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B
bisferiens - Bk

bisferiens (bis·fe·ri·ens) (bis-fe´re-ənz) [L.]  bisferious.

bisferious (bis·fe·ri·ous) (bis-fe´re-əs) [bis- + L. ferire to beat]  having two beats, said of a type of pulse; see pulsus bisferiens. Called also biferiens and biferious.

BIS-GMA (BIS-GMA)   aromatic dimethacrylate oligomer (bisphenol A-glycidylmethacrylate), used as a matrix material in dental resin matrix composites.

Bishop (Bish·op) (bish´əp)  John Michael, born 1936. American microbiologist and immunologist; co-winner, with Harold Eliot Varmus, of the Nobel prize for medicine or physiology in 1989 for their discovery that oncogenes of animal tumor viruses are derived from cellular genes called proto-oncogenes.

Bishop's sphygmoscope (Bish·op's sphygmoscope) (bish´əps) [Louis Faugères Bishop, American physician, 1864–1941]  see under sphygmoscope.

bishydroxycoumarin (bis·hy·droxy·cou·ma·rin) (bis”hi-drok”se-koo´mə-rin)  former name for dicumarol.

bisiliac (bis·il·i·ac) (bis-il´e-ak) [bis + iliac]  pertaining to both iliac bones or to any two corresponding points on the two iliac bones.

bis in die (bis in die) (b.d.) (b.i.d.) (bis in de´a) [L.]  twice a day.

bismuth (bis·muth) (Bi) (biz´məth)  a silver-white metal, atomic number 83, atomic weight 208.980. Its salts have astringent, antacid, and mildly germicidal properties and are used to treat diarrhea, nausea, indigestion, and other gastrointestinal conditions; they were formerly used in the treatment of syphilis but have been superseded by antibiotics. Excessive ingestion can cause bismuth poisoning; see under poisoning.

basic b. carbonate ,  b. subcarbonate  [USP]  a salt of bismuth that has been used as an antacid and mild astringent in relief of inflammatory diseases of the stomach and intestines, and also as a topical skin protectant.

b. subgallate  [USP]  a salt of bismuth that has been used similarly to bismuth subcarbonate.

b. subnitrate  [USP]  a basic salt, used as a pharmaceutic necessity in the preparation of compound resorcinol ointment.

b. subsalicylate  [USP]  a bismuth salt of salicylic acid, administered orally in the treatment of diarrhea and gastric distress, including nausea, indigestion, and heartburn.

bismuthia (bis·mu·thia) (biz-mu´the-ə)  blue discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes from excessive ingestion of bismuth compounds; see bismuth poisoning, under poisoning.

bismuthism (bis·muth·ism) (biz´məth-iz-əm)  bismuth poisoning.

bismuthosis (bis·mu·tho·sis) (biz”mə-tho´sis)  bismuth poisoning.

bisoprolol fumarate (bis·o·pro·lol fu·ma·rate) (bis”o-pro´lol)  a beta-adrenergic blocking agent selective for β1-adrenergic receptors; administered orally in the treatment of hypertension.

1,3-bisphosphoglycerate (1,3-bis·phos·pho·glyc·er·ate) (bis”fos-fo-glis´ər-āt)  an anion of the form of bisphosphoglyceric acid phosphorylated at the 1 and 3 carbons; it is an intermediate in gluconeogenesis and glycolysis, and a precursor to 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate.

2,3-bisphosphoglycerate (2,3-bis·phos·pho·glyc·er·ate) (bis-fos”fo-glis´ər-āt)  a salt or ester of bisphosphoglyceric acid; it is contained in red blood cells, where it plays a role in liberating oxygen from hemoglobin in the peripheral circulation. It is also an intermediate in the conversion of 3-phosphoglycerate to 2-phosphoglycerate. Called also 2,3-diphosphoglycerate.

bisphosphoglycerate mutase (bis·phos·pho·glyc·er·ate mu·tase) (bis-fos”fo-glis´ər-āt mu´tās)   [EC 5.4.2.4] an enzyme of the isomerase class that catalyzes the interconversion of 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate and 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate; it requires Mg2+ as a cofactor and is more active in the presence of 3-phosphoglycerate. The reaction produces 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate necessary for glucose catabolism and for erythrocytic regulation of hemoglobin oxygen affinity. Deficient enzyme activity, an autosomal recessive trait, results in a form of hemolytic anemia.

bisphosphoglycerate phosphatase (bis·phos·pho·glyc·er·ate phos·pha·tase) (bis-fos”fo-glis´ər-āt fos´fə-tās)   [EC 3.1.3.13] an enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the hydrolysis of 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate to form 3-phosphoglycerate. The reaction is one of the control mechanisms regulating the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen.

bisphosphoglyceric acid (bis·phos·pho·gly·cer·ic ac·id) (bis”fos-fo-glĭ-sēr´ik)  glyceric acid esterified with phosphate at two positions.

bisphosphoglyceromutase (bis·phos·pho·glyc·ero·mu·tase) (bis-fos”fo-glis”ər-o-mu´tās)  bisphosphoglycerate mutase.

bisphosphonate (bis·phos·pho·nate) (bis-fos´fə-nāt)  diphosphonate.

bisque (bisque) (bisk) [Fr.]  biscuit.

bistephanic (bi·ste·phan·ic) (bi-stə-fan´ik)  pertaining to the two stephanions, especially to the shortest distance between them (bistephanic width).

Biston (Bis·ton) (bis´tən)  a genus of moths. B. betula´ria is the peppered moth, a species used in the study of industrial melanism.

bistoury (bis·tou·ry) (bis´tdbobr-re) [Fr. bistouri]  a long, narrow surgical knife, straight or curved, used for incising abscesses and enlarging sinuses, fistulas, etc.

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Bistoury.

bistratal (bi·stra·tal) (bi-stra´təl) [bi- + stratum]  disposed in two layers.

bisulfate (bi·sul·fate) (bi-sul´fāt)  an acid sulfate (not to be confused with disulfate).

bisulfide (bi·sul·fide) (bi-sul´fīd)  disulfide.

bisulfite (bi·sul·fite) (bi-sul´fīt)  an acid sulfite.

bitartrate (bi·tar·trate) (bi-tahr´trāt)  any salt containing the anion C4H5O6- derived from the diacid tartaric acid (C4H6O6).

bite (bite) (bīt)  1. the forcible closure of the lower against the upper teeth.  2. the measure of force exerted in the closure of the teeth.  3. a record of the relationship of upper and lower teeth, in occlusion, obtained by biting into a mass of modeling substance.  4. the part of an artificial tooth on the lingual side between the shoulder and the incisal edge of the tooth.  5. a wound or puncture made by the teeth or other parts of the mouth.  6. a morsel of food.

balanced b.  balanced occlusion.

check b.  a thin sheet of wax or a modeling compound placed between the teeth in centric, eccentric, lateral, or protrusive occlusion, and pressed to their buccal or labial surfaces after the jaws have been closed; used to check dental occlusion in the articulator in properly aligning study models. Written also check-bite.

closed b.  malocclusion with decreased occlusal vertical dimension and an abnormal overbite in which the mandible protrudes. Called also deep b., closed-bite malocclusion, and deep overbite.

cross b.  crossbite.

deep b.  closed b.

edge-to-edge b. ,  end-to-end b.  see under occlusion.

open b.  a condition marked by failure of certain opposing teeth to establish occlusal contact when the jaws are closed. Called also apertognathia and nonocclusion.

over b.  vertical overlap (def. 1).

overshot b.  veterinary term for retrognathism.

scissors b.  total lingual crossbite of the mandible, with the mandibular teeth completely contained within the maxillary dental arch in habitual occlusion.

underhung b.  a characteristic of mandibular prognathism in which the incisal edges of the mandibular anterior teeth extend labially to the incisal edges of the maxillary anterior teeth when the jaws are in habitual occlusion.

undershot b.  veterinary term for prognathism; it is normal in animals such as boxers and bulldogs.

wax b.  a simultaneous impression of both the upper and the lower jaw, made by having the subject bite on a double layer of soft baseplate wax.

X-b.  crossbite.

bite-block (bite-block) (bīt´blok)  occlusion rim.

bitegage (bite·gage) (bīt´gāj)  a device used in prosthetic dentistry as an aid in securing proper occlusion of the maxillary and mandibular teeth.

bitelock (bite·lock) (bīt´lok)  occlusion rim.

bitemporal (bi·tem·po·ral) (bi-tem´pə-rəl)  pertaining to both temples or temporal bones.

biteplane (bite·plane) (bīt´plān)  an orthodontic removable appliance, made of acrylic resin, covering all the maxillary teeth, and kept in place by orthodontic wrought wire clasps and labial wires; used in the diagnosis and treatment of pain of the temporomandibular joint and adjacent muscles. Written also bite plane.

biteplate (bite·plate) (bīt´plāt)  bite plate; see under plate.

biterminal (bi·ter·mi·nal) (bi-tər´min-al)  performed by using two terminals of an alternating current.

bite-wing (bite-wing) (bīt´wing)  a central tab or wing of a dental x-ray film, which is held between the upper and lower teeth during radiography of oral structures. See also under film and radiograph.

Bithynia (Bi·thyn·ia) (bĭ-thin´e-ə)  Bulimus.

Bitis (Bi·tis) (bi´tis)  a genus of venomous snakes of the family Viperidae. B. arrie´tans is the puff adder; B. gabo´nica is the Gaboon viper; and B. nasicor´nis is the rhinoceros viper. See table at snake.

bitolterol mesylate (bi·tol·ter·ol mes·y·late) (bi-tol´tər-ol)  a β adrenergic agonist, selective for β2-adrenergic receptors; administered by inhalation as a bronchodilator in the treatment of asthma-associated bronchospasm, and the prophylaxis and treatment of reversible bronchospasm associated with chronic obstructive airway disease, including bronchitis and pulmonary emphysema. Bitolterol is an inactive prodrug that is hydrolyzed to the active drug colterol by blood and tissue esterases.

Bitot's spots (patches) (Bi·tot's spots (patches)) (be-tōz´) [Pierre A. Bitot, French physician, 1822–1888]  see under spot.

bitrochanteric (bi·tro·chan·ter·ic) (bi”tro-kan-ter´ik)  pertaining to both trochanters on one femur or to both greater trochanters.

bitter (bit·ter) (bit´ər)  1. having an unpalatable taste, such as that of quinine.  2. in the plural, a medicinal agent that has a bitter taste; used as a tonic, alterative, or appetizer.

aromatic b.’s  bitter vegetable drugs that have an aromatic quality.

bitters (bit·ters) (bit´ərz)  see under bitter.

bitterwood (bit·ter·wood) (bit´ər-wood)  Picrasma excelsa.

Bittner virus (Bitt·ner virus) (bit´nər) [John Joseph Bittner, American pathologist, 1904–1961]  see mouse mammary tumor virus, under virus.

Bittorf's reaction (Bit·torf's reaction) (bit´orfs) [Alexander Bittorf, German physician, 1876–1949]  see under reaction.

bituminosis (bi·tu·mi·no·sis) (bi-too”mĭ-no´sis)  coal workers' pneumoconiosis caused by inhalation of the dust from soft (bituminous) coal.

Bitunicatae (Bi·tu·ni·ca·tae) (bi-too”nĭ-ka´te)  in fungal taxonomy, a series of the subphylum Ascomycotina, consisting of those having a bitunicate ascus. It includes the orders Dothideales and Erysiphales.

biurate (bi·urate) (bi´u-rāt)  an acid urate; a monobasic salt of uric acid.

biuret (bi·u·ret) (bi´u-rət) [bis- + urea]  a derivative of urea, equivalent to two molecules of urea less one of ammonia; see also under reaction. Called also allophanamide.

bivalence (bi·va·lence) (bi-va´ləns) [bi- + L. valens powerful]  the property of an atom of certain chemical elements of forming chemical bonds with two other atoms or groups.

bivalent (bi·va·lent) (bi-va´lənt)  1. divalent.  2. the structure formed by a pair of homologous chromosomes joined by synapsis along their length during the zygotene and pachytene stages of the first meiotic prophase. After each of the paired chromosomes separates into two sister chromatids during the pachytene stage, this structure is then called a tetrad.

bivalirudin (bi·val·i·ru·din) (bi-val´ĭ-roo-din)  an inhibitor of the thrombogenic activity of thrombin, used in conjunction with aspirin as an anticoagulant in patients with unstable angina pectoris who are undergoing percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty; administered intravenously.

bivalve (bi·valve) (bi´valv) [bi- + valve]  having two valves, as the shells of such mollusks as clams.

Bivalvia (Bi·val·via) (bi-val´ve-ə) [bi- + valva + -ia]  Pelecypoda.

Bivalvulida (Bi·val·vu·li·da) (bi”val-vu´lĭ-də) [bi- + valve]  an order of parasitic protozoa (class Myxosporea, phylum Myxozoa), the spores of which have two valves.

biventer (bi·ven·ter) (bi-ven´tər) [bi- + venter]  a part or organ (as a muscle) with two bellies.

b. cer´vicis  musculus spinalis capitis.

biventral (bi·ven·tral) (bi-ven´trəl)  1. having two bellies.  2. musculus digastricus.

biventricular (bi·ven·tric·u·lar) (bi”ven-trik´u-lər)  pertaining to or affecting both ventricles of the heart.

bivitelline (bi·vi·tel·line) (bi”vĭ-tel´in)  having two yolks.

bizygomatic (bi·zy·go·mat·ic) (bi”zi-go-mat´ik) [bi- + zygoma]  pertaining to the two most prominent points on the two zygomatic arches. See also bizygomatic breadth, under breadth.

Bjerrum's scotoma (sign) (Bjer·rum's scotoma (sign)) (byer´oomz) [Jannik Petersen Bjerrum, Danish ophthalmologist, 1851–1920]  see under scotoma.

Bjerrum's screen (Bjer·rum's screen) (byer´oomz) [J. Bjerrum, Danish ophthalmologist, 1827–1892]  tangent screen.

Björnstad's syndrome (Björn·stad's syndrome) (byorn´stahdz) [R. Björnstad, Swedish dermatologist, 20th century]  see under syndrome.

B-KBK  (B-K), (BK)  below-knee; see transtibial amputation, under amputation.

Bk (Bk)  berkelium.


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