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N.N. Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences

 

 

 

Head of the Institute: A.A. Berlin, professor, Corresponding Member, Russian Academy of Sciences. Tel: (095)137-61-11, e-mail: berlin@chph.ras.ru

 

 

Scientific secretary: G.I. Skachkov, Dr.Sci. (chem.). Tel: (095)137-63-20,

e-mail: skach@chph.ras.ru

 

 

 

 

Postal Address: ul. Kosygina 4, Moscow 119991, Russia

 

CONTENTS

 

 

 

 

1. Out the history of Institute

2. Department of combustion and explosion

3. Department of kinetics and catalysis

4. Department of polymers and composites

5. Department of substance structure

6. Department of dynamicsl of chemical and biological processes

7. Laboratory of stereochemistry

8. Laboratory of medical biophysics

9. Department of scientific and technical information

10. Experimental production

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

OUT THE HISTORY OF INSTITUTE

 

 

The Institute of Chemical Physics was organized October 15, 1931, on the base of physicochemical Division of the Leningrad Physicotechnical Institute. The first Head of the Institute was N.N. Semenov, Corresponding Member USSR Academy of Sciences and later academician, Nobel Prize Winner.

The Institute was created with the aim of introduction of physical theories and methods into chemistry, chemical industry, and other branches of economics. 70 years of the Institute activity showed that this problem was solved. However, the main achievement of the Institute team and its Head N.N. Semenov was the creation of a new branch of natural sciences, chemical physics. N.N. Semenov defined the chemical physics as a science describing the fundamentals of chemical transformations and the associated problems of substance structure. This notion indicates that chemical physics has a comprehensive character and it is not surprising that its ideas and concepts are using in all areas of natural sciences including biology and medicine.

Initially, the basic line of investigation in the Institute was the theory of chain reactions, processes of combustion and explosion, later chain reactions of nuclear fission and polymerization reactions. At present, in the Institute, studies of kinetics and mechanism of heterogeneous chemical reactions and catalysis, liquid-phase oxidation reactions, and kinetics of chemical reactions in biological systems are developing.

New research centers for studying different branches of chemical physics were created during N.N. Semenov's lifetime: Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion, Siberian Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Division, RAS, Institute of Chemical Physics, Academy of Sciences of Armenia. In Noginsk Research Center, the Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics was organized; in Moscow, Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics, Center of Photochemistry, Institute of Energy Problems of Chemical Physics were organized, and Heads of these Institutes are disciples of N.N. Semenov and their disciples.

Recently, on academician V.I. Gol'danskii initiative, the United Institute of Chemical Physics was created involving Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, RAS, Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics (Noginsk Center, Chernogolovka), Institute of Biochemical Physics, RAS, and Center of Photochemistry, RAS.

The old Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics consists of five large Departments with the own 'face' each, namely:

-         Department of kinetics and catalysis.

-         Department of polymers and composite materials.

-         Department of combustion and explosion.

-         Goldanskii Department of substance structure.

-         Department of dynamics of chemical and biological processes.

Moreover, the Laboratory of medical biophysics and Laboratory of stereochemistry form a part of the Institute.

The Institute team consists of 940 researchers and 150 engineers and technicians including 142 Dr. Sci., 322 Ph. D., 2 Members, RAS, and 1 Corresponding Member, RAS; about 70 collaborators of the Institute are Lenin and State Prize winners.

In spite of geopolitical perturbations, the scientific cooperation of the Insitute with research centers of FSU and foreign countries is developing. At present a number of researchers of the Institute works in USA, Japan, West Europe, and East European countries, and personal contacts contribute to the development of scientific and technical cooperation.

The Institute can be proud of large-scale introduction of the scientific results obtained by the Institute collaborators into various branches of industry including the military applications. At the moment, in all Departments of the Institute, the fundamental works are deeply intertwined with the industry problems, creation of new materials, machines, and technologies.

 

DEPARTMENT OF COMBUSTION AND EXPLOSION

 
 
 
Head of the Department S.V. Chuiko,
Dr. Sci. (Phys.-Mat),
Professor, USSR State Prize winner

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

GENERAL LINES OF INVESTIGATION

 

Fundamental and applied theoretical and experimental investigations of fast chemical and physicochemical transformations of substances and systems in the processes of pyrolysis, combustion, explosion, and detonation. The investigation is concerned with condensed explosives, gun powders, rocket propellants, pyrotechnic and explosive systems, their components, combustible gases, liquids, synthetic and natural combustible materials, utilization of explosive systems, powders, propellants, and chemical toxicants.#

The Department consists of 10 laboratories.19 Dr. Sci., 40 Ph. D. work in the Department.#

 

 

LABORATORY OF COMBUSTION

 

Head of the Laboratory V.M. Shmelev, Dr. Sci. (Phys.-Math.)

 

LINE OF INVESTIGATION

 

The development of combustion theory, ecologically pure combustion of gases.

 

BASIC RESULTS

Cross-wave and fractal regimes of electrocarbonization of polymers were found and investigated.

Pyrolysis and ignition of gun powders under the light illumination were studied.

Combustion of gas mixture in a ceramic perforated matrix with a catalytic layer was

studied.

A theory of pulse nonisoentropic compression of gases was developed.

Ecologically pure radiation gas burners with catalytic or bulk-perforated matrix and cellular radiation shield for natural gas combustion were designed.

Tel: (095) 939-72-95

Fax: (095) 137-82-97

e-mail: shmelev@chph.ras.ru

 

 

LABORATORY OF PHYSICS OF SOLID FUEL COMBUSTION

 

Head of the Laboratory A.A. Zenin, Dr. Sci. (Phys.-Math.), Professor

 

LINES OF INVESTIGATION

 

Experimental and theoretical study of solid fuel combustion.

 

BASIC RESULTS

 

Fundamental physicochemical processes in the waves of ignition and combustion of propellents of different chemical classes were studied. A physico-mathematical model of the erosion process predicting the combustion rates in a wide range of environmental conditions was developed.

Ignition and combustion of modern high-energy powders in the rocket chambers were investigated.

Fundamental studies of mechanisms of aluminum particles combustion under zero gravity and free drop were performed.

Tel: (095) 939-72-95

Fax: (095) 137-82-97

e-mail: zenin@chph.ras.ru

 

 

LABORATORY OF EXPLOSION PROCESSES IN GASES AND TWO-PHASE SYSTEMS

 

Head of the Laboratory A.A. Borisov, Dr. Sci. (Phys.-Math.), Professor, USSR State Prize winner

 

LINES OF INVESTIGATION

 

Processes of combustion and explosion of multiphase media.

 

BASIC RESULTS

 

Experiments on ignition of aluminum and potassium nitrate aerosols were performed. A possibility of detonation of aluminum-potassium nitrate aerosols and generation of pressure waves with amplitude exceeding 100 atm and duration more than 10 ms was demonstrated.

A model of multiphase flows to calculate complex gas-dynamic phenomena including shock waves and chemical reactions was developed.

The excitation of detonation and nonstationary regimes with shock waves supported by a reaction in the aerosols of aluminum and solid oxidant was experimentally studied.

The complex effect of elevated pressure and temperature on the ignition limits of enriched methane-air mixtures was investigated. A possibility of ignition of superrich methane-air mixtures (28% CH4) at pressures exceeding 10 atm and temperatures about 350C was established. A detailed kinetic mechanism of formation of basic products of the studied mixtures combustion was developed.

Tel: (095) 939-73-01

Fax: (095) 137-82-97

e-mail: borisov@chph.ras.ru

 

LABORATORY OF METALLIZED SYSTEMS COMBUSTION

 

Head of the Laboratory Yu.V. Frolov, Dr. Sci. (Phys.-Math.), Professor, USSR State Prize winner

 

LINE OF INVESTIGATION

 

The studies on the mechanism of metallized condensed systems combustion, combustion of compositions of superhigh-temperature synthesis and pyrotechnic compositions, as well as fire extinguishing problem. The synthesis of new materials in the combustion wave.

 

BASIC RESULTS

 

A role of internal structure of charge upon forming combustion wave and the pattern of the wave propagation were studied.

Fundamentals of creation of high-efficient fire extinguishers for closed and semiclosed space based on combustion of aerosol-generating systems were developed.

The synthesis of a highly dispersed high-activity titanium powder was performed. The mechanism and procedures of synthesis of borocarbonitrides were studied along with a possibility to densify the materials. The properties of the obtained product as a component of reusable batteries were studied.

Tel: (095) 939-71-84

Fax: (095) 137-82-97

e-mail: 7777@chph.ras.ru

 

LABORATORY OF EXPLOSION PROCESSES IN CONDENSED SYSTEMS

 

Head of the Laboratory A.A. Sulimov, Dr. Sci. (Phys.-Math.), Professor

 

LINE OF INVESTIGATION

 

The investigation of convection combustion and combustion-detonation transition in porous high-energy materials (HEM).

 

BASIC RESULTS

 

The mechanism of inhibition of convection combustion of HEM was studied. A theoretical model of quasistationary inhibited convection combustion of low-porosity charges of HEM was developed.

Special features of HEM and experimental conditions to realize the combustion-detonation transition due to the formation of a secondary pressure wave in the combustion zone were determined.

A new theoretical model of aluminum oxidation in the products of secondary explosive detonation was developed and used to analyze imperfect properties of detonation.

Critical conditions of explosion upon combustion accidents with large quantities of explosives were determined.

A new method for testing a trend of explosives to the combustion-explosion transition was created and recommended as a standard test method to the Committee of UN experts in the hazardous materials transportation.

Tel: (095) 939-72-31

Fax: (095) 137-82-97

e-mail: sulimov@chph.ras.ru

 

 

LABORATORY OF PHYSICS OF CONDENSED MEDIA EXPLOSION

 

Head of the Laboratory M.F. Gogulya, Ph. D. (Phys.-Mat.)

 

LINE OF INVESTIGATION

 

The study of physicochemical transformations in condensed media induced by shock wave using a high-speed optical pyrometry technique.

 

BASIC RESULTS

 

The mechanisms of initiation and propagation of mechanochemical reactions in heterogeneous reactive systems exposed to intensive dynamic forces were experimentally studied.

An explosion-type tubular accelerator for metallic disks to create elevated pressures in chemical compounds under examination was developed.

Tel: (095) 939-72-89

Fax: (095) 137-82-97

e-mail: gogyu@polymer.chph.ras.ru

 

LABORATORY OF HIGH-ENERGY SYSTEMS

 

Head of the Laboratory B.L. Korsunskii, Dr. Sci. (Chem.), Professor

 

LINES OF INVESTIGATION

 

The investigation of kinetics and mechanism of thermal degradation of high-energy substances and estimation of their chemical stability.

Thermodynamics of explosion processes.

 

BASIC RESULTS

 

Kinetics and mechanisms of thermal degradation of a number of high-energy substances of nitramine, azide, and tetrazole type were studied, the dependence of their reactivity on the molecular structure and phase state was established, and the thermal stability of new compounds of the classes under examination was predicted.

A phase diagram of carbon including C60 fullerene was constructed. Gas-phase equilibria of fullerene with carbon clusters were analyzed.

New high-efficient sorbents based on porphyrins and phthalocyanines for the chromatographic analysis of fullerenes were developed.

Tel: (095) 939-71-10

Fax: (095) 137-82-97

e-mail: kors@polymer.chph.ras.ru

 

LABORATORY OF AERODYNAMICS OF LARGE-SCALE PROCESSES OF COMBUSTION AND EXPLOSION

Head of the Laboratory Yu.A. Gostintsev, Dr. Sci. (Phys.-Math.), Professor

 

LINE OF INVESTIGATION

 

Gas dynamics and chemical physics of combustion and explosion processes.

 

BASIC RESULTS

 

A regime of self-simulating propagation of autoaccelerating turbulent spherical flame in gas mixtures was observed and theoretically described.

Parameters of shock waves generated in atmosphere, upon detonation, and nonstationary burning out of high-volume gas mixtures were theoretically and experimentally studied.

A process of generation of thermal and fuel nitrogen oxides upon high-power explosions, electric discharges, and launches of heavy launch vehicles in atmosphere was simulated.

Special features of degradation of ozone atmospheric layer upon interaction with nitrogen oxides were studied.

A phase diagram for a graphite-diamond-fullerite system was constructed. Temperature and pressure ranges of coexistence of these three modifications of solid carbon were established.

A model (a computer program package) for propagation of heavy toxic clouds in the stratified atmosphere and in wind field was developed, which allows one to perform an approximate analysis of the evolution of chemical effective zone upon the instantaneous exhausts of high volumes of hazardous substances.

Tel: (095) 939-71-10

Fax: (095) 137-82-97

e-mail:gost@polymer.chph.ras.ru

 

LABORATORY OF THERMOCHEMISTRY

 

Head of the Laboratory Yu.N. Matyushin, Dr. Sci. (Tech.)

 

LINE OF INVESTIGATION

 

Thermochemistry of highenergy compounds and salts of different classes.

 

BASIC RESULTS

 

Thermochemical characteristics of a wide variety of nitro-, amino-, and fluoro derivatives of pyrazole, triazine, triazole, furoxane, and furazane were determined. Enthalpies of formation of nitroform ions and nitrocompound salts, enthalpies of formation of some stable iminoxyl radicals, biradicals, and corresponding hydroxylamines were obtained.

Energies of dissociation of C-NO2, N-NO2, O-NO2, C-H, C-C, and C-O bonds in the compounds of the aforementioned types were determined, and the regularities in the energy changes depending on the compound structure were established. Data banks of thermochemical parameters were created.

The optimum thermodynamic conditions to realize the maximum yield of polyformaldehyde according to the technological process of the Kuskovo plant were found.

Tel: (095) 939-74-63

Fax: (095) 137-82-97

e-mail: ynm@polymer.chph..ras.ru

 

 

LABORATORY OF STATIONARY COMBUSTION OF CONDENSED SYSTEMS

 

Head of the Laboratory S.V. Chuiko, Dr. Sci. (Phys.-Math.), Professor, USSR State Prize winner

 

LINES OF INVESTIGATION

 

The study of the mechanisms and regularities of combustion and explosion initiation of heterogeneous condensed systems and methods of controlling ballistic and energy characteristics.

The study and forecasting of ballistic characteristics of components of high-energy premixed systems.

 

BASIC RESULTS

 

General laws of formation of baric and temperature coefficients of combustion rate for heterogeneous mixed systems were established.

A physicomathematical model of nonstationary combustion of macroheterogeneous fuel in the rocket chamber was developed.

A numerical solution of two-dimensional nonstationary hydrodynamic problem on the mechanical heat-up and thermal ignition of a thin layer of anomally viscous explosive under the axial shock was obtained.

Tel: (095) 939-71-82, 939-73-61

Fax: (095) 137-82-97

e-mail: gks@chph.ras.ru

 

LABORATORY OF POLYMER COMBUSTION

 

Head of the Laboratory N.A. Khalturinskii, Dr. Sci. (Chem.), Professor

 

LINES OF INVESTIGATION

 

Synthesis of flame retardant polymers. Chemical and physical modification of polymers.

Development and investigation of fire retardants and fireproof coatings.

 

BASIC RESULTS

 

Scientific methods of fire retardancy of polymers were developed.

An ecologically pure fireproof foamed coating on the base of urea formalehyde resins was proposed.

 

SCIENTIFIC CONTACTS OF THE DEPARTMENT

 

The Department maintains scientific contacts with a number of Institutes of Russian Academy of Sciences, namely: Institute of Organic Chemistry, Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Institute of Organoelement Compounds, Vernadskii Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Physical Chemistry, Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Institute of High Temperatures, Institute of Problems of Mechanics, Institute of Dynamics of Geospheres, as well as Volgograd Research Institute of Toxicology, Academy of Chemical Defense, North-Caucasian Research Institute of Phytopathology, etc.

The investigations are carried out in cooperation with a number of scientific centers of Russia: Federal Center Soyuz, Kristall Co., Altai Co., Research Institute of Metrology, Research Institute of Steel, Design Office Tekhnolog, Central Research Institute of Machine Building, and Moscow State Technical University.

On the base of the Department, the training of students and post-graduated students of Moscow Institute of Engineering Physics is carried out; the students of Moscow State University, Mendeleev Russian Chemical Engineering University, Kiev Chemical Technology University, Leningrad Technological Institute, and other institutes make laboratory works, scientific training works, and theses. The Department maintains scientific contacts with foreign organizations of the related profile, namely, with Frauenhofer Institute of Chemical Engineering, Department of Engineer Mechanics of Inkha University (Inchon, Corea), and Laboratory of Hypersonic Aerodynamics of Queensland University (Brisbane, Australia). The Department is also in cooperation with the International Pyrotechnic Society.

Tel: (095) 939-71-10

Fax: (095) 137-82-97

e-mail: khalt@polymer.chph..ras.ru

 

DEPARTMENT OF KINETICS AND CATALYSIS

 

 

 

 

Head of the Department B.R. Shub,

Dr. Sci. (Chem.), Professor

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

GENERAL LINES OF INVESTIGATION

 

Fundamental and applied investigations in the following fields:

kinetics and mechanism of gas-phase reactions;

theoretical and quantum chemistry;

ecochemistry;

surface reactions and catalysis;

reactions in condensed media.

 

The Department team consists of 45 Dr. Sci. and 92 Ph. D.

The Department comprises of three complexes of laboratories.

1. The complex of laboratories of kinetics of gas-phase processes. Head of the Complex O.M. Sarkisov, Dr. Sci. (Phys.-Math.), Professor; the Complex comprises of 8 laboratories and 4 scientific groups.

2. The complex of laboratories of kinetics of processes in condensed media. Head of the Complex Yu.N. Kozlov, Ph. D.; the Complex consists of 4 laboratories and 1 scientific groups.

3. The complex of laboratories of heterogeneous catalysis. Head of the Complex V.N. Korchak, Dr. Sci. (Chem.); the Complex consists of 5 laboratories.

 

LABORATORY OF LASER CHEMISTRY AND SPECTROSCOPY

 

Head of the Laboratory O.M. Sarkisov, Dr. Sci. (Phys.-Math.), Professor

 

LINE OF INVESTIGATION

 

Femtochemistry of molecular systems in gases and condensed media.

 

BASIC RESULTS

 

New experimental laser methods were developed, namely, time-resolved intracavity laser spectroscopy combined with pulse photolysis and 'excitation-probing' methods based on femtosecond spectroscopy using supercontinuum, Kerr optical effect, absorption spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy.

Various bimolecular reactions with the participation of radicals were studied at the microscopic level that allowed one to develop concepts on the efficiency of vibrational energy in the process of potential barrier overcoming.

The data on intramolecular processes of electron transfer, proton transfer, vibrational relaxation, singlet-singlet, singlet-triplet, and triplet-triplet transitions in photochromic molecules, porphyrins, and other molecules were obtained.

A new principle of controlling product yield with phase characteristics of femtosecond light pulses in gases (multiphoton photodissociation of ammonia) and in solutions (reactions of tautomerism in piperidinediols) was found.

Tel: (095) 939-74-97

e-mail: sarkisov@femto.chph.ru

 

LABORATORY OF HIGH-TEMPERATURE KINETICS AND GAS DYNAMICS

 

Head of the Laboratory Yu.K. Karasevich, Ph.D

 

LINE OF INVESTIGATION

 

Fundamental and applied studies in the field of high-temperature kinetics, detonation, combustion, and explosion.

 

BASIC RESULTS

 

A theory of chain reactions based on vibrational excitation was created.

A theory of nonequilibrium bimolecular reactions was developed. Based on the general theory of nonequilibrium reactions, the conditions of transition from the equilibrium regime to the nonequilibrium one were established.

Methods and equipment for direct recording energy distribution function of reacting molecules, studying their wave special features and energy exchange were developed.

New original schemes of obtaining inversion behind shock waves and in flows (for Na atoms, C2 and CO2 molecules) were developed.

Kinetics of condensation processes with the formation of clusters and cluster aggregates in the course of complex high-temperature chemical reactions was studied. Rate constants, as well as optical and ionization characteristics of metal clusters forming upon decomposition of metal carbonyls under shock waves were experimentally measured. Nonequilibrium phenomena related to the processes of growth and failure of clusters were observed. A concept of molecular-kinetic interpretation of the cluster kinetics was developed.

Experimental and theoretical studies of kinetics of carbon black formation in different systems including catalysis of carbon black formation by metal clusters were performed. New models of growth and degradation of carbon clusters were developed.

A new kinetic mechanism to decrease yield of nitrogen oxides in exhaust gases of industrial plants was proposed.

A new concept of detonation accelerator based on spraying of explosive deposited on the walls of the accelerator chamber by a pulse electric discharge, the spraying process being synchronized with the projectile motion.

A complex of methods of coding explosives by the addition of metal-containing compound traces, which can be easily determined in the explosion products by various physical methods.

Tel: (095) 939-71-09

e-mail: zaslonko@chph.ras.ru

 

LABORATORY OF HYDROCARBON OXIDATION

 

Head of the Laboratory V.S. Arutyunov, Dr. Sci. (Chem.)

 

LINE OF INVESTIGATION

 

Fundamental and applied investigations in the field of oxidation of gaseous hydrocarbons.

 

BASIC RESULTS

Theoretical fundamentals of methane and ethane oxidation under elevated pressures and moderated temperatures including quantitative kinetic models were developed.

Nonlinear phenomena observed upon methane oxidation including cold flames and a negative temperature coefficient of the reaction rate were experimentally found, studied, and theoretically described.

An important role of the initial hydrocarbon in the appearance of the negative temperature coefficient of the reaction rate was demonstrated with the propane oxidation. Models of propagation of cold and blue flames in hydrocarbons were developed.

A process of production of methanol and mixed alcohol fuels by direct oxidation of gaseous hydrocarbons of different compositions among them methane natural gases was developed.

A process of direct oxidation of hydrocarbon gases to prepare alcohols and other oxygen-containing compounds (oxygenates) was worked out. Bench tests and tests at a pilot plant with the productivity of 100 tons methanol/year were performed. Economical estimations of projects of plants with the productivity of 5000 and 10000 t/year were made. The above technology can be recommended for the commercial processing of natural gases of small deposits, exhaust and casing-head gases burned in torches, for the solution of regional problems of providing methanol and motor fuels, and commercial production of alcohol-based high-octane components of motor fuels.

tel: (095) 939-

e-mail: arutyunov@chph.ras.ru

 

LABORATORY OF HETEROGENEOUS COMBUSTION

 

Head of the Laboratory B.E. Gel'fand, Dr. Sci. (Phys.-Math.), Professor, USSR State Prize winner

 

LINE OF INVESTIGATION

 

Fundamental and applied investigations of combustion and explosion chemistry.

 

BASIC RESULTS

 

Phenomena of combustion and detonation due to focusing of shock and blast waves near to two-dimensional reflectors (angular, cylindrical, and parabolic ones) and three-dimensional reflectors (conical and spherical ones) were experimentally studied using high-speed filming, and basic modes of explosion transformation were visualized.

The interaction of nonstationary complexes 'pressure wave @ front of fast deflagration' with nonplanar reflectors of different linear size was experimentally studied. The regions of realizing elevated explosion loads, as well as the effect of a scale factor on the dynamics of explosion transformations were established.

The developed theoretical models were used to describe processes of combustion for different types of pressure waves reflection at curved surfaces and to establish dimensionless criteria of excitation of detonation and deflagration.

Focusing of blast waves in the combustible medium was studied using shock tubes equipped with ultrashort chambers of high pressure.

A refined scheme of simultaneous uniaxial detection of light emission with two wavelengths was used to determine the space location of fronts of combustion, detonation or fast deflagration.

The method of estimating demolition effect of gas explosions was accepted as an interindustry supervising document.

Tel: (095) 939-73-02

e-mail: gelfand@chph.ras.ru

 

LABORATORY OF THEORETICAL CHEMICAL PHYSICS

 

Head of the Laboratory C.Ya. Umanskii, Dr. Sci. (Phys.-Math.), Professor

 

LINE OF INVESTIGATION

 

Theoretical investigations in the field of dynamics of chemical transformation event, interaction of coherent electromagnetic radiation with substance, magnetic spectroscopy, and condensed state.

 

BASIC RESULTS

 

A method of CP Raman-induced Kerr effect spectroscopy (the control of initial prepared state of wave packet by the polarization of pump pulse) was developed. A theory was constructed and calculations of polarization-compensation femtosecond experiments carried out in the Institute of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences were performed.

A new approach to the problem of hydrodynamic interactions in dilute polymer solutions based on a concept of large-grain character of medium.

A phase diagram was constructed using a model of variation correlated state with the formation of valent bonds, and the nature of pseudogap in normal state and the gap behavior in superconducting state for different cuprates (basic materials of high-temperature superconductors) was established.

A nonadiabatic theory of slow atomic collisions was developed. The theory allows one to take into account both presence of channels with electron rearrangement and boundary conditions that results in elimination of problems of the standard theory of atoms scattering in the adiabatic electron basis.

A simple analytical theory interpreting cooperative effects in systems with hydrogen bonds and the influence of solvent nature on these effects was developed.

Tel: (095) 939-74-36

e-mail: uman@chph.ras.ru

 

LABORATORY OF MATHEMATICAL METHODS OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS

 

Head of the Laboratory V.S. Posvyanskii, Ph. D.

 

LINE OF INVESTIGATION

 

Development of numerical algorithms and programs for simulation of different processes of chemical physics.

 

BASIC RESULTS

 

An alternative theory of hydrodynamic interactions in flowing solutions of flexible-chain polymers was developed. The coefficient of translation friction and intrinsic viscosity values were calculated. A good accordance with experimental data was observed.

Using numerical simulation, the problem of multiplicity of two-dimensional combustion regimes in condensed systems was studied.

A gasless combustion characteristizing by chemical transformation via two parallel reactions with rates essentially different in various temperature ranges was considered. The obtained results showed that two different regimes of the combustion front propagation correspond to low-temperature and high-temperature ignition of mixture.

An algorithm and program for modeling processes of combustion of a drop of unicomponent and multicomponent fuel taking into account variable physical properties, heat convection, radiation, phase transitions, and chemical transformations were developed.

Tel: (095) 939-73-06

e-mail: posv@chph.ras.ru

 

LABORATORY OF THEORY OF ELEMENTARY PROCESSES AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL KINETICS

 

Head of the Laboratory F.I. Dalidchik, Dr. Sci. (Phys.-Math.), Professor

 

LINES OF INVESTIGATION

 

Tunneling phenomena in condensed phase and on the solid body surface.

The physics of scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy.

The structure and properties of highly-excited (Rydberg) states of molecules.

Nonlinear optics.

Detonation.

 

BASIC RESULTS

 

A theory of kinetic tunneling vibrational spectroscopy of individual complexes was developed, which allows one to estimate nonequilibrium distributions of particles located beneath the point using the envelopes of vibration series of autoemission STM resonances. Experimental results for Al(100) surface containing a small number of oxygen atoms (10L-100L) were quantitatively interpreted.

Analytic and numerical solutions of the problem on interaction of Rydberg atoms with a system of random and ordered centers of electron scattering were obtained.

Kinematic and dynamic special features of scattering of fast atoms of inert gases by ordered physically adsorbed monolayers were determined by analytical and numerical methods. A method of 'molecular pseudobeams', which can be used to study dynamics of 'gas-surface' collisions with angstrom space resolution was proposed.

The diffusion of gas (hydrogen) molecules through a system of communicating pores with pore boundaries forming a branched surface containing active centers was investigated. The complete yield of atoms from a micropore at a given initial concentration of active centers was estimated by analytical and numerical methods.

The self-organization of a system of interacting dipole moments in the periodical field (laser radiation) was theoretically studied. It is shown that, in NMR and intracavity laser spectroscopy, magnetic and optical effects (damped vibrations of free polarization and appearance of super-radiation pulses) are due to the same self-organization mechanism.

Dependences of parameters of the shock wave front for a charge of finite diameter at the line of the front intersection with the acoustic surface on thermodynamic and kinetic properties of condensed explosives were determined.

Tel: (095) 939-75-29

e-mail: dalidchk@chph.ras.ru

 

LABORATORY OF RADICAL REACTIONS

 

Head of the Laboratory Yu.M. Gershenzon, Dr. Sci. (Phys.-Math.), Professor

 

LINE OF INVESTIGATION

 

Kinetic studies of mechanisms of atmospheric reactions and the estimation of these reactions importance in the formation of gas composition of atmosphere.

 

BASIC RESULTS

 

According to the solution of the Coordination Scientific and Technical Council (section 'Geophysical researches') of Russian Cosmic Agency, in cooperation with the Institute of Physics of Atmosphere, Russian Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Geomagnetism, Ionosphere, and Radiowave Propagation, RAS, a study in the frame of the project 'Global monitoring of the luminescence intensity of hydroxyl and atmospheric oxygen to develop a detailed empirical model of forecasting of geophysical catastrophes (the Hydroxyl project)' is carrying out based on the kinetic mechanism of hydroxyl luminescence of upper atmosphere developed in the Laboratory in 1999.

Reactions of FO and FO2 radicals with low-content components of atmosphere were studied. Chain length of fluorine cycle of the ozone degradation (FO + O3 = FO2 + O2, FO2 + O3 = FO + 2O2) was calculated and a low intensity of this cycle in the ozonosphere was shown.

Large-scale investigations of kinetics and mechanism of heterogeneous reactions of atmospheric radicals (OH, HO2, CH3O2, NO2, NO3, and Cl) with NaCl and NaBr surfaces, which are responsible for halogen activation of marine atmosphere were carried out.. The effect of the studied reactions on the oxidizability and ozone of troposphere was found.

Tel: (095) 939-74-94

e-mail: gershenzon@chph.ras.ru

 

 

LABORATORY OF ECOCHEMICAL AND GAS ANALYSIS

 

Head of the Laboratory V.P. Balakhnin, Ph. D.

 

LINE OF INVESTIGATION

 

Researh and applied works to develop a modern technology of gas analysis based on electron-scanning optical filters made from anisotropic crystals.

 

BASIC RESULTS

 

Correlation optical filters for measurements of atmospheric pollutants (sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, benzene, phenol, and formaldehyde) were developed. Preliminary tests of a correlation gas analyzer of NO2 were performed in the Mendeleev Research Institute of Metrology (St. Petersburg).

A mathematical model of the correlation optical filter was developed.

Works on increasing long-term stability of gas analysis measurements were performed.

Tel: (095) 137-32-27

 

LABORATORY OF OXIDATION OF ALTERNATIVE FUEL

 

Head of the Laboratory V.G. Slutskii, Dr. Sci. (Phys.-Math.)

 

LINE OF INVESTIGATION

 

Fundamentals of oxidation of boron-containing clusters upon combustion.

 

BASIC RESULTS

 

Laws of ignition and combustion of boron-containing clusters prepared from carborane molecules were experimentally studied. It is established that the stage of cluster combustion is significantly shorter compared to the ignition stage. A generalized dependence of ignition delay time on cluster size, oxygen pressure, and temperature was obtained. It is shown that, at the same temperatures and pressures, the stoichiometric mixtures 'carborane clusters-oxygen' show faster ignition compared to the stoichiometric mixtures 'hydrogen-oxygen'.

Ab initio calculation of fragments forming on the surface of boron-containing clusters upon their oxidation was performed. It is shown that the fragments comprise of boron-carbon cells with intercalated oxygen atoms.

Tel: (095) 939-72-57

e-mail: slutsky@chph.ras.ru

 

GROUP OF MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF COMBUSTION

 

Head of the Group S.M. Frolov, Dr. Sci. (Phys.-Math.)

 

LINE OF INVESTIGATION

 

Fundamental and applied researches in the field of simulation of combustion and explosion in homogeneous and heterogeneous systems.

 

BASIC RESULTS

 

A mathematical model of combustion of a drop of single-component and multicomponent (emulsified) fuel in air was developed taking into account variable physical properties, heat convection, radiation, phase transitions, and chemical transformations (including formation of nitrogen oxides and carbon black). The model was used to calculate ignition and combustion of the fuel drop under conditions of combustion chamber of diesel engine. New results on the mechanism of carbon black formation in the engine were obtained.

An efficient method to control detonation capacity of fuel in advanced aircraft engines based on mixing different fuels in the combustion chamber was proposed. Detailed calculations were performed for a 'n-heptane-hydrogen peroxide' fuel pair.

A new criterium for the flame stabilization in high-velocity turbulent flow at ill-streamlined bodies was proposed. The use of this criterium allows one to develop efficient methods of combustion control in flow.

Tel: (095) 939-72-28

e-mail: smfrol@chph.ras.ru

 

VOEVODSKII LABORATORY OF CHEMICAL RADIOSPECTROSCOPY

 

Head of the Laboratory A.A. Dubinskii, Dr. Sci. (Phys.-Math.), USSR State Prize winner

 

LINES OF INVESTIGATION

 

Development of modern methods of ESR spectroscopy and their use to study structure and dynamics of centers in condensed phase.

Development of ESR spectroscopy of high-resolution in millimeter UHF range (ESR in superhigh fields) including pulsed and multiresonance methods allowed one to increase considerably the sensitivity, spectral resolution, and time resolution of ESR spectroscopy. The chemical physics of deposited metal complexes and nanostructured oxide semiconductors.

 

BASIC RESULTS

 

Fundamental laws of ESR spectroscopy of multispin systems in superhigh fields were established.

A method of double-spin probes was developed to study supramolecules structure. The chemical physics of deposited metal complexes and nanostructured oxide semiconductors. A mechanism of primary stages of calcification of xenobioimplants of heart valves and main vessels was established. In 2000, Dr. A.I. Kokorin and coworkers obtained the RF Government prize in the field of science and technics for the development and application of new biotechnologies in cardiovascular surgery.

 

Tel: (095) 939-74-08

e-mail: doubinsk@chph.ras.ru

 

LABORATORY OF CATALYSIS OF REDOX PROCESSES

 

Head of the Laboratory Yu.N. Kozlov, Ph. D.

 

LINE OF INVESTIGATION

 

Study of regularities and mechanisms of simple and complex redox transformations in polar media, particularly, ecologically important media.

 

BASIC RESULTS

 

A concept of 'kinetic' redox potential was formulated. An approximate linear dependence of logarithms of rate constants of one electron transfer between different redox reagents (single- and two-electron reagents, organic and inorganic compounds, ions of metals of variable valence, and organometallics) on their 'kinetic' redox potentials was established.

Mechanisms of synergistic effect of transition metal ions (Cu2+, Mn2+, and Fe2+) in catalytic, photocatalytic, and radiation-induced ion-radical chain redox transformations were determined for the processes of hydrogen peroxide decomposition, sulfite oxidation, and water photolysis.

A catalytic mechanism of 'noncatalytic' oxidation of sulfite by dioxygen in cloud drops was demonstrated. It is shown that microtraces of iron ions act as the process catalyst.

Mechanisms of oxidative effect of xenon difluoride, mechanisms of oxidation and reduction of nitroxyls and their catalytic effect in redox transformations were established. Some efficient catalytic systems for hydrocarbon oxidation based on hydrogen peroxide were first described. It is shown that a 'O2-H2O2-vanadium complex-pyrazinecarboxylic acid' reagent can oxidize alkanes to alkylhydroperoxides. It is established that the active particles of this reaction are hydroxyl radicals that allows one to use the reagent successfully in methane oxidation under mild conditions. It is shown that a system based on manganese(IV) complexes with cyclic nitrogen-containing ligands has a specific activity in the oxidation of alkanes and other compounds.

Tel: (095) 939-74-03

e-mail: kozlov @chph.ras.ru

 

LABORATORY OF HYDROECOCHEMICAL PROCESSES

 

Head of the Laboratory Yu.I. Skuratov, Dr. Sci. (Chem.), Professor

 

LINE OF INVESTIGATION

 

Fundamental and applied researches in the field of photochemical transformations of pollutants including carcinogens and mutagens.

 

BASIC RESULTS

 

Mechanisms of photochemical transformations of polychlorinated phenols in aqueous media were investigated. A possibility of formation of polychlorinated p-dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans in the direct photolysis of polychlorinated phenols was shown.

The importance of unknown two-electron mechanism of interaction between singlet oxygen and polychlorinated phenols was demonstrated that opens the possibility of practical application of sensitized photochemical processes to detoxicate chlorininated phenol compounds.

Kinetic regularities of direct and sensitized photolysis of a number of hydrophobic superecotoxicants sorbed in micelles and on a solid-phase adsorbent (chemically modified silica gel) were revealed. The role of free radical processes in the mechanism of photosensitized transformation of benzpyrene at the water-nonpolar phase interface was determined.

A complex technology for potable water, natural waters, and wastewater treatment to remove toxic compounds using UV radiation at the final stage of disinfection and destructive additional water purification from organic pollutants was developed.

Tel: (095) 939-74-26

e-mail: skuratov@chph.ras.ru

 

LABORATORY OF CELLULAR REDOX PROCESSES

 

Head of the Laboratory V.V. Rogovin, Dr. Sci. (Med.)

 

LINES OF INVESTIGATION

 

Study of cytoplasmic organellae of animal and plant cells. A method of luminol-dependent chemiluminescence developed in the Laboratory is used to study the effect of xenobiotics on the immunity of plants and to search metal ions enhancing this immunity.

 

BASIC RESULTS

 

A new cytoplasmic organelle, peroxydasosome, was found.

In cooperation with academician E.M. Tareev, the pathogenesis of the periodical disease was discovered.

A fundamentally new diagnostic method to predict relapse of typhoid fever was developed.

A preparation (clofibrate) enhancing the organism resistance to infectious diseases was found.

A suppression of plant immunity with xenobiotics (dyes, heat and electric power plants emissions, pesticides, heavy metal ions, and other metal ions) was established, and ions improving peroxidase-dependent immunity of plants were found.

Tel: (095) 939-12-09

 

GROUP OF SOLID-PHASE PROCESSES

 

Head of the Group L.G. Shcherbakova, Dr. Sci. (Chem.)

 

LINE OF INVESTIGATION

 

Study of fundamental problems of 'real structure-property' interrelation for a class of oxide systems with the deficient anionic sublattice (including high-temperature superconductors).

 

BASIC RESULTS

 

The regularities of phase formation and structural transformations in oxide systems based on titanium and rare earth elements (REE) were established. Some effects related to a strong electron-lattice interactions were found for rare earth titanates (including giant magnetostriction and anomalous decrease in elastic modulus).

The complex study of a number of ceramic high-temperature superconductors (HTSC) with different microstructure was first performed using electron microscopy, X-ray analysis, magnetostatic, magnetodynamic, and acoustic methods.

Magnetic size effects were found for HTSC of small size comparable to the depth of magnetic field penetration.

The effect of surface on the behavior of HTSC magnetic parameters was studied.

A new efficient technology of synthesis of ceramic HTSC using mechanochemical techniques was developed. The method allows one to prepare samples with special chemical purity, high degree of composition uniformity, high density (up to 97% of the value for single crystal), and high degree of superconduction characteristics uniformity.

Necessary conditions for the existence of giant magnetostriction in paramagnetic state were formulated that allows one to forecast magnetostriction properties for different classes of rare earth magnetic compounds.

Phase diagrams for TiO2-Ln2O3 systems (Ln = Tb, Ho, and Er) were constructed. A number of new compounds of Ln2TiO5 type was synthesized. A diagram of regions of polymorphic modifications existence was constructed in temperature-REE ionic radius coordinates.

Tel: (095) 242-54-01

e-mail: annash@chph.ras.ru

 

 

LABORATORY OF NONEQUILIBRIUM PROCESSES IN CATALYSIS

 

Head of the Laboratory B.R. Shub, Dr. Sci. (Chem.), Professor

 

LINE OF INVESTIGATION

 

BASIC RESULTS

 

A theory of image construction in STM was developed. A notion of efficient tunneling potential for electron tunneling from complex systems was introduced, and the scheme of the potential calculation was developed. A theory of subbarrier electron scattering on atoms and molecules was constructed.

A method of 'scanning vibrational tunneling spectroscopy' (SVTS) that allows one to measure vibrational spectra of individual surface complexes was developed. Frequencies of vibrations of different types were measured for a number of simple molecules (O, O2, H2O, D2O, OH, CO, etc.) adsorbed at various surfaces. A possibility to record combined and multiphonon vibrations and to measure vibrational distributions in the adsorbed complex studying by the SVTS technique was shown.

A method of 'low-energy ion beams', which allows one to estimate rates of electron transfer and relaxation of electron excited states in the short-lived collision complexes was developed. The method is also suitable for measuring electron density states of upper layer of metal atoms.

A kinetic theory of surface migration of adsorbed particles, which allows one to calculate both diffusion coefficients and average jump distance, was developed.

The heterogeneous relaxation of vibrationally-excited and electron-excited particles on a number of surfaces with different properties (metals, dielectrics, and semiconductors) was investigated. Values of excitation lifetimes for several surfaces were estimated. Mechanisms of relaxation of vibrational and electron energies were proposed.

The kinetics of surface reactions of mobile atoms was studied.

A theory of a 'bridge' effect in the electron tunneling was developed.

Tel: (095) 137-82-73

e-mail: shub@chph.ras.ru

 

LABORATORY OF ACID-BASE PROCESSES

 

Head of the Laboratory N.B. Librovich, Dr. Sci. (Chem.), Professor

 

LINE OF INVESTIGATION

 

Study of ions and complexes with strong symmetrical hydrogen bonds and the mechanism of catalytic effect of acids and bases.

 

BASIC RESULTS

 

A fundamental feature of proton to form strong symmetrical hydrogen bonds in solutions was experimentally found and theoretically substantiated.

The structure of simplest stable H+ and OH- solvates in acidic and basic solutions determining their catalytic properties was established.

Neutral complexes (quasi-ionic pairs) formed by strong symmetrical hydrogen bonds were first found.

A theoretical concept of vibrational spectra of ions with strong hydrogen bonds, which allows one to identify these ions and complexes in solutions was created.

The effect of second coordination spheres of H+- and OH-- ions on the catalytic properties of acidic and basic solutions was revealed. Special features of spectral characteristics of these solvate films, their composition and structure were established.

Based on thorough studies of catalytic activity parameters for aqueous, aqueous-organic, and nonaqueous solutions of acids and concepts on the structure of simplest proton solvates as ions with strong symmetrical hydrogen bonds, a method of quantitative comparison of acidity functions for aqueous and aqueous-organic acid solutions was proposed.

A kinetic method to measure acidity of concentrated solutions of strong acids was created that extends the scope of studied objects (including strongly-colored ones), and a semiautomatic setup was constructed.

Tel: (095) 939-71-64

e-mail: proton@chph.ras.ru

 

LABORATORY OF KINETICS OF MECHANOCHEMICAL AND HETEROGENEOUS PROCESSES

 

Head of the Laboratory V.A. Radtsig, Dr. Sci. (Chem.), Professor

 

LINE OF INVESTIGATION

 

Study of kinetics and mechanisms of mechanochemical processes in organic and inorganic subnstances. The structure and reactivity of defects on the activated solid surfaces.

 

BASIC RESULTS

 

A number of active nanocrystalline and amorphous materials was obtained; for example, aluminum and silicon reacting 'in cold' with water, tungsten sintering at 1200C, and metal-nonmetal mixtures, which are characterized by explosive interaction.

The structure of general types of intrinsic defects stabilized on the mechanically or thermochemically activated surfaces of SiO2, SiO2/GeO2, and GeO2 was established, and their spectral properties were studied. The data on the reactivity of these compounds were obtained using ESR and IR spectroscopy, calorimetry, chemisorption, optical spectroscopy, and other experimental methods combined with quantum chemical calculations. Based on these studies, an original method of constructing reactive groups of different chemical structure grafted to the solid surface of the activated highly dispersed silica was developed. In this case, point defects on the solid surface are the process initiators (growth centers), and gas-phase molecules represent building material. Using this method, more than 100 groups of paramagnetic (free radical) and diamagnetic nature, which are difficult to stabilize by other methods, were prepared. The spectral characteristics and reactivity of the above groups were investigated.

Tel: (095) 939-74-01

e-mail: radzig@chph.ras.ru

 

LABORATORY OF MOLECULAR DYNAMICS

 

Head of the Laboratory I.D. Rodionov, Dr. Sci. (Phys.-Math.)

 

LINE OF INVESTIGATION

 

Fundamental studies of intermolecular interactions of low-atom molecules by small-angle X ray scattering and the use of the developed experimental methods for environmental monitoring.

 

BASIC RESULTS

 

The creation of experimental complexes to study intermolecular interactions between low-atom molecules including components of air high-temperature mixtures using a direct method of scattering of fast molecular beams.

The creation of hyperspectral optoelectronic airplane-based devices for industrial and ecological monitoring of routes and territories.

The development of a microsatellite for hyperspectral monitoring.

 

COMPLETED WORKS

 

A hyperspectral airplane-based complex was created and recommended for examination of gas pipeline routes for early forecasting of pipeline degradation and mapping boundaries of deposits.

 

SCIENTIFIC CONTACTS OF THE DEPARTMENT

 

The Department maintains scientific contacts with a number of Institutes of Russian Academy of Sciences, namely, Institute of Organic Chemistry, Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Institute of Organoelement Compounds, Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Division, RAS, Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry, Siberian Division, RAS, Tomographic Center, Siberian Division, RAS, Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion, Siberian Division, RAS, as well as with Lomonosov Moscow State University, Ural State Forestry Engineering Academy, etc.

On the base of the Department, the training of students and post-graduated students of Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Moscow Institute of Engineering Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology, and other Moscow institutes is carried out, and laboratory works, research works, and theses are performed.

The Department maintains scientific contacts with foreign organizations of the corresponding profile, namely, Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Belarus State University, Erevan State University, Institute of Solar Energy Researches (Hannover, Germany), Institute of Physical Chemistry of Kepler University (Linz, Austria), Technological University (Graz, Austria), Friburg University (Switzerland), Institute of Physics of Free University (Berlin, Germany), Duisburg University (Germany), Argonne National Laboratory (USA), etc.

:(095) 155-45-33

e-mail: reagent@orc.ru

 

 

DEPARTMENT OF POLYMERS AND COMPOSITE MATERIALS

 

 

 

 

 

 

Head of the Department A. A. Berlin, Dr. Sci. (Chem.),

Professor, Corresponding Member Russian Academy of Sciences.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Department of polymers and composite materials has been organized in 1958; academician N.S.Enikolopov was the head of the department from 1963 to 19--.

The great scientists such as A.A.Berlin, N.M.Chirkov, L.A.Blumenfeld, B.A.Dolgoplosk, A.M.Markevich, G.D.Andrievskaya and others worked in the Division.

General lines of investigations in the Department of polymers and composite materials:

1. Reinforced plastics on the base of glass, carbon, organic, boron and other high-strength high-modulus fibers, thermoset and thermoplastic matrices:

      physicomechanical properties;

      fracture mechanisms;

      fiber adhesion to binders;

      development and modification of polymer binders and dressings;

      scientific foundations of technology of prepreg production and composite;

      winding.

2. Polymerization-filled composite materials:

      kinetics and mechanisms of polymerization reactions on filler surface;

      physicomechanical and other properties of composites;

      fracture mechanisms for filled polymers;

      development of novel materials and basics of the process technology:

      superhigh-filled composites;

      composites based on superhigh-molecular polymers;

      materials with improved physicomechanical properties (strength, elastic modulus, wear resistance, etc.);

      materials with special properties (heat conductivity, electric conductivity, radiation resistance, magnetic permittivity, etc.).

3. Synthesis, kinetics, macrokinetics, mechanism of polyreactions:

      fast processes in turbulent flows;

      frontal polymerization;

      free radical polymerization and photopolymerization of acrylic and fluorinated monomers;

      coordination catalysis;

      cationic polymerization of cyclic monomers;

      liquid-phase processes in associated media;

      synthesis of polyurethanes; polyaddition and polycondensation reactions;

      synthesis of polymers for photo- and semiconductor materials;

      synthesis of multipurpose conjugated polymers.

4. Chemistry, physical chemistry and material science of oligomeric systems:

      synthesis;

      polymerization;

      structure characteristics;

      thermodynamics and kinetics of combination with polymers;

      structure and properties of the materials.

5. Defect-free conjugated conductive polymers:

      synthesis and production of materials;

      characterization and study of properties.

6. Structure and properties of polymers:

      mechanisms of plastic deformation;

      fracture mechanisms;

      electric and optical properties;

      catalytic properties of fluorinated and organometallic ion exchange resins.

7. High-swelling polymer hydrogels:

      ionic and nonionic hydrophilic polymer networks and their combinations,

      swelling thermodynamics and elasticity,

      creation of hydrogel materials: superabsorbents, biosensors, contact media for medical diagnostics, etc.

8. Combustion of polymers:

      calculations of oxygen indices of composites;

      creation of fire retardant polymeric materials.

9. Multifunctional fluoropolymeric coatings:

      development of methods (plasma, chemical, electrochemical and combined methods) of enhancing adhesion to different substrates (metal, ceramics, plastics, rubber);

      development and study of properties of protective (waterproof, weatherproof, oil and gasoline resistant) antifriction wear-resistant coatings.

10. Physical and chemical solid-phase processes under pressure and shear deformation:

      study of chemical reactions of solid-phase synthesis and modification of polymers and other materials under shear deformations;

      grinding of polymers and polymer blends, composites and rubber;

      production of novel composite materials on the base of dispersed powders including waste utilization and recycling.

11. Synthesis and modification of polymers in melt using extruders and other mixers:

      production of thermoplastics;

      study of dynamics of blending and chemical reactions in high-viscous media.

12. Theory and computer simulation:

      nonlinear dynamics, structural transitions and kinetics of solid-state reactions (soliton regimes);

      mechanical properties and fracture of fibrous and filled composites;

      structure, mechanical and relaxation properties of polymeric and inorganic glasses, crystals and liquids.

 

BASIC RESULTS

The Division of polymers and composite materials collaborates with a lot of foreign companies, universities and other organizations in USA, Canada, Germany, Italy, Japan, Poland, Hungary, Finland, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria.

 

 

 

 

LABORATORY OF POLYMERIZATION PROCESSES CATALYSIS

 

Head of the Laboratory A.M. Aladyshev, Ph.D., Cand. Sci. (Chem.).

 

The Laboratory has been organized in 1958 by professor Chirkov N.M. (1908-1972).
A team of scientists consists of 14 highly trained researchers, among them 8 Ph.D.

 

LINES OF INVESTIGATION

Study of the mechanism of the catalytic and stereospecific action of different types of homogeneous and heterogeneous Ziegler-Natta catalysts in processes of homo- and copolymerization of olefins. Study of kinetics of olefins polymerization both in bulk and in a solvent.

Development of methods of controlling structure and properties of polyolefins by the change in the nature of catalysts, cocatalysts and modifying agents.

Fixing of homogeneous catalytic systems on the surface of inert and active carriers for controlling morphology and granulometry of the resulting polymers.

Synthesis of co- and terpolymers on the base of linear, branched, and cyclic olefins, as well as synthesis of heterophase copolymers.

Study of the microstructure of polymer chain, as well as mechanical and thermophysical properties of the resulting polymers.

Modification of polypropylene by a low-frequency glow discharge aimed at the hydrophilization of the surface and the enhancement of polymer adhesion.

 

BASIC RESULTS

v         Study of the mechanism of the catalytic and stereospecific action of different types of metallocomplex catalysts allows one to describe quantitatively the kinetics of propylene polymerization in bulk and to develop a mathematical model of the process to optimize the process of the isotactic PP synthesis and to control the polymer structure in order to produce materials with the prescribed properties.

v         Based of the kinetic data on ethylene polymerization and quantum chemical calculations, new ideas about the ways of the formation and the structure of the catalytic multicomponent active centers were developed.

v         A large series of investigations of highly efficient homogeneous metallocene catalytic systems was carried out. The interrelation between the metallocene structure and the properties of PP produced was investigated. All types of PP stereoisomers were synthesized and studied: iso-, syndio-, hemiisotactic-, atactic-, and stereoblock elastomeric polypropylene.

v         Study in the field of synthesis of co- and terpolymers based on both linear and branched olefins allowed one to determine quantitatively the reactivity of different monomers and to develop the main principles of controlling the structure and properties of copolymers synthesized. Methods of the modification of polymer properties by the introduction of small amounts of the second comonomer were studied.

v         Special features of the behavior of supported catalysts during propylene and ethylene polymerization were studied. The influence of a support on the catalytic properties of metallocomplex catalysts was investigated.

v         Study of synthesis of composite materials on the base of polyolefins by a 'polymerization filling' method allowed one to produce a number of composite materials with unique properties.

 

BASIC PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF FUNDAMENTAL WORKS OF THE LABORATORY

 

           Development of a technological process of isotactic PP production in bulk and its realization at the Moscow Refinery.

           Synthesis of a highly efficient microspherical catalyst for propylene polymerization carried out in the collaboration with the Moscow Refinery and its introduction into the industry.

           Development of the technology of 'polymerization filling' for the production of composite materials with special properties on the base of polyolefins:

q       electro- and heat conductive;

q       photosensitive;

q       magnetic;

q       high-impact and wear-resistant.

           Development of the technology of magnetoplastics production by the method of polymerization filling and its realization on a pilot plant for automobile and watch industries.

           Development of an original equipment in order to study kinetics of homo- and copolymerization of a-olefins in bulk.

           Development of a method of polypropylene modification during the synthesis by means of controlling the microstructure of the polymer chain.

Members of the laboratory are the authors of many papers published in the leading scientific journals and above of 40 RF patents.

Possible directions for the cooperation in the fundamental and applied works:

      Synthesis of different types of highly efficient metallocene catalysts as well as supported catalytic systems and their screening in homo- and copolymerization of olefins;

      Synthesis of new polymer materials by co- and terpolymerization of linear and branched olefins both in bulk and in a solvent;

      Synthesis of a wide range of composite materials with special properties on the base of polyolefins and different fillers.

Tel.: (095)-930-8393 (Aladyshev A.M.);

(095)-939-7371 (Tsvetkova V.I., Nedorezova P.M.)

Fax: (095)-137-8284

E-mail: alalad@center.chph.ras.ru

 

 

 

LABORATORY OF MACROKINETICS OF FAST AND WAVE PROCESSES

Head of the Laboratory, A.A. Berlin, Corresponding Member, Russian Academy of Sciences

LINES OF INVESTIGATION

 

      Mechanisms of fracture of composite materials.

      Computer simulation of mechanical and thermodynamic properties of solids.

      Study and simulation of macrokinetics of fast chemical reactions in turbulent flows.

      Combustion of polymers, creation of fire retardant polymers and composite materials.

      Nonthermal methods of frontal polymerization.

       

BASIC RESULTS

      The fracture mechanisms of reinforced and filled plastics were investigated and requirements for polymer matrices and the interface properties were formulated to produce composites of maximum strength and heat resistance.

      The concepts and quantitative models of the effect of plastic deformations on the fracture toughness of polymers and composites were developed.

      The different mechanisms of reinforced plastics fracture at tensile and compressive loads along the fibers were identified, the effect of properties of the matrix, fibers and the interface, as well as the structure defects on the composite strength was revealed.

      The regularities of packing, phase and aggregate transitions, mechanical properties, and diffusion in binary systems of hard elastic and Lennard-Jones disks and ellipses in the plane were determined.

      The concepts of mechanisms of different fire retardant action (halogen-, phosphorus-, and metal-containing compounds) awee developed and methods of calculating flammability parameters were proposed.

      A novel mechanism of sharp decrease in the polymer flammability using microencapsulated low-boiling liquids was discovered.

      New macrokinetic features of fast chemical processes in turbulent flows were found.

      Theoretical models of frontal polymerization were experimentally studied and developed including the frontal photopolymerization and an original method of free radical frontal polymerization in the presence of a polymeric inhibitor.

The results obtained allowed one to propose:

      new methods of lowering flammability of polymers;

      more efficient designs of reactors for fast chemical processes and heat and mass exchange apparata;

      a polyfrontal method of composite curing to improve physicomechanical properties of the resulting products.

As a result of the fundamental studies of the Laboratory, new designs of reactors for fast chemical reactions with a specific productivity thousands times higher were developed and introduced; the reactors make it possible to enhance significantly economic and ecological parameters of the existing processes and the product quality (oligomerization of isobutylene, alpha-olefins, dienes, chlorination of ethylene and rubbers, alkylation of paraffins with olefins, several stages of the synthetic rubber production, etc.).

 

Tel.: (095)137-6711, 939-7249, 939-7135 (Berlin, A.A.);

Fax: (095)-938-2156; (095)-137-8284;

E-mail: berlin@center.chph.ras.ru

 

LABORATORY OF CHEMISTRY OF PHOTO- AND SEMICONDUCTOR POLYMERS

 

Head of the Laboratory M.I. Cherkashin, Dr. Sci. (Chem.), Professor, Member, Russian Academy of Natural Sciences

 

LINE OF INVESTIGATION

Synthesis and study of physicochemical and electrophysical properties of nontraditional polymers of a new class, development of methods and processes of polymers and plastics production.

 

BASIC RESULTS

                    General methods of synthesis of linear and three-dimensional conjugated polymers based on mono- and diacetylene compounds having photo-, semiconductor, magnetic properties, and high heat resistance were developed. The data obtained were used to produce fire retardant, heat resistant, erosion resistant, and radiation resistant materials, as well as conductive materials and light weight products.

                    New methods of synthesis of photochromic organic compounds (spiropyranes, spironaphthooxazines) and production of materials on the base of these compounds were developed. The total scheme of the processes occurring in films and solutions was established, the kinetic, spectral, and photochemical parameters were determined. The results obtained allowed one to formulate scientific fundamentals for creating photochromic polymers, copolymers, and compositions.

                    A new class of polymeric analogs of polymethine and azomethine dyes having high heat resistance (exceeding 2500C) and panchromatic sensitizing activity (400-800 nm) was obtained on the base of conjugated polymers.

                    New polymeric quaternary ammonium salts were synthesized including polymers and copolymers based on diallylammonium halides, as well as some natural polymers (starch, cellulose, etc.) modified by grafting of the ammonium group. The resulting compounds have high bactericide, fungicide properties, high surface activity, and conductivity that allowed one to produce a new generation of polymeric anticeptics and flocculants.

                    A phenomenon of wear protection of metal surface upon polymerization of monomers and oligomers under conditions of the boundary friction (tribopolymerization) is found. Theoretical and experimental studies resulted in development of new concepts of surface wear protection and allowed one to obtain additives to industrial oils and lubricants providing the friction coefficient of 0.0006-0.0011.

PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS BASED ON THE FUNDAMENTAL STUDIES:

                     Highly heat-resistant, photoconductive, conductive, erosion resistant, radiation resistant polymers, materials, and technologies.

                     Photochromic polymers, copolymers and the polymer-based products.

                     High-temperature sensitizers for electrophotography.

                     Photo- and electronic resists.

                     Plastic lubricants.

                     Polymeric anticeptics, fungicides, flocculants, and conductive paper.

                     High-temperature binders on the base of diacetylene polymers to produce glass fiber and carbon fiber reinforced plastics.

                     Process of modifying industrial carbon fiber reinforced plastics to increase their conductivity and heat resistance.

                     Photosensitive materials on the base of diacetylenes and spiropyranes to separate natural crystals (diamonds, etc.).

                     Diacetylene monomers to produce photo- and electronic resists.

                     Polymeric coating and the process of its deposition on the optical lenses to provide the "chameleon" effect.

                     Disposable thermoindicators for a wide temperature range (35-2000˚C).

                     Technology of producing luminophors with a high Stokes shift.

                     Polymeric films to transform UV radiation in visible light.

                     Polymeric high-temperature panchromatic sensitizers (400-800 nm) for electrophotography.

                     High-efficient plastic lubricants for friction units of machines and mechanisms (automobiles, electric locomotives, etc.) and the process of their production.

 

Tel.: (095)-939-7240 (Cherkashin, M.I.); (095)-939-7297 (Marevtsev, V.S.)

Fax: (095)-137-8284

E-mail: marvic@polymer.chph.ras.ru

 

LABORATORY OF HYDROPHILIC POLYMER MATERIALS

 

Head of the Laboratory K.S. Kazanskii, Dr. Sci. (Chem.), Professor

 

LINES OF INVESTIGATION

High-swelling polymer hydrogels (HPG): theory, methods of quantitative characterization, synthesis of neutral and ionic polymer networks, and principles of practical applications.

Anionic polymerization of heterocyclic monomers: kinetics and mechanism, synthesis of polymers of strictly defined structure, functional polymers and macromonomers, as well as the related polymers.

In the Laboratory, the studies of hydrophilic polymer systems are carried out: synthesis and mechanism of polymer formation, characterization and theoretical description of polymer properties, structure analysis, and practical applications. The basic objects of the study are poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) with a given chain length and narrow MMD, their mono- and difunctional derivatives, including PEO macromonomers, hydrophilic polymer networks (hydrogels) based on polyacrylamide (PAA), copolymers of acrylamide (AA) with acrylic acid, PEO, and some other systems.

At present, in the Laboratory, the following new lines of investigation are developing.

Analysis of non-Gaussian effects in swelling and elasticity of networks of different type, synthesizing mainly by three dimensional copolymerization of AA with ionogenic monomers. Various regimes of changes in the elastic modulus of the gel with the increase in degree of swelling were revealed. Based on theoretical description of the experimental data, an approach to the characterization of structural defects and entanglements of the polymer network is developing.

Development of method of immobilization of labile biological objects in PEO gels based on mactomonomers use. The method was successfully used to produce PEO hydrogels containing microparticels of liquid-crystalline DNA dispersion which are of great interest. Particularly, these particles can be considered as microprobes sensitive to processes occurring in the system (gelation, swelling, deswelling, and diffusion).

Synthesis and special features of swelling of PEO ionic hydrogels of new type prepared by curing of poly(ethylene glycol phosphates) (phosphites) with bifunctional agents. It is shown that these grls show all features of polyelectrolytes networks.

 

BASIC RESULTS

 

                    Determination of the nature of active centers, their reactivity, and effects of reaction media and counterion nature, as well as the complete understanding of the mechanism of "living" anionic polymerization of ethylene oxide. Based on the data obtained, a general approach to the synthesis of PEO with controlled chain length and terminal functionality was developed. The approach is tested with several syntheses of mono- and bifunctional derivatives of PEO with molecular mass up to 106 and the functionality close to the calculated one.

                    Development of the theory, methods of quantitative characterization and concepts of HPG preparation, and predicting their behavior under different conditions (salt content of the medium, pressure, spatial restrictions, etc.). To study these systems with the degree of swelling of 1000 ml/g, unique equipment was designed and used in the Laboratory. The algorithms were developed to analyze the structure of HPG network by the experimental data (swelling degree and pressure, elastic modulus) or to forecast the HPG efficiency in practical applications. This approach was generally used to analyze PAA hydrogels containing ionic groups, as well as neutral and ionic PEO hydrogels.

 

PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS BASED ON THE FUNDAMENTAL STUDIES:

 

                    synthesis of a wide variety of molecularly uniform PEO derivatives, for example, monomethyl esters (molecular mass up to 5,000), monovinyl esters (MM up to 3,000), mono- and dimethacrylates (MM up to 12,000), etc.;

                    a set of unique measuring devices allowing to monitor the swelling dynamics and equilibrium, low swelling pressures (below 20 kPa), and elastic moduli of HPG, as well as the calculation of structure parameters of the network on the base of the mesurement data;

                    method and pilot process of preparation of high-swelling hydrogels on the base of radiation-crosslinked commercial PAA that can be used for versatile applications (sanitary materials, medical diagnostics, land reclamation, and plant growing), as well as consulting on the use of this material and its modifications.

 

Tel.: (095)-939-7124 (Kazanskii, K.S., Dubrovskii, S.A.);

(095)-939-7541 (Rakova, G.V.)

Fax: (095)-137-8284;

E-mail: gels@chph.ras.ru

 

 

LABORATORY OF CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS OF CONJUGATED POLYMERS.

Head of the Laboratory V.M. Kobryanskii, Dr. Sci. (Chem.)

 

LINE OF INVESTIGATION

Development of methods for synthesis and studying structure and properties of conjugated low-defect polymers with high functional characteristics. The basic scientific fundamentals of the Laboratory works have been laid by Prof. A.A. Berlin (1912-1978).

 

BASIC RESULTS

The conjugated polymers of different types were studied and an extremum dependence of their stability and functional characteristics on the content of chemical, conformational, and supramolecular defects was found. It is shown that the low content of defects allows one to obtain materials with unique electrophysical and optical properties. The new procedures were proposed to produce the following materials:

        catalysts of new type for acetylene polymerization based on dinuclear rhenium complexes;

        high-stability low-defect polyacetylene compositions;

        high-orientation polyphenylene films by the method of vacuum deposition;

        high-molecular-mass polyphenylene films (chain length exceeded 100 phenyl rings);

        water-soluble doped polyaniline;

        films of high-crystalline C60 fullerene.

 

PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS BASED ON THE FUNDAMENTAL STUDIES:

                    Development of polyacetylene-based materials with high nonlinear susceptibility in a nonresonance range to produce elements of optical computer.

                    Development of polyphenylene- and polyphenylenevinylene-based film materials showing high-intensity fluorescence and high polarization ratio relative to excitation and emission light for using in photodiodes and displays of new generation.

                    Development of conductive coatings based on water-soluble polyaniline for using in various areas of electrical engineering and electronics.

 

Tel.: (095)-939-7226, 939-7177 (Kobryanskii, V.M., Arnautov, S.A.)

Fax: (095)-137-8284

E-mail: kobryan@chph.ras.ru;

arnautov@chph.ras.ru

 

LABORATORY OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL RESEARCHES OF THE SURFACE AND POLYMERIZATION PROCESSES.

 

Head of the Laboratory I.V.Kumpanenko, Dr. Sci. (Phys.-Math.), Professor

 

LINES OF INVESTIGATION

Study of vibrational spectra and structure of polymers and two-dimensional molecular systems with failure of space symmetry: irregular homopolymers, random and block copolymers, polymers with configuration and conformation defects, two-dimensional molecular formations like adsorbate islands on monocrystal surfaces, quasi-two-dimensional dispersed systems, and layered graphite-like materials.

Study of adsorption from gas and liquid phases and chemical processes on the solid surface of pure metals, polymeric and natural sorbents, as well as the transport of reaction products into the solid bulk.

Study of the mechanism of cationic polymerization of cyclic ethers (1.2-oxiranes, tetrahydrofuran, etc.) in solvents of different basicity in the presence of Lewis acids, oxonium, and carbenium salts. The process is characterized by a simultaneous formation of both linear and cyclic polyethers, and depends on reaction conditions, either linear (podands, glyms) and cyclic (crown ethers) structures being obtained. The determination of factors influencing the formation of different products allows one to develop the methods of synthesis of target linear and cyclic polyethers of various structures.

Study of MMD and FTD of polymerization products to determine the mechanism of processes of polymer chemistry.

Development and construction of experimental setups and devices for studying polymers by physicochemical methods.

BASIC RESULTS

                    An universal approach to the vibrational spectroscopy of quasiperiodic structures, a cluster model with criteria of its applicability, was substantiated. According to this model, the structure sensitive bands of chain vibrations (so-called bands of regularity) are assigned to the collective vibrations of regular segments of one-dimensional chain molecules (polymers) with chemical, configurational or conformational defects. In the frame of this model, analytical expressions for the dependences of frequencies, intensities, and band widths on the regular segment length were obtained.

                    A cluster model was extended to quasi-two-dimensional molecular systems (ultradispersed powders, ceramics, layered compounds, and adsorbate islands on single-crystal surfaces), and analytic formula were derived which correlate the characteristic size and shape of these systems with the frequency, intensity, and width of IR spectrum bands.

                    Processes that unify the adsorption, surface reaction, and diffusion of the reaction products into the solid bulk were studied. In particular, the adsorption of hydrogen and deuterium on pure and precoated by oxygen monolayer face of Be(0001) single crystal at ultrahigh vacuum was investigated. As shown, the adsorption can be realized from the atomic beams only and is accompanied by the simultaneous hydrogen and deuterium diffusion in bulk. Kinetic and diffusion processes parameters were determined. A theoretical approach to the problem of simultaneous proceeding of surface reaction and diffusion in bulk was developed. A process occurring on the surface of iron and in bulk (iron was deposited at ultrahigh vacuum and under conditions of plastic deformation and cutting as well) was studied. The process was examined using methods of temperature programmed desorption (TPD) with mass spectrometric and Auger spectroscopy registration of the desorption products. It is shown that the reaction of hydrocarbons with the pure iron surface is accompanied by hydrogen and carbon transport in bulk.

                    A mathematical model of polymer synthesis was developed using the cationic polymerization of oxiranes and epoxy resins synthesis as an example; the model takes into account the wide variety of end groups and the MMD pattern changes that allows one to search the optimum synthetic regimes. A computer program to calculate MMD and FTD parameters of epoxy resins during the synthesis was developed. The program was used to elaborate the optimal regimes of the reagent input that allowed one to suppress significantly the hydrolysis of epoxy end groups. Analytical solutions of the systems of differential kinetic equations were obtained as a dependence of MMD function of the products of polycondensation of polyfunctional monomers on the monomer conversion.

 

PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS BASED ON THE FUNDAMENTAL STUDIES:

 

                    Methods of determination of polymer microstructure were developed for a wide variety of polymers: polyolefins, polyethers, and polyurethanes.

                    Methods of measuring size and shape of two-dimensional molecular systems were developed using IR spectroscopy data.

                    Novel classes of synthetic cutting fluids for metal cutting, pressing, rolling, etc. were developed.

                    New antifriction antiwear additives were developed.

                    Recommendations for improving resistance of metals used in nuclear reactors were given.

                    Filtering materials and filters for purification of potable water, milk, and other water-based food products from radioactive cesium were developed.

                    Polymeric supporting rings using upon pipeline construction were developed and introduced in industry.

It is shown that the cyclic polyethers of oxiranes can be used as follows:

        active cocatalysts of electro(photo)chemical reduction of carbon dioxide;

        efficient additives to compositions using for dust suppression and dry cleaning of solid surfaces from radionuclides;

        efficient components of solid extractive agents for purification of hydrochloric acid solutions from heavy metal ions and precious metal concentration;

        efficient agents for enhanced petroleum recovery;

        modifiers of conductive properties of cellulose films.

 

Tel.: (095)-939-7283

Fax: (095)-125-2848

E-mail: kumpan@ispm.ru

grin@chph.ras.ru.

 

 

LABORATORY OF REINFORCED PLASTICS

 

Head of the Laboratory A.M.Kuperman, Dr. Sci. (Tech.).

 

LINE OF INVESTIGATION

Study of the effect of various factors on physicomechanical properties of reinforced plastics to produce high-strength, high-modulus, heat and impact resistant polymeric composite materials based on thermosetting and thermoplastic matrices reinforced with continuous glass, carbon, organic, and combined fibers.

The fundamentals of these investigations have been laid by Dr. A.K. Burov (1900-1957), Dr. G.D. Andreevskaya (1910-1994) and Prof. E.S.Zelenskii. These works involve statistical methods of estimating fiber properties, study of physicomechanical and technological properties of polymer matrices and their adhesive interaction with fiber surface, temperature behavior of matrices and composites; and testing of reinforced plastics under various stresses, static and dynamic loadings.

 

BASIC RESULTS

                    Limits of dispersion of strength, elastic modulus and fiber length in fiber reinforcements were established.

                    The effect of fiber defects on their strength was studied and methods of microplastics fabrication and winding annular samples without fiber damage were developed to provide a high volume fiber content in the plastics. These methods were introduced in industry for the correct evaluation of properties of fibers and reinforced plastics that allows one to forecast naterial properties.

                    A wide database was accumulated on the adhesive interaction of polymers with the fiber surface and the effect of various factors on the adhesion, such as: modification of fiber surface, temperature, environment, loading rate, joint geometry, cyclic loads in a wide temperature range, etc. The results obtained allowed us to study interface phenomena in polymeric composites and to optimize their properties.

                    Data on the effect of properties of polymeric matrices on the materials parameters resulted in full (100%) realization of the initial strength of carbon fibers with an EKT-15E modified epoxy binder; tensile strength of ring samples was equal to 3200-3300 MPa. Recently special attention was paid to thermoplastic matrices which are very promising as to increased impact toughness and heat resistance of the materials. Technological schemes were found to produce prepregs from high-viscosity melts that excludes a solvent and makes it possible to provide the ecological purity of the process and the resulting products.

 

PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS BASED ON THE FUNDAMENTAL STUDIES:

                    development and introduction of winding technology for large shell structures;

                    production of fiber reinforcements for the correct estimation of fiber strength;

                    development of synthetic fibrous anisotropic materials (SFAM) and the pilot plant process of their production;

                    development of glass fiber reinforced plastics based on fibers with increased diameter and compressive strength more than 2000 MPa.

 

Tel.: (095)-135-7848 (Zelenskii, E.S., Kuperman, A.M.); 135-7876 (Gorbatkina, Yu.A.,)

Fax: (095)-137-8284

E-mail: viva@chph.ras.ru

 

 

GROUP OF PHYSICS AND MECHANICS OF POLYMERS

Head of the Group L.I. Manevich, Dr. Sci. (Tech.), Professor

 

LINES OF INVESTIGATION

Structural defects and mechanisms of their mobility in polymer crystals.

Microscopic mechanisms of plastic deformation, relaxation, melting, and fracture of polymer crystals and glasses.

A soliton mechanism of chemical reaction propagation in molecular and polymer crystals.

Kinetics of phase separation of polymer blends.

Molecular dynamics study of complex polymer systems.

 

BASIC RESULTS

                    An asymptotic nonlinear theory to describe the statics and dynamics of crystalline polyethylene was developed.

                    Soliton solutions of equilibrium and motion equations corresponding to immobile and mobile structure defects were derived.

                    A new two-stage mechanism of propagation of structural transitions and chemical reactions in solid state on the atomic and molecular level was proposed. The first stage is related to the transition from the initial equilibrium state of the system to an intermediate dynamic state as a result of the motion of localized wave of soliton type. The second stage is a relaxation to the final state, which occurs far beyond the wave front and has no effect on its characteristics.

                    A complex variant of the theory, which facilitates significantly the analysis of the system dynamic behavior and takes into account the complications related to dissipative and resonance processes, was developed.

                    The role of mobile structure defects in the processes of plastic deformation, dielectric relaxation, melting, and fracture in polyethylene and polytetrafluoroethylene crystals was revealed.

                    A model of a structure defect in the glassy solid was developed. As is shown, these defects have a decisive effect on the plastic deformation of glass.

                    A relaxation process of new type was found at the late stage of spinodal decomposition of the polymer blend characteristic of the presence of instable states with large lifetimes and fast transitions between these states.

                    A model of microphase separation in a modified polymer blend induced by the reactions of polycondensation and radical polymerization and taking into account the reaction effect on the blend supersaturation and chain mobility was developed.

                    Fundamental studies of mechanisms of different physicomechanical and chemical processes in polymers and polymer composites carried out in the Group can be used for prediction and optimization of important properties of these materials and the processes of their synthesis.

 

Tel.: (095)-939-7515 (Manevich, L.I.)

Fax: (095)-137-8284

E-mail: manev@lx.ispm.ac.ru

 

 

LABORATORY OF FLUORINATED POLYMER MATERIALS

 

Head of the Laboratory V.P. Mel'nikov, Ph. D.

 

LINE OF INVESTIGATION

Studies of synthesis, structure, properties, and applications of fluorinated polymers.

Kinetics and mechanism of polymerization of fluorinated monomers and oligomers are investigated, and the methods of modifying bulk and surface properties of polymers and composite materials are examined. The effect of fluorinated compounds, co-monomers, and modifiers on the properties of polymers and plastic products was studied.

Beginning from 1987, in the Laboratory, new lines of investigation are developing, in cooperation with foreign research centers and companies. The results obtained allowed one to formulate fundamental concepts of polymerization of fluorinated monomers.

 

BASIC RESULTS

                    A decisive role of heterophase processes in the synthesis of fluoroplastics was first shown, the process stages and reaction mechanisms, the nature of rate constant of chain termination, the effect of oxygen admixtures as a cause of the explosion decomposition of monomer were determined.

                    Original approaches to the synthesis of fluoropolymer composite materials differing in mechanical properties from the conventional materials were developed as a result of studying polymerization of fluoromonomers on the surface of dispersed inorganic fillers.

                    Approaches ot the creation of multifunctional protective coatings for various materials including polymers were developed. This series of works involves the synthesis of fluorinated reactive compounds, study of their surface activity in low-polar media and the effect on the properties of modified surfaces. Using the method of post-irradiation modification of PTFE, dispersed superacid catalysts with the particles consisting of PTFE nucleus and chemically bound shell from a copolymer of NAFION type were prepared.

                    Studies in the field of synthesis and properties of new polymer materials used for coating deposition are developing in cooperation with the DSM Resins BV Co. (Zwolle, Netherlands).

 

PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS BASED ON THE FUNDAMENTAL STUDIES:

                    a formula of antifriction wear-resistant nitrile rubber was developed;

                    a method of deposition of perfluorinated ultrathin antiadhesion optical coatings on phototemplates was developed;

                    an original setup for pyrolysis of PTFE was designed;

                    recommendations on the optimization of the industrial process of telomer alcohols synthesis were made;

                    an original method of modification of hydrocarbon polymers with fluorinated surfactants forming upon the curing of epoxy resins;

                    practical aspects of application of a Double Bond Analyzer in medicine, biotechnology, and chemical industry were developed.

 

Tel.: (095)-939-7435 (Mel'nikov, V.P.); (095)-939-7592 (Lyapunov, A.Ya.)

Fax: (095)-137-8284

E-mail: melnikov@center.chph.ras.ru

 

 

LABORATORY OF CATALITIC POLYMERIZATION ON SOLID SURFACES

Head of the Laboratory L.A. Novokshonova, Dr. Sci. (Chem.), Professor

The Laboratory was organized in 1980

 

LINES OF INVESTIGATION

Study of kinetics and mechanism of ethylene polymerization and copolymerization with alpha-olefins and functionalized vinyl monomers, design of catalysts of olefin polymerization and development of novel immobilized catalysts to synthesize polymers of new properties.

Dvelopment of a method of polyolefin filling immediately upon the polymer synthesis, so called method of polymerization filling and the development of new composite materials on the base of filled polyolefins.

 

BASIC RESULTS

                    A method of producing catalysts based on fixed alkylaluminosiloxanes using the partial hydrolysis of aluminoalkyl compounds with the filler surface water was developed. Deposited vanadium catalysts were developed which allow one to obtain a frost-resistant impact polypropylene as a result of partial 1,3-addition of propylene units upon the propylene homopolymerization. Catalysts deposited on microspherical mesoporous styrene-divinylbenzene copolymers resulting in granulated polyethylene and frost-resistant polypropylene formed immediately upon the polymer synthesis were proposed. An extreme dependence of specific rate of olefin polymerization with the deposited catalysts containing vanadium chloride clusters on the catalyst content fixed on the filler surface was found. A large-scale orientation of macromolecules upon the polymerization on the filler surface was revealed. Polyvinyl chloride of improved heat resistance was synthesized using the deposited catalyst.

                    The nature of the activation of ethylene polymerization on heterogeneous catalysts related to the olefin presence was revealed. A two-stage process of gas-phase ethylene-propylene copolymerization was carried out after the suspension polymerization of propylene on high-efficient Ti-Mg catalysts to enhance the frost resistance of isotactic polypropylene, and kinetic parameters of the process were determined.

                    A new method of studying energetic nonuniformity of active centers of heterogeneous catalysts of olefin polymerization was proposed; the method is based on the mass spectrometric examination of products of temperature programmed desorption (TPD) from the catalyst surface after the initial stages of olefin polymerization. The method allows one to obtain the energetic spectra of active centers for catalysts of different nature.

                    A method of polymerization filling was developed to synthesize new materials with special properties on the base of filled polyolefins; the fundamentals of the method were substantiated, and the efficient applications of the method were determined (a filler addition to superhigh-molecular-mass matrices, the production of superfilled compositions). Original energy-saving methods of the filler catalytic activation were proposed.

 

PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS BASED ON THE FUNDAMENTAL STUDIES:

                    development of processes for producing polymerization filled polyolefins using suspension and gas-phase polymerization;

        creation of a number of advanced composite materials on the base of superhigh-molecular-mass polyethylene (SHMPE) and polypropylene, as well as superfilled compositions with special properties:

        wear resistant impact materials based on SHMPE and kaolin (30-50 wt %) having low friction coefficient, improved rigidity, good plasticity, and antiadhesive properties;

        heat conductive dielectric materials based on polypropylene or SHMPE and disperse aluminum (up to 58 vol %);

        fire retardant ecologically pure materials on the base of SHMPE and high-hydrated fillers;

        superfilled radiation resistant materials based on SHMPE (or polypropylene) and boron (up to 96 wt %);

        heat insulating fire resistant materials of controlled density on the base of polyethylene and swollen perlite (up to 92 wt %).

 

Tel.: (095)-939-7373 (Novokshonova, L.A.)

Fax: (095)-137-8284

E-mail: lnov@center.chph.ras.ru

 

 

LABORATORY OF STRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF POLYMER AND COMPOSITE MATERIALS

 

Head of the Laboratory E.F. Oleinik, Dr. Sci. (Chem.), Professor

 

LINES OF INVESTIGATION

Study of structure-property relationships (mechanical, thermal, dielectric, and relaxation properties) for solid (glassy, semicrystalline, crystalline, and crosslinked) polymers.

The nature of anelastic deformations in glassy, liquid-crystalline, and semicrystalline solid polymers; thermodynamics and molecular dynamics of deformation processes in these systems.

Deformation calorimetry of polymers, determination of enthalpy and internal deformation energy; correlation between the thermodynamic parameters and the physics of deformation response.

Computer simulation of structure and dynamics of solid polymers, chain crystals and crystals with defects, glassy polymers, dendrimers; modelling of anelastic deformations in polymers.

Synthesis, structure, and properties of polymers containing azaporphin cycles in the conjugated chains.

 

BASIC RESULTS

                    Polyazaporphins (PAP) with high sensor properties for detecting of gases and water vapors were synthesized.

                    Highly-sensitive and precise methods of deformation calorimetry for analyzing deformation processes in solids and measuring thermostimulated creep were developed.

                    In 1996, Head of the Laboratory Prof. E.F. Oleinik was awarded the Kargin Prize of Russian Academy of Sciences for the investigations on deformation of glassy polymers.

                    The changes in the internal energy upon the deformation of a wide range of glassy polymers were first quantitatively determined and interpreted. The measurements of thermodynamics of plastic d deformations in semicrystalline polymers (PE, PP, PETP, etc.) are under study.

                    Computer programs to analyze the dynamics of glassy polymers and their macroscopic mechanical behavior were developed. The structure and dynamics of PE and Pp chains with chemical branch defects were analyzed.

                    Methods of deformation calorimetry and thermostimulated creep of high sensitivity and resolution were developed.

                    Sensors based on polyazaporphins for the detection of different gases (carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, H2S and some other) in atmosphere were designed.

                    Computer programs for calculating stress-strain diagrams, creep curves, stress relaxation, and thermostimulated residual strain recovery were developed.

 

Tel.: (095)-939-7123 (Olejnik, E.F., Rudnev, S.N.); 939-7503 (Sherle, A.I.)

Fax: (095)-137-8284

E-mail: efoleinik@center.chph.ras.ru

rudnev@polymer.chph.ras.ru

 

 

LABOROTORY OF MECHANICS OF HETEROGENEOUS POLYMER MATERIALS

Head of the Labarotory V.G.Oshmyan, Dr. Sci. (Phys.-Math.)

LINES OF INVESTIGATION

Modeling of cavitation processes occurred by the mechanisms of debonding along the interface and inclusions fracture; study of the effect of these processes on the deformation and strength properties of polymer composites and blends; experimental study of mechanisms and regularities of flow and fracture of heterogeneous polymers at steady-state drawing.

Revealing of correlations between fracture toughness under impact and low-rate loading conditions; modeling of diagrams of uniaxial drawing of composites at large-strain deformations; evaluation of universal critical parameters of deformation behavior of highly heterogeneous polymer systems of disordered and fractal structure.

Molecular dynamics simulation of the structure, mobility, and intermolecular interactions of superbranched molecules (dendrimers). Modeling of chemical and structure defects in polymer crystals and study of the effect of concentration of defects on the structure, thermal, and mechanical properties. Computer simulation of mechanical and thermodynamic properties of condensed matter.

BASIC RESULTS

                    The regularities of cavitation processes occurred by the mechanisms of debonding and inclusions fracture at the elastic deformation stage were studied. Three aspects of the problem were analyzed: the effect of the content and size of inclusions on the stress corresponding to a pore formation and on the pore size; the kinetics of pore accumulation in the loading process; spatial correlation of individual voiding events.

                    The effect of the debonding stress on the composite yield strength and fracture toughness is investigated. It is shown that the enhancement of adhesive interaction results in an increase in the yield strength and the material embrittlement. A criterium of viscous-brittle transition based on the closer values of the mechanical strength and the stress of neck propagation (or yield stress) was proposed. Two factors of opposite effect, which govern by polymer composites fracture toughness (geometrical and adhesive one), were revealed. The first factor is related to a lowering of ultimate characteristics with an increase in inclusions size. The second one result in an embrittlement as the inclusion size decreases due to an increase in the yield strength.

                    A correlation between the strength characteristics of composites under fast and slow loading was revealed. It is shown that, at a weak adhesive interaction, the concentration dependence of impact toughness shows an extremal character. At high adhesive strength this dependence is expressed by a descending curve.

                    Uniaxial drawing diagrams of composites were calculated on the basis of original structure sensitive constitutive relations for high plastic polymer matrix. Two limiting cases with respect to the level of interfacial interaction ideal bond and complete debonding were analyzed. The original version of a finite element method in the framework of a polydisperse structural model was applied as a numerical approach. The results obtained are in a qualitative agreement with experimental data.

                    A finite element micromechanical model of structural organization of highly heterogeneous elastic continuum of disordered structure was proposed. The elastic thresholds and values of critical parameters were estimated using computer simulation followed by the data treatment in the frame of scaling hypothesis concerning the relation between system's size and properties. The results obtained were compared to the predictions of discrete micromechanical models.

                    The scaling dependence of elastic moduli of a regular fractal was studied using a constructed renorm-group transformation based on the finite element calculations. The scaling dependence of the moduli on the system size and the universal character of the corresponding parameters were substantiated.

                    The fundamental studies of the mechanisms of deformation and fracture of polymer composites and blends can be used to forecast and optimize the important material properties.

                    Development of efficient computer programs for molecular dynamics experiments with polydispersed molecular systems in plane, polymer crystals containing various chemical and structural defects, and macromolecules having a complicated topological structure.

                    Regularities of packing, phase and aggregate transitions, mechanical properties, and diffusion in binary systems of hard elastic and Lennard-Jones disks in plane were determined.

                    Molecular dynamic simulation of carboxylane dendrimers of different topological structure was carried out, the effect of the solvent power, functionality of the branching centers, and polymerization degree on the molecular structure and mobility of these molecules was studied.

                    The effect of the chemical nature of support on the structure of adsorbed dendrimer molecules was analyzed using molecular dynamic simulation.

 

Tel. (095)-939-7515 (Oshmyan, V.G., Mazo M.A.); (095)-939-7278 (Dubnikova I.L.)

Fax (095)-137-8284

E-mail: oshmyan@center.chph.ras.ru

mazo@polymer.chph.ras.ru

 

 

LABORATORY OF PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROCESSES IN POLYMER SYSTEMS

 

Head of the Laboratory E.V. Prut, Dr. Sci. (Chem.), Professor

 

LINES OF INVESTIGATION

Reaction mixing (dynamic vulcanization); preparation of thermoplastic elastomers.

Study of the effect of mixing conditions on the structure and properties of polymer blends; mechanism of deformation and fracture of polymer blends.

Chemical solid-state reactions.

Grinding and combined grinding of polymers and rubbers; utilization of polymer and rubber wastes.

New methods of polymer materials blending are developing which allow one to carry out the target physical and chemical modification of components under blending conditions and to produce the materials with a given set of properties.

 

BASIC RESULTS

                    Thermoplastic elastomers (TPE) were created on the base of isotactic polypropylene or high density polyethylene and ternary ethylene-propylene-diene elastomer using the method of dynamic vulcanization. The TPE obtained show high physicomechanical characteristics and can be repeatedly processed by a waste-free ecologically pure technological scheme.

                    A fundamentally new method of polymer blending, based on intense mechanical effects under nonisothermal process conditions, was developed; the process makes it possible to produce homogeneous blends having a narrow distribution by the size of dispersed particles. The materials obtained are characterized by high physicomechanical properties.

                    Chemical transformations in organic and inorganic compounds under conditions of joint action of high pressure and shear deformations were investigated. As shown, these reactions result in a significant structural transformation of the compound and changes in its reactivity and can be carried out in the absence of solvents or a liquid dispersed phase. Several new chemical compounds that cannot be synthesized by traditional methods were obtained.

                    A new method of deformation and fracture (grinding) of polymer materials at elevated temperatures was proposed which allows one to solve the ecologically important problem of polymer waste utilization.

 

PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS BASED ON THE FUNDAMENTAL STUDIES:

                    A series of TPE having a wide range of mechanical properties was developed. The process of one-stage TPE production by a waste-free scheme was proposed and the unique RF patent for this type of materials was obtained.

                    Polymer blends based on thermostable and heat resistant construction plastics of improved performance were produced.

                    A number of polysaccharide (cellulose and chitin) derivatives was produced: alkali cellulose, carboxymethylcellulose, chitosan, carboxymethylchitin, and carboxymethylchitosan, as well as derivatives of chitosan and dicarboxylic acids. The solid-phase realization of these reactions results in an essential increase in ecological and economic parameters of the process; moreover, the polysaccharide products obtained can be widely used in medicine, food industry, etc.

                    A process of producing fine-disperse powders from waste tires, rubber products, and polymer materials was developed.

                    Physical and chemical methods of one-stage polymer surface modification in the process of grinding were proposed. Using the powders obtained by these methods, among them, produced from polymer wastes, the composite materials were developed.

 

Tel.: (095)-939-7155 (Prut, E.V.)

Fax: (095)-137-8284

E-mail: evprut@center.chph.ras.ru

 

 

LABORATORY OF MODIFIED POLYMER SYSTEMS

Head of the Laboratory A.B.Soloveva, Dr. Sci. (Chem.)

 

LINES OF INVESTIGATION

Development of materials based on modified polypropylene.

Study of mechanisms of solid-phase blending, grinding, and modification of polymers.

Development of mechanochemical methods of metal extraction from mixed wastes and utilization of ammonium-containing wastes.

Development of catalytic systems on the base of metalloporphyrins for photo- and dark processes of organic substrate oxidation.

 

BASIC RESULTS

                    Fundamentals of mechanochemical modification of polymers under the action of shear deformation were developed.

                    Mechanochemical reactions of interaction of calcium carbonate with ammonium sulfate resulting in ammonia evolution and gypsum formation, formation of amine complexes of copper and nickel upon the interaction of ammonium carbonate with metal salts and oxides were studied.

                    The paths of mechanical energy transformation into the chemical energy and the reasons for high conversions observed in solid-phase processes were established that allowed one to develop efficient mechanochemical processes of utilization of metal-containing wastes and ammonium sulfate.

                    A concept of production of microcomposite powder materials based on thermoplastics and their blends which can be obtained only by elastic-strain grinding of polymers upon the melt-solid transition was formulated; the powders with special optical, rheological, and other properties were prepared.

                    A novel reaction in the steroid chemistry, oxidation of 7D05 steroids, which shows 100% regio- and stereoselectivity in the presence of porphyrin complexes of manganese and sodium borohydride, was found.

                    The results obtained allowed one to develop a new type of polymeric catalysts on the base of metalloporphyrins and cation exchange membranes, as well as to design a membrane reactor for the oxidation of organic substrates.

 

PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS

The results of fundamental works in the field of the solid-phase chemical reactions carried out in the Laboratory made it possible to develop a number of important processes:

                    production of modified polyolefins with a wide variety of properties;

                    metal extraction from multicomponent mixtures;

                    production of small quantities of ammonia and gypsum upon the utilization of ammonium sulfate wastes.

                    In the Laboratory, the following materials and processes were developed:

                    process of direct synthesis of polyacetals from formaldehyde;

                    a membrane reactor for photo- and dark oxidation of organic compounds;

                    materials based on polyolefin blends, secondary rubber crumb, and natural fillers of high performance;

                    stabilizers and adsorbents for high temperature processing of vulcanized rubbers.

 

Tel.: (095)-939-7112 (Solov'eva, A.B.)

Fax: (095)-137-8284

E-mail: anna@center.chph.ras.ru

 

 

LABORATORY OF LIQUID PHASE AND INTERPHASE PROCESSES

 

Head of the Laboratory R.P. Tiger, Dr. Sci. (Chem.), Professor

 

LINES OF INVESTIGATION

Study of structure, molecular nonuniformity, and reactivity of functional oligomers and polymers.

Mechanism and catalysis of polyurethane formation processes and other reactions with isocyanates participation.

Quantitative estimation of molecular organization of the medium in reaction kinetics in associated solutions.

 

BASIC RESULTS

                    A new method of liquid chromatography of polymers, 'chromatography under critical conditions' was discovered, theoretically substantiated, and experimentally verified with a number of examples. The method is based on the programmed selection of the eluent composition that allows one to suppress the polymer separation by molecular masses and to fractionate the polymer by the functionality types (i.e. by the number and nature of functional groups, functionality type distribution, FTD), as well as to analyze topological nonuniformities (cycles, branches, crosslinks, etc.). Kinetics of macromolecules adsorption and desorption on solid carriers was investigated in detail to understand better the mechanism of polymer critical chromatography.

                    In the Laboratory, the kinetics, catalysis, and mechanism of urethane formation and other reactions of polyurethane chemistry (cyclotrimerization of isocyanates, hydrolysis, oxazolidone formation, etc.) were investigated. Recently the studies on mechanism of formation of nonisocyanate urethanes by the reactions of activated carbonates with amines are developing.

                    The study of fundamental problems of kinetics and mechanism of liquid-phase reactions represents a very important line in the laboratory researches. New concepts of liquid-phase reactions in associated solutions based on a decisive role of the molecular organization of the medium were developed. A scaling approach developed to estimate the behavior of macromolecular coils in solution was used for the quantitative description of the kinetic regularities of aliphatic alcohols reactions.

 

PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS BASED ON THE FUNDAMENTAL STUDIES:

                    High-precision methods (1-3% accuracy) of quantitative analysis of FTD by oligomer functionality types (a very important parameter determining the behavior of reactive oligomers and properties of the corresponding polymers) were developed.

                    Methods of analysis of different nonuniformities in oligomers (linear, branched, cyclic, homo- and block copolymers) are developing.

                    A new method of separation of two homopolymers of different structure by selection of conditions (when one polymer is in the critical region and another one is in the exclusion region) was developed.

                    Special catalysts of urethane formation on the soluble polymer carriers and solid surfaces were elaborated; in some cases, 50-200-fold increase in the catalyst activity was reached.

                    Methods of optimization of industrial processes of polyurethanes and polyurethane foams production were developed and introduced.

 

SUGGESTED LINES OF COOPERATION IN INVESTIGATIONS AND APPLIED WORKS

                    Development of methods of FTD analysis and other molecular nonuniformities of any commercial oligomer; analysis of industrial samples; control of industrial processes of oligomer production.

                    Study of quantitative regularities of industrial processes of polyurethane production aimed at their optimization.

                    Development of efficient catalysts on solid carriers that can be eliminated from the reaction system upon the synthesis of linear polyurethane prepolymers from oligomers.

                    Nonisocyanate polyurethanes; ecologically pure synthetic routes.

 

Tel (095)-939-7283; (095)-939-7750

Fax: (095)-137-82-47

E-mail: tiger@chph.ras.ru

 

 

LABORATORY OF CHEMISTRY OF REACTION OLIGOMERS

 

Head of the Laboratory B.I. Zapadinskii, Ph. D.

 

The general line of the Laboratory activity is a study of different aspects of the oligomeric method of polymer synthesis and processing. The fundamentals of the method were developed by Prof. Alfred A. Berlin (1912-1978).

 

LINES OF INVESTIGATION

Development of methods of synthesis of new reactive oligomers for both general and special technical purposes.

Study of kinetics and mechanisms of three-dimensional polymerization of oligomers.

Study of the effect of oligomer structure on the polymer network properties.

Determination of the most promising applications of oligomers.

 

BASIC RESULTS

                    The study of the mechanisms of an oligomeric block formation and the introduction of functional groups, as well as the effects of these factors on MMD and the functionality type distribution (FTD) of the products resulted in the development of new types of oligocarbonateacrylates, oligourethaneacrylates, oligoetheracrylates, epoxyacrylates, oligoimides, and oligoarylenes including the oligomers for the high-efficient photopolymerization. New methods of oligomer synthesis were developed along with optimization of well-known synthetic methods including the ecologically pure solid-phase method of oligoimide synthesis and waste-free synthesis of a MGF-9 commercial acrylic oligomer.

                    A theory of the inhibited oxidative polymerization of unsaturated compounds was developed and the kinetics of free radical processes involving compounds with multiple active centers was analyzed. The existence of a lower and an upper limit of antioxidant concentration, critical concentration of monomer, and critical initiation rate was established. These data allowed one to develop new methods of the stabilization of polymerizable compounds providing high activity of monomers and high superiority of the initiator effect as compared to the inhibitor one during the polymerization, as well as economic and ecological efficiency.

                    Fundamental characteristics of oligomer-oligomer blends, phase diagrams and mass transfer coefficients, were determined upon components mixing and copolymerization for a wide range of mixtures of acrylic monomers and oligomers of different chemical nature. Basic thermodynamic and kinetic regularities of the component supramolecular and phase structures were revealed at all stages of processing that can be used as a base to produce oligomer-oligomer compositions with the optimum processing conditions and crosslinked polymers with uniform properties.

 

PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS BASED ON THE FUNDAMENTAL STUDIES:

                    Oligomers with different structures of the oligomeric block, type and number of polymerizable groups capable of processing by liquid- and solid-phase molding including photopolymerization and laser stereolithography.

                    High-reactive oligomer-oligomer compositions to obtain products with different physicomechanical properties and performance by thermal or photochemical polymerization.

           materials for producing articles of arbitrary shape by the method of laser stereolithography;

           photo- and thermocurable coatings of different purpose on glass, metal, and polymers;

           protective antiwear coatings for organic glasses with surface hardness comparable with the silicate glass including the coatings for 'healing' surface defects of glass elements;

conformal coatings for electronic boards;

configurating coatings, for example, photoreplica for aspherization of spherical optics;

decorative protective coatings on metal and wood products.

           Optical products of various purpose (prisms, lenses, printing forms, WORM optical disks, etc.) which show the following characteristics:

optical homogeneity and transparency in a wide wavelength range;

superhigh or superlow refraction indices;

low internal stresses;

high surface hardness and mechanical strength.

           Adhesives and sealants characterized by a very high rate of curing under thermal and photochemical initiation including 'cold curing' and heat resistant adhesives.

           Medical products, namely, elastic Fresnel lenses for strabismus correction, artificial crystalline lenses, eye protective filters, photocurable dental materials, and bone cements.

           Heat resistant nonshrinkable solvent-free binders for reinforced plastics having low melting and curing temperatures.

 

Tel: (095)-939-7472 (Zapadinskii B.I.); (095)-939-7108 (Gusev M.N.)

Fax: (095)-137-8284

E-mail: zapadi@polymer.chph.ras.ru , zapadi@chph.ras.ru.

 

 

 

 

 

 

GOLDANSKII DEPARTMENT OF SUBSTANCE STRUCTURE

 

 

 

 

 

 

Head of the Department A.V. Shishkov, Dr. Sci. (Chem.), Professor,

Corresponding Member Russian Academy of Natural Sciences,

RF State Prize winner

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Department was organized in 1974 by academician V.I. Gol'danskii, on the base of the Laboratory of nuclear and radiation chemistry.

 

LINES OF INVESTIGATION

 

The general line of investigation of the Department is the chemical physics of condensed systems. In the frame of this line, the following studies are performing:

correlations of structure and dynamics of solids with their functional properties;

surface structure and properties;

specific features of solid-phase chemical processes, particularly, the processes under extremal conditions (high pressures and shear deformations);

structure, dynamics, and functional properties of biomacromolecules and biological systems.

The Department team consists of 13 Dr. Sci., 30 Ph.D., 1 Member, Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, and 4 Corresponding Members, Russian Academy of Natural Sciences. 3 Collaborators of the Department are RF State prize winners in 2000, in the field of science and technology.

The Department comprises of 9 laboratories and 2 scientific groups.

 

LABORATORY OF DYNAMICS OF STRUCTURAL TRANSFORMATIONS

 

Head of the Laboratory V.P. Shantarovich, Dr. Sci (Phys.-Math.), Professor, Corresponding Member, Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, USSR Academy of Sciences Khlopin Prize winner

 

LINE OF INVESTIGATION

The study of the substance structure in condensed phase using methods of positron annihilation (positron spectroscopy) and radiothermoluminescence to develop approaches for creating materials with given important properties.

 

BASIC RESULTS

 

In the laboratory, methods of studying structure defects of solids and their effects on chemical and physical properties of material are developed. Particularly, a method of studying elementary free volumes in polymer materials with effective radia of the order of several angstrom and concentrations of 1016-1019 cm-3 was developed, and the effect of plastic shear deformations on parameters of free volumes was investigated. For certain polymer systems, a bimodal size distribution of free volumes was found.

A possibility to use annihilation characteristics to determine constants of elementary radiation-chemical processes was established.

A new method of studying electronic properties of surface and subsurface layers (0.1-1 [mu]m) deposited on a single-crystal substrate was developed on the base of the method of angular correlation of annihilation radiation.

Changes in boundary energy of Fermi distribution of electrons in a metallic film upon the electric contact with the substrate were found, and the amorphization of internal layers of silicon upon its epitaxial growth was observed.

Tel: (095) 939-71-32

Fax: (095)-137-83-18

e-mail: shant@chph.ras.ru

 

LABORATORY OF SUPERFINE INTERACTIONS

 

Head of the Laboratory E.F. Makarov, Dr. Sci. (Phys.-Math.), Professor, Member, Russian Academy of Natural Sciences

 

LINE OF INVESTIGATION

 

The development of Mossbauer spectroscopy to study mechanisms of high-temperature superconductivity and the structure of liquid crystals.

 

BASIC RESULTS

 

The motion of magnetic vortices in granules of polycrystalline Bi(Pb) 2,2,2,3 (Tc = 108 K) under the action of low-frequency electromagnetic field was investigated. The existence of two greatly different patterns of the vortex motion (nonlinear regime and linear one) was established. It is shown that, at low amplitudes of magnetic field, the pinning is a determining factor, whereas, at high amplitudes, the governing role plays the viscosity of magnetic flux flow. The value of pinning energy was first established for these systems, and a method to estimate the factor of sample demagnetization upon measurements in alternate electromagnetic fields was proposed.

Using molecular Mossbauer labels, the microstructure and molecular motions in liquid crystalline systems were studied. Nematic diamagnetic ferrocene derivatives, paramagnetic iron complexes of FeClL2 type and their oxocomplexes were investigated, as well as tin- and iron-containing liquid crystalline polymers differing in metal-containing fragment position and the number of repeating units in the backbone and side chains. The results of the aforementioned works are necessary to realize the target synthesis of new magnetic polymer systems.

Tel: (095) 939-71-15

Fax: (095)-137-83-18

e-mail:makarov@chph.ras.ru

 

LABORATORY OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY OF HIGHLY DISPERSED MATERIALS

 

Head of the Laboratory V.G. Nikol'skii, Ph. D.(Phys.-Math.)

 

LINE OF INVESTIGATION

 

Experimental and theoretical investigations of multiple cracking and fracture of polymers under extremum conditions of compression and shear, studies of morphology and chemical activity of forming powder particles.

 

BASIC RESULTS

 

A phenomenon of cyclic structural transformation of solid thermoplastics and rubbers under conditions of intensive compression and shear deformation was found and investigated.

A physical model, which describes the phenomenon of multiple fracture as a critical percolation transition of a solid polymer with few defects into the powder state.

A theory to interpret the experimental temperature dependence of the process rate taking into account the active role of ions and free radicals forming upon the material fracture was developed.

In the laboratory, methods to obtain new composite materials based on highly dispersed polymer powders and new designs of dispersers including the commercial devices are developed.

The works performed in the laboratory are of great importance for solving a number of ecological problems. For example, the developed process of rubber comminution is successfully used for processing of waste tires. It is important to note that the resulting rubber powder can be used as an additive for rubber mixtures to produce new tires with improved performance.

The works of the laboratory were awarded at international and all-Russia exhibitions, particularly, with gold medals of the IV International Saloon of Industrial Property 'Archimedes-2001' and the I International Saloon of Innovations and Investments (Moscow, 2001).

Tel: (095) 939-75-06

Fax: (095)-137-83-18

e-mail:vadnik@chph.ras.ru

 

LABORATORY OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY OF NANOCLUSTERS AND NANOSTRUCTURES

 

Head of the Laboratory I.P. Suzdalev, Dr. Sci. (Phys.-Math.), Professor

 

LINE OF INVESTIGATION

 

The study of structure, physical and chemical properties of nanoclusters and nanostructures.

 

BASIC RESULTS

 

Original methods of the synthesis of nanostructures by matrix isolation, sol-gel, and solid-phase reactions were developed; these methods allowed one to reveal and study a number of new properties of nanoparticles. A significant increase in atomic mobility in nanoclusters accompanied by the appearance of the premelting state was found. For nanoclusters isolated in the substance pores, a magnetic phase transition of the first order was revealed, the magnetization and magnetic ordering being changed sharply with increasing temperature or decreasing cluster size below the critical one.

The structures of two types were found in solid-phase iron oxide nanoclusters, namely, slight-interacting nanostructures with superparamagnetic and superferrimagnetic properties and strong-interacting nanostructures. The latter structures are realized in relatively large nanoclusters (20-40 nm), and, in this case, the magnetic phase transitions of the first order were observed. The critical transition temperatures for the nanostructures Tc = 94-300 K are significantly lower than observed for bulky samples of alpha- and gamma-Fe2O3 (Tc = 800-900 K). Magnetic phase transitions and shifts in the critical temperature were interpreted using a thermodynamic model taking into account the effect of stresses and defects in nanosystems and the influence of magnetostriction effects.

Nanostructures on the base of iron, zirconium, titanium, and aluminum oxides are active catalysts of partial oxidation of cumene abd carbon monoxide, and nanostructures based on iron, cobalt, bismuth, and antimony molybdates catalyze the partial propylene oxidation. A strong effect of interfaces on the mobility of oxygen in the lattice of solids and on the catalytic activity was established. For the catalytic reaction of hydrogen sulfide decomposition with the participation of nanostructures of iron oxides on a carbon support, the effect of structural defects of magnetite clusters 5-10 nm in size on the system activity was observed.

Tel: (095) 939-71-01

Fax: (095)-137-83-18

e-mail:suzdalev@chph.ras.ru

 

LABORATORY OF BIOPOLYMER DYNAMICS

 

Head of the Laboratory Yu.F. Krupyanskii, Dr. Sci. (Phys.-Math.)

 

LINE OF INVESTIGATION

 

The study of structure-dynamics characteristics of biological macromolecules and their correlations with functional properties.

Enzyme proteins and proteins of the electron transport system were investigated. To obtain quantitative information on specific protein motions, the methods of Mossbauer spectroscopy and Rayleigh scattering of Mossbauer radiation, as well as small-angle X-ray scattering were used. The method of coherent Rayleigh scattering at the angles with sinq/l <0.05 Å-1 provides a unique possibility to study space and time characteristics of equilibrium fluctuations of secondary structure elements in the range of correlation time below 10-6 s.

 

BASIC RESULTS

 

It is established that proteins should be considered as a special globular state of substance, which shows both 'crystal-like' and 'glass-like' features. It is shown that some analogies between proteins and glasses disappear at temperatures exceeding 220 K.

Tel: (095) 939-73-00

Fax: (095)-137-83-18

e-mail: yufk@chph.ras.ru

 

LABORATORY OF THEORY OF NONLINEAR PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROCESSES

 

Head of the Laboratory V.A. Avetisov, Dr. Sci. (Phys.-Math.), Corresponding Member, Russian Academy of Natural Sciences

 

LINES OF INVESTIGATION

 

Nonlinear kinetics and critical phenomena in chemical systems.

Conformational dynamics of macromolecular systems with a freezed disorder.

Hierarchical random processes and the evolution theory.

 

BASIC RESULTS

 

The most important results obtained recently are related to the nonlinear enantioselective kinetics, hierarchical random processes, and the theory of prebiological evolution.

A kinetic theory of spontaneous generation of optical activity in autocatalytic chemical systems was developed.

An original class of models of ultrametric diffusion using p-adic mathematical physics was constructed. Based on these models, a new approach to the description of kinetic processes controlling by conformational rearrangements of medium was developed.

Methods of computer simulation of similar processes were developed. The obtained results were used to describe an anomalous kinetics observed in glasses and biopolymers.

An original approach to study the problem of appearance of biological homohirality was developed on the base of concepts of prebiological evolution as an hierarchical random process.

Tel: (095) 939-72-27

Fax: (095)-137-83-18

e-mail:avetisov@chph.ras.ru

 

LABORATORY OF BIOLOGICAL SYSTEM ORGANIZATION

 

Head of the Laboratory A.V. Shishkov,Dr. Sci. (Chem.), Professor, Corresponding Member, Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, RF State Prize winner

 

LINE OF INVESTIGATION

 

The study of correlations of space structure and structure of the 'surface' of biomacromolecules with their physicochemical and functional properties.

 

BASIC RESULTS

 

It is developed the new original experimental method of studying 'accessible surface' and space structure of proteins and supramolecular biological complexes, the tritium bombardment method (RF State prize in the field of science and technology, 2000). Semiempirical algorithm for constructing three-dimensional models of globular proteins is proposed. The in situ spatial arrangement of the influenza A virus matrix protein M1 is assessed. The models of the spatial organization of two plant viruses are proposed: potato A and X viruses. This method has been applied to measure the expose of proteins on the ribosomal surface. The topography of bacteriorhodopsin (bR) in situ was studied. It was estimated the influence of membrane environment (lipid and protein) on tritium incorporation into amino acid residues forming transmembrane helices.

It was found group of peptides showing hermoregulatory and analgesic properties; structural criteria for controlled synthesis of peptides with a given activity are formulating.

Tel: (095) 939-72-65

Fax: (095)-137-83-18

e-mail:avs@chph.ras.ru

 

LABORATORY OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL MOSSBAUER SPECTROSCOPY

 

Head of the Laboratory R.A. Stukan, Dr. Sci. (Chem.), Professor

 

LINE OF INVESTIGATION

 

Structural Mossbauer spectroscopy of coordination compounds, including high-temperature superconductors, heme-containing polypeptides and proteins; synthesis of new coordination compounds (potential high-temperature superconductors).

 

BASIC RESULTS

 

Methods of analyzing Mossbauer spectroscopy data for inorganic, coordination, and organometallic iron and tin compounds, including high-temperature superconductors of 123 structure type; synthesis procedures to prepare new systems of 123 type with selective and complete substitution of individual positions of copper for the atoms of other elements, particularly, gold, iron, tin, cobalt, and palladium, were developed.

The structure of monomeric heme-containing proteins was studied by Mossbauer spectroscopy methods. It is first shown that the protein structure in a region near to heme can change even at 100 K.

A method of photoinduced reduction of iron in heme-containing proteins at low temperatures (77 K and less) was developed. It is shown that intermediates participating in the low-temperature reduction can relax to obtain equilibrium deoxyforms at the temperature exceeding a certain critical point characteristic of each protein. It is established that the activation barriers of relaxation are characterized by a distribution in height, and their parameters were determined.

Tel: (095) 939-72-27

Fax: (095)-137-82-97

e-mail:stukan@chph.ras.ru

 

LABORATORY OF CLUSTER AND RADICAL PROCESSES

 

Head of the Laboratory I.I. Morozov, Dr. Sci. (Phys.-Math.), Corresponding Member, Russian Academy of Natural Sciences

 

LINES OF INVESTIGATION

 

The kinetics and mechanism of free radical reactions of anthropogenic compounds and their effect on the atmosphere composition and changes in the Earth climate, as well as on the processes resulting in ozone decomposition in stratosphere. The reactions of Freons and the possibility to change Freons for different compounds based on partially fluorinated hydrocarbons, alcohols, and ethers.

The study of processes with the participation of ionic clusters in electrolyte solutions.

The study of ultradispersed metal and alloy particles.

 

BASIC RESULTS

 

It is shown that the Freon alternatives have a lower activity relative to ozone decomposition and demonstrate faster reactions with troposphere components that reduces or eliminate the possibility of their evolution into the stratosphere. A series of works on studying the effect of atmospheric reactions of sulfur compounds exhausted by jet engines on the atmosphere composition was performed.

A new experimental method to determine changes in enthalpy of solvation of ions and ionic clusters in solutions was proposed. Changes in enthalpy of ion and ionic cluster solvation were determined for 50 reactions in a system containing sodium ions in water-ethanol solutions.

The results of studying ultradispersed metal and alloy particles allowed one for the first time to confirm the Weiss hypothesis on the existence of two spin states (ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic ones) in the face-centered cubic lattice of alloys enriched in iron. The coexistence of ferromagnetic and paramagnetic states in ultradispersed particles of Fe-Co alloys enriched in Co was established. The finding of multispin states of crystal lattice is of fundamental interest for the solid state physics.

Tel: (095) 939-73-16

Fax: (095)-137-83-18

e-mail: morozov@chph.ras.ru

 

GROUP OF LOW-TEMPERATURE PLASMA CHEMISTRY

 

Head of the Group A.P. Shvedchikov, Ph. D. (Chem.)

 

LINE OF INVESTIGATION

 

The study of the kinetics and mechanism of homogeneous and heterogeneous chemical reactions induced by constant and pulsed coronas.

 

BASIC RESULTS

 

The objects under examination, namely, nitrogen and sulfur oxides, ammonia, vapors of organic compounds (benzene, toluene, phenol, styrene, etc.), are industrial gaseous effluents and environmental pollutants. The use of coronas to transform these compounds in ecologically safe products is of great practical importance.

Tel: (095) 939-72-66

Fax: (095)-137-83-18

 

GROUP OF MOSSBAUER SPECTROSCOPY OF SURFACE TRANSFORMATIONS

 

Head of the Group Yu.V. Baldokhin, Ph. D. (Phys.-Math.)

 

LINE OF INVESTIGATION

 

The study of structure-phase and magnetic transformations in bulk and on the surface of materials after external physicochemical action.

 

BASIC RESULTS

 

The data on the structure of metals and alloys after their surface modification with silicon, carbon, nitrogen, and boron, after annealing and quenching, laser and electron irradiation, under pressure and shear deformation, shock waves, etc. were obtained.

Methods to determine bulk characteristics of powders and foils, which allow one to obtain information on the structure of both surface of bulky solids (at a depth up to 200 nm) and surface layers (at a depth up to 15 mm and more), were developed and used.

Tel: (095) 939-79-61

Fax: (095)-137-83-18

 

 

APPLICATIONS OF THE DEPARTMENT WORKS

 

A number of results of fundamental works performed in the Department of Substance Structure were developed in the applied areas and used for creating new technologies and equipment. For example, the methods of positron defectoscopy (Laboratory of V.P. Shantarovich) give the important information to design new composite materials. The results of Mossbauer spectroscopic studies of liquid crystalline polymers (Laboratory of E.F. Makarov) can be useful for the synthesis of new magnetic polymer systems.

The most advanced applied works are based on fundamental studies of structural-chemical transformations of substance under joint action of pressure and shear deformation (Laboratory of V.G. Nikol'skii). A method was developed and setups were constructed for the fracture and comminution of materials followed by the throttling of fragments into a chamber of intensive cooling. The method is characterized by low energy consumption and allows one to grind any polymer materials and products, including waste aircraft and automobile tires. In the latter case, the resulting rubber powders consist of microparticles with a high surface area and show high adsorption capacity and chemical activity. The introduction of these powders into the rubber stock results in a significant acceleration of the vulcanization process, and the high-performance rubber products can be fabricated. For example, the composite rubbers show strength and deformation properties exceeding the analogous values for the initial rubbers.

The EKORD Co. and the plant Kristall (Ioshkar-Ola) introduced the commercial production of dispersers using at some Russian plants for processing waste automobile tires and producing highly dispersed rubber powders, as well as for preparing thermoplastic powders.

The development of new catalytic systems based on nanoclusters, which is carrying out in the Department of Kinetics and Catalysis with the participation of the Laboratory of I.P. Suzdalev, can be of great practical importance.

Based on results obtained by the Group of low-temperature plasma chemistry (Head of the Group A.P. Shvedchikov) in cooperation with the design office Gorizont and the Pulsatron Technology Co., Ltd. (USA),a pilot plant for the nitrogen oxides removal from exhaust gases of plasma furnaces in the presence of ammonia was constructed. The test results showed a high efficiency of the plant: ~97% at 100-200 ppm and 90-95% at 6000-8000 ppm NOx.

A method of tritium planigraphy developed in the Laboratory of A.V. Shishkov, in parallel with its using for structural-analytical studies, can be widely used as a rapid method of tririum label introduction into the compounds of different classes and structural complexity (from simple hydrocarbons to proteins and nucleic acids). Because of the method simplicity and almost complete absence of degradation products, this approach is very efficient method of obtaining tritium-labeled compounds.

The importance of studies of free radical reactions for the practical ecology (Laboratory of I.I. Morozov) was emphasized above. It should be noted that the method of preparing ultradispersed metal and alloy powders by 'gas evaporation' developed in this laboratory is of practical importance.

 

SCIENTIFIC CONTACTS OF THE DEPARTMENT

 

The subdivisions of the Department work in a close contact with a number of institutes of Russian Academy of Sciences and other research centers of Russia and the FSU countries, namely: Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Siberian Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Protein, RAS, Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, RAS, Insitute of Molecular Genetics, RAS, Institute of Physical Chemistry, RAS, etc., as well as with chairs of physical, chemical, and biological faculties of Lomonosov Moscow State University. The Department realizes the scientific and technical cooperation with foreign research centers, namely: Munchen Technical University, Mainz and Halle Universities, Lubek Medical Institute and Institute of Physics (Germany), Technical University and Reactor Institute (Netherlands), University of Texas and El-Paso Chemical Institute (USA), University and Material Science Institute (Sevilia, Spain), Technion (Haifa, Israel).

In the Department, post-graduated students in chemical physics, physics of condensed state, and chemistry of high energies are learning. The students of Moscow State University, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Moscow Insitute of Engineering Physics, and other higher institutes make their theses.

 

 

 

DEPARTMENT OF DYNAMICS OF CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES

 

 

 

 

 

 

Head of the Department A.L. Buchachenko, Member, Russian Academy of Sciences, Lenin and State Prize winner, Voevodskii Prize and Gold Medal of Aeronautics winner

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Department was organized in 1960 by academician N.M. Emanuel, on the base of the Laboratory of Oxidation of Organic Compounds and Stabilization of Polymers created by him previously.

At present 23 Dr.Sci and more than 50 Ph.D. work in the Department.

The Department consists of 15 laboratories.

 

BASIC LINES OF INVESTIGATION

 

Spin chemistry

- Principles of designing organic and molecular ferromagnetics and development of their synthesis paths. The role of exchange interaction, superfine interaction, and molecular dynamics in the reactivity and ESR spectroscopy of radical pairs.

Nanochemistry

- Physical chemistry of small particles of semiconductors with a quantum size effect (nanoparticles). Specific features of chemical reactions with nanoparticles and the role of size effects in chemical kinetics.

Kinetics and mechanisms of chemical processes in molecularly organized systems

- Micellar interphase catalysis in microheterogeneous systems. Principles of formation of new catalytic systems of hydrocarbon oxidation based on surfactants. Study of mechanisms of primary photosynthetic processes. Development of new high-sensitivity and high-selectivity methods for the analysis of content, distribution, and properties of functional groups on the polymer surface using luminescent spectroscopy and ESR methods.

Mechanisms of biochemical reactions

- Determination of molecular-cellular mechanisms of natural resistance of living organisms and the development of theoretical fundamentals of improving this resistance using antiradiation agents, antioxidants, neuropeptides, and adaptogens.

- Development of new physiologically active substances and biomedical polymers.

- Development of drug products of new generation on the base of quinones. Principles of synthesis of biopolymers with controlled properties. Structural modification of polymers to accelerate their biodegradation and enhance their biological activity.

 

LABORATORY OF SPIN CHEMISTRY

 

Head of the Laboratory A.M. Vasserman, Dr. Sci. ( ), Professor.

 

LINE OF INVESTIGATION

 

Spin chemistry. The role of exchange and superfine interactions and molecular dynamics in the reactivity and ESR spectroscopy of radical pairs. Spin labels and probes in studies of molecular dynamics and structure of polymer systems.

The Laboratory was organized in 1967 as a Laboratory of free radical reactions in solid polymers. In the frame of this theme, the chemical physics of aging and stabilization of polymers was developed, ways for using degradation processes to create new materials were found, and physical chemistry of nitroxyl radicals was developed.

In recent years, the general line of investigation is the development of problems and new ideas in the field of spin chemistry and chemical physics in condensed systems.

 

BASIC RESULTS

 

A theory of ESR of an individual spin in the new tunneling spectroscopy was developed; paramagnetic shifts of NMR bands for organic molecules were measured, and the dynamics of complexes of organic molecules with paramagnetic O2 and ClO2 (the transfer of spin density to a ligand, lifetimes of complexes, etc.) were established. A new isotope effect, the dependence of reaction rate on the magnetic moment and nuclear spins of reagents, was found.

A full set of properties of compressed atoms was established. It is shown that the compressed atoms (in solids, fullerene spheres, and at superhigh pressures) show great changes in the magnetic moments and energies of the electron-nuclear and Fermi interaction. In atoms with unfilled inner shells, the compression is accompanied by their filling, and, in filled shells, the spin polarization of electrons occurs. Unexpected and inexplicable redistributions of electrons between atomic p- and s-orbitals were found.

Theoretical analysis of spin dynamics in three-spin systems showed that the third electron spin is responsible for both spin catalysis and an increase in the nuclear-spin selectivity and isotope fractionation in chemical reactions of radicals. It is established that the rate of radical recombination in the presence of the third radical exceeds the rate of simple recombination by an order of magnitude. This effect of spin catalysis of reaction was observed also in the presence of paramagnetic lanthanide ions.

A principally new interpretation of the appearance and evolution of ESR spectra of spin-correlated radical pairs was proposed. The successful interpretation of temperature effects in micellar and biradical systems suggests that the new theoretical approach is valid and fruitful.

Intensive works on using spin labels and probes to study polymer and micellar systems are carrying out.

Tel: (095)-939-74-40, 939-76-93

Fax: (095)-939-74-83

e-mail: spinchem@ chph.ras.ru

 

LABORATORY OF MUTAGENESIS MECHANISMS

 

Head of the Laboratory A.P. Akif'ev, Dr. Sci. (Biol.), Professor

 

LINES OF INVESTIGATION

 

Physicochemical fundamentals of genetic processes in higher organisms.

The study of processes of individual evolution of living organisms.

 

BASIC RESULTS

 

The methodology and individual methods of genome investigation were developed.Using experimental models of Drosophila and mice, it is established that the nuclear DNA of neural cells is an initial substrate of animals aging.

A concept of stepwise character of the aging process was proposed; according to this concept, a greater part of animal lifetime is a potential phase of aging. The realization phase preceding the organism death begins with the failure of genes determining specific functions of neural cells.

A Cyclops kolensis object was found, in which more than 90% DNA eliminates from chromosomes of somatic cells during the diminution of chromatin (CD) at the early stage of the organism evolution. At present this example of CD represents a record of natural genetic engineering in Metazoa.

Tel: (095)-939-74-81, 939-65-16

Fax: (095)-939-74-83

e-mail: potapenko@ chph.ras.ru

 

LABORATORY OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY OF BIOPOLYMERS

 

Head of the Laboratory A.F. Vanin, Dr. Sci. (Biol.), Professor

 

LINE OF INVESTIGATION

 

The formation of nitrous oxide and mechanisms of its action in biosystems.

 

BASIC RESULTS

 

The presence in cells and tissues of nitrous oxide (NO) stabilizing by the incorporation in dinitrosyl complexes of iron (DNIC) was first shown.

The detailed studies of physicochemical nature of DNIC and the mechanisms of their formation in the animal tissues and microorganisms with the participation of exogenous NO donors were performed.

A method to detect NO in biosystems using an exogenous trap, Fe(II) with dithiocarbamate derivatives, was proposed. This allowed us to show that, in animal organisms, the formation of NO from exogenous sources, namely, from L-arginine, takes place. The aforementioned method of direct determination of NO in cells and tissues is widely used all over the world. Based on this method, a tomography technique for estimating NO distribution in the animal organisms was developed. At the present time, the general line of investigation is searching methods to stabilize and transport NO, mainly as DNIC and S-nitrosothiols.

Tel: (095)-939-71-96, 939-75-51

Fax: (095)-939-74-83

e-mail: mikoyan@ chph.ras.ru

 

LABORATORY OF THERMODYNAMICS AND MACROKINETICS OF NONEQUILIBRIUM SYSTEMS

 

Head of the Laboratory G.P. Gladyshev, Dr. Sci. (Chem.), Professor

 

LINES OF INVESTIGATION

 

The study of thermodynamics and macrokinetics of natural evolution processes.

A macrothermodynamic theory of aging.

 

BASIC RESULTS

 

In the Laboratory, the studies in the field of general physical chemistry, chemical engineering, polymer chemistry, physical chemistry of atmosphere and solar system, biological thermodynamics, and physicochemical medicine were performed.

The Gibbs theory was extended, as applied to complex heterogeneous systems, and the fundamentals of hierarchical thermodynamics were created. A law of time hierarchies of biological systems and a principle of chemical substance stability were formulated.

A thermodynamic theory of biological evolution and aging was created. Based on the developing macrothermodynamic theory, quantitative criteria to estimate physiological age of human tissues were proposed, and the principles of development of diets and drug products, which retard aging, were formulated. Practical recommendations for the 'Mountains as a youth symbol' program, which is carrying out on the base of Kabardino-Balkaria mountainous park, were given. Experimental data confirming the thermodynamic theory of living organisms aging were obtained.

Studies in the field of organic peroxides are performing; the structure of many peroxides was determined, and the mechanism of their reactions was established. Works on the enzymatic catalysis, stacking interactions of nucleic bases, and chemical processes in the polluted atmosphere were carried out.

The American Association for the Advancement of Sciences (AAAS) inscribed the line of investigation of the Laboratory in the list of 8 branches of the world science, which will transform the fates of next generations (Science, October 31, 1997, vol. 278); AAAS Annual Meeting and Science Innovation Exhibition (150th Anniversary Celebration), Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Track: Emerging Science: Transforming the Next Generation, February 12-17, 1998).

Tel: (095)-939-71-65, 939-74-51

Fax: (095)-939-74-83

e-mail: academy@endeav.org

 

LABORATORY OF STABILITY AND RESISTANCE OF ORGANIC SUBSTANCES AND MATERIALS

 

Head of the Laboratory K.Z. Gumargalieva, Dr. Sci. (Chem.)

 

LINES OF INVESTIGATION

 

Kinetics of structural transformations of drug products of nootropic character (Pyracetam) in aqueous solutions.

Catalysis with heavy metal salts.

Aging of epoxy oligomeric systems and structural stabilization of epoxy polymers.

Structural modification of polyolefins.

Biostability and serviceability of polymer and composite materials.

Synthesis and investigation of fire retardants for polymer materials.

Development of methods of homogenization of initial components and their blends in large-capacity synthesis of epoxy and formaldehyde resins.

Development of methods for the analysis of volatile and soluble compounds in organic mixtures, products of polymer and composite materials degradation, and vegetable products.

Development and investigation of biocompatible polymers and monomer materials on the base of acrylates for medical applications.

Study of physicochemical fundamentals of human cell transformations (DNA and RNA biopolymers) under the action of hazardous environmental factors (radiation, toxic, technogenic factors, etc.)

The Laboratory was organized by academician N.M. Emanuel in 1983, for solving scientific and applied problems on the 'safety' of both synthetic polymer materials and 'organic substances and materials' (defined by N.M. Emanuel) including natural materials and vegetable products. The general line of the Laboratory work is studying chemical and physical transformations in monomer, oligomer, and polymer systems during their synthesis and under the action of environmental factors (moisture, temperature, oxygen, and microorganisms) in the open and close space (living organism), as well as the serviceability and/or functional stability of the materials and products.

 

BASIC RESULTS

 

A series of works on the mechanisms of chemical transformations of polymer materials under the action of biologically active media was completed. The theoretical and experimental substantiation of concepts on material injury by microorganisms was given. It is established that this process consists of three stages (adhesion of microorganisms, their growth, and changes in both surface and bulk properties of the substrate material). A biocompatible polymer material based on hydrophilic poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) network was synthesized; the technology of preparation of hemostatic embolizing agent with drug products (cytostatics, antiseptics), and prostheses for correction of muscle tissues widely used in surgical practice (more than 5000 operations).

A heat-insulating foam material based on carbamide-formaldehyde resins and corresponding to ecological and technical State Standards was developed and synthesized. This material was used in three-layer structures of 25 multi-stage buildings in Moscow. The production of Penoizol was realized in 104 subjects of the RF and FSU countries.

A system of early diagnostics of different forms of human leucemia was created on the base of theoretical and experimental methods of detecting changes in genetic apparatus of hemogenic cells and tissues. The complex methods of diagnostics were introduced in medical and biomedical centers of Russia, Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus, etc.

Tel: (095)-939-72-76

Fax: (095)-939-74-83

e-mail: stusl@ chph.ras.ru

 

LABORATORY OF TRANSPORT PHENOMENA IN POLYMER SYSTEMS

 

Head of the Laboratory A.L. Iordanskii, Dr. Sci. (Chem.)

 

LINES OF INVESTIGATION

 

Studies of transport phenomena in polymer systems of different hydrophilicity.

The development of scientific fundamentals of controlled diffusion in structurally organized polymer matrices.

 

BASIC RESULTS

 

A series of works on diffusion systems for controlled drug delivery was completed. The modeling of complex barrier compositions, such as human skin creating an additional resistance to the drug diffusion was carried out. Using the multifactor analysis, the computer simulation of a beta-blocator transport from a PEG-PVP polymer complex was performed that allowed us to determine the most important factors responsible for the regime of controlled drug delivery. The model was experimentally verified.

New promising polymer blends based on two polymers with significantly different hydrophilic properties (PVA and bacterial poly-3-hydroxybutyrate) were prepared by extrusion technique. Complex studies of transport mechanical and structural characteristics were performed.

A model of a partial immobilization of water in polymers of medium hydrophilicity was formulated and experimentally verified.

A model of transdermal transfer of drug products from the matrix into the human skin was proposed and experimentally justified.

Tel: (095)-939-74-14, 939-74-34

Fax: (095)-939-74-83

e-mail: iordan@ chph.ras.ru

 

LABORATORY OF POLYMER PHOTOCHEMISTRY

 

Head of the Laboratory V.B. Ivanov, Dr. Sci. (Chem.), Professor

 

LINES OF INVESTIGATION

 

Mechanisms of photochemical and photophysical processes in polymer systems.

Mechanisms of photodegradation and photooxidation of polymers.

Mechanisms of stabilizing and initiating systems action; nonlinear effects of photooxidation, stabilization, and initiation; synergism and antagonism; special features of processes under the action of many factors.

The photochemistry of supramolecular systems; magnetic spin and other magnetic effects.

 

BASIC RESULTS

 

Mechanisms of photooxidation of some carbochain polymers were first developed.

Mechanisms of synergism and antagonism of additives in photoreactions of polymer systems were developed that allow one to optimize composition and control photostability and photosensitivity of polymer materials over a wide range.

New methods of analysis of functional groups on the polymer surface characteristic of the record sensitivity and high selectivity were developed.

Systems with the record sensitivity to the magnetic field were found.

New photochemical reactions were discovered.

Applied aspects of the works are related to the selection and testing of polymer materials, their modification, and optimization of stabilizing and initiating systems. At present materials with given properties are developing, and optical and colorimetric characteristics of polymer materials are determining.

Tel: (095)-939-73-14

Fax: (095)-939-74-83

e-mail: polyphoto@ chph.ras.ru

 

LABORATORY OF SERVICEABILITY FORECASTING

 

Head of the Laboratory O.N. Karpukhin, Dr. Sci. (Chem.), Professor

 

LINES OF INVESTIGATION

 

The chemical resistance of materials; polymer materials with new properties.

The Laboratory develops and applies a methodology of forecasting serviceability of polymer materials and products and gives recommendations on the antioxidant compounding.

 

BASIC RESULTS

 

A new method to forecast the behavior of thermoshrinkable polyethylene fibers depending on their physicochemical structure and regime (technology) of irradiation to provide thermal shrinkage was developed.

A Design computer system for the evolution planning of quick testing of tire rubbers was created.

A wide variety of formulae of photoconverting polymer compositions and thermoplastics using for their compounding was proposed.

Tel: (095)-939-73-65, 939-94-83

Fax: (095)-939-74-83

e-mail: kon@ chph.ras.ru

 

LABORATORY OF LIQUID-PHASE OXIDATION

 

Head of the Laboratory O.T. Kasaikina, Dr. Sci. (Chem.)

 

LINES OF INVESTIGATION

 

New microheterogeneous catalytic systems based on surfactants.

The creation of physicochemical fundamentals of pharmaceutic activity of natural antioxidants and mechanisms of the antioxidant action.

In the Laboratory, the lines of investigation created by academician N.M. Emanuel (radical reactions in liquid phase) are developing. The Laboratory researchers carried out fundamental studies on kinetics and mechanism of inhibition with phenol-based antioxidants, arylindanediones, and polyfunctional antioxidants on the base of hydrogenated quinolines and nitroxyl radicals.

 

BASIC RESULTS

 

The catalysis of peroxide decomposition by nitroxyl raducals was found, and the reaction mechanism was revealed.

A large-scale study of catalytic activity of substituted quinones (Q) in the oxidation of ascorbic acid in aqueous solutions was carried out. A correlation between the catalytic activity of Q and their single-electron reduction potential was established. A kinetic theory of the phenomenon under examination was developed.

A theory of liquid-phase oxidation of polyene hydrocarbons was constructed. A computer model of the oxidation of a natural polyene hydrocarbon, b-carotene was created. The model involves basic pseudoelementary reactions and the corresponding rate constants and gives a good description of the kinetics of oxidation of b-carotene and its effect on the oxidation of lipids and other organic compounds.

At present the works of Laboratory are aimed at studying processes occurring in microheterogeneous aqueous-organic media. Fundamental investigations on the mechanism of catalysis in microreactors using micellar surfactants are performing; the practical aspect of the Laboratory works is related to the creation of microheterogeneous surfactant-based catalytic systems of selective low-temperature oxidation and photocatalytic purification of lipid-containing wastewater.

Tel: (095)-939-71-69, 939-76-30

Fax: (095)-939-74-83

e-mail: kasaikina@ chph.ras.ru

 

LABORATORY OF PHOTOBIONICS

 

Head of the Laboratory G.G. Komissarov, Dr. Sci. (Chem.), Professor

 

LINES OF INVESTIGATION

 

The investigation of photoelectric properties of natural pigments and their synthetic analogs.

A comparative study of photoprocesses occurring in natural and model photosystems, searching for new types of solar energy converters and studying the influence of different physicochemical factors on plants.

The Laboratory was organized in 1986 on the base of the Group of photosynthesis modeling, which was transferred from the Institute of Organoelement Compounds, RAS, in the Institute of Chemical Physics (the Laboratory of Prof. L.A. Blumenfel'd), in 1967.

 

BASIC RESULTS

 

A number of radically new results in the field of photoelectrochemistry of organic semiconductors and photosynthetic pigments was obtained that allows us to reserve the leadership in studying photovoltaic properties of photosynthetic pigments.

A series of porphyrins (Cu-, Fe-, and Zn-porphyrins, complexes of deuteroporphyrin, etioporphyrin, octaethylporphyrin, tetraphenylporphyrin, and tetrabenzoporphyrin) was studied, and the changes in their photovoltaic properties resulted from a substituent introduction into different positions of the macrocycle were estimated. It is shown that the substitution reactions in pyrrole cycles leads to an increase in photovoltaic activity of porphyrin films, the effect being depended on the Hammet constant of an acceptor, the substitution position, and substituents number, as well as on the initial ionization potential, photoactivity, and group of symmetry of pigment.

A specialized matrix symbolism was developed, the kinetics of oxygen evolution by one-celled algae and chloroplasts of higher plants was studied theoretically and experimentally taking into account dark processes. Computer programs for treatment and interpretation of the obtained kinetic data were created.

A new concept of photosynthesis was proposed. According to this concept, in photosynthesis, the source of oxygen (hydrogen) is not water but hydrogen peroxide of exo- and endogenous nature. It is suggested that, at low-intensity illumination, the plant can be considered as a heat pump using the thermal energy of the environment to realize biochemical processes.

Based on the developed concepts, a new principle of solar energy conversion was proposed, new views on the participation of photosynthetic oxygen in the Earth atmosphere formation were formulated, the recommendations on stimulating agricultural plant growth were given, and concrete ways to realize artificial photosynthesis were outlined.

Tel: (095)-939-73-50

Fax: (095)-939-74-83

e-mail: komiss@ chph.ras.ru

 

LABORATORY OF RADIATION BIOPHYSICS AND ECOLOGY

 

Head of the Laboratory I.I. Pelevina, Dr. Sci. (Biol.), Professor

 

LINE OF INVESTIGATION

 

The instability of genome under low-dose ionizing radiation, mechanisms of biological effect of low-dose ionizing radiation and adaptive light, and molecular-cellular mechanisms of cell apoptosis.

 

BASIC RESULTS

 

In the Laboratory, fundamental studies of kinetics of tumor growth were performed, criteria to estimate antitumor activity of radiosensitizers were developed, and the effect of inhibitors on different enzymatic systems was investigated. The collaborators of the Laboratory took an active part in the liquidation of the Chernobyl accident consequences.

The manifestation of genome instability in a population obtained from a single irradiated cell was studied. It is shown that the population obtained from a single cell is characterized by a significant heterogeneity in the frequency of appearance of cells with genome damage during cells growth. The variability degree increases with the radiation dose. It is established that the genome instability and damage of genetic apparatus appear de novo during the lifetime of initially homogeneous population.

A phenomenon of hypersensitivity resulted from low-dose irradiation was observed. This fact is of great importance to determine groups of elevated risk under the action of hazardous environmental factors on the human organism.

Tel: (095)-939-73-59, 939-77-08

Fax: (095)-939-74-83

e-mail: pele@ chph.ras.ru

 

LABORATORY OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS OF EXTREME FACTORS AND PROTECTORS DESIGN

 

Head of the Laboratory M.K. Pulatova, Dr. Sci. (Phys.-Math.), Professor

 

LINE OF INVESTIGATION

 

The study of mechanisms of biochemical reactions, reactivity, structure, and properties of biologically active chemical compounds.

The creation of new radioprotectors efficient under conditions of critical irradiation and prolonged irradiation in nonlethal doses.

The investigation of molecular-cellular mechanisms of natural resistance of the organism and the development of theoretical fundamentals of its enhancement with antiradiation agents, antioxidants, neuropeptides, and adaptogens.

 

BASIC RESULTS

 

Unified principles of selection of promising radioprotectors were developed. The analysis data obtained by ESR, biochemical and electrophoretical methods of molecular biology, using samples of whole blood, blood plasma, and blood serum, bronchoalveolar washings taken from military men of units stationed on territories polluted with radionuclides and participated in the liquidation of the Chernobyl accident in 1986-1987, as well as from civil population (including children of different age) residing at the territories with various levels of radioactive pollution were generalized.

Typical changes in both medium-group values of the studied parameters and their individual values were revealed.

It is shown that proteins of blood plasma, Fe+3-transferrin and Cu+2-ceruloplasmin, are proteins sensitive to low-dose irradiation.

A SOS-activation of deoxyribonucleotide synthesis in the cells of animals, which was found for a number of DNA-damaging agents, can be considered as a discovery, since it is first shown that this phenomenon takes place in vivo in the most important animal organs (marrow of bone, spleen, thymus, and liver). It is established that the SOS-activation of this type is the most important component of the integral SOS-response of cellular systems of an organism to the damaging factors.

It is shown that the efficient radioprotectors can modify the intensity and duration of the SOS-activation of DNA precursors synthesis, as well as induce the DNA and protein synthesis in the animal organs. It is established that these effects are responsible for a high survival rate of animals irradiated by lethal doses and are the deciding stages in the mechanism of the radioprotector action.

The studied processes are of great importance for understanding the organism response to the hazardous environmental factors and should be taken into account in developing schemes of tumor radio- and chemotherapy, and using radioprotectors.

Tel: (095)-939-74-47

Fax: (095)-939-74-83

e-mail: pulatova@ chph.ras.ru

 

LABORATORY OF HUMAN CELLULAR NEUROPHYSIOLOGY

 

Head of the Laboratory S.N. Raeva, Dr. Sci. (Med.)

 

From 1969, the Laboratory works are carried out in cooperation with the Burdenko Institute of Neurosurgery, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. A method developed in the Laboratory is used for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes as an important method of functional identification of deep brain structures. The Laboratory is a unique research division in Russia, which develops the microelectrode line of investigation.

 

LINES OF INVESTIGATION

 

The neuron organization and role of different nuclei of the most important subcortical structures of human brain in the realization of processes of attention, arbitrary motions, and memory. Mechanisms of coding and neurosignals transfer during the purposeful motive and mental activity. The study of the organizing role of verbal functionally meaningful information, neuron mechanisms of its recognition and treatment during the purposeful behavior. Mathematical modeling of dynamic neural net organization and methods of information communication in these nets at different activities.

Neuron mechanisms of brain injuries responsible for the motive pathology of the Parkinson's disease. The role of oscillator, synchronized, and coherent activity of neurons in the organization of arbitrary motions and generation of Parkinson's tremor. Mathematical modeling of neuron processes of motor control and tremor.

 

BASIC RESULTS

 

The following methods were first developed and introduced into medical practice:

- a microelectrode method of drawing off electric activity of neurons of deep structures of human brain in neurosurgery operations (RF Patent 361 794);

- an original methodology of cell testing with verbal forms of stimulation;

- a functional approach to estimate dynamics and functional interrelation of neural, summary electrographic (EEG, EMG, etc.), and behavior reactions in the preparation and realization of purpose act.

Special features of neuron organization and the role of main subcortical structures of human brain (talamus, basal ganglia, and pretectal area) in providing central mechanisms of motive and mental activity of humans were first examined.

The importance of nonspecific nuclei of talamus and basal ganglia in the organization of purpose activity related to speech forms of human mentality was first established. In these nuclei, a special group of neuron-detectors participating in the deliberate recognition and selective communication of the sense 'stimulating' meaning of speech imperative signal during the realization of purposeful behavior act was found. It is established that the detector properties of neurons of nonspecific talamus is based on the net activity of convergent elements of two types, with a single irregular pattern of discharges and rythmic low-threshold Ca+2 packing activity. The regularities of total space (structural) and time dynamics of changes in the net activity of these elements, which correlate with the activation of selective attention and initiation of purposeful action of humans were established. It is suggested that interrelated rearrangements in these two types of neurons correspond to the collective activity of two functional subsystems participating in the detection, treatment, and conversion of the imperative speech stimulus into the electric energy forming an arbitrary motion. A concept of neuron mechanisms of the system providing purposeful oral human activity was formulated and experimentally substantiated.

Mechanisms and role of rythmic 5 1 Hz neuron processes in talamus at Parkinson's tremor and at the realization of an arbitrary motion were studied. A hypothesis on central rythmic 5 1 Hz neural processes as a system phenomenon of multiple interrelated brain structures, which take part in providing motor control under normal and pathological conditions, was formulated. Deciding factors of synchronization and transformation of these rythmic processes into a pathological oscillatory self-organizing mechanism of tremor generation in the Parkinson's disease were first established.

Neuronographic criteria of functional modification of motor and nonspecific nuclei of talamus, basal ganglia, and some structures of human middle brain were developed that allowed one to perform operations with the minimal damage of brain tissue in therapy of some serious diseases of central neural system.

Tel: (095)-433-53-53

Fax: (095)-939-74-83

e-mail: raeva@ chph.ras.ru

 

LABORATORY OF CATALYTIC OXIDATION PROCESSES

 

Head of the Laboratory A.A. Samoilenko, Ph. D.

 

LINES OF INVESTIGATION

 

Catalytic liquid-phase oxidation processes.

Radiospectroscopic studies of condensed phases and biological objects.

 

BASIC RESULTS

 

Fundamental studies of olefin oxidation in the presence of homogeneous catalysts were performed. High-efficient catalytic systems were found. The structure and reactivity of copper surface complexes for different samples of doped nanocrystalline titanium dioxide were investigated. The correlations of photocatalytic activity with the structure of the surface complexes were established.

The optimum compositions for long-time storage of drug products were developed.

A method of NMR tomography to analyze the structure and quality of solid products was developed.

The diffusion of mineral oil and molten paraffin into a porous rock (sandstone) was studied by a STRAFI technique. The shapes of diffusion fronts were recorded; it is shown that the contrast over the envelope of spin echo signal sequences allows one to separate hydrocarbons by molecular weight. The method is promising for the development of oil extraction processes.

Based on the analysis of 1H and 31P NMR spectra of brain, a deciding role of redox processes in controlling energy exchange of brain in ischemia insult was established. Radiotherapy-induced sharp changes in the composition of amino acids and lipids in the blood plasma of leukemia patients were first found.

Tel: (095)-939-74-83, 939-73-11

Fax: (095)-939-74-83

e-mail: sam nmr@ chph.ras.ru

 

LABORATORY OF NMR OF BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS

 

Head of the Laboratory L.A. Sibel'dina, Professor

 

The Laboratory was organized in 1978 by academician N.M. Emanuel. In this year, a Service-Demonstration Scientific Center was created on the base of the Laboratory, in cooperation with the Bruker Co. (Germany) and the Spectrospin Co. (Swiss).

In 1978-1990, the studies of metabolism of normal and tumor cells, screening of antitumor drugs, developement of methods for analyzing metabolism of living organisms and membrane processes were carried out. In the Laboratory, the processes of butyl rubber production were studied, aircraft hydraulic liquids were developed, and a number of processes of microbiological synthesis of drug products was created (210 publications in domestic and foreign journals).

In the frame of the activity of the Service-Demonstration Center, over a period of 10 years, 75 NMR spectrometers with a superconducting magnet, 125 IR Fourier spectrometers, etc. were put into operation. The Center was equipped with 4 NMR spectrometers with the superconducting magnet. A number of laboratories of the RF used the equipment of the aforementioned Center in their research work.

From 1990 to the present day, the Laboratory develops new investigation lines.

 

NMR tomography

 

In 1990, the Laboratory mounted a NMR tomograph (0.23 Tesla) in the clinic of Russian Academy of Sciences. The data bank contains the information on the studies of brain and spinal cord, abdominal cavity, and small pelvis organs of 47.000 patients.

 

New ozone technologies

 

In the Orion-SI Co. (the company was organized on the base of the laboratory of the Institute of Chemical Physics, in 1989), a portable ozonizer for sterilizing and disinfecting operation rooms and surgery divisions, as well as shops of food plants was developed and introduced. 2.500 Clinics of the RF were equipped with this ozonizer.

In 1997, an advanced approach to the sterilization of medical equipment including surgery instruments was developed. In 1999, the production of multifunctional ozone sterilizers consisting of an ozonizer and an ozone chamber of three different volumes (36, 85, and 250 l) was started.

In addition, the Laboratory worked in the field of search and creation of new magnetic resonance substances, studied molecular mobility of water in water-protein systems, and examined the possibilities of using NMR tomography in gynecological practice.

From 2000, the Laboratory, in cooperation with the Joint-Stock Co. Orion-SI, is deeply involved in the development of a 'Modern mobile medical complex' concept.

Tel: (095)-939-17-29, 939-76-93

Fax: (095)-939-74-83

Scientific contacts of the Department with Russian and foreign institutes

 

Vishnevskii Institute of Surgery, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences;

Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences;

Lomonosov Moscow State University;

Voronezh State University;

Kazan State Technological University;

Ryazan Medical University;

Saratov Medical University;

Sechenov Moscow Medical Academy;

Institute of Stomatology, RF Ministry of Public Health;

Correspondence Institute of Textile Industry;

Karpov Research Institute of Physical Chemistry;

Research Institute of Tire Industry; Central Research Institute of Precise Mechanical Engineering;

Poliplastik Co.;

Research Institute of Cable Industry;

Research Institute of Autoelectronics and Electric Equipment, Resurs Co.

Central Research Institute of Precise Mechanical Engineering (Podolsk);

Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry of Czech Academy of Sciences (Prague);

Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (Chernogolovka);

Joint-Stock Co. TsNIISM (Khot'kovo);

Institute of Biochemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences;

Oncological Center, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences;

Hematological Center RF Ministry off Public Health;

Massachusets Medical Institute;

University of Boston (USA);

Oncological Institute of Paris (France);

Lvov Polygraphic Institute;

Institute of Applied Researches of Polymers (FRG);

Manchester Polytechnical University (UK), and others Institutes;

Institute of Organic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences;

Petroleum Academy, Baku (Azerbaidzhan);

John Hopkins Hospital, Dept. of Neurosurgery (USA); University of Iowa College of Medicine, Dept. of Anatomy (USA); University of Toronto, Dept. of Physiology and Neurosurgery (Canada); University Hospital Zurich, Neurosurgery Dept. (Switzerland); Gunma University, School of Medicine, Maebashi (Japan).

 

 

 

 

 

LABORATORY OF STEREOCHEMISTRY

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Head of the Laboratory R.G. Kostyanovskii,

Dr. Sci. (Chem.), Professor

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Laboratory of stereochemistry (from 1998) was organized on the base of the Group (1961) and subsequently Laboratory of mutagen chemistry (1972) of the Department of Chemical Genetics organized by I.A. Rapoport, Corresponding Member, USSR Academy of Sciences.

Initially, the Laboratory work was aimed at the synthesis of well-known supermutagens (aziridines, nitrosoalkylureas and biurets, diazoketones, nitrosomethoxymethylamine, etc.) and safe binary mutagens for the agricultural and microbiological selection, as well as the creation of virus inactivators to produce antivirus vaccines for animal diseases therapy and new regulators of plant growth (the preparations of the Fumar family are widely known).

From 1968, the problem of asymmetric nitrogen atom was studied (86 papers of this series were published). It should be noted that the Laboratory is a world leader in this line of investigation. The compounds with asymmetric nitrogen were first prepared in the optically active form. New classes of these compounds were synthesized, and a general scheme for their separation into antipodes was developed. In a dialkoxyamine series, optically active compounds with the asymmetric nitrogen in the open chain were first obtained. At the present time, first compounds with asymmetric nitrogen capable to form homohiral crystals were found and their spontaneous separation into antipodes was performed.

 

LINES OF INVESTIGATION

 

The study of the processes of self-association and self-organization of molecular systems in solutions, in crystals, and at the interface.

The study of regularities determining the homohiral organization of molecules in crystals for constructing conglomerates.

The study of spontaneous separation of conglomerates into enantiomers, absolute asymmetric synthesis (crystallization-induced transformation of a racemic conglomerate to one enantiomer), and spontaneous separation of true racemates and solid solutions.

 

BASIC RESULTS

 

The general strategy of synthesis of hiral bicyclic bis(lactones) and bis(lactams) of the C2 symmetry with bicycles of [3.3.0], [3.3.1], and [2.2.2] types was developed. The compounds were obtained in racemic and optically pure forms, and their crystal structure were thoroughly studied. For bicyclic bis(lactams) and glycouryls of [3.3.1] and [3.3.0] types, the homohiral self-organization in crystals was found. This allowed one to carry out the first target synthesis of compounds capable of the conglomerate formation and spontaneous separation, as well as to prepare a chiral drug (Albicar) by the spontaneous separation.

Original methods of spontaneous separation of conglomerates into enantiomers without using chiral reagents and new versions of the absolute asymmetric synthesis were developed.

Tel: (095)-939-72-94

Fax: (095)-939-74-83

e-mail: kost@center.chph.ras.ru

 

LABORATORY OF MEDICAL BIOPHYSICS

 

 

 

Head of the Laboratory L. A. Piruzyan, Member,

Russian Academy of Sciences

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Laboratory of medical biophysics (initially, the Department) was organized on the base of the Laboratory of cancer biophysics created in 1965 on the initiative of academicians A.N. Bakulev, N.N. Semenov, N.M. Emanuel, and E.M. Kreps, encouraged by academicians M.V. Keldysh, V.A. Kirilin, and I.M. Makarov.

As a result of the Department activity based on ideas and approaches typical of the Institute of Chemical Physics, L.A. Piruzyan created a new line of investigation, the medical biophysics.

Under the supervision of L.A. Piruzyan, the Department was transformed into a large scientific division comprising of 8 laboratories which is sited in a specially constructed house with the area of 4000 m2 (Novatorov str.). The basic line of investigation in the Department was studying primary mechanisms of pathologic processes development and the effect of physical factors on living organisms in the context of chemistry and physics to create new efficient therapeutic and diagnostic methods.

The effect of magnetic fields was investigated. The development of a method of seamless connection of hollow human organs using magnetic compressing elements and its introduction into the clinical practice were awarded by the USSR State Prize.

The development of the NMR tomography technique is an important line of investigation of the Department. It should be noted that this work was related to the creation of a unique electrotechnical equipment to generate strong uniform magnetic fields in large volumes.

In 1984, the works on the development of the magnetic chamber were stopped owing to circumstances beyond the Institute control, and the Department was broken up. At present the Laboratory of medical biophysics works successfully as an independent division of the Institute. In the Laboratory, fundamentals of new lines of medical investigations based on original theoretical concepts developed by L.A. Piruzyan were created.

To day this lines investigation L.A. Piruzyan develops together with B.M. Mickaylov (Dr.Sci. Med.).

LINES OF INVESTIGATION

 

A concept of receptor sorption as a base for developing nontraditional methods of therapy, prophylaxis, and diagnostics of pathological states.

A possibility of the medical application of the receptor sorption based on a selective fixation of chemical substances and viruses at the corresponding receptor ('chemical trap') was considered. An example of these methods is the 'receptor dialysis' (selective blood purification during the synthesis of a chemical receptor similar to the artificial kidney).

A concept of nontraditional application of histochemical dyes to search drugs in culture media.

A concept is based on using dyes usually applying for the structure-morphology analysis of cell changes in pathology and posthumous disease diagnostics as potential drug products. This nontraditional application of dyes is based on the results of pathohistological analyses and can be considered as a new strategy in the future drug therapy ('address histochemical therapy' or 'pharmacotopographic therapy').

Microbial saprotrophic drug therapy: indications, realization conditions, and the general strategy. A principal problem of microbial drug therapy, the survival in the organism of an introduced producent strain, was considered. For this purpose, a 'microbiological certification of the individuum' ('saprotrophic mapping'), the mapping of an individual microbiological status of a patient, was proposed.

Methabolic equality of a donor and a recipient as a criterium of their histocompatibility and a transplantation condition.

A priority concept of an index of tissue compatibility of the donor and recipient based on their 'metabolic equality' (synchronous metabolic processes of the same phenotype for the donor and recipient) was formulated. This is reflected in the same pharmacokinetic parameters of biotransformation of xenobiotics (test substances) in the donor and recipient organisms and corresponds to their 'metabolic compatibility'. The 'metabolic equality' was proposed as a marker and an additive nontraditional criterium of the transplantation efficiency.

A concept of 'laser histochemical surgery' as a nontraditional branch of medicine.

A concept of 'laser histochemical surgery' was proposed. This method is based on the use of histochemical dyes which sensitize the biochemical cell components ('address substrates') to laser beam effect by their selective dyeing.

Metabolic organism population 'construction in vivo' of oncopathology at the genetic diathesis of individuals.

A concept of metabolic organism population 'construction in vivo' of oncopathology (metabolic ethnic oncopathology) was developed. According to this concept, appearance and proliferation of cancer pathology in different populations (ethnic groups), their genetic diathesis to cancer and sick rate are determined by an 'initial state' of enzyme metabolic systems.

In the laboratory, neurochemical mechanisms of formation and degeneration of the functional interhemisphere asymmetry in the ontogenesis process are under examination.

Tel: (095) 936-17-22, 938-17-63

 

 

DEPARTMENT OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL INFORMATION

 

 

 

 

 

Head of the Department O.A. Kasparova

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The main purpose of the Department is to provide the operative information for the Institute collaborators.

The Department was organized in 1968 on the base of the library of the Institute of Chemical Physics.

The Department comprises of the library, photolaboratory, archives, and bindery.

The library of the Institute was organized in 1937. At the present time, the library numbers 9 collaborators. In 2000, the library fund composed of 173 000 units, namely, of 50 000 books, 40 000 Russian journals, and 83 000 foreign journals. The library attends to 1360 researchers in the Institute of Chemical Physics, Institute of Energetic Problems of Chemical Physics, Institute of Biochemical Physics, Photochemistry Center, Center of Theoretical Problems of Physicochemical Pharmacology, Russian Academy of Sciences.

At the present time, the library works on the creation of the own information resources using computer tecnhologies:

an electronic catalog of domestic and foreign journals was created;

an electronic catalog of books is making up that allows one to search books by author, title, and key words (at the moment more than 7000 descriptions are introduced);

electronic versions of bulletins of new books and journals which can be used by researchers directly in their working place;

a card catalog of works of the Institute collaborators is making up;

a dissertation catalog is making up;

reader cards are transformed into the electronic type.

Moreover, the library collaborators make the information-bibliographic work for the Institute researchers:

searching text information in the virtual Electronic library, as well as in Springer-Verlag, Academic Press, Insitute of Physics, etc. (followed by the information sending to a purchaser by e-mail);

searching in the Web of Science database of the Institute of Scientific Information of USA, PubMed, Alta Vista, Yahoo (search by key words, authors, etc.);

literature purchasing by the interlibrary circulation via the Internet with the Library for Natural Sciences, Russian Academy of Sciences, other Russian and foreign libraries.

The Photolaboratory of the Institute of Chemical Physics was organized in fifties. In the Laboratory, a unique photoarchives on the history and development of the Institute is collected. At present the Photolaboratory provides the materials for scientific reports at conferences and symposia in the electronic and printed form.

The Archives of the Institute of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences was organized in 1960; at present it numbers about 10 000 units.

The activity of the Archives of the Institute is aimed at providing preservation, accounting, and treatment of scientific organization documents on the Institute work, as well as at submitting the documents to the Institute collaborators and the creation of electronic version of the archives documents.

Tel: (095) 939-74-25, 939-72-11

e-mail:library@chph.ras.ru

 

 

EXPERIMENTAL PRODUCTION

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Head of the Experimental Production V.V. Potapov

 

 

 

The main purpose of the Experimental production is designing and building of unique setups and equipment for research works of the Institute, as well as production of small lots of blocks and devices developed in the Institute.

The Experimental production comprises of the following divisions:

Design department;

Planning engineering group;

Works:

assembly,

welding,

galvanic,

paint store,

thermal,

half finished products,

radioassembly,

special technologies,

optical,

woodworking shop.

The Experimental production has lathe, milling machine, and grinder stock.

A number of unique setups was developed and fabricated by the Experimental production with the participation of the Institute laboratories.

1. The equipment (instruments and setups) for investigation, synthesis, and processing of polymers:

a RODAN-2T double-flow setup for elastic-strain grinding of polymer materials;

a Polymix double-rotor mixer for polymers (of the Brabender type);

screw feeders of the extruder, for granules (type I) and for powder (type II);

a 2.5 l-autoclave with a stirrer to study the polymerization on carriers;

reactors of rotor-pulsation type to study polymerization processes;

modernized autoclave setups of NP type to study kinetics of alpha-olefins polymerization;

a device for determining swelling degree of gels;

a roll mill with a heater;

a setup for obtaining tetrafluoroethylene by pyrolysis of fluoroplastic-4;

molds, casting molds, and thermal plates.

2. Products for ecological purposes:

setups for water disinfection by UV radiation;

model gas analyzers to determine gaseous atmospheric pollutants (sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, benzene, formaldehyde, etc.);

ozone generators.

3. Products to study the combustion and explosion of condensed systems:

a ballistic plasmotron (panel and equipment);

shells with nozzle inserts;

gas generators.

4. Femtosecond laser (units and details).

5. Polychromator.

6. X-Ray small-angle diffractometer.

7. Units and blocks for ESR radiospectrometers.

8. Catalytic heat sources.

9. Setups to study explosion of dust-gas systems.

At present the personnel of the Experimental production consists of 78 coworkers including 29 engineers and techical workers.

Tel: (095) 137-61-94, 939-74-12

 


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