the view that Polish refusal of Soviet military entry into Poland to fight the Germans was the decisive factor in Stalin's decision to align with Hitler, and discusses various dates and motives for this decision.

    (xvi) Interwar Polish-U. S. relations:

    Piotr S. Wandycz, The United States and Poland, Cambridge, Mass., 1980, ch. 3, 4.

    excellent survey by the pre-eminent American historian of Poland, Professor Emeritus Yale University. See also:

    George J. Lerski, ed., with foreword by Senator Mark O. Hatfield, Herbert Hoover and Poland. A Documentary Study of a Friendship, Stanford, CA, 1977

    deals with Hoover's Relief Work in Poland at the end of World War I, and later correspondence. (On Lerski, see Part I, Historical Dictionary of Poland).

    Neal Pease, Poland, the United States and the Stabilization of Europe, 1919-1933, Oxford, 1986.

    An excellent study of U. S. loans to and investments in Poland by a contemporary American historian of Poland (b. 1951) teaching at the University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI.

    (xvii) National minorities in interwar Poland:

    Stephen Horak, Poland and her National Minorities, 1919-1939: A Case Study, New York, 1961.

    The late S. Horak, a scholar of Ukrainian origin, was for many years the chief Slavic librarian at Indiana University, Bloomington, IN. The book has very useful information and texts, but the criticism of Polish minority policies lacks consideration of Polish views of national interest and security requirements.

    For a Polish point of view, see:

    Marian M. Drozdowski, "National Minorities in Poland, 1918-1939, "Acta Poloniae Historica, vol. 22 (1970), pp. 226-251.

    The historian M. M. Drozdowski (b. Poland, 1932) is the author of works on many aspects of interwar Polish history, also Polish-French and Polish-American relations; he is a faculty member of the Historical Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw.

    S. I. Paprocki, Minority Affairs in Poland: An Informatory Outline, Warsaw, 1935.

    a good, contemporary interwar Polish study by an expert.

    Gabriele Simoncini, "The Polyethnic State: National Minorities in Interbellum Poland," Nationalities Papers, Special Issue, Supplement 1, 1994.

    Poland's minorities are estimated at 33-39% in 1939. Thus, in comparison with Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia, interwar Poland can be considered a national rather than a polyethnic state. Simoncini, a specialist in ethnic studies for the Czech Republic, Poland and Slovakia, was then teacing in the History Dept. of Pace University, Pleasantville, NY

    T. Wiles, ed., Poland Between the Wars, Bloomington, IN, 1989, Section B. "Minority Identity and Critical Consciousness" (pp. 149-208).

    Papers by several authors; Edward Wynot argues for the influence of minorities on Polish foreign policy, but while this policy was influenced by them to some extent, they were not the major factor in it. (cf. Cienciala books and articles on interwar Polish foreign policy). Wiles was then director of the Center for Polish Studies, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

    (xviii) The German minority in interwar Poland:

    Richard Blanke, "The German Minority in Interwar Poland and German Foreign Policy; Some Reconsiderations," Journal of Contemporary History, 25 (Jan. 1990), pp. 87-102.

    same: Orphans of Versailles: The Germans in Western Poland, 1918- 1939, Lexington, Ky., 1993.

    same, Polish-Speaking Germans? Language and National Identity among the Masurians since 1871, Cologne, 2001.

    (on the Masurians of former East Prussia).

    The author, an American historian of German descent teaching at the University of Maine, is sympathetic to German minority grievances. He tends to overemphasise the importance of minority problems as a factor in the German attack on Poland and the outbreak of World War II in September 1939.

    Przemyslaw Hauser, "The German Minority in Poland in the Years 1918-1939. (Reflection on the State of Research and Interpretation, Proposals for Further Research), Polish Western Affairs, vol. 32, no. 2, Poznan, 1991, pp. 13- 38).

    Hauser, a specialist on Polish-German relations, is professor of history at the Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan.

    Georges S. Kaeckenbeck, International Experiment in Upper Silesia: A Study in the Working of the Upper Silesian Settlement, 1922-37, London, Oxford, 1942

    good, detailed account by the former President of the Arbitral Tribunal of Upper Silesia.

    Ian F. Morrow and L. M. Sieveking, Peace Settlement in the German-Polish Borderlands: A Study of Conditions Today in the Pre-War Prussian Provinces of East and West Prussia, London, Oxford, 1936.

    -This is a good study of the situation as seen from Britain at the time. It was prepared for the Royal Institute of International Affairs.

    Edward D. Wynot, Jr., "The Case of German Schools in Polish Upper Silesia," Polish Review, vol. !9, no. 2 1974, (pp. 47-69), and same:

    "Polish Germans, 1919-1939; National Minority in a Multinational State," Polish Review, vol. 17, no. 1 1972, (pp. 23-64).

    Wynot is a Polish-American historian of Poland, teaching at the University of Florida, Tallahassee.

    (xix) The Jews in Interwar Poland:

    Chimen Abramsky et al. eds., The Jews in Poland, Oxford, 1986

    Conference papers by prominent historians; the book covers medieval and modern history; see relevant chapters

    Lucjan Dobroszycki and Barbara Kirshenblatt-Gimblett, Image Before My Eyes. A Photographic History of Jewish Life in Poland Before the Holocaust, New York, 1977.

    Fascinating photos with historical commentary. The late L. Dobroszycki was a historian of 20th c. Poland and Polish Jewry.

    Celia S. Heller, On the Edge of Destruction. The Jews of Poland between the Two World Wars, New York, 1977.

    C. S. Heller (b. in Poland) is a sociologist then teaching at Hunter College, New York City. She presents a very negative picture of Jewish conditions in Poland and condemns Polish treatment of Jews. Her view that prewar Polish anti-semitism was a decisive factor in the indifference of of Poles toward Jewish suffering during the Holocaust in German-occupied Poland, seems too deterministic.

    Aleksander Hertz, The Jews in Polish Culture, Evanston, Ill., 1988.

    The late A. Hertz, born in Poland, later in U. S. was a specialist on the subject; this is an excellent study.

    Bernard K. Johnpoll, The Politics of Futility. The General Jewish Workers' Bund of Poland, 1917-1933, Ithaca, N. Y., 1967.

    B. K. Johnpoll (b. New York City, 1918) is Professor Emeritus of Political Science, SUNY at Albany; the book deals with Jewish Socialists.

    Isaac Lewin, The Jewish Community in Poland. Historical Essays, New York, 1985, ch. XIV, XV on Agudat Israel. .

    same and N. Gelber, A History of Polish Jewry During the Revival of Poland, New York, 1990.

    (On I. Lewin and N. Gelber, see section on Rebirth of Poland, above); generally favorable to the Poles

    Joseph Marcus, Social and Political History of the Jews in Poland, 1919- 1939, Hague, 1983.

    A good survey.

    Ezra Mendelsohn, Zionism in Poland. The Formative Years, 1915-1926, New Haven, London, 1981.

    E. Mendelsohn (b. New York City, 1940) is a historian of Zionism and the Jews in East Central Europe; he lives in Jerusalem.

    John Micgiel, Robert Scott and H. B. Segel, eds., Poles and Jews: Myth and Reality in the Historical Context, Proceedings of a Conference, Institute on East Central Europe, Columbia University, New York, March 6-10, 1983 (mimeographed).

    See sections on Interwar Poland and World War II; there is also much interesting material on Poles and Jews in Language and Literature.

    Neal Pease, "This Troublesome Question": The United States and the "Polish Pogroms" of 1918-1919, in: M.B.B. Biskupski, ed., Ideology, Politics and Diplomacy in East Central Europe, University of Rochester Press, 2003, pp. 58-79.

    A balanced account of the issue and of the Morgenthau report. Pease is a historian of Poland who teaches at the University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee.

    Antony Polonsky, Ezra Mendelsohn and Jerzy Tomaszewski, eds., Jews in Independent Poland 1918-1939, POLIN Studies in Polish Jewry, vol. 8, London, Washington, 1994

    Edited by U. S., Israeli and Polish scholars, the book contains valuable chapters and review essays written by experts on all aspects of Jewish life in interwar Poland. A. Polonsky, b. 1940, in S. Africa to Polish-Jewish parents, educated in UK, is an eminent historian of Polish Jewry. He is the Albert Abrahamson Professor of Holocaust Studies at Brandeis University and the U.S. Holocaust Museum, Wash. D.C.

    A. Polonsky, ed., The Jewish Community in Warsaw, POLIN, vol. 3. 1988.

    same, ed., Polish Perception of Jews and the Jewish Perception of Poles Through the Centuries From the Middle Ages to the Present, POLIN vol. 4, 1989.

    same, ed., Zionism in Poland, Polish Jews in Germany, and Jewish Art and Architecture in Poland, POLIN vol. 5, 1990.

    same, ed., The Role of the Jews in the Development of Lodz, POLIN, vol. 6, 1991.

    Jaff Schatz, The Generation. The Rise and Fall of the Jewish Communists in Poland, Berkeley, CA, 1992,

    ch. 1 through 8. are based on author's interviews with survivors conducted in 1981-90. Schatz was then Director of the Institute for Jewish Culture and was affiliated with the Sociology Dept., Lunds University, Sweden.

    Norman Salsitz, A Jewish Boyhood in Poland. Remembering Kolbuszowa, as told to Richard Skalnik, Syracuse, N. Y., 1992

    depicts the life, problems, and disputes of a small town Jewish family in interwar Polish Galicia. Salsitz was a Zionist; he escaped from a German labor camp and served in the Polish army in World War II, then settled in U. S. Skalnik is professor of history at the City of New York College of CUNY. The book has some illustrations, family photos. Kolbuszowa was a small, mostly Jewish market town north-east of Tarnow, former E. Galicia. Its coat of arms, established 1785, showed a handshake between a crusader's cross at the top and a Jewish star of David at the bottom.

    Laurence Weinbaum, A Marriage of Convenience. The New Zionist Organization and the Polish Government, 1936-1939, East Eur. Monographs CCCLXIX (369), New York, 1993.

    Originally a Ph.D. diss. for Warsaw University, the work deals with the cooperation between the Polish govt. of the time and Zhabotinsky's [or Jabotinsky's] NZO, especially its military branch. Vladimir Zhabotinsky (1880-1940) b. in Odessa, Russia, was a prominent Zionist who fought for a Jewish state in Palestine. The Polish govt. supported and secretly gave military training to Zionists in the 1930s, in line with its suppport of Jewish immigration from Poland to Palestine, immigration that was opposed by the British who held a League of Nations Mandate over Palestine.

    (xx) Polish-Ukrainian relations in interwar Poland:

    Paul Robert Magocsi, A History of Ukraine, Toronto, 1996, 3rd ptg. Seattle, Wash., 1998, ch. 44. Ukrainian Lands in Interwar Poland, pp. 583-598. a balanced survey of Ukrainians and Poles in E. Galicia at this time.

    Peter J. Potichnyj, ed., Poland and the Ukraine. Past and Present, Edmonton, Toronto, 1980 (Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies).

    P. K. Potichnyj (b. Sov. Ukraine, 1930), educated in U. S., then taught Political Science at McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont., Canada; he has published and edited books on Ukraine and USSR. This is a very good collection of essays by Polish and Ukrainian authors.

    For background to interwar Ukrainian-Polish relations, see:

    John-Paul Himka, Religion and Nationality in Western Ukraine, Ithaca, Montreal, 1999.

    [Same, Socialism in Galicia. The Emergence of Polish Social Democracy and Ukrainian Radicalism (1860-1890), Cambridge, Mass., 1983].

    Himka (b. 1949), has published several books on Ukrainian history; he is a professor of History at the University of Edmonton, Canada.

    Andrei S. Markovits and Frank E. Sysyn, eds., Nationbuilding and the Politics of Nationalism in Austrian Galicia, Cambridge, Mass. 1982.

    F. E. Sysyn (b. Passaic, N. J., 1946) is a historian of Ukraine.

    Thaddeus M. Piotrowski, Poland's Holocaust, Ethnic Strife, Collaboration with Occupying Forces and Genocide in the Second Republic, 1918-1947, Jefferson, NC, 1998.

    Piotrowski (b. Poland, 1940), has useful comments and statistics on bilingual Polish-Ukrainian schools in interwar East Galicia, also Ukranian nationalist organizations, their fascist dogmas, and the Polish "pacification" of September 1930; on WW II see ch. 7. Ukrainian Collaboration, pp. 177-198. He has also published a work on Ukrainian Integral Nationalism, and family memoirs on Ukrainian cleansing of Poles in Volhynia. Piotrowski, a Sociologist, teaches at the University of New Hampshire, Manchester, N. H.

    Stanislaw Skrzypek, The Problem of East Galicia, London, 1948

    Expresses the Polish view and claims to East Galicia during World War II. S. Skrzypek (b. Poland, 1911), Ph. D. Economics, Jan Kazimierz University, Lwow (Lviv), 1935; prisoner in USSR, 1939-43; emeritus econ. analyst for Radio Free Europe, then USIA. In this book, he argued for the retention of E. Galicia in Poland; the book has useful statistics and maps.

    Timothy Snyder, The Reconstruction of Nations. Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania and elarus, 1569-1999,New Haven and London, 2003.

    See chapter 7on Ukrainians in interwar Poland. This book, which won the AHA George Louis Beer Prize in 2003, is a path-breaking study on the development of national consciousness by the peoples listed - in the Ukrainian case, the western Ukrainians - who emerged from the matrix of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, formed in 1569. Snyder, a Harvard Ph.D. teaches at Yale University.

    D. THE BALKAN STATES, 1918-1939

    (NOTE: for bibliographies and historical dictionaries on countries, see Section I, Reference Works).

    1. For an overview of Balkans states in 1918-39, see:

    Barbara Jelavich, History of the Balkans. Twentieth Century, vol. 2, Cambridge, UK, 1983 and reprints (ch. 4-6, and see bibliography.

    Charles and Barbara Jelavich, eds., THE BALKANS IN TRANSITION. Essays on the Development of Balkan Life and Politics since the Eighteenth century, University of California Press, 1963; reprint Archon Books, 1974.

    The late B. Jelavich (1923-1994?) was, with her husband Charles J., the pre-eminent American historian of the modern Balkans. They taught for many years at Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

    L. S. Stavrianos, The Balkans since 1453, New York, 1959.

    By an outstanding American historian of the Balkans. Part VI, Age of War and Crisis, deals with the period from 1914 through the peace settlement of 1947, mostly by country, pp. 545-846.

    Plamen S. Tzvetkov, A History of the Balkans. A Regional Overview from a Bulgarian Perspective, vol. 2, San Francisco, 1993, ch. 2, Wars and Dictatorships (pp. 99-262).

    This is a straight forward narrative from a Bulgarian point of view. No biogr. info. available on author, except that he wrote the work while at Georgetown University; he thanks Professor Andrzej Kaminski of that university for help in facilitating publication. (vol. I, Acknowledgment).

    2. Interwar Balkans by country:

    (ii) Interwar ALBANIA

    Vandeleur Robinson, Albania's Road to Freedom, London, 1941.

    Critical account of King Zog's Albania, 1929-39.

    Joseph Swire, Albania: The Rise of a Kingdom, 1929, reprint New York 1971, good survey up to 1929.

    Miranda Vickers, The Albanians. A Modern History, New York, 1999.

    Excellent, short history from the beginning through the mid-1990s by a British historian of the country.

    same, A History of Albania, New York, 1996.

    the best history of the country to date.

    (ii) Interwar BULGARIA

    a. General

    R. J. CramptonA Short History of Modern Bulgaria, Cambridge, UK, 1987.

    See ch. 2-3, and Suggestions for further reading. (On Crampton, see Pt I., Historical Atlases).

    Same, A Concise History of Bulgaria, Cambridge, UK, 1997.

    Ch. 7 covers 1918-44.

    b. Interwar Bulgaria: Politics, Parties, and Rulers:

    John D. Bell, The Bulgarian Communist Party from Blagoev to Zhivkov, Stanford, CA, 1986.

    Same, Peasants in Power: Alexander Stamboliski and the Bulgarian Agrarian National Union, 1899-1923, Princeton, 1977

    -a classic.

    Cyril D. Black, The Establishment of Constitutional Government in Bulgaria, 1943, reprint New York, 1973

    -classic study of late 19th century politics as basis for 20th c. by the late American historian, C. D. Black.

    Stephen Constant, Foxy Ferdinand, 1861-1948: Tsar of Bulgaria, New York, 1980.

    This book had mixed reviews.

    Stephanie Groueff, Crown of Thorns: The Reign of King Boris III of Bulgaria, 1918-1943, Lanham, Md., 1987.

    sympathetic to Boris III, a very popular monarch in his country.

    Charles A. Moser, Dimitrov of Bulgaria: A Political Biography of Dr. Georgi M. Dimitrov, Ottawa, Ill., 1979

    Ch. A. Moser (b. Knoxville, TN., 1935) teaches at George Washington University, Washington, D. C., This Georgy M. Dimitrov, a prominent Agrarian politician. is not to be confused with his Communist namesake, also Georgy M., the long-time Secretary of the Comintern and briefly Premier of post WWII Bulgaria.

    Joseph Rotschild, The Communist Party of Bulgaria: Origins and Development, 1883-1936, rev. ed., New York, 1972 .

    -v. good on the whole period. The late J. Rotschchild (d. Dec. 1999) authored histories of E. Europe in the interwar and communist periods.

    Joseph Swire, Bulgarian Conspiracy, London, 1939.

    -good contemporary coverage, sympathetic to the terrorist organization, IMRO.

    c On The interwar Bulgarian economy, see:

    Alexander Gerschenkron, "Some Aspects of Industrialization in Bulgaria, 1879- 1939," in: same, ed., Economic Backwardness in Historical Perspective, New York, 1965.

    A. Gerschenkron (b. Russia, 1904), educated in Vienna. emigrated to U. S. in 1938, he taught at several American universities and published many works on the Soviet economy. This book is a classic.

    John R. Lampe, The Bulgarian Economy in the Twentieth Century, New York, 1986.

    by an American specialist teaching at the University of Maryland, College Park, MD.

    Irwin T. Sanders, Balkan Village, Lexington, Ky., 1949

    a classic.

    d. On Turks in interwar Bulgaria, see:

    Bilal N. Simsir, The Turks of Bulgaria, 1878-1985, London, 1988.

    (iii) Interwar ROMANIA

    1. For a general survey see:

    Kurt W. Treptow, ed., A History of Romania, 3rd ed., Center for Romanian Studies, Iasi, 1997. ch. IV pp. 364-392 covers World War I and the emergence of a greater Romania; ch. V. covers the 20th century from the end of 1918 to 1996, of which pp. 393- 466 cover the inter war period. This is an excellent, popular history, sympathetic to Romania, with many illustrations, chronology, list of rulers, and bibliography.

    2. For more detailed histories of interwar Romania, see:

    Keith Hitchins, Rumania 1866-1947, Oxford, 1994

    by the leading American historian of Romania; ch. 7-10 cover the interwar period; has a v. useful Bibliographical Essay. Hitchins, a Harvard Ph. D. (1964) teaches at the University of Illinois, Urbana, IL.

    Irina Livezeanu, Cultural Politics in Greater Romania: regionalism, nation building and ethnic struggle 1918-1930, Ithaca, 1995.

    I. Livezeanu is a historian of Romanian descent teaching at the University of Pittsburgh. This book deals with Romanian 20th nationalism, ethnic relations, politics, government and intellectual life, in some cases up to 1944.

    3. On Political-agrarian-economic problems in interwar Romania see:

    David Mitrany, The Land and the Peasant in Rumania: The War and Agrarian Reform, 1917-1921, Yale University Press, 1930, Greenwood Press, New York, 1968.

    D. Mitrany (b. Romania, 1888, d. 1975, UK), was educated in UK and authored many works on Romania; this is a classic.

    Henry L. Roberts, Rumania: Politcal Problems of an Agrarian State, 1951, reprint, Hamden, CT, 1969.

    H. L. Roberts (1916-1972) was an American historian of Eastern Europe and international relations; this is a classic.

    Katherine M. Verdery, Transylvanian Villagers: Three Centuries of Political, Economic and Ethnic Change, Berkeley, CA, 1983.

    K. M. Verdery is an American anthropologist, then teaching at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD; this is an economic-social-anthropological study.

    4. On the Economy of interwar Romania, see:

    Maurice Pearton, Oil and the Romanian State, Oxford, 1971.

    David Turnock, The Romanian Economy in the Twentieth Century, New York, 1986.

    D. Turnock (b. UK, 1938), has published several books on Romania and Eastern Europe; he teaches in the Dept. of Geography, University of Leicester, UK.

    5. On Social change in interwar Romania, see:

    Kenneth Jowitt, ed., Social Change in Romania, 1860-1940: A Debate on Development in a European Nation, Berkeley, CA, 1978.

    K. Jowitt is a British scholar.

    6. On Communism in interwar Romania, see:

    Robert R. King, History of the Romanian Communist Party, Stanford, CA, 1980.

    R. R. King (b. Rock Springs, Wyo., 1942), has worked for Radio Free Europe, also published and edited books on Romania and E. Europe.

    7. On Fascism in interwar Romania, see

    chapters by E. Turczynski and S. Fischer-Galati in: Peter F. Sugar, ed., NATIVE FASCISM IN THE SUCCESSOR STATES, 1918-1945, S. Barbara, CA, 1971, (pp. 101-122).

    Nicholas M. Nagy-Talavera, The Green Shirts and Others. A History of Fascism in Hungary and Rumania, Stanford, CA, 1970; (On Nagy-Talavera, see under Hungary, above).

    Eugen Weber, "Romania," in: Hans Rogger and Eugen Weber, eds., THE EUROPEAN RIGHT, Berkeley, CA, 1965 (pp. 501-574).

    Eugen Weber (b. Bucharest, 1925), was educated in Geneva and Cambridge, UK; he has authored many books on European history and taught for many years at the University of California, L. A.

    8. On Romanian interwar foreign policy, see:

    Walter M. Bacon, Jr. ed., Behind Closed Doors. Secret Papers on the Failure of Romanian-Soviet Negotiations, 1931-1932, Stanford, CA, 1979.

    Bacon teaches in the Dept. of Political Science, University of Nebraska, Omaha, NEB. This is a detailed study based on archival sources.

    Dov B. Lungu, Romania and the Great Powers, 1933-1940, Durham, NC, 1989.

    a good survey based on archival sources. (See: A. M. Cienciala review, Journal of Modern European History, v. 63, 1991, no. 4, p. 824-26).

    Paul D. Quinlan, Clash over Romania: British and American Policies toward Romania 1938-1947, Oakland, CA, 1977.

    Quinlan is assoc. prof. history, Providence College, R. I.

    (iv) Interwar YUGOSLAVIA

    1. For surveys, see:

    Stephen Clissold, ed., A Short History of Yugoslavia; From Early Times to 1966, Cambridge, UK, 1966. S. Clissold (1913-1982) was an English historian who wrote on Yugoslavia, Spain, and Latin America.

    Fred Singleton, A Short History of the Yugoslav Peoples, Cambridge, UK, 1985.

    Singleton is an English historian of Yugoslavia.

    2. Much useful information on Interwar Yugoslavia's constitutional development, culture, education, religion, economic, social conditions, also statistics, is to be found in:

    Robert J. Kerner, ed., YUGOSLAVIA, Berkeley, 1949

    (On Kerner, see biogr. inform. on a similar book he edited on Poland, above) Good chapters on various aspects of Yugoslavia by contemporary specialists.

    3. On Interwar Yugoslav Politics, Parties, Leaders, Rulers, see:

    Alex N. Dragnich, Serbia, Nikola Pasic, and Yugoslavia, New Brunswick, N. J., 1974.

    Dragnich, is Professor Emeritus of Vaderbilt University. Pasic was the leading Serb politician, 1845-1926, active 1875-1926.

    same, The First Yugoslavia's Search for a Viable Political System, Stanford, CA, 1983.

    The author denies the Serb drive for hegemony in interwar Yugoslavia.

    Stephen Graham, Alexander of Yugoslavia: Strong Man of the Balkans, London, 1938.

    -slim scholarship, but useful for contemporary views.

    Vladko Macek, In The Struggle for Freedom, University Park, Pa, 1968.

    memoirs of V. Macek (1879-1964), a leading Croatian politician of the interwar period

    R. W. Seton-Watson and the Yugoslavs: Correspondence, 1906-1941, vol. 2, 1918-1941, edited by Hugh Seton-Watson et al., Zagreb, 1976.

    The letters are arranged by years; the largest no. of letters falls into the years 1919 and 1932.

    4. Communists in interwar Yugoslavia,

    Aleksa Djilas, The Contested Country. Yugoslav Unity and Communist Revolution, 1919-1953, Cambridge, Mass., 1991.

    A. Djilas (b. Belgrade, 1953) studied in Yugoslavia, UK, and Austria, and in 1990 was at the Russian Research Center, Harvard University. The book focuses on the changing Yugoslav Communist party policy toward unity and separatism in Yugoslavia, and thus on the relations between Serbs and Croats.

    Milovan Djilas, Land Without Justice, New York, 1958.

    M. Djilas (b. Podbisce. Montenegro, 1911, d. 1995) was a prominent Yugoslav Communist leader, later famous dissident. (See long biographical sketch in Contemporary Authors). This is the first volume of his autobiography dealing with his childhood years in an isolated Montenegrin village.

    same: Memoir of a Revolutionary, -2 vols New York, 1973.

    . continues the autobiography into his student years in the 1930's; valuable information on Yug. Communist Party at this time.

    5. On Yugoslav Fascists, see

    papers of D. Djordjevic and I. Avakumovic, in: Peter F. Sugar, ed., NATIVE FASCISM IN THE SUCCESSOR STATES, 1918-1945, S. Barbara, CA, 1971, (pp. 125-144).

    (On Djordjevic, see Pt. I., the book he edited on Balkan revolutions).

    6. On the Interwar Yugoslav economy, see:

    Jozo Tomasevich, Peasants, Politics, and Economic Change in Yugoslavia, 1941-1945, Stanford, CA, 1955

    a classic study.

    7. On Interwar Yugoslavia's Foreign Policy, see:

    J. B. Hoptner, Yugoslavia in Crisis, 1939-41, New York, 1962, 1963.

    Old but still useful.

    Frank C. Littlefield, GERMANY AND YUGOSLAVIA 1933-1941. The German Conquest of Yugoslavia, East Eur. Monographs no. 244, New York, 1988.

    A useful study.

    8. On Intewar Yugoslavia's Nationalities, see:

    Ivo Banac, The National Question in Yugoslavia. Origins, History, Politics, Ithaca and London, 1984 and 1988

    by an American historian, prof of history at Yale University; best study of topic, mandatory reading to understand the disintegration of Yugoslavia in the wars of 1990-95.

    James J. Sadkovich, Italian Support for Croatian Separatism, 1927- 1937, New York, 1987.

    Valuable study on a little known topic.


    (v) Interwar GREECE

    [NOTE: Greece is more a Mediterranean than Balkan country, so it is covered only marginally in this bibliography for the interwar period].

    1. For a general overview of Greek history, see:

    Richard Clogg, A Concise History of Greece, Cambridge, UK, 1991.

    Clogg is a British historian of modern Greece.

    2. On the Greek-Turkish War, 1920-23 see:

    S. Victor Papacoma, With Venizolos A Legacy, Gulf Breeze, FL, 1978.

    favorable to Eleutherios Venizelos (1864-1936), b. in Crete; controversial Greek statesman active in Greek political life 1887-1936; brought Greece into World War I on allied side, causing abdication of King Constantine, 1917 and establishment of republic; secured British support for disastrous war with Turkey to gain western Anatolia, which ended with the expulsion of the Greek population..

    A. E. Montgomery, "Lloyd George and the Greek Question," in: A. J. P. Taylor, ed., Lloyd George. Twelve Essays, New York, 1971, pp. 257-286.

    A. E. Montgomery makes good use of British Cabinet, Foreign Office, and Lloyd George papers. David Lloyd George (1863-1945), British Prime Minister 1916-22, encouraged Venizelos to send troops into Anatolia after WW I. A. J. P. Taylor (1906-1990) was a British historian with a prodigious output, but famous mainly for his controversial work: The Origins of the Second World War (1961), in which he claimed that Hitler was no different than any other German statesmen and that British appeasement of Nazi Germany was honorable and good because its goal was to preserve peace.

    Michael Llewellyn Smith, Ionian Vision. Greece in Asia Minor, 1919- 1922, London, 1973.

    a well written study of the Greek dream of a great Greece and its defeat.

    3. On Interwar Greek Demographics.

    For the demographic consequences of the First World War and the Greek-Turkish war, see:

    S. P. Ladas, The Exchange of Minorities in Bulgariia, Greece, and Turkey, London, 1932.

    4. For Greek political and social history up to 1936, see:

    George T. Mavrocordatos, Stillborn Republic: Social Conditions and Political Strategies in Greece, 1922-1936, Berkeley, CA, 1983.

    The author, a Greek historian, sees the main theme of this period as a conflict between Venizelist republicans, modernizers and anti-Venizelists/monarchists.

    5. Greek Political History 1936-41.

    Jon V. Kofas, Authoritarianism in Greece: The Metaxas Regime, East European Monographs, Boulder, CO., 1983.

    General Ioannis Metaxas (1871-1941), was dictator of Greece, 1936-1941.

    P. S. Vatikiotis, Popular Autocracy in Greece 1936-1941: A Political Biography of Iannis Metaxas, London, 1988.

    6. On Cyprus, Greece Turkey and Cyprus, see:

    Heinz A. Richter, comp., Greece and Cyprus since 1920; Bibliography of Contemporary History, Heidelberg, 1984.

    7. On Greek-British relations 1935-41, see:

    Giannes S, Koliopoulos, Greece and the British Connection, 1935- 1941, Oxford, 1977.

    -the author is a Greek historian.




    Sally Marks, The Illusion of Peace. International Relations in Europe, 1918-1933, New York, 2003 (revised edition of 1976 work).

    - an excellent survey and analysis of international relations in the period preceding Hitler's rise to power.

    1. Appeasement and all European Powers

    Wolfgang J. Mommsen and Lothar Kettenacker, eds., The Fascist Challenge and the Policy of Appeasement, London, 1983.

    Mommsen and Kettenacker are German historians; there are good chapters on British, French, German, Italian, Russian and U. S. policy, but selections of Russian diplomatic documents for 1939 were only published in Moscow in 1990-92.

    Telford Taylor, Munich. The Price of Peace, New York, 1979.

    Telford Taylor (1908-1998), was the number two American prosecutor at the main Nuremberg Trials and chief prosecutor at those that followed. He also wrote many books, including one on the N. Trials. The book on Munich is a detailed study with emphasis on British, French and German policy, still useful today. Illustrations.

    2. British appeasement of Germany:

    John Charmley, Chamberlain and the Lost Peace, London, 1989.

    J. Charmley (b. Birkenhead, UK, 1955) is an unabashed defender of Neville Chamberlain's appeasement policy; chapters 8-10 deal with the Czechoslovak crisis and Munich. He has also published a highly critical study of Winston Churchill as war leader.

    Ian Colvin, The Chamberlain Cabinet How the meetings in 10 Downing Street 1937- 39 led to the Second World War. Told for the first time from the Cabinet Papers, London, 1971.

    Ian Colvin (1912-1975) was a correspondent for the News Chronicle and Daily Telegraph, stationed in Berlin, 1938-39, and had contacts with high ranking German opponents of Hitler. He set off a "war scare" in London in mid-March 1939, which contributed to the timing of the British Guarantee to Poland (March 31). This is a narrative with selected archival documents, which became accessible after the 1967 Act of Parliament that reduced the time of closure for state papers from 50 to 30 years. This launched a rush by historians to publish new accounts of appeasement. Colvin condemns it, but most western historians came to judge the policy as natural in view of Britain's military weakness and economic problems. For a different view, see R. A. C. Parker below.

    Keith Feiling, The Life of Neville Chamberlain, London, 1946.

    Book IV, covers the period 1937-1939 (pp. 303-418). In writing this apologia for N. Chamberlain, Feiling had Lady Chamberlain's permission to use some of the letters her husband wrote to his sisters, expressing his thoughts on the policy he was implementing during the crises of 1938 and 1939. The book is still useful, especially since the bulk of N. Chamberlain's correspondence with his sisters and other papers for this crucial period, deposited by the family in the University of Birmingham Library, is closed until the year 2,037 (!).

    Martin Gilbert, The Roots of Appeasement, London, 1966 (compare and contrast with A. J. P Taylor book below).

    Sir Martin Gilbert (b. London, 1936) is a prolific British historian and Fellow of Merton College, Oxford. He completed the biography of Winston S. Churchill begun by the latter's son, Randolph, and has published a great number of books. He was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II in recognition of his services to history. The book condemns appeasement; it is still a valuable historical analysis, though written before British govt. documents became accessible in 1971.

    A. Lentin, Lloyd George, Woodrow Wilson and the Guilt of Germany, Leicester, UK, 1984.

    Anthony Lentin (b. Leicester, UK, 1941), documents the origins of appeasement in British experts' views of Germany at the Paris Peace Conference. He then taught in the Dept. of History, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ont., Canada.

    R. A. C. Parker, Chamberlain and Appeasement: British Policy and the Coming of the Second World War, New York 1993.

    Robert Alexander Clarke Parker (b. 1927) argues persuasively that while economic and military considerations affected British policy, Neville Chamberlain's own peace agenda was the most important factor in his appeasement policy.

    A. J. P. Taylor, The Origins of the Second World War, Edinburgh, 1961

    a spirited defense of British appeasement by a British historian (1906-1990). For a reappraisal, see Martel book below.

    Gordon Martel, ed., THE ORIGINS OF THE SECOND WORLD WAR RECONSIDERED. The A. J. P. Taylor Debate after Twenty-Five Years, Boston, 1986; 2nd edition:The Origins of the Second World War Reconsidered, London and New York, 1999 (some different authors).

    Martel is a Canadian historian. The first edition of this book, reprinted several times, was a most valuable discussion both of Taylor's views and the events themselves. The second edition is updated but lacks chapters by Norman Rich, Piotr S. Wandycz, Lloyd Gardner, Akira Iriye, and Edward Ingram ; interested readers are invited to search for them at: http://quarles. unbc. ca/history/hist. html (good luck!).

    For a 1995 review of recent works, see:

    Wesley K. Wark, "Appeasement Revisited," The International History Review, vol. XVII, no. 3, August 1995, pp. 545-562.

    W. K. Wark (b. Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 1952) has written on British Intelligence and Nazi Germany (1985). He teaches at the University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont., Canada.

    (3) East European States and Appeasement

    NOTE: The bulk of English and American studies of appeasement focuses on British and French policy toward Germany in the Austrian and Czechoslovak crises of 1937-38, while generally ignoring the reactions of the East European states and their views of their national interests. Exceptions to this rule are:

    David E. Kaiser, Economic Diplomacy and the Origins of the Second World War. Germany, Britain, France and Eastern Europe, 1930-1939, Princeton, N. J., 1980

    D. E. Kaiser (b. Washington, D. C., 1947), has also published on the Sacco and Vanzetti case (1985) and on European conflict from Philip II to Hitler (1990). He teaches at Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA. The author combines political and economic history to show western disinterest and German interest in the region

    Maya Latynski, ed., Reappraising the Munich Pact. Continental Perspectives, Baltimore, Md., 1992.

    M. Latynski, then a lecturer and student at Georgetown University, Washington, D. C., has translated and edited works dealing with Polish history. This book contains chapters on Germany and Munich, France, the Czechoslovak view, the Diplomacy of Edvard Benes and Munich, and the view from Warsaw (A. M. Cienciala).

    Igor Lukes and Erik Goldstein, eds., The Munich Crisis, 1938. Prelude to World War II, London, Portland OR., 1999.

    Igor Lukes is a specialist in inter-war Czechoslovak history (see book below), wh teaches at Boston University; Erik Goldstein has published books on interwar British foreign policy, and also teaches at Boston University. The book has chapters on Stalin and Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Munich, Poland and Munich (Cienciala), France, Britain and Munich, also the Sino-Japanese conflict and the Munich crisis. There are notes on the contributors. The same texts were published in: Diplomacy and Statecraft, London, 1999, and Stredni Evropa, nos. 92, 93, Prague, 1999.

    For an Anti-Nazi Sudeten German view of British policy in the Czechoslovak crisis, see:

    J. W. Bruegel, Czechoslovakia Before Munich. The German Minority Problem and British Appeasement Policy, Cambridge, Eng., 1973.

    -basing his work on British archival sources, the author, a Sudeten German, bitterly condemns British policy.

    4. The policy of President Edvard Benes in the Munich Crisis is still the subject of much controversy among Czech historians, see:

    Joseph F. Zacek, "The Czechoslovak View," M. Latynski, Reappraising the Munich Pact, (see above) pp. 47-60, and

    Michael Kraus, "The Diplomacy of Edvard Benes: Munich and Its Aftermath," ibid., 61-74.

    Alfred D. Low, "Edvard Benes, the Anschluss Movement, 1918-38, and the Policy of Czechoslovakia," EAST CENTRAL EUROPE, vol. 10, Parts 1-2, 1983, pp. 46-91, and

    Igor Lukes, Czechoslovakia between Stalin and Hitler. The Diplomacy of Edvard Benes in the 1930s, New York, Oxford, 1996.

    Igor Lukes teaches in the Dept. of International Relations, Boston University and is a Fellow of the Russian Research Center, Harvard University. The work, based mainly on Czech archival sources, is very critical of both Benes and the USSR.

    Piotr S. Wandycz, "The Foreign Policy of Edvard Benes, 1918-1938, " in Mamatey and Luza, The Czechoslovak Republic 1918-1948 (1973), pp. 216-238.

    5. French policy toward Poland and Czechoslovakia, foreshadowing Munich, is most ably presented by

    Piotr W. Wandycz, The Twilight of French Eastern Alliances 1926-1936, French-Czechoslovak-Polish Relations from Locarno to the Remilitarization of the Rhineland, Princeton, 1988.

    A masterly exposition based on French, Polish and Czech archives, this work is a sequel to the same author's book on French-Polish-Czechoslovak Relations in 1919- 1925 (Minneapolis, MN, 196). Wandycz (b. Poland, 1923), Professor Emeritus Yale University, is the pre-eminent expert on the subject; each book received the AHA George Louis Beer Prize.

    See also articles on France in: Mommsen and Kettenacker, The Fascist Challenge and the Policy of Appeasement, ch. 14-17. (see: II D, 1, above).

    6. Hitler's policy in the Munich Crisis:

    Gerhard L. Weinberg, The Foreign Policy of Hitler's Germany. Starting World War II, 1937-1939, Chicago and London, 1980 (ch. 10, 11).

    G. L. Weinberg (b. Hanover, Germany, 1928), educated in U. S., is the pre- eminent American specialist on Hitler's foreign policy. He is Professor emeritus of the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. (For a brief summary, see his chapter in in Maya Latynski, ed., Reappraising the Munich Pact, also his "Reflections on Munich after 60 Years," in Lukes and Goldstein, The Munich Crisis 1938, London, Portland Or., 1999, pp. 1-12). ).

    7. Polish policy in the Munich Crisis is summarized in

    Anna M. Cienciala's chapter, in Maya Latynski, ed., Reappraising the Munich Pact,

    updated in Igor Lukes and Erik Goldstein, The Munich Crisis, 1938, pp. 48-81.

    See also:

    Cienciala, Poland and the Western Powers 1938-1939. A Study in the Interdependence of Eastern and Western Europe, London, Toronto, 1968 (ch. I, II, III).

    The book, based on Polish archival sources available in London, is still valuable for Polish foreign policy. British and French archival sources inaccessible at that time, were used in the author's chapter in the Latynski and Lukes and Goldstein books. See also.

    Piotr S. Wandycz, "Poland between East and West," in: G. Martel, The Origins of the Second World War Reconsidered, 1986, pp. 187-209.

    deals with Taylor's negative evaluation of Polish foreign policy.

    8. Soviet policy in the Munich Crisis and 1939.

    Anna M. Cienciala, "The Nazi-Soviet Pact of August 23 1939. When did Stalin Decide to Align with Hitler, and Was Poland the Culprit?" in: M.B.B. Biskupski, ed., Ideology, Politics and Diplomacy in East Central Europe, University of Rochester Press, 2003, pp. 147-226.

    The author (b.Danzig/Gdansk 1929) Prof. Em. History Univ. of Kansas and a specialist in European diplomatic history, 1914-45, argues that Stalin aimed at alignment with Hitler at least as of 3 May 1939 - dismissal of Maxim Litvinov as Commissar for Foreign Affairs - if not before, and that Polish policy was not the decisive factor in his decision.

    Jonathan Haslam, The Soviet Union and the Struggle for Collective Security in Europe, 1933-1939, New York, 1984

    J. Haslam was then a Fellow and Director of Studies in History at Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, UK, and a specialist on inter-war Soviet foreign policy This work is favorable to Stalin, claiming he had no other choice but to conclude a pact with Hitler. However, his chapter in a more recent book shows a change of view, see:

    Jonathan Haslam, "Litvinov, Stalin and the Road not Taken," in: Gabriel Gorodetsky, ed., Soviet Foreign Policy 1917-1991. A Retrospective, London, 1994, ch. 5, pp. 55-64.

    Here Haslam argues that Stalin decided to throw in his hand with Hitler when he dismissed Maxim M. Litvinov as Commissar of Foreign Affairs, May 3, 1939. Molotov replaced Litvinov while also remaining Head of the Soviet Council of Ministers (Cabinet). Gorodetsky is Director of the Cummings Center for Russia and East European Studies, and Academic Adviser to the Staff College of the Israeli Defense Forces. He is a historian of Anglo-Soviet relations.

    A. A. Gromyko and B. N. Ponomarev eds., Soviet Foreign Policy, vol. I., 1917-1945, Moscow, 1980, ch. XI (pp. 325-345).

    Andrei A. Gromyko (1909-1989) was Soviet Foreign Minister, 1957-1985. Boris N. Ponomarev (b. 1905) was head of the Central Committee's International Department, 1955-1985. The work gives the official Soviet view; it accuses Britain and France of plotting to push Hitler into an attack on the USSR, thus forcing Stalin into a pact with Hitler. This view is shared even by such a strong critic of Stalin as the late Russian historian Dmitri Volkogonov (see below).

    Jiri Hochman, The Soviet Union and the Failure of Collective Security, 1934-1938, Ithaca, 1984. J. Hochman (b. Prague, 1926), has edited Alexander Dubcek's memoirs (see Bibl. Part III), and then taught in the School of Journalism, Ohio State University. The book is critical of Soviet foreign policy in the 1930s.

    [NOTE: Hochman's book includes Romanian Foreign Minister Petrescu Comnene's French language letter of Sept. 24, 1938, to Soviet Foreign Commissar, Maxim Litvinov, when both were in Geneva, giving the Romanian government's consent to the transit of Soviet troops through Romania to Czechoslovakia in case of war, also for the overflight of Soviet planes (Appendix C, in Hochman's book, pp. 194-201, text in French). Some historians doubt the letter is genuine in view of spelling mistakes though Comnene was proficient in French].

    Igor Lukes, "Stalin and Czechoslovakia in 1938-39: An Autopsy of a Myth," in: Lukes and Goldstein, eds., The Munich Crisis 1938, London, Portland OR., 1999, pp. 13-47. The author does not believe that Stalin ever intended to give Czechoslovakia military help in a war with Germany.

    New Documents on the History of Munich, Prague, 1958.

    Even these documents, carefully selected from the Czechoslovak and Soviet archives, throw doubt on Stalin's readiness to aid Czechoslovakia:

    Hugh Ragsdale, The Soviets, the Munich Crisis, and the Coming of World War II, Cambridge, 2004

    Ragsdale develops the thesis outlined in an earlier article of his, that theWestern view of Soviet unreliability was incorrect.

    Dmitri Volkogonov, STALIN, TRIUMPH AND TRAGEDY, tr and ed. Harold Shukman, New York, 1988.

    General Dmitri Volkogonov (1928-1995), was Deputy Chief of the Red Army's Political Administration for many years after 1970. He also held several other posts, including Head of the Soviet Institute of Military History in 1992, but lost that position when he wrote a revisionist version of the Soviet Union in World War II, criticizing Stalin. He was also historical adviser to President Boris N. Yeltsin. Besides the book on Stalin, he wrote biographies of Trotsky and Lenin. All three books are based on archival sources. He shared the standard Soviet view that Stalin was pushed into a pact with Hitler by the policy of France and Britain toward Germany. His papers are deposited in the Library of Congress.

    Harold Shukman (b. London, UK, 1931), has written and translated many books dealing with Soviet history. He is a member of the Russian Center, St. Anthony's College, Oxford, UK.

    9. The Germans of Czechoslovakia before and after World War I.

    (See under Czechoslovakia, above).

    Section 10.The British Guarantee to Poland and the Outbreak of World War II.

    1. General

    A. J. P. Taylor, The Origins of the Second World War, London 1961, and later reprints

    On A. J. P. Taylor, see earlier mentions under Appeasement). This is a frankly biased defense of Br. appeasement; for critiques, see : Gordon Martel, ed., The Origins of the Second World War Reconsidered. The A. J. P. Taylor Debate after Twenty-Five Years, Boston, 1986.

    2. Detailed.

    Anna M. Cienciala, Poland and the Western Powers, 1938-1939. A Study in the Interdependence of Eastern and Western Europe, London, Toronto, 1968 (ch. VII).

    Based on Polish government documents available in London, the book is still valuable for Polish foreign policy, but British and French archival sources were unavailable at the time. For a study based on these as well as Polish documents, see:

    same: "Poland in British and French Policy in 1939: Determination to Fight or Avoid War?" Polish Review, vol. 24, 1989, no. 3, pp. 199-226. Reprinted in a slightly shortened form in: Patrick Finney, ed., The Origins of the Second World War, London, 1997, pp. 413-433.

    Simon Newman, March 1939: The British Guarantee to Poland, Oxford, 1979.

    S. Newman is a Canadian historian. The book is valuable for citing archival British documents, but the author's thesis that the British government guaranteed Poland in order to provoke Germany into war is definitely a minority view.

    Anita J. Prazmowska, Britain, Poland, and the Eastern Front, 1939, Cambridge, UK, 1987 A. Prazmowska, who is of Polish descent, teaches at the London School of Economics and Political Science. The book is very good on British policy, but the author's view of Polish foreign policy follows the negative stereotype.

    Donald Cameron Watt, How War Came. The Immediate Origins of the Second World War, 1938-1939, New York, 1989

    D. C. Watt (b. Rugby, UK, 1928), served in the British Army, 1946-48, was an assistant editor, Foreign Office, 1951-53 editing Documents on German Foreign Policy, and is the Stevenson Professor of International Relations, London School of Economics, 1982. He edited several volumes ofBritish Documents on Foreign Affairs, 1859-1914. He is the pre-eminent British historian of the subject; the book is well written with exhaustive detail, but presents the standard, stereotype view of Polish foreign policy.



    For a brief survey, see:

    Joseph Rotschild, Return to Diversity. A Political History of East Central Europe since World War II, 2nd edition, Oxford, 1993, ch. 2; 3rd ed., 1999. .

    (On J. Rothschild, d. 1999, see listing of his book on interwar E. Europe).

    For more detailed surveys and interpretations, see:

    Stephen D. Kertesz, ed., THE FATE OF EAST CENTRAL EUROPE. Hopes and Failures of American Foreign Policy, Notre Dame, IN, 1956.

    S. D. Kertesz (b. Hungary, 1904), analyzes U. S. foreign policy toward E. Europe. The book is outdated but worth reading.

    Geir Lundestad, THE AMERICAN NON-POLICY TOWARDS EASTERN EUROPE 1943-1947. Universalism in an Area Not of Essential Interest to the United States, Tromso, Norway, 1978.

    This is a detailed, critical survey of American universalism and studies by country. It is written with Nordic thoroughness by a Norwegian scholar.

    Vojtech Mastny, RUSSIA'S ROAD TO THE COLD WAR. Warfare and the Politics of Communism, 1941-1945, New York, 1979.

    V. Mastny (b. Prague, 1936) teaches at the Center for International Affirs, Boston University; this is still a very study of the topic despite lack of Russian archival documents, then unavailable to historians. See also:

    same, The Cold War and Soviet Insecurity. The Stalin Years, New York, Oxford, 1996 (ch. 1).

    (Note: Russian archive materials on foreign and military policy are still largely classified for the period 1921- 45, though some documents are available for the Cold War Years).

    i. Poland in WW II

    For Surveys see:

    Jozef Garlinski, Poland in the Second World War, New York, 1985.

    J. Garlinski (b. Poland, 1913), was in the Polish Underground Army and a prisoner in Germany in WW II; he lives in London. This is a good overview. See also:

    Michael Alfred Peszke, Battle for Warsaw, 1939-1944, East European Monographs no. CDXXVII, Boulder CO, and New York, 1995.

    This is a history of Poland's armed struggle in World War II with key treaties in appendices, also a chronology and bibliography of English and Polish language works. A. M. Peszke, (b. Deblin, Poland, 1932) is a psychiatrist by profession and a historian by avocation. He has published a book on the Polish Navy in World War II, and has written on the Polish air force.

    Steven J. Zaloga, The Polish Army 1939-1945, Color Plates by Richard Hook, Osprey Men-at-Arms Series, 117, London, 1982.

    arms, uniforms and battles of Polish armed forces in East and West, with many photographs; Steven J. Zaloga is Polish-American military historian who co- authored a book on the Polish-German war of 1939.

    (ii) The German-Polish War, September 1 October 5, 1939.

    Nicholas W. Bethell, THE WAR HITLER WON; The Fall of Poland, September 1939, New York, 1972.

    By a British author, this book deals mainly with British passivity. It is based on British and Polish documents, oral accounts; reproduces contemporary political cartoons.

    Lynne Olson and Stanley Cloud, A Question of Honor. The Kosciuszko Squadron. Forgotten Heroes of World War II, New York, 2003.

    A lively account of Polish pilots in the Battle of Britain, plus a history of Poland written in a patriotic Polish spirit and condemning the western betrayal of Poland at the end of WW II. The authors, Americans, became interested in the subject and were aided in their work by a Polish researcher. For a critical review see John Whiteclay Chambers II, The Washington Post, "Book World," 12-18 October 2003. For the polemic (in Polish) between Chambers and the authors, joined by Wladyslaw Bartoszewski, see the Polish language New York paper, Nowy Dziennik, Sat-Sun. 7-8 Feb. 2004, pp. 36-37.

    Jerzy B. Cynk, HISTORY OF THE POLISH AIR FORCE 1918-1968, Reading, 1972, ch. 4 (pp. 121-155).

    J. B. Cynk (b. Poland, 1925), was in the Polish resistance in WW II; was imprisoned in Auschwitz; settled in UK after the war.

    Robert M. Kennedy, THE GERMAN CAMPAIGN IN POLAND (1939), Washington, (Dept. of the Army) D. C., 1956.

    The book is based exclusively on German sources available at the time. For a more recent and comprehensive account, see Zaloga and Madaj below.

    Janusz Piekalkiewicz, The Cavalry of World War Two, London, 1979.

    On the Polish cavalry in Sept. 1939. The author is a Polish military historian living in the West.

    General K. S. Rudnicki, THE LAST OF THE WAR HORSES, London, 1974, (ch. 1 - 5).

    Klemens Rudnicki (1897-1995), served in the Pilsudski Legions, then Polish Army, was imprisoned in USSR 1939-41, then served in the Polish Second Corps; after the war in UK.

    S. J. Zaloga and Victor Madej, THE POLISH CAMPAIGN 1939, New York, 1985

    By two Polish-American experts; this is a v. good study, but without notes, and with the stereotype, negative view of Polish interwar foreign policy.

    Adam Zamoyski, THE FORGOTTEN FEW. The Polish Air Force in the Second World War, London, 1995 (ch. 2).

    A. Zamoyski (b. of Polish parents, New York, 1949), lives in London. He has authored several books on Polish history. This is a well deserved tribute to largely unknown Polish airmen. Compare with the Olson and Cloud book.

    (iii) The Polish contribution to breaking German ciphers.

    Jozef Garlinski, The Enigma War, New York, 1980

    (On J. Garlinski, see section 1 above).

    Wladyslaw Kozaczuk (trans. Richard A. Woytak), Enigma: How the German Cipher Machine was Broken and How it was Read by the Allies in World War II, University Publications of America, 1984.

    Detailed account of Polish contributions by a Polish authority on the subject. In September 2,000, British Prince Edward presented to the Polish Government in Warsaw copies of the two enigma machines given secretly by the Poles to British and French military in July 1939. He also promised to have the Polish contribution to breaking the German codes included in the Encyclopedia Britannica article on the code breaking in WW II.

    Richard A. Woytak, ON THE BORDER OF WAR AND PEACE. Polish Intelligence and Diplomacy in 1937-1939 and the Origins of the Ultra Secret, East Eur. Mon. no XLIX, New York, 1979.

    R. A. Woytak was an American historian of Polish descent.

    (iv) The Poles under the German occupation.

    Szymon Datner, Janusz Gumkowski, Kazimierz Leszczynski, War Crimes in Poland. Genocide 1939-1945, Wydawnictwo Zachodnie, Poznan, Warsaw, 1962.

    Deals with German war crimes against the Polish population; has lists of executions by location. (see also Pilichowski below)

    Lucjan Dobroszycki, REPTILE JOURNALISM. The Official Polish-Language Press under the Nazis, 1939-1945, New Haven, CT, London, 1994

    L. Dobroszycki, (b. Lodz, Poland, 1925, d. New York, 1998), worked at YIVO Institute, New York, author of works on Polish Jews. Every German-occupied country's official press was under German control.

    Jan T. Gross, Polish Society under German Occupation: The General- gouvernement, 1939-1944, Princeton, N. J., 1979

    J. T. Gross (b. Poland, 1947), a Political Scientist, teaches at New York University. This is a sociological-historical study, very critical of Polish attitudes toward the Jews; compare with R. C. Lukas work below.

    Alicja Iwanska, Polish Intelligentsia in Nazi Concentration Camps and American Exile. A Study of Values in Crisis Situations, Mellon, Lewiston, ca. 1998.

    A. Iwanska (b. Lublin, Poland, 1919, d. London, 1998), was a sociologist, poet, and biographer. She fought in the Polish resistance in WW II, studied Philosophy in Poland and U. S., then Anthropology and Sociology. She taught for many years at SUNY, Albany, N. Y., published 10 sociological-anthropological studies, retired 1985 and moved to London.

    Richard C. Lukas, The Forgotten Holocaust: The Poles under German Occupation, 1939-1944, Louisville, Ky, 1986 and New York, 1990.

    R. C. Lukas (b. Lynn, Mass, m 1937) is an American historian of Polish descent, author of books on Polish history; now retired, he lives in Florida. The book led to a vigorous polemic with Israeli historian Engel in the Slavic Review in 1987.

    Czeslaw Pilichowski, No Time Limit for these Crimes! (Council for the Protection of Monuments of Struggle and Martyrdom), Interpress, Warsaw, 1980.

    Gives an overview of German occupation policies, also graphic accounts of German crimes against ethnic Poles and Polish Jews; many illustrations; useful appendices giving numbers and nationalities of prisoners in German camps.

    (v) The Polish resistance movement and underground state in WW II.

    Czeslaw Z. Banasiewicz, Tadeusz Bielecki, Leszek Szymanski, Warsaw Aflame. The 1939-1945 Years, Polamerica Press, Los Angeles, CA, 1973.

    This is an album of photographs mostly unknown in the West, with text by two Polish emigre writers, L. Szymanski (b. Poland, 1934) and T. Bielecki (b. Poland, 1922). Bielecki fought in the Polish Home Army. . Banasiewicz (b. Poland, 1934), who spent a few months in a prison camp, provided graphics for the album. This is an excellent, chronological account of Polish resistance.

    Wladyslaw Bartoszewski, WARSAW DEATH RING 1919-1944, Warsaw, 1968

    W. Bartoszewski (b. Warsaw, 1922), was a prisoner in Auschwitz, 1940-41, a soldier in the Polish underground army, a founding member of "Zegota," the Polish underground organization established in summer 1942 to help save Jews, and author of many articles and books on the Polish resistance and P-Jewish relations during the war. This book is an illustrated account of the German terror in Warsaw. After 1989, Bartoszewski served as Polish ambassador in Austria, and in 2000, as Polish Foreign Minsister.

    Kazimierz Iranek-Osmecki, The Unseen and Silent: Adventures from the Underground Movement Narrated by Paratroops of the Polish Home Army, London, 1954.

    tells stories of Polish paratroopers, known as "the unseen and silent," sent from Britain and dropped in Poland. General K. Iranek-Osmecki (1897-1984) was chief of the Home Army Intelligence Service, fought in the Warsaw Uprising, was taken prisoner by the Germans, and settled in UK after the war.

    Stefan Korbonski, The Polish Underground State: A Guide to the Underground, 1939-1944, New York, 1981.

    S. Korbonski (b. Poland, 1903, d. Washington, D. C., 1989) was a prominent member of the Peasant Party, Head of the Civilian Resistance movement and last Delegate of the Polish Government in Poland. This is an excellent guide to the subject.

    Tadeusz Bor-Komorowski, The Secret Army, London, 1950, reprint Nashville, TN., 1984.

    General T. Bor-Komorowski (1895-1966) was Commander-in-chief of the Home Army, 1943-44, including the Warsaw Uprising; this is his account. He settled in London after the war and died there.

    (vi) Polish World War II accounts and memoirs.

    Stefan Badeni, A Stranger to Hell. A Memoir by Stefan Badeni, Introduction by Jan Badeni, Padstow, Cornwall, UK, 1988

    A Polish aristocrat writes about his imprisonment in the German concentration camp at Mauthausen.

    Beyond Human Endurance: The Ravensbruck Women Tell Their Stories, Warsaw, 1970 Personal accounts of young Polish women used for medical experiments in Ravensbruck camp, Germany.

    Jozef Garlinski, THE SURVIVAL OF LOVE. Memoirs of a Resistance Officer, Oxford, 1991.

    Garlinski was a member of the Armia Krajowa, Polish Home Army.

    Same, Fighting Auschwitz. The Resistance Movement in the Concentration Camp, London, 1975.

    Komorowski, Tadeusz (Bor-Komorowski), The Secret Army, London, 1950.

    The author (1895-1966) was commander-in-chief of the Armia Krajowa or Home Army, July 1943 -October 1944, including the Warsaw Rising of Aug. 1 Oct. 2, 1944. After the war he settled in London.

    George "Jur" Lerski, Poland's Secret Envoy, 1939-1945, New York, 1988.

    Lerski (1917-1992) was parachuted into German-occupied Poland in Feb. 1943 as a special emissary of General W. Sikorski, head of the Polish govt. in London and commander-in-chief Polish armed forces. Lerski returned to London overland through Europe, leaving in late 1943 and arriving in March 1944. The book is valuable not only for the account of Lerski's daring mission, but also for his potrayal of the Polish govt. in London. He taught for many years at the University of San Francisco.

    Jan Nowak [Jezioranski], Courier from Warsaw, Detroit, 1982.

    Jan Zdzislaw Nowak-Jezioranski (b Warsaw, 1913). worked for the underground "Department of Misinformation," directed at the Germans. He traveled as a courier to Sweden and to UK, returning in time for the Warsaw Uprising, which he witnessed, then escaped to the West. He was for many years, the director of the Polish Section of Radio Free Europe in Munich. He played an active part in the extension of NATO to include Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic in 1999 and now resides in Warsaw.

    Witold Sagaillo, THE MAN IN THE MIDDLE. A Story of the Polish Resistance: 1940- 1945, New York, 1985.

    A Polish naval officer recounts his experiences in the Polish underground movement during the war.

    (vii) The Warsaw Uprising of the Home Army, Aug. 1 -Oct. 2 1944.

    Jan M. Ciechanowski, The Warsaw Rising of 1944, London, New York, 1974.

    The author, a veteran of the Warsaw Uprising, condemns the Polish govt. and Underground leadership for the decision to fight; a view not shared by J.K. Zawodny, below.

    Norman Davies, Rising '44. The Battle for Warsaw, London, 2003.

    This is a great achievement and a most welcome one for the 60th anniversary of the rising in 2004. Written with the author's customary verve, the book is best in describing the street by street fighting in the city, but contains some errors and exaggerations elsewhere. His decision not to write out Polish names in full but give the first letter and the names in an appendix may make the work more accessible to English language readers but is controversial. For a short, judicious review see Timothy Snyder "Pity the first ally," Times Literary Supplements, Feb. 20, 2004, p. 13.

    Janusz K. Zawodny, Nothing but Honour. The Story of the Warsaw Uprising, 1944, Stanford, CA, 1978.

    J. Zawodny (b. Warsaw, 1921), is, like Ciechanowski, also a veteran of the Uprising, but does not share the latter's negative evaluation. He views the uprising as doomed but unavoidable in the circumstances of the time. The book is especially valuable for Zawodny's interviews with General Bor-Komorowski and George F. Kennan, former U. S. diplomat and expert on the USSR.

    (viii) Poles in WW II resistance movements outside Poland

    Witold Bieganski et al, Polish Resistance Movement in Poland and Abroad, 1939-1945 Warsaw, 1987.

    W. Bieganski is a Polish military historian; the book was published under certain political restrictions.

    (ix) Poles in allied armed forces, WWII

    Wladyslaw Anders, AN ARMY IN EXILE; The Story of the Second Polish Corps, London, 1949, reprint, Knoxville, TN, 1981.

    W. Anders (1890-1970), Tsarist army officer, then in Polish army, imprisoned in Russia, 1939-41, then commander of Polish army in Russia, Middle East, Polish 2nd Corps Italy. This is an abbreviated translation of the Polish original. On Anders; see also Harvey Sarner below.

    George F. Cholewczynski, POLES APART. The Polish Airborne at the Battle of Arnhem, New York, London, 1993;

    -an account of the brave but disastrous battle fought with the Germans by the Polish Airborne Brigade, dropped prematurely near Arnhem, Holland, on orders of General Bernard Montgomery. (See Piekalkiewicz and Sosabowski, below).

    Jerzy B. Cynk, HISTORY OF THE POLISH AIR FORCE 1918-1968, Reading, 1972 ( (ch. 5, pp. 156-208).

    By a specialist on the subject.

    Akrady Fiedler, Squadron 303, London, 1942.

    On the most famous Polish unit in the R. A. F. Fiedler (b. 1894) was a Polish journalist, well known before the war for his travelogues.

    Krzysztof Filipow and Zbigniew Wawer, Passerby, Tell Poland, Warsaw, 1991.

    A book on the Polish armed forces in the West with excellent illustrations

    Madej, Victor, The Polish 2nd Corps and the Italian Campaign, Allentown, PA., 1984.

    By a Polish-American military historian.

    Janusz Piekalkiewicz, Arnhem, New York, 1976.

    on the Polish parachute brigade's battle with the Germans, 1944. J. Piekalkiewicz is a Polish military historian living in the West (see also Cholewczynski book, above, and Sosabowski below).

    Same, Cassino. Anatomy of a Battle, London, 1980.

    On the Polish 2nd Corps battle and victory at Monte Cassino, May 1944, which opened the land route to Rome for allied armies.

    General K. S. Rudnicki, THE LAST OF THE WAR HORSES. London, 1974 (ch. 29 ff).

    Rudnicki (1897-1995), recounts his service in the Polish campaign of 1939, in the Polish Army, Russia, then Italy.

    Harvey Sarner, General Anders and the Soldiers of the Second Polish Corps, Brunswick Press, Cathedral City, CA, 1997.

    H. Sarner, a third generation American with Polish-Jewish roots, is known for his work to improve Polish-Jewish relations. This is a lively, informative and valuable study of the subject; some factual errors here and there do not detract from its value.

    Stanislaw Sosabowski, Freely I Served, Nashville, TN., 1982.

    General Sosabowski (1892-1967) was the commander of the Polish Parachute Brigade which fought in the West, notably at Arnhem, 1944 (see Cholewczynski, Piekalkiewicz, above).

    Keith Sword, ed., General Sikorski: Soldier and Statesman, London, 1990.

    General Wladyslaw Sikorski (1881-1944), was the Premier of the Polish Government- in-Exile, Frane, then UK, and Commander-in-Chief of Polish Armed Forces. He died on July 4, 1943, in a plane crash off Gibraltar, the cause of which has not been determined so far. K. Sword was a British historian of modern Poland.

    Adam Zamoyski, THE FORGOTTEN FEW. The Polish Air Force in the Second World War, London, 1995.

    a good, popular account; Zamoyski (b. New York 1949), has written several works on Polish history; he lives in London.

    (x) The Jewish Holocaust in German-Occupied Poland in WW II.

    A. General.

    Jacob Apenszlak, ed., THE BLACK BOOK OF POLISH JEWRY: An Account of the Martyrdom of Polish Jewry under Nazi Occupation, New York, 1943 (an early account with illustrations);

    same, THE WARSAW GHETTO: A Christian's Testimony, New York, 1988;

    Lucjan Dobroszycki, THE CHRONICLE OF THE LODZ GHETTO, 1941-1944, New Haven, 1984.

    Polish-born L. Dobroszycki worked in the Yivo Institute, New York. This is the most detailed study so far.

    same, SURVIVORS OF THE HOLOCAUST. A Portrait based on Jewish Community Records, Armonk, N. Y., and London, UK, 1994.

    meticulous study with registration tables and dates.

    Philip Friedman. MARTYRS AND FIGHTERS: The Epic of the Warsaw Ghetto, New York, 1954.

    Bernard Goldstein, THE STARS BEAR WITNESS, New York, 1949

    on the Jews of Warsaw under the German occupation and through spring 1943.

    Yisrael Gutman, THE JEWS OF WARSAW, 1939-1943: Ghetto, Underground, Revolt, trans. Ina Friedman, Bloomington, IN, 1982

    By a veteran of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, who became a famous Jewish historian; based on German, Jewish, and Polish sources. Critical of the Poles.

    Richard C. Lukas, DID THE CHILDREN CRY? Hitler's War against Jewish and Polish Children, 1939-1945, New York, 1994;

    By a Polish-American historian; this is a collection of personal accounts by Polish Christians and Jews.

    Same, The Forgotten Holocaust. The Poles under the German Occupation, 1939-1945, Lexington, KY. 1986, 2nd revised edition, 1997 (see: Polish- Jewish relations below).

    Gunnar S. Paulsson, Secret City. The Hidden Jews of Warsaw 1940-1945, New Haven and London, 2002.

    The author, son of a Polish Holocaust survivor, traces the unusual story of thousands of Warsaw Jews hidden with aid of a large network of ethnic Poles and assimilated Polish Jews.

    Tadeusz Piotrowski, Poland's Holocaust, Jefferson, NC, 1998, ch. 3, Jewish Collaboration.

    On Jews who collaborated with Nazi and Soviet authorities, also on Polish help to Jews.

    Leonard Tushnet, THE PAVEMENT OF HELL, New York, 1972

    historical-biographical sketches of the heads of Jewish Councils of Warsaw, Lodz, and Wilno.

    B.The Memory of the Holocaust in Poland.

    Michael C. Steinlauf, BONDAGE OF THE DEAD. Poland and the Memory of the Holocaust, Syracuse, NY., 1997.

    Chapter 1 is a survey of Poland before the Holocaust; ch. 2. deals with Poles and Jews during the Holocaust. Ch. 3: Memory's Wounds; ch. 4. Memory Repressed: 1944-1968; ch. 5. Memory Expelled: 1968-1970; ch. 7. Memory Regained?: 1989-1995.

    For many years, the Poles focused on the suffering of their own nation, which lost about 3 out of some 27 million (1939) ethnic Poles in World War II, and viewed the Jewish Holocaust (almost all of prewar Poland's 3,500,000 Jews) as something apart from the Polish trauma. Communist policy was to repress the memory of the Jewish Holocaust, but after the fall of Communism in 1989, historians have devoted much attention to it and the Polish government has increased its efforts to make it part of the national memory.

    Steinlauf is Senior Research Fellow at the YIVO Institute for Jewish Research, New York. As a Fulbright Fellow he was one of the first students allowed to study Jewish History in Poland, 1983-84.

    Joshua D. Zimmerman, Contested Memories: Poles and Jews during the Holocaust and Its Aftermath, New Brunswick, 2003.

    see Shimon Redlich review in Slavic Review, vol. 63, no. 1, 2004, pp. 158-160.

    C. Jewish Resistance in German-occupied Poland.

    Alfred Katz, POLAND'S GHETTOS AT WAR, New York, 1970

    resistance in the five major ghettos established by the Germans: Warsaw, Bialystok, Krakow, Wilno, and Lodz.

    Shmuel Krakowski, THE WAR OF THE DOOMED; Jewish Armed Resistance in Poland, 1942-1944, trans. Orah Balustein, New York, 1984.

    By a Jewish historian; based on German, Polish, Russian and Yiddish primary sources, also interviews with about 500 fighters; negative image of Poles.

    Richard L. Rashke, ESCAPE FROM SOBIBOR, Boston, 1982.

    based on eyewitness accounts of 18 survivors, this was later made into a film.

    Jean-Francois Steiner, TREBLINKA, trans. Helen Weaver, New York, 1994.

    By a French historian; this is the story of the revolt and breakout from the camp.

    Nechama Tec, DEFIANCE. The Bielski Partisans, New York, Oxford, 1993.

    story of Partisan group in Belorussia led by Tuv Bielski, written on the basis of interviews by a survivor of the Holocaust, now a Sociologist in U. S. (For Tec, see: Polish-Jewish relations below).

    Isaac Zuckerman, ed., THE FIGHTING GHETTOS, trans and ed. Meyer Barkait, Philadelphia, Pa., 1962.

    collection of memoirs and documents by survivors, mainly from Poland.

    D. Jewish Memoirs and Diaries: Jewish life in German-occupied Poland.

    Jack Kugelman and Jonathan Boyarin, trans. and eds., FROM A RUINED GARDEN: The Memorial Books of Polish Jewry, New York, 1983.

    condensed versions of over 100 memoirs written over 30 years.

    Joanna Bauman, WINTER IN THE MORNING; A Young Girl's Life in the Warsaw Ghetto and Beyond, 1939-1945, London, 1986.

    Mary Berg, WARSAW GHETTO, A Diary, New York, 1945.

    Halina Birenbaum, HOPE IS THE LAST TO DIE: A Personal Documentation of Nazi Terror, New York, 1971.

    Adina Blady Schweiger, I REMEMBER NOTHING MORE. The Warsaw Children's Hospital and Jewish Resistance, trans. Tasja Darowska and Danusia Stok, New York, 1990.

    On protecting sick Jewish children and fighting the Germans, with illustrations.

    Tuwie Borzkowski, BETWEEN TUMBLING WALLS, Israel, 1972.

    on the author's experiences in the Jewish Fighting Organization, Warsaw Ghetto.

    Janina David, A SQUARE OF SKY: Recollections of my Childhood, New York, 1964.

    life in the ghetto.

    Same, A TOUCH OF EARTH. A Wartime Childhood, New York, 1969.

    sequel to above.

    Alexander Donat, THE HOLOCAUST KINGDOM: A Memoir, New York, 1965.

    life in the Warsaw Ghetto.

    Jack Eisner, THE SURVIVORS, ed. I. A. Leitner, New York, 1980.

    The author, who founded the Warsaw Ghetto Resistance Organization, describes juvenile food smugglers.

    Adolf Folkmann, THE PROMISE HITLER KEPT, as told to Stefan Szende, New York, 1945.

    an early, detailed account of the Holocaust; includes eastern Poland under Soviet occupation, 1939-41.

    Sheva Glas-Wiener, CHILDREN OF THE GHETTO, Fitzroy, Victoria, 1983.

    account of ghetto in a Polish village outside Lodz by the caretaker.

    Raul Hilberg et al, eds., trans. Stanislaw Staron et al., THE WARSAW DIARY OF ADAM CZERNIAKOW: Prelude to Doom, New York, 1978.

    Adam Czerniakow (1880-1942) was a Jewish politician in interwar Poland. He was appointed by the Germans head of the "Judenrat" (Jewish Council) in the Warsaw Ghetto. He refused to believe that the Germans intended to exterminate the Jews and committed suicide when they began to deport Jews to death camps in summer 1942. R. Hilberg is an authority on Holocaust who has published several books on the subject.

    Chaim A. Kaplan, SCROLL OF AGONY: The Warsaw Diary of Chaim A. Kaplan, Abraham I. Katsch, ed., New York, 1965.

    On the Nazi conquest of Poland, Polish-Jewish relations, life in the Ghetto.

    Hanna Krall, SHIELDING THE FLAME. An Intimate Conversation with Dr. Marek Edelman, The Last Surviving Leader of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, New York, 1986 (see also videotape:THE LONELY STRUGGLE. Marek Edelman. Last Hero of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, [1995] The Willy Lindwer Collection, cat. #657, 60 min. color; ERGO MEDIA Inc., P. O. Box 2037, Teaneck, N. J., 07666)

    Hanna Kral is a Polish journalist; Marek Edelman, the last living leader of the Ghetto Uprising, is a cardiologist.

    Halina Nelken with Alicja Nitecki, And Yet I am Here! Amherst, Mass., 1999.

    This is a memoir of the Krakow ghetto. H. Nelken (b. Poland, 1925) is an art historian. She survived the Plaszow, Auschwitz and Ravensbruck concentration camps and lives in Cambridge, Mass.

    Celel Perechodnik, Am I A Murderer? trans. by Frank Fox, Greenwod Press, 1998.

    The author was a small town Ghetto policeman. He tells the heart-breaking story of how the Germans emptied his ghetto, how he loaded his wife and daughter onto a death train, then hid in Warsaw and lived with this unbearable memory. The Fox translation differs considerably from the Polish original.

    Oscar Pinkus, WOODEN SYNAGOGUES, Cleveland, 1964.

    a Jewish family's tale of survival.

    Emanuel Ringelblum, NOTES FROM THE WARSAW GHETTO: The Journal of Emanuel Ringelblum, ed. and trans. Jacob Sloan, New York, 1958;

    Emanuel Ringelblum (1900-1944), was a Jewish historian, activist, teacher, organizer of Jewish resistance and of the Archive of the Warsaw Ghetto. After the Ghetto Uprising, he hid in a Polish house, was denounced, and executed along with his family and his Polish hosts. He tried to give a balanced view of the Poles, but believed they could have given more help to Jews.

    Leyb Rochman, THE PIT AND THE TRAP: A Chronicle of Survival, New York, 1982.

    life in the Minsk-Mazowiecki ghetto, 1943-44.

    Avraham Tory, SURVIVING THE HOLOCAUST. The Kovno Ghetto Diary, edited with introd, by Martin Gilbert, trans. Jerzy Michalowicz, Notes Dina Porat, Cambridge MA, and London, UK, 1990.

    the author, a Zionist, escaped from the Kovno -now Kaunas -Ghetto, Lithuania, in 1943. Sir Martin Gilbert is a prominent British historian, biographer of Winston S. Churchill, and author of many books on 20th century European history.

    Bruno Shatyn, A PRIVATE WAR. Surviving in Poland on False Papers, 1941- 1945, trans. Oscar E. Swan, foreword by Norman Davies, Detroit, 1985.

    The derring dos of a Polish Jew masquerading as a Christian with some help from Polish friends.

    Ana Vinocur, A BOOK WITHOUT A TITLE, New York, 1976.

    memories of the Lodz ghetto and Auschwitz.

    David Wdowinski, AND WE ARE NOT SAVED, New York, 1963.

    An account of life in the Warsaw Ghetto and of the Ghetto Uprising by a survivor.

    Leon W. Wells, THE JANOWSKA ROAD, New York, 1963.

    by a survivor of the German concentration camp at Janowska.

    Liliana Zuker-Brajnowska, LILIANA'S JOURNAL; Warsaw, 1939-1945, New York, 1980.

    six years in the life of a Jewish girl.

    Michael Zylberberg, A WARSAW DIARY. 1939-1945, London, 1969.

    by a survivor of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising oof 1943 and the Home Army Uprising of 1944.

    E. Polish-Jewish Relations in German-occupied Poland and the Policy of the Polish Government-in-Exile on the German Genocide of the Polish Jews.

    Wladyslaw Bartoszewski, "Polish-Jewish Relations in occupied Poland, 1939-1945, " ch. 11 in: Chimen Abramsky et al eds., THE JEWS IN POLAND, Oxford, 1986, pp. 147-160.

    W. Bartoszewski (b. Warsaw, 1922) was a founding member and active participant in "Zegota," the Polish underground organization established in fall 1942 to help save Polish Jews . He survived Auschwitz and the Warsaw Uprising of 1944; was imprisoned by the communist govt., 1946-48, 1949-54, then "rehabilitated;" taught at the Catholic University Lublin and in the underground Association of Academic Courses; was an active member of Solidarity, interned 1981-82; Polish ambassador to Austria, 1990, Polish Foreign Minister, 2000. He has authored many works on Polish-Jewish relations and allied subjects.

    David Engel, IN THE SHADOW OF AUSCHWITZ. The Polish Government-in- Exile and the Jews and the Jews, 1939-1942, Chapel Hill and London, 1987.

    D. Engel teaches Jewish history at the University of Tel Aviv.

    same: FACING A HOLOCAUST. The Polish Government-in-Exile and the Jews, 1943-1945, Chapel Hill and London, 1993.

    The author charges the Polish government with lack of concern for and aid to the Jews; (each book reviewed by Anna M. Cienciala:AMERICAN HISTORICAL REVIEW, April 1989, pp. 485-87, and INTERNATIONAL HISTORY REVIEW, Feb. 1995, p. 99).

    Ysrael Gutman, "Polish and Jewish Historiography on the Question of Polish-Jewish Relations during World War II," in Jews in Poland., ch. 15, pp. 177-189.

    Historian Y. Gutman is a veteran of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising.

    Teresa Prekerowa, "The Relief Council for Jews in Poland, 1942-1945," ibid., ch. 12, pp. 161-176.

    T. Prekerowa, who hid Jews during the war, was a Polish historian of the Jewish Holocaust in Poland. See also:

    Videotape: ZEGOTA. A Time to Remember. Discussion and Guide, video 51. 46 min; includes different views on Polish help to Jews by T. Prekerowa and Y. Gutman, also appearances by Marek Edelman. Produced by: Documentaries International, Ltd., [c. 1995?] Film and Video Fdn, 1880 K Street N. W. suite 1120, Washington, D. C., 20006; tel: 202 429-9320; fax: 202 659-2667).

    Richard D. Lukas, THE FORGOTTEN HOLOCAUST. The Poles under the German Occupation, Lexington, Ky., 1986, revised edition 1998. (ch. five; this led to a bitter polemic in the SLAVIC REVIEW with the Israeli historian, David Engel in 1987).

    (On R. D. Lukas see section A above).

    Tadeusz Piotrowski, Poland's Holocaust. Ethnic Strife, Collaboration with Occupying Forces and Genocide in the Second Republic, 1918-1947, Jefferson, NC, and London, 1998; see ch. 3, Jewish Collaboration, pp. 35-76 (pp. 35-48 deals with inter war period; Soviet occupation, pp. 48-57, postwar years, pp. 58-66; German occupation, pp. 66-76).

    T. Piotrowski is a Professor of Sociology, University of New Hampshire, Manchester, NH. This is a pioneering book based on primary and secondary materials. See also his book: Vengence of the Swallows, Jefferson, NC, 1995, on his family's saga under German, Soviet and Ukrainian terror and their emigration to the U. S.

    Emanuel Ringelblum, POLISH-JEWISH RELATIONS DURING THE SECOND WORLD WAR, trans. Dafna Allon et al., Jerusalem, 1974.

    (On Ringelblum see Jewish Memoirs and Diaries, above).

    Jaroslaw M. Rymkiewicz, THE FINAL STATION; UMSCHLAGPLATZ, trans. Nina Taylor, New York, 1994

    a Polish Christian reconstructs the Jewish Holocaust in Poland, and examines Polish attitudes to it.

    Michael C. Steinlauf, Bondage of the Dead. Poland and the Memory of the Holocaust, Syracuse, N. Y., 1997.

    Steinlauf is a Senior Research Fellow at the YIVO Institute for Jewish Research in New York. He shows different Polish attitudes toward the Jewish Holocaust in Poland, from suppression in favor of the history of national suffering under the German occupation, the dominant trend before 1989, to efforts at integration into Polish national memory after the collapse of communism.

    Thomas E. Wood, Karski: How One Man Tried to Stop the Holocaust, New York, 1994.

    T. E. Wood (b. 1963) gives a good account of the remarkable Jan Karski (1914- 2000), who brought an eye-witness description of a death camp for Jews in German- occupied Poland to London, Nov. 1942. This led to the Polish Government's appeal to other allied governments to act to stop the genocide, but the appeal fell on deaf ears.

    (x) The Soviet occupation of Eastern Poland, 1939-41.

    Jan T. Gross, Revolution from Abroad. The Soviet Conquest of Poland's Western Ukraine and Western Belorussia, Princeton, N. J., 1988, 2nd revised ed. 2002.

    a sociological-historical study of Soviet policy and actions in former eastern Poland, 1939-41. Jan Gross, who is of Polish-Jewish origin, teaches at New York University.

    Irena Grudzinska-Gross and Jan T Gross, eds., WAR THROUGH CHILDRENS' EYES. The Soviet Occupation of Poland and the Deportations, 1939-41, Stanford, CA, 1981.

    I. Grudzinska-Gross teaches comparative literature at New York University; these are translated excerpts of children's descriptions of their experiences written after their exodus with the Polish Army from the USSR to Iran in 1942.

    K. S. Rudnicki, THE LAST OF THE WAR HORSES, London, 1972.

    General K. S. Rudnicki fought in the 1939 Polish-German war; ch. 10-13, deal with author's work in Polish resistance under Soviet occupation; later he escaped to fight in the West.

    Keith Sword, ed., The Soviet Takeover of the Polish Eastern Provinces, 1939-41, New York, 1991.

    K. Sword was a British historian of Poland. The book has chapters on Poles, Ukrainians, Belorussians, also on the Baltic States.

    Same, DEPORTATION AND EXILE. Poles in the Soviet Union, 1939-48, Basingstoke, UK, 1994.

    ch. 1, deals with Soviet deportations of Poles to USSR; both books were written before Russian documents were accessible.

    (xi) Poles, Jews, Lithuanians, Belorussians and Ukrainians in the USSR, 1939-45/48,

    Jozef Czapski, THE INHUMAN LAND, New York, 1952.

    a classic description of conditions in the Soviet camps by poet and painter Jozef Czapski (1896-1993);

    THE DARK SIDE OF THE MOON, preface by T. S. Elliot, New York, 1947.

    based on data from prisons, camps, personal accounts.

    Norman Davies and Antony Polonsky, eds., JEWS IN EASTERN POLAND AND THE USSR, 1939-46, New York, 1991.

    includes studies of Jews in Polish Communist-led army.

    Gustaw Herling-Grudzinski, A WORLD APART, London, 1951, 1986, reprinted by Penguin Books, London, New York, 1996..

    A powerfully written memoir, this tells of the author's imprisonment in a Soviet labor camp and describes the terrible conditions there. The author of the blurb on the back cover the Penguin edition could not have read the book carefully. He cites Herling's description of how a man poured boiling water over himself - to avoid going to the" gas chamber." There were no gas chambers in Soviet labor camps; overwork, malnutrition, disease and starvation were the main killers there.

    G. Herling-Grudzinski (b. Poland, 1913, d. Naples, Italy, 2000) was a prominent Polish writer who lived for decades in Naples, Italy. He was, for many years, closely involved with the Polish cultural monthly published in Paris, Kultura. This is a sensitive, literary, account of a young soldier-prisoner's experience in a Soviet labor camp.

    Ruth Turkow Kaminska, I DON'T WANT TO BE BRAVE ANY MORE, Washington, D. C., 1978.

    The story of a Polish-Jewish couple who were imprisoned in Soviet labor camps; the author's mother was the famous actress Ida Kaminska, (1899-1981).

    Dov Levin, THE LESSER OF TWO EVILS. Eastern European Jewry under Soviet Rule, 1939-1941, trans. Naftali Greenwood, Preface by Mordechai Altshuler, Philadelphia, Jerusalem, 1996.

    The author cites personal memoirs and letters to show why Jews welcomed Soviet rule and why some cooperated with Soviet authorities in tracking down and arresting Poles, actions deeply resented by the Polish population. He notes that Soviet authorities also arrested and deported Zionists, including Menahem Begin (1913-92), who survived to leave the USSR with the Anders army in summer 1942, stayed in Palestine to fight the British and became the Prime Minister of Israel (1977-83). Compare with Tadeusz Piotrowski, Poland's Holocaust, below.

    Paul Robert Magocsi, Ukraine. A History, Seattle WA, 1996, ch. 46, 47, deal with west Ukraine in WW II., cf. with Piotrowski below.

    Tadeusz M. Piotrowski, Poland's Holocaust, Jefferson, NC and London, 1998.

    Piotrowski applies the word Holocaust to Poles, Jews, Belorussians, Lithuanians and Ukrainians living in former Poland (for those chapters see section xi on Poles and non-Polish nationalities in WW II, below). In ch. 1, 2, he gives a brief but telling description of Soviet and Nazi policy in Polish lands, and of the Poles who collaborated with Nazi, but mostly with Soviet occupants.

    The book is especially useful for little known or unknown cases of Jewish collaboration with German and Soviet authorities, for Polish and Belorussian conflicts and sometimes cooperation with the Germans against the Soviets, for Lithuanian crimes against Poles and Jews, and for the Ukrainian UPA "ethnic cleansing" (massacres) of Poles in Volhynia. There are some useful documents in the annexes.

    Piotrowski, a sociologist, teaches at the University of New Hampshire, Manchester, NH

    see also, same, ed., Genocide and rescue in Wolyn: recollections of the Ukrainian nationalist ethnic cleansing campaign against the Poles in World War II, Jefferson, NC, 2000.

    Same:Vengeance of the Swallows: memoir of a Polish family's ordeal under Soviet aggression, Ukrainian ethnic cleansing and Nazi enslavement, and their emigration to America, Jefferson, NC, 1995.

    Timothy Snyder, The Reconstruction of Nations , New Haven, London,2003; ch. 4. The Second World War and the Vilnius Question (1939-1945), pp. 90-104; ch. 8. The Ethnic Cleansing of Southeastern Poland, pp. 179-201.

    In ch. 4, Snyder gives brief, judicious and balanced accounts of Lithuania under Soviet, German and again Soviet rule. In ch. 8, he does the same with Ukrainian terror against the Poles and Polish reactions, 1943-45. The book received the AHA George Louis Beer award in 2003.

    Keith Sword, DEPORTATION AND EXILE, (ch. 2-7) see section x above.

    Aleksander Wat, My Century: The Odyssey of a Polish Intellectual, ed and trans. Richard Lourie, foreword by Czeslaw Milosz, Berkeley, CA, 1988.

    Aleksander Wat (1900-1967) a prominent Polish poet and writer, was a communist sympathizer before the war; imprisoned in the USSR, he abandoned communism. This is a translation of his remarkable memoirs as told to and recorded by Polish poet Czeslaw Milosz; they include his stay in Soviet prisons during World War II.

    XIa. The massacre of the Jews of Jedwabne, 10 July 1941.

    Jan Tomasz Gross, Neighbors, Princeton 2001, Penguin 2002.

    Based on two near contemporary accounts by Jewish survivors, the author claims that about half of the male Polish population of of the samll market town of Jedwabne in the Lomza region of northeastern Poland, murdered 1,6000 Jews, mostly by burning them in a barn. The book set off a wide ranging debate after its publication in Poland in spring 2000, with some critics denying the deed could have been done by Poles, while others accepted Gross's acccount. Later research shows that some 600 Jews lived in Jedwaabne and some 44 Poles were involved in theGerman-planned massacres of Jews in Jedwabne and several other towns in the region at this time.

    Translations of selected items from the debate in Poland, with a short selection of the debate outside it, are to be found in:

    Antony Polonsky and Joanna Milic, eds., The Neighbors Respond. The Controversy over the Jedwabne Massacre in Poland, Princeton, Oxford, 2004.

    This is an excellent, judicious selection by two specialists, with good introductions to each section. Polonsky is the Albert Abrahamson Professor of Holocaust Studies at Brandeis University and the U.S. Holocaust Museum, Washington, D.C.

    For an evaluation of the two volume collection of documents and essays on Jedwabne published by the Polish Institute of National Memory, Warsaw, Nov. 2002, see:

    Anna M. Cienciala, "The Jedwabne Massacre. Update and Memory," Polish Review, vol. 48, no. 1, 2003, pp. 49-72, (corrections at end of no. 4, 2003).

    [This article, along with an earlier one on the period 1939-41, can be accessed at the end of Lecture Notes no. 16, Eastern Europe in World War II.]




    The name KATYN stands not only for the best known place, but also two other places of execution by the NKVD, in spring 1940, of some 14, 552 Polish prisoners of war from three special camps in the USSR, who were murdered at Katyn, Kalinin/Tver and Kharkov, as well as 7, 305 prisoners executed in NKVD prisons in western Belorussia and western Ukraine at this time. The burial places of the latter have not yet been established. (For these figures, generally accepted as correct, see: " Note of KGB chief, A. Shelepin to N. Khruschev, March 9, 1959, " in: Wojciech Materski, Introduction by Janusz K. Zawodny, KATYN. Documents of Genocide, Warsaw, 1993, doc. no. 5).

    Vladimir Abarinov, THE MURDERERS OF KATYN, Foreword and Chronology by Iwo Cyprian Pogonowski, New York, 1993

    V. Abarinov is a Russian journalist who wrote for the Literaturnaia Gazeta. This is a translation of his Katynskii Labirint, a somewhat disorganized account based on Soviet archival documents and interviews; (on I. C. Pogonowski, see Part I, Historical Atlases).

    P. M. H. Bell, JOHN BULL AND THE BEAR. British Public Opinion, foreign policy and the Soviet Union, 1941-1945, Edward Arnold, London, 1996.

    "Ch. 4. Case Study 1: The Katyn Graves Revealed, 1943, " pp. 109-127, gives an excellent overview of British reactions to Katyn. P. M. H. Bell, is Professor Emeritus of Liverpool University and the author of several books on 20th century Europe; he lives in London.

    Natalia S. Lebedeva, "The Katyn Tragedy," International Affairs, Moscow, 1990, no. 6, pp. 98-113.

    First Eng. lang. publication based on Russian archival documents, written by a Russian historian. Natalia S. Lebedeva (b. Moscow, 1936). This gives an excellent account of the prisoners and their fate based on Russian documents, but was published before the declassification in October 1992 of the Politburo decision of March 5, 1940, to shoot all the prisoners. Lebedeva, a member of the Institute of World History, Russian Academy of Sciences, went on to publish the pre-eminent work on Katyn: Katyn. Prestuplenie protiv chelovechestva (Katyn. A Crime against Humanity) Moscow, 1994. The Polish edition:Katyn Zbrodnia przeciw ludzkosci, Warsaw, 1998, is a translation of a 1991 mss. so must be read with the Suplement, which summarizes Politburo documents released in 1992 and after. She went on to co-edit with Prof. Wojciech Mateerski and other Polish historians a Russian volume of documents (Moscow, 1997) and 3 Polish volumes (Warsaw, 1995, 1998, 2001); the fourth and last Polish volume is expected to appear in 2004. A second Russian volume on the Survivors, the Coverup and its unraveling was published in Moscow at the end of 2001. An English language volume, edited by Anna M. Cienciala, is to appear in the Yale University Press series, Annals of Communism, in 2004.

    Joseph Mackiewicz, THE KATYN WOOD MURDERS. London, 1951.

    Jozef Mackiewicz (1902-85) was a well known Polish journalist and writer from Wilno/Vilnius who viewed the graves in spring 1943. A declared anti-Communist, he chose emigration in 1945 and settled in the U.S..

    Allen Paul, KATYN. Stalin's Massacre and the Seeds of Polish Resurrection, Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, Maryland, 1996 (earlier edition, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1991).

    This is a good, popular account with personal memories of survivors' relatives in U. S; no notes or bibliography but chronology, index, and some illustrations. A. Paul is a free lance researcher-writer.

    David Remnick, LENIN'S TOMB. The Last Days of the Soviet Empire, New York, 1993, ch. 1, The Forest Coup.

    D. Remnick (b. Hackensack, N. Y., 1958), then the Moscow correspondent of theWashington Post, gives the account of Col. Aleksander Tretetsky of the Soviet Military Prosecutor's Office, on the exhumation of the remains of Polish police and gendarme officers from the Ostashkov camp, executed by the NKVD at Mednoe, near Kalinin/Tver, north of Moscow. Tretetsky cites interviews with living NKVD participants.

    Solomon W. Slowes, edited by Wladyslaw T. Bartoszewski, THE ROAD TO KATYN. A Soldier's Story, Oxford, 1992.

    Memoirs of a Polish-Jewish officer, a doctor, who survived. It is estimated that about 10% of the Polish officers murdered by the NKVD in spring 1940 were Jews. The American specialist on this subject is Dr. Simon Schochet (b. Lodz, Poland, 1926), survivor of Dachau, historian, Professor Emeritus of Miami University, Oxford, Oh., and Yeshiva University, New York; he resides in Brooklyn Heights, N. Y.

    Robert Szymczak, "A Matter of Honor: Polonia and the Congressional Investigation of the Katyn Forest Massacre," Polish American Studies, vol. 41, no. 1, Spring 1984, pp. 25-65.

    Szymczak, a specialist on 20th c. Polish-American history, teaches at Pennsylvania State University, Beaver Lake, PA. This is an excellent study based on U. S. and Polish-American sources.

    J. K. Zawodny, DEATH IN THE FOREST. The Story of the Katyn Forest Massacre, Notre Dame, IN, 1962, and reprints;

    Janusz K. Zawodny (b. Poland, 1921), a Sociologist and Historian, fought in the Warsaw Uprising, 1944, and authored a very important book on the subject. This is a classic study based on documents of the Congressional Commission of Inquiry, 1951-52 and a collectionof data and personal accounts published in roneo form in London in 1946. The book is an excellent introduction to the Russian documents given to the Polish government in October 1992 and to the documents found by Russian and Polish historians, published in Warsaw and Moscow (see note on N. S. Lebedeva above). They fill out the details of the tragic story of thousands of Polish prisoners of war shot by the NKVD on orders of the Soviet Politburo headed by Joseph V. Stalin..

    English Language Documents on Katyn:

    KATYN. DOCUMENTS OF GENOCIDE, trans. and ed. Wojciech Materski, Foreword by J. K. Zawodny, Warsaw, 1993.

    Russian documents with English translation. The key document is the record of the Politbureau meeting of March 5, 1940, approving NKVD chief Lavrenty P. Beria's resolution to shoot, without trial, Polish officers, police and others in the three camps Kozielsk and Ostashkov near Smolensk, W. USSR, and Starobelsk near Kharkov, Soviet Ukraine, also those in Ukrainian and Belorussian prisons. Most of the documents concern the Soviet coverup of the crime and decades later, of the decision to admit it. Copies of these documents were handed over to the President of Poland, Lech Walesa, in October 1992 by Rudolf Pikhoia, then Head of the Russian Archives, on the orders of Russian President Boris Yeltsin.

    (xiii) THE POLISH QUESTION IN WORLD WAR II (Diplomatic History).

    A. Surveys:

    Anna M. Cienciala, "The View from Poland," in: Arnold A. Offner and Theodore A. Wilson, Victory in Europe 1945. From World War to Cold War, Lawrence, KS., 2000, pp. 47-102.

    This is a brief outline of the topic. Unfortunately, the author did not catch a couple of errors which crept in, unnoticed, in the course of many revisions. On p. 59, line 3 from bottom states that Polish Premier Mikolajczyk learned, when in Moscow Oct. 1944, that Stalin's demand for Konigsberg "had not been granted. " - when it had been granted at the Big Three Conference, Tehran, Nov-Dec. 1943. On p. 65, end of par. from p. 64, states that the secret frontier treaty between the PKWN (Polish Committee of National Liberation) and the Soviet leadersw as signed in late July 1945, when it should be late July 1944. There are also some typographical errors.

    John L. Harper and Andrew Parlin, THE POLISH QUESTION DURING WORLD WAR II, Foreign Policy Institute, Case Studies no. 15, Washington, D. C., 1990.

    John L. Harper was then Assoc. Professor of European studies and U. S. foreign policy at the Bologna Center of the Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies. Andrew Parlin went on to work for Oeschle International Advisors, Boston. This is a textbook for courses on the history international relations; it gives good, brief, summaries of the discussions on Poland at Tehran and Yalta, but contains numerous errors in background information on Poland and fails to convey the dilemma faced by Polish policy makers.

    Jan Karski, THE GREAT POWERS AND POLAND, 1919-1945, Lanham, New York, London, 1985.

    J. Karski (1914-2000), gave a personal eyewitness account of German genocide of Jews in Poland as a courier sent by the Polish underground to the Polish govt. London, Nov. 1942. He went on to study and teach Political Science in Washington, D. C. The author's interpretation of Polish foreign policy in the interwar period shows a negative bias, but he is an excellent guide to the wartime period. The book is based predominantly on published sources.

    John Coutovidis and Jaime Reynolds, POLAND 1939-1947, Leicester, UK, and New York, 1986.

    The two British historians based their work mainly on English archival sources and are very critical of the policies of the Polish government in London. (Compare with Cienciala articles cited in section B, below).

    Ito Takayuki, "The Genesis of the Cold War. Confrontation over Poland, 1941- 1944," in: Nagai Yonosouke and Iriye Akira, THE ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR IN ASIA, New York, 1977 (pp. 147-202).

    This is a good survey based on sources accessible to the author at the time

    B. The Soviet Union and Poland in World War II.

    Wladyslaw Anders, An Army in Exile. The Story of the Polish Second Corps, London, 1949, reprinted Nashville, Tenn., 1981.

    (On W. Anders, see section viii above).

    Anna M. Cienciala, "The Activities of Polish Communists as a Source for Stalin's Policy Toward Poland in World War II," International History Review, vol. VII, no. 1, Feb. 1985, pp. 129-145.

    This is based on sources available to the author at the time; archival Polish communist documents became available in Warsaw after 1989 and Comintern documents became accessible in Moscow in 1992.

    Same: "The Question of the Polish-Soviet Frontier in 1939-1940, "Polish Review, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 295-324.

    This, and other articles by the author are based mainly on Polish archival sources in London and the Hoover Institute Archives, Stanford, CA.

    Same: "The Diplomatic Background of the Warsaw Rising of 1944: The Players and the Stakes," Polish Review, vol. 39, no. 4, 1994, pp. 393-413.

    Same: "Great Britain and Poland before and after Yalta, 1939-1945," Polish Review, vol. 40, no. 3, 1995, pp. 281-314.

    Same: "General Sikorski and the Conclusion f the Polish-Soviet Agreement of July 30, 1941: A Reassessment," Polish Review, vol. 41, no. 4, 1996, pp. 401- 434.

    Same: "New Light on Oskar Lange as an Intermediary between Roosevelt and Stalin in Attempts to Create a New Polish Government (January November 1944)," Acta Poloniae Historica, Warsaw, vol. 73, 1996, pp. 89-134.

    This article is based on U. S. and Russian archival documents. (See also R. Szymczak articles listed under E below).

    Krystyna Kersten, The Establishment of Communist Rule in Poland, 1943- 1947, University of California Press, 1991.

    This is a translation of a work based on Polish party archives, which first appeared in the underground press in 1984. K. Kersten is a prominent Polish historian of 20th c. Poland and a faculty member of the Polish History Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw. (For Eng. lang. communist documents, see A. Polonsky and Drukier under Documents, below).

    Stanislaw Kot, Conversations with the Kremlin and Dispatches from Russia, London, Oxford, 1963.

    St. Kot (1885-1975), a cultural historian, one of the leaders of the Polish Peasant Party and close adviser to Polish Premier and Commander-in-Chief, General W. Sikorski, was Polish ambassador to Soviet Russia 1941-43; he quotes extensively from his reports to and correspondence with Sikorski.

    Documents on Polish-Soviet Relations in World War II.

    DOCUMENTS ON POLISH-SOVIET RELATIONS, 1939-1945, 2 vols., London, General Sikorski Historical Institute, 1961, 1967.

    excellent selection of translated Polish documents from the archives of the Polish Government-in-Exile, now in the Polish Institute and Sikorski Museum, London.

    Wojciech Materski, ed., Kremlin versus Poland 1939-1945. Documents from the Soviet Archives, Warsaw, 1996.

    16 of the 18 documents cover the WW II period. This is a very useful supplement to Engl. lang. documents, showing Soviet policy on Poland as made and seen in Moscow. The documents are presented in copies of Russian documents with Eng. trans.

    Antony Polonsky and Boleslaw Drukier, eds., The Beginnings of Communist Rule in Poland, December 1943 June 1945, London, 1980.

    A. Polonsky, a historian of modern Poland and editor of thePolin series, was then teaching at the London School of Economics, is now Albert Abrahanson Professor of Holocaust Studies at Brandeis University and the U.S. Holocaust Museum, Washington,D .C. ; B. Drukier, was a former member of the Polish Central Committee who left Poland in 1968.

    These are translations of Polish documents taken by Drukier when he left Poland.

    Oleg A. Rzheshevsky, ed., WAR AND DIPLOMACY. The Making of the Grand Alliance, trans. T.Sorokina, Amsterdam, 1996.

    The Russian documents show Stalin's aims and tactics in negotiating the alliance with Great Britain, signed finally in May 1942. The Polish-Soviet border was a frequent subject of discussion. Rzheshevsky is a professor at the Institute of World History, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow.

    C. Great Britain and Poland in World War II:

    Anna M. Cienciala, "Great Britain and Poland Before and After Yalta," Polish Review, vol. 40, no. 3, 1995, pp. 281-314.

    George Kacewicz, Great Britain, the Soviet Union and the Polish Government in Exile (1939-1945), The Hague, 1979

    good use of published documentary sources, some Polish archival sources.

    Anita J. Prazmowska, BRITAIN AND POLAND 1939-1943. The Betrayed Ally, Cambridge, UK, 1995.

    A. Prazmowska is a British historian of Polish descent teaching at the London School of Economics. She makes very good use of English and some Polish archival sources on British policy, but excoriates the Polish government for being "unrealistic. " This view ignores Polish public opinion both in occupied Poland and in the Polish armed forces in the West, which opposed Soviet political and territorial demands, and which the Polish Government always had to bear in mind. (See Cienciala, Polish Review, vol. 42, no. 3, 1997, pp. 379-83).

    Sarah Meiklejohn Terry, POLAND'S PLACE IN EUROPE. General Sikorski and the Origins of the Oder-Neisse Line, 1939-1943, Princeton, N. J., 1983.

    S. Meiklejohn Terry is a Political Scientist who teaches at Tufts University; she makes excellent use of Polish and British archival sources available in London. She argues that it was Sikorski and not the Polish communists who first proposed a Polish western frontier on the Oder-Western Neisse Line. She is right, but recently published Russian documents show that Stalin proposed a Polish frontier on the Oder in his talks with British Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden in mid-December 1941 (Rzheshevsky)..

    Edward Raczynski, In Allied London, London, 1962.

    These memoirs are: based on the author's diaries with some photographs. Edward Raczynski (1891-1993) was in the Polish diplomatic service from 1918 onward. He was Polish ambassador in London 1932-45, also acting Foreign Minister in 1940-43. After the war, he succeeded August Zaleski as President of the symbolic Polish government-in-exile.

    D. British studies on British policy in World War II (with reference to Poland):

    Sir LLewellyn Woodward, BRITISH FOREIGN POLICY IN THE SECOND WORLD WAR, 2d revised edition, 3 vols, London, 1970-73.

    L. Woodward (1890-1971) had free access to British archival documents. This is still a very useful work, although the British archives for the wartime period are now accessible.

    Elizabeth Barker, Churchill and Eden at War, London, 1978.

    E. Barker, a British historian, also wrote on British policy in the Balkans. This book has a good chapter on Poland.

    Victor Rothwell, BRITAIN AND THE COLD WAR, 1941-1947, London, 1982.

    ch. 2 and 3 deal with British policy toward the USSR and E. Eastern Europe. Rothwell also authored a book on British War Aims and Peace Diplomacy 1914- 1918

    E. American Policy on Poland in World War II.

    Jan Ciechanowski, DEFEAT IN VICTORY, Garden City, N. Y., 1947.

    Jan Ciechanowski (1888-1958), was Polish ambassador in Washington, D. C., 1941- 45. This is an excellent source based on Polish Embassy archives, now in the Hoover Institute Archives, Stanford, CA. (He is not to be confused with Jan M. Ciechanowski, a Polish historian teaching in London).

    William Larsch, "W. Averell Harriman and the Polish Question, December 1943 August 1944," East European Politics and Societies, vol. 7, no. 3, 1993.

    W. Larsch was then completing his Ph. D. dissertation at Yale University. Based on the Harriman papers, this reveals FDR's irritation with the Polish government-in-exile, and his determination to have a new Polish govt. established that would be acceptable to Stalin.

    Same, "Yalta and the American Approach to Free Elections in Poland," Polish Review, vol. 40, no. 3, 1995, pp. 267-280.

    Shows that the Yalta promise of free elections in Poland was made without any serious intent to see them carried out.

    Richard C. Lukas, THE STRANGE ALLIES. The United States and Poland, 1941- 1945, Knoxville, Tenn., 1978.

    (On Lukas, see his book in IX, section 1). This is a very good survey based mainly on U. S. archival sources and published materials

    . Robert Szymczak, "Oskar Lange, American Polonia and the Polish-Soviet Dilemma During World War II: I. The Public Partisan as Private Emissary," Polish Review, vol. 40, 1995, no. 1, pp. 3-28.

    Same, Oskar Lange . II, "Making a Case for a 'People's Poland, '"Polish Review, vol. 40, 1995, no. 2, pp. 131-158. (cf. Anna M. Cienciala, on Oskar Lange, section B above).

    Szymczak, who teaches history at Pennsylvania State University, Beaver Lake, makes excellent use of U. S. archival sources.

    Same: "Uneasy Observers: The OSS Foreign Nationalities Branch and Perceptions of Polish Nationalism in the United States during World War II," Polish American Studies, vol. 56, no. 1., Spring 1999, pp. 7-74.

    a valuable piece of research on OSS surveillance of Polish and Polish-American activities at this time.

    F. American Policy in World War II, with reference to Poland.

    John Lamberton Harper, AMERICAN VISIONS OF EUROPE. Franklin D. Roosevelt, George F. Kennan and Dean G. Acheson, Cambridge, UK, 1994.

    (On J. L. Harper, see Polish Question in WW II, above). The author argues that Roosevelt was a Jeffersonian in foreign policy, so had no interest in a postwar U. S. presence in Europe and thus shared Stalin's view on natural Soviet predominance in E. Europe.

    Warren F. Kimball, THE JUGGLER. Franklin Roosevelt as Wartime Statesman, Princeton, N. J., 1991

    W. F, Kimball (b. Brooklyn, N. Y., 1935), U. S. Navy, 1958-65, has authored many books and edited the complete Churchill-Roosevelt wartime correspondence. This is a collection of articles by a devotee of FDR, who teaches at Rutgers University. (Contrast with: John Lamberton Harper above).

    G. Great Britain, Soviet Union, United States and Poland in World War II

    LLoyd C. Gardner, SPHERES OF INFLUENCE. The Great Powers Partition Europe, from Munich to Yalta, Chicago, 1993.

    L. C. Gardner (b. Delaware, OH., 1939), USAAF 1961- 65, teaches at Rutgers University. He argues that the partitions of Europe were natural and beneficial to all concerned. This view was definitely not shared by the peoples of Eastern Europe and East European exiles in the West.

    Edward J. Rozek, ALLIED WARTIME DIPLOMACY: A Pattern in Poland, New York, 1958, reprint Boulder, CO, 1989.

    E. J. Rozek (b. Poland, 1920), served with Polish armed forces in West in World War II, earned Polish and U. S. decorations; educated as Political Scientist in U. S., long time Professor of Pol. Sc. University of Colorado at Boulder, was for 30 yrs. director of the Institute for the Study of Economic and Political Freedom, also of the Slavic Studies Program. The author condemns western betrayal of Poland;the book is valuable for use of the papers of St. Mikolajczyk (1900-1960), Premier Polish Government- in- exile, July 1943-November 1944, a Deputy Premier in postwar Poland, 1945-46. These papers are now accessible in the Hoover Institute Archives, Stanford, CA.


    H. Polish Government Policy in World War II.

  • Anna M. Cienciala (see articles listed in section B, above)

    Jan Karski, The Great Powers and Poland, 1919-1945. From Versailles to Yalta, University Press of America, Lanham, MD., 1985.

    Part II is a good survey, based mostly on secondary sources. Jan Karski (1914- 2000), a member of the Polish Home Army in WW II, was best known for his daring foray into a death camp for Jews to gather eye witness evidence of the German genocide of the Jews in Poland. He carried the news to London, where he arrived in November 1942. His report led to the Polish Government's appeal to other allied governments to act in order to stop the genocide, but the appeal came to naught. He settled in the U. S. after the war and taught International Relations and Communist Theory at Georgetown University, Washington, D. C., See: "In Memoriam. Jan Karski (1914-2000)," U. S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, September/October 2000, p. 3; "Jan Karski 1914-2000," Przeglad Polski, New York, 21 July, 2000, pp. 1-2. There is also a biography, though written in a somewhat overblown style, see: Thomas E. Wood, Karski: How One Man Tried to Stop the Holocaust, New York, 1994.

    Piotr S. Wandycz, Polish Diplomacy: Aims and Achievements, 1919- 1945, London, 1988.

    Succinct overview by a master diplomatic historian. Professor Wandycz (b. Poland 1923), has published many works on diplomatic history in the period 1918-36, as well as books on Polish-Soviet relations 1917-21, Polish-U. S. relations, and a history of East Central Europe. He is Professor Emeritus Of Yale University.

    (i) Documents on the Great Powers and the Polish Question in World War II

    Antony Polonsky, ed., THE GREAT POWERS AND THE POLISH QUESTION, 1941- 1945, London, 1980.

    British, Polish and American documents, some Russian, edited by a historian of Poland and Polish Jewry teaching at Brandeis University.


    A. Surveys.

    J. Korbel, 20th Century Czechoslovakia, New York, 1982 (ch. 8);

    (On Korbel, see under interwar Czechoslovakia).

    V. Mamatey and R. Luza, A History of the Czechoslovak Republic, 1973. (Part Two, ch. 8-13)

    (On the authors, see earlier under Czechoslovakia in the interwar period).

    B. Occupied Bohemia-Moravia, Czechoslovak Armed Forces and the Government-in-Exile.

    Bruce Berglund, "Lidice and the Czechoslovak Exiles in UK, "Kosmas: Czechoslovak and Central European Journal, vol. XIII, no. 1, 1998, pp. 136- 88.

    Berglund was then a Ph. D. student at the University of Kansas. He obtained his degree in 1999.

    Same, "We Wish We Were Home;" The Czechoslovak Emigre Community in Britain, 1940- 1945, Ph. D. Dissertation, University of Kansas, 1999.

    based on thorough research in Czech archives in Prague and U. S. this is an excellent work on the subject.

    Avigdor Dagan (Viktor Fischl), ed., "The Czechoslovak Government-in-Exile and the Jews," in: Same, The Jews of Czechoslovaka: Historical Studies and Surveys, Jewish Publication Society of America, Philadelphia, PA., 1984, pp. 449-495.

    A. Dagan (b. Czechoslovakia, 1913) represented the Jewish Party in the Czechoslovak parliament before the war; was in London during the war, and became an Israeli diplomat in 1950.

    Radomir Luza, The Hitler Kiss A Memoir of the Czech Resistance, Baton Rouge, LA, 2002.

    Personal memoir by the son of one of its leaders, who was betrayed and killed. The author shows that the resistance was largely passive until 1944. He taught history for many years at the Univ. of Louisiana at Baton Rouge.

    Vojtech Mastny, THE CZECHS UNDER NAZI RULE. The Failure of National Resistance, 1939-1942, New York, 1971.

    Nazi policy was fairly lenient until the assassination of Reinhard Heydrich in May 1942. There was a collaborationist government under President Emil Hacha which, however, was in secret contact with the Czechoslovak government in London. Mastny cites Czech underground leaders begging President E. Benes not to proceed with the assassination of Heydrich because it was bound to bring severe reprisals and destroy the underground, but Benes decided to go through with it in order to prove that the Czechs were resisting the German occupation. (pp. 209 ff). The result was the German burning of Lidice. (See Berglund above and Macdonald below).

    Same, "The Benes-Stalin-Molotov Conversations in December 1943. New Documents," Jahrbanduuml;cher fanduuml;r Geschichte Osteuropas, vol. 20, no. 3, 1972, pp. 367-402.

    Czech account of important conversations which laid the basis for the semi-democratic Czechoslovak political system as it existed in 1945-48.


    C. Macdonald (b. Scotland, 1947), teaches at the University of Warwick, UK. This is a detailed study of the plan to drop Czech parachutists from UK to kill Heydrich, its implementation, and German retaliation. He was killed by Czechs parachuted in from London.They were betrayed by one of their own but fought to the death rather than surrender.

    Alice Teichova, "The Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia (1939-1945): the economic dimension," in: Mikulas Teich, Bohemia in History, Cambridge, 1998, pp. 267-305.

    A good survey by a Czech economic historian.

    Lewis White, ed., On All Fronts: Czechs and Slovaks in World War II, East European Monographs, Boulder CO., and New York, 1991.

    This is the most comprehensive Eng. lang. work on the topic so far.

    President Edvard Benes in World War II.

    Edvard Benes, MEMOIRS OF DR. EDUARD BENES: From Munich to New Victory, trans. Geoffrey Lias, London, 1954, reprint Wstport, CT, 1978.

    Benes wrote with an eye to Soviet susceptibilities; it was published after his death in 1948.

    George F. Kennan, FROM PRAGUE AFTER MUNICH. Diplomatic Papers, 1938- 1940, Princeton, N. J. 1968.

    G. F. Kennan (b. 1901), a famous American diplomat and expert on Soviet foreign policy, was U. S. minister in Prague at this time.

    Edward Taborsky, PRESIDENT EDVARD BENES BETWEEN EAST AND WEST, 1938- 1948, Stanford, CA, 1981, (ch. 1-8).

    E. Taborsky (b. Prague, 1910). This is a valuable work by Benes's Private Secretary, based on his contemporary notes, whose papers are now in the Hoover Institute Archives, Stanford, CA. The author was, for many years, a Professor of Government at the University of Texas, Houston, TX., and authored Communism in Czechoslovakia, 1948-1960, Princeton, 1961.

    Zbynek Zeman with Antonin Klimek, The Life of Edvard Benes, 1884-1948. Czechoslovakia in Peace and War, Oxford, 1997, ch. 10-14.

    This work is highly critical of Benes. For the authors, see section on Interwar Czechoslovakia.

    C. The Sudeten Germans at the end of World War II.

    Radomir Luza, THE TRANSFER OF THE SUDETEN GERMANS. A Study of Czech-German Relations, 1933-1962, New York, 1964.

    See Part III, Decisive Years. (On Luza, see sections on interwar and wartime Czechoslovakia).

    Ronald M. Smelser, "The Expulsion of the Sudeten Germans: 1945-1952," NATIONALITIES PAPERS, vol. 24, no. 1, March 1996, pp. 79-92.

    While the expulsion of any people from their homeland is a violation of human rights, we should keep in mind that most Sudeten Germans welcomed German sovereignty and that thousands of Czechs were expelled after the annexation of the region to Germany in October 1938. Therefore, when Benes issued the appropriate decrees, the expulsion of the Sudeten Germans was supported by the vast majority of Czechs. and Czech public opinion supports it to this day.

    D. Slovakia in World War II.

    Yeshayahu A. Jelinek, THE PARISH REPUBLIC: Hlinka's Slovak People's Party, 1939-1945, East Eur. Mon. 14, New York, 1976.

    A critical study by a Czech-born Israeli historian.

    Stanislav J. Kirschbaum, A History of Slovakia, New York, 1995, ch. 9, 10.

    A sympathetic study by a Canadian historian of Slovakia. (On Kirschbaum, see under interwar Czechoslovakia).

    E. Subcarpathian Rus in World War II.

    Paul R. Magocsi, The Shaping of a National Identity: Subcarpathian Rus', 1848-1948, Cambridge, Mass., 1978, ch. 12, 13.

    Magocsi teaches at the University of Toronto; has authored a Historical Atlas of East Central Europe, an Atlas of Ukrainian history, and a history of Ukraine.

    Section 7. pt. 3. HUNGARY in World War II.

    A. Surveys:

    Jorg K. Hoensch, A History of Modern Hungary, 1867-1986, trans. Kim Traynor, London, New York 1988, 2nd edition, 1996, ch. 4.

    J. K. Hoensch teaches at the University of the Saarland, Saarbrucken, Germany.

    C. A. Macartney, OCTOBER FIFTEENTH. A History of Modern Hungary, 1929- 1945, 2nd ed., Edinburgh, 1961, vol. I, ch. 18-24, and vol. II

    By a British historian sympathetic to Hungary; this is still a valuable source on the subject.

    Peter F. Sugar et al., A History of Hungary, Bloomington, IN, 1990. Ch. 18 (pp. 346-355), covers the war period.

    P. F. Sugar (d. 1999) was an eminent historian of Eastern Europe who taught for many years at the University of Washington, Seattle, WA.

    Kristian Ungvary, Battle for Budapest. 100 Days in World War II, Translated by Ladislaus Lob, London, 2003.

    Hitler ordered Budapest to be defended at all costs and much of the city was destroyed. See review by Thomas Land, Times Literary Supplement, 19 & 26 December 2003, p. 35.

    B. Hungarian WW II Diplomacy:

    Mario D. Fenyo, HITLER, HORTHY AND HUNGARY. German-Hungarian Relations, 1941-1944, New Haven, 1972.

    Stephen D. Kertesz, DIPLOMACY IN A WHIRLPOOL. Hungary Between Nazi Germany and Soviet Russia, Notre Dame, IN, 1953, (ch. 4, pp. 48-57.

    Kertesz was a Hungarian diplomat before becoming an American scholar specializing in Hungary. (On the author, see under interwar Hungary). This an older work but still useful by a Hungarian diplomat.

    Guyla Juhasz, HUNGARIAN FOREIGN POLICY, 1914-1945, Budapest, 1975. ch. IV, V, pp. 157-338, covers the war period.

    This is the most detailed account of the topic in English. Juhasz is a diplomatic historian; the book was written under some political constraints but is generally reliable.

    Thomas L. Sakmyster, Hungary's admiral on horseback: Miklos Horthy 1918-1944, East European Monographs, Boulder, CO., and New York, 1994.

    See note on author in section on interwar Hungary.

    Lorent Tilkovszky, PAL TELEKI (1879-1941): A Biographical Sketch, Budapest, 1974.

    P. Teleki, Premier 1920-21 and 1939-41, committed suicide when Horthy abandoned the policy of balancing between Great Britain and Germany. This biography is biased against the Premier.

    Documents on Admiral Horthy.

    Miklos de Nagabanya Horthy, CONFIDENTIAL PAPERS, edited by Miklos Szinai and Laszlo Szacs, Budapest, 1965.

    This is a selection of documents, accompanied by comments with a strong anti- Horthy bias.

    C. Horthy's Memoirs.

    Nicholas Horthy, Memoirs, 1957, reprint, Westport CT, 1978.

    Written in exile near Lisbon, Portugal, these memoirs give the author's point of view.

    D. Kalley Memoirs.

    Miklos Kallay, HUNGARIAN PREMIER: A Personal Account of a Nation's Struggle in the Second World War, 1954, reprint, Westport, CT, 1970

    Kallay was Premier in 1942-33; these memoirs were written in exile.

    Other Memoirs on Hungary in WW II.

    John Flournoy-Montgomery, Hungary: The Unwilling Satellite, New York, 1947

    sympathetic account by former U. S. ambassador in Budapest, 1933-41.

    Ferenc A. Vali, A SCHOLAR'S ODYSSEY, Ames, Iowa, 1990

    Life story of an American scholar of Hungarian origin, author of a book on the Hungarian Uprising of 1956.

    E. Hungarian Jews in WW II.

    Randolph L. Braham, comp., THE HUNGARIAN JEWISH CATASTROPHE: A Selected and Annotated Bibliography, 2d rev. ed., East Eur. Monographs no. 162, New York, 1984.

    R. L. Braham (b. Romania, 1922) is a historian of the Holocaust; he teaches at the City University of New York.

    Same with Bela Vago, eds., The Holocaust in Hungary Forty Years Later, Social Science Monographs and Institute of Holocaust Studies of the City University of New York, and Institute of Holocaust Studies of the University of Haifa, 1985.

    Part II contains chapters on the Holocaust in Hungary; part III, deals with Interpretations and Reactions; part IV is titled: The Lingering Issue. (On the editors, see: Interwar Hungary).

    Same with Attila Pok, eds., The Holocaust in Hungary Fifty Years Later, New York, 1997.

    This is a volume of papers read at a conference in Budapest, April 1994. Some of the papers are published in English, some in Hungarian. After the Opening Remarks, in which K.U's former Administrator Frances, Dagen Horowitz, took part, the book is divided as follows: Antecedents (2 papers are in English); The Holocaust Era: 1941-45 (3 Papers in English); The Postwar Era (7 papers in English). Attila Pok, was then Director of the Institute of History, Hungarian Academy of Sciences.

    Same, "An Assault on Historical Memory: Hungarian Nationalists and the Holocaust," East European Quarterly, vol. 33, no. 4, Winter 1999, pp. 411- 425.

    How Hungarian nationalists are trying to rewrite the history of the Hungarian Holocaust.

    Bela Zsolt, Nine Suitcases, translated by Ladislaus Lob, London, 2003.

    extraordinary oddyseey of a Jewish-Hungarian family; review in Times Literary Supplement, 03/12/04, p. 37.


    Section 7, pt. 4. The Balkans in World War II.

    1. Surveys:

    Barbara Jelavich, HISTORY OF THE BALKANS. Twentieth Century, Cambridge, UK, 1973, and reprints (ch. 7);

    (On author, see Pt I, Balkans)

    L. S. Stavrianos, THE BALKANS SINCE 1453, New York, 1959, ch. 38.

    (On author, please see Pt I, Balkans).

    2. British Policy in the Balkans in WW II:

    Phyllis Auty and Richard Clogg, eds., British Policy Towards Wartime Resistance in Yugoslavia and Greece, London, 1975

    P. Auty (b. UK, 1910) was a specialist on Yugoslavia; R. Clogg is a British historian of Greece. These are conference papers including those by Elizabeth Barker, an English historian of World War II diplomacy (see below), and Frederick W. Deakin (b. 1913), who was involved in Special Operations in Yugoslavia in World War II and is an authority on the subject.

    Elizabeth Barker, British Policy in South-East Europe in the Second World War, London, 1976.

    This is a detailed study by a specialist.

    Stoyan Rachev, Anglo-Bulgarian Relations during the Second World War (1939- 1944), Sofia, 1981. [See also under: Yugoslavia].

    Work by a Bulgarian historian written under political constraints.

    (i) Albania in WW II.

    Julian Amery, SONS OF THE EAGLE: A Study in Guerrilla War, London, 1948.

    J. Amery (b. London, 1919) was a British liaison officer to the Albanian resistance movement, 1944. He has written a book on Joseph Chamberlain.

    Berndt J. Fischer, Albania at War, 1939-1945, West Lafayette, IN., 1999.

    Fischer, who is an expert on Albania and Germany, also international relations, teaches in the Dept. of History, Indiana/Purdue University. This work, based on many primary and secondary sources, is the best study of the subject for far. (see Richard Crampton's review inSlavic Review, vol. 59, no. 3, Fall 2000, pp. 653-654).

    Miranda Vickers, A History of Albania, New York, N. Y., 1999 chapter 7.

    (ii) Bulgaria in WWII.

    R. J. Crampton, A Short History of Modern Bulgaria, Cambridge, UK, 1987 (pp. 124-134); Same, A Concise History of Bulgaria, Cambridge, UK, 1997, ch. 7.

    (On R. J. Crampton, see Part I, Historical Atlases).

    Michael M. Boll, THE COLD WAR IN THE BALKANS: American Foreign Policy and the Emergence of Communist Bulgaria, 1943-1947, Lexington, Ky., 1984.

    Stephane Groueff, CROWN OF THORNS: The Reign of King Boris III of Bulgaria, 1918-1943, Lanham, Md., 1987.

    favorable to the King.

    John R. Lampe, THE BULGARIAN ECONOMY IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY, New York, 1986 (ch. 4);

    J. R. Lampe is an American specialist on Bulgaria teaching at the University of Maryland, College Park, MD.

    Marshall Lee Miller, Bulgaria during the Second World War, Stanford, 1975

    by an American historian.

    Nissen Oren, BULGARIAN COMMUNISM: The Road to Power, 1934-1944, Baltimore, 1973.

    By an American specialist on Bulgaria.

    Bulgarian Jews in WW II.

    Frederick B. Chary, The Bulgarian Jews and the Final Solution, 1940- 44, Pittsburg, 1972.

    F. B. Chary (b. Philadelphia, 1939) teaches at Indiana University North West, and edits the journalSouth East Europe.

    (iii) Greece in WW II.

    1. Surveys

    Richard Clogg, A Short History of Modern Greece, Cambridge University Press, 1974, 1979.

    By a British historian of Greece (see chapter on Greece in World War II).

    Same, Greece, 1940-1949. Occupation, Resistance, Civl War: A Documentary History, London, 2003.

    Richard Clogg and George Yannopoulos, eds., Greece under Military Rule, London, 1972

    D. George Kousoulas, Modern Greece. Profile of a Nation, New York, 1974 (ch. 5, The War Years, pp. 194-221).

    D. G. Kousoulas, a Greek historian, was then Professor of Political Science at Howard University.

    2. The Great Powers and Greece in WW II and immediate postwar period

    Peter J. Stavrakis, Moscow and Greek Communism, 1944-1949, Ithaca and London, 1989.

    P. J. Stavrakis was then teaching Political Science at the University of Vermont. The book is based on Greek and U. S. archival documents and shows that Stalin shifted his policy in response to Greek politics and his relations with the western Powers.

    Lawrence S. Wittner, American Intervention in Greece, 1943-1949, New York, 1982.

    L. W. Wittner was then teaching at SUNY, Albany; he criticizes U. S. policy.


    (iv) Romania in WW II.

    Keith Hitchins, RUMANIA 1866-1947, Oxford, 1994 (ch. 11, pp. 451-500).

    K. Hitchins (b. Schenectady, N. Y., 1931) is the leading American historian of Romania; he teaches at the University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana, IL.

    Paul E. Michelson, "In Search of the 20th Century: Marshal Antonescu and Romanian History A Review Essay," Romanian Civilization, vol. III, no. 2, 1994, pp. 49-64.

    Marshal Ion Antonescu (1882-1946) was Head of State 1940-44 and an ally of Germany, but tried to open peace negotiations with the western allies in 1942-43, without success. Arrested in late August 1944, he and other members of his cabinet were taken to Moscow and held there until their show trial, March 1946; he was executed June 1, 1946.

    P. E. Michelson is an American historian of Romania and one of the co-authors of A History of Romania (see Kurt W. Treptow, below).

    Kurt W. Treptow ed., A History of Romania, 3rd ed., Iasi., 1997.

    This book is written by Romanian and American historians. Ch. III, The Twentieth Century pp. 467-513 covers the wartime period.

    British and American Policies toward Romania in WW II:

    Elizabeth Barker, British Policy in South-East Europe in the Second World War, London, 1976.

    Paul D. Quinlan, Clash over Romania: British and American Policies towards Romania, 1938-1947, Los Angeles, CA, 1977.

    By an American historian of Romania; includes information on Romanian attempts to reach a separate peace with the western powers.


    (v) Yugoslavia in WW II.

    A. Surveys:

    Stephen Clissold, ed., A Short History of Yugoslavia, Cambridge, UK, 1966, 1968 (ch. 11).

    S. Clissold (b. UK, 1913), was sent to Yugoslavia in 1943 and acted as a translator for Winston S. Churchill and J. B. Tito at their meeting in Italy, 1944.

    Fred Singleton, A Short History of the Yugoslav Peoples, Cambridge, UK, 1985 (ch. 9);

    F. Singleton was chair of the Postgraduate School of Yugoslav Studies at the University of Bradford, 1971-81, when he retired.

    Jozo Tomasovich, War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941-1945. Occupation and Collaboration. Stanford, CA, 2001.

    The best work on the subject. See Crompton review in International History Review, vol. XXIV, no. 4, Dec. 2002, pp. 931-933.

    Wayne S. Vucinich, ed., CONTEMPORARY YUGOSLAVIA: Twenty Years of Socialist Experiment, Berkeley, CA, 1969 (see Jozo V. Tomasevich's excellent article on Yugoslavia in the war).

    B. Mihailovich's Chetniks, and allied policies in WW II Yugoslavia.

    Matteo J. Milazzo, THE CHETNIK MOVEMENT and YUGOSLAV RESISTANCE, Baltimore and London, 1975.

    good study.

    PORTRAIT OF A TRAITOR. The Case of General Mihailovich, Introductory Essay by David Martin.

    Translation of "Proceedings and Report of the Commission of Inquiry of the Commitee for a Fair Trial for Dragoljub (Draja) Mihajlovich)", Stanford, CA, 1978.

    General Mihajlovich (1893-1946) was given a rigged trial and executed as a traitor by the Communist Yugoslav government. David Martin is an American historian sympathetic to Mihajlovich.

    Walter R. Roberts, Tito, Mihailovic and the Allies, 1941-1945, New Brunswick, N. J., 1973.

    By a former U. S. ambassador sympathetic to Mihailovic.

    Jozo V. Tomasevich, THE CHETNIKS. vol. l of: War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941-1945, Stanford, CA, 1977

    for his complete work, see section A above.

    D. Josip Broz Tito, the Partisan Movement, and the Great Powers.

    Nora Beloff, TITO'S FLAWED LEGACY. Yugoslavia and the West since 1939, Boulder, CO, 1985.

    Nora Beloff (1919-1997) was a British writer and journalist. This is an attack on the Tito myth; ch. 1-3 deal with the war period.

    Aleksa Djilas, THE CONTESTED COUNTRY. Yugoslav Unity and Communist Revolution, 1919-1953, Cambridge, Mass, 1991.

    An excellent study.

    Milovan Djilas, WARTIME, New York, 1977.

    Same: TITO. The Story from Inside, New York, 1980

    Milovan Djilas was a member of the top leadership of the Partisans, later a dissident. This is a critical biography by one who knew Tito well and turned against him. The book ranges over the whole of Tito's life, including wartime.

    Paul Ivan Jukic, Uncommon Cause: The Soviet Union and Rise of Tito's Yugoslavia, 1941-1945, Ph.D. Dissertation, Yale University, Director: Ivo Banac, Yale University, May 1997.

    The work is based on research in Moscow and Zagreb archives, where the author utilized previously unknown documents.

    Michael Lees, THE RAPE OF SERBIA;: The British Role in Tito's Grab for Power, 1943-1944, San Diego, 1990.

    by a British liaison officer with the Chetniks, who claims the British helped the Communists (cf. David Martin's book below).

    Fitzroy Maclean THE HERETIC: The Life and Times of Josip Broz Tito, New York, 1957.

    by an admiring Briton, member of the British Military Mission to Tito and his Partisans.

    Same, Eastern Approaches, London 1949, reprint, 1966.


    David Martin, THE WEB OF DISINFORMATION: Churchill's Yugoslav Blunder, New York, 1990.

    The author argues that Churchill abandoned Mihailovich for Tito under influence of Communist agents.

    Walter Roberts, Tito, Mihailovic, and the Allies, 1941-1945, Durham, NC, 1987.

    diplomatic history: British, Soviet and U. S. policy toward Yugoslavia by a former U. S. ambassador, sympathetic to Mihailovic.

    Mark C. Wheeler, Britain and the War for Yugoslavia, 1940-1943, East Eur. Monographs no. 64, New York, 1980.

    focuses on British relations with Yugoslav government-in-exile.