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Adam Matthew Publications

Pre 2003 Publications

2003/4 | Earlier publications: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 |

Treasury Papers
Series One: Papers of the Economic Section, 1941-1961 (Public Record Office Class T 230) Part 4: T 230/110-145
10 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm plus guide to Parts 2-4

Part 4 (T 230/110-145) looks at the National Wages Policy, Price stabilisation policy, correspondence of the Inter-departmental Committee on Reparations and Economic Security, Proposals for a commercial clearing union, the Inter-departmental Committee on Post-war Commercial Policy, the Post-war Export Trade Committee, Future British export prospects in connection with increasing world competition, proposed post-war trade collaboration with allied governments, Statistics relating to trade tariffs and preferences, the working party on the Expansion of Trade with Eastern Europe, Lend-lease general papers, and the Economic Survey for 1948-1952.

The material is again arranged in only a broad chronological manner covering the period 1940-1952. There are good files addressing the variety of problems which afflicted Britain's war-time economy, post-war economic development, trade and commercial policy.

Within Part 4 the main file headings are:

National wages policy
Price stabilization
The effect of air raids on factory production
Rationing
Inter-departmental Committee on Reparations and Economic Security
Commercial policy; Proposals for a commercial clearing union
Inter-departmental Committee on Post-war Commercial Policy
Commercial policy
Ministerial Committee on Post-war Commercial Policy
Post-war Export trade Committee
Future British export prospects in connection with increasing world competition
Proposed post-war trade collaboration with Allied governments
Statistics relating to trade tariffs and preferences
Working Party on Expansion of UK Trade with Eastern Europe
United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration: Scope and organization
Lend-lease general papers
Termination of Lend-Lease and transitionary period negotiations
Economic Section of the Cabinet Secretariat: Discussion papers
Economic Survey for 1948-52

Contained within the files in Part 4 are documents that look at the range of contemporary economic issues. File T 230/143 in particular, contains a wide selection of pertinent Discussion Papers by leading government economists, including:

The 1949/1950 Programme - J Jukes
Alternative Methods of Controlling Price - M F W Hemming
Intra-European Trade and Payments - J M Fleming
Wages Policy - J Downie
The Economic Section's Beliefs - D M B Butt
Economic Policy in a Recession - J C R Dow and R Hall
Investment Policy in a Recession - R F Bretherton
Inflationary Pressure - K Howell
Conditions for Operating a One World System - M F W Hemming
How much Investment? - F J Atkinson
Notes on Central Planning - R Hall and Mr D Allen
The Problem of Unemployment - J Grieve Smith

From T 230/118 the following letter gives a flavour of some of the material in these files:

It is addressed to:
Professor Lionel Robbins,
Offices of the War Cabinet,
November 20, 1940:

"My dear Robbins,

Your letter of the 19 November confirms more expressly what I suspect to be the nature of the present trend of things. I am in strong agreement with what you say and imply; and am doing and will do what I can in that direction.
It seems to me tremendously worthwhile to have really drastic taxation in order to avoid, or at least minimise, the appalling administrative task of general rationing; for that rather than price inflation is, I agree, the more probable alternative in present circumstances. My chief trouble is in fact with Hubert Henderson, who seems to believe, Heaven knows why, that we can excuse ourselves drastic taxation and that, nevertheless, nothing much will happen; and the foolish fellow takes this line although he is, I think, just as much opposed to general rationing as anyone else.

Yours sincerely
J M Keynes
"

The following extracts from a paper written in 1945 by G L S Shackle entitled The Case for a Rising Price Level [from T 230/115], shows the bold policies and unorthodox ideas that the Economic Section were prepared to consider:

"In almost all the official discussions and Ministerial pronouncements of recent years, it seems to be assumed that "the general price level" must be stabilised, that "inflation" must be avoided. Precisely what hardships or injustices, what injury to our total prosperity, what embarrassment to the fulfilment of policy, would be entailed by a rising price level, is seldom analysed or explained. No thought seems ever to be given to the possible advantages of a rising price level..."

"...Is there not a case for throwing off the exaggerated fears of inflation, relaxing the policy of severely fettered prices, and allowing (with suitable direct encouragement of exports) internal prices to be buoyant and encouraging to enterprise?"

Sterling Price: 750 - US Dollar Price: $1250

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Wilberforce: Slavery, Religion and Politics
Series One: The Wilberforce Papers from the Bodleian Library, Oxford Part 1: Papers of William Wilberforce (1759-1833) and Robert Isaac Wilberforce (1802-1857)
18 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm
A single guide accompanies Parts 1-3

This microfilm project re-unites for the first time the two separate collections of Wilberforce Papers held at the Bodleian Library, those of William Wilberforce's sons Robert and Samuel.

These papers record the life of a remarkable family, with correspondence spanning from 1771 to 1873, casting light on many important topics such as:

  • William Wilberforce's lifelong involvement in the campaign to abolish slavery
  • 18th & 19th century politics, from William Wilberforce's role as a constituency MP, to Samuel Wilberforce's Correspondence with Disraeli and Gladstone
  • The Evangelical Revival and the influence of the Clapham Sect
  • The mid-19th century crisis in the Anglican church and Robert Wilberforce's decision to join the Roman Catholic Church
  • Missionary activity and the foundation of Sierra Leone
  • The Evolution Debate and Soapy Sam's attacks on Darwin
  • 18th & 19th century literature
  • Philanthropy

Part 1 covers the Papers of William Wilberforce, (1759-1833) and Robert Isaac Wilberforce (1802-1857).
The most important item in this first part is undoubtedly William Wilberforce's diary. Six volumes and over 340 loose leaves provide a detailed record of his life for 1779, 1783-1786, 1788-1790, 1793-1804, 1808-1814, and 1823-1833 (the missing section for 1814-1822 appears in Series Two of this project).

Separate religious journals, 1791-1826, document his spiritual turmoil. With the diary we can eavesdrop on discussions with writers and politicians, and accompany him on tours, such as his visit to the Lake District in 1779, his journey to France with William Pitt in 1783, and his continental tour in 1785. Scholars can chart the progress of the abolition movement day by day, and follow the progress of political issues.

Complementing these items are his autobiography, 1759-1792, dictated by Wilberforce and in the hand of an amanuensis.

William Wilberforce's correspondence, 1771-1833, is also a very rich source for scholars.

Correspondents include: Henry Addington, Thomas Babington, the Earl of Bathurst, Sir Joseph Banks, Jeremy Bentham, Henry Brougham, Fanny Burney, Thomas Fowell Buxton, George Canning, John Cartwright, Thomas Clarkson, Henry Dundas, Charles James Fox, Elizabeth Fry, King George IV, Thomas Gisborne, Baron Grenville, William Hey, Frederic Humboldt, Robert Banks Jenkinson, John Jay, John Keble, Rufus King, Christian Latrobe, Sir Thomas Lawrence, 'Monk' Lewis, Zachary Macaulay, Samuel Marsden, Thomas Middleton, Isaac Milner, Hannah and Martha More, John Newton, Sir John Pennington, William Pitt the Younger, Beilby Porteus, Edward Pusey, William Roscoe, Granville Sharp, Sydney Smith, William Smith, Robert Southey, Lady Hester Stanhope, Philip Stanhope, James Stephen, John Bird Sumner, Henry Thornton, Robert Thorpe, Henry Venn, Lady Waldegrave, Arthur Wellesley - Duke of Wellington, Samuel Whitbread, William Wordsworth, Dorothy Wordsworth, Christpher Wyvill and Arthur Young.

The subject matter of the letters is wide ranging, and provides a wealth of evidence on contemporary events and concerns. Politicians give good accounts of parliamentary debates. Many refer to foreign affairs, especially to slavery and the slave trade.

Noteworthy items include Banks writing about Haiti; the Colonial Secretary, Henry Bathurst, about Sierra Leone; Shute Barrington on missions in India and Africa; the Marquis of Hastings about Bengal; the Earl of Selkirk about trade with North America; Sydney Smith about the white slave trade; and the Duke of Wellington about the French Slave Trade.

There is a substantial correspondence with dissenters - Baptists, Methodists, Quakers and Unitarians - which displays Wilberforce's open and friendly relations with these groups, his opposition to restrictions on them at home and his support for their missions abroad.

There is much on local politics and trade as well, and the records include his Canvass book for the Yorkshire election of 1784 which contains "hints for the better regulating and conducting The Various Businesses relative to a Contested Election."

There is also family correspondence, with many letters from his sons and from his wife, Barbara. These provide a vivid picture of domestic life, schooling, entertainments, charity work and the social and intellectual climate.

Material on slavery includes not only the correspondence with Buxton, Clarkson, Macaulay, More, Sharp and others mentioned above, but also drafts of speeches, and notes on books, pamphlets and reports concerning the slave trade, 1804-1824.

The first part is completed with a small section comprising the correspondence and papers of Robert Isaac Wilberforce (1802-1857), archdeacon of East Riding, and second son of William Wilberforce, including letters from Thomas Chalmers, Richard Froude, William Gladstone, John Henry Newman, Edward Pusey and members of the Wilberforce family.

Of particular importance are the letters between Robert and Samuel concerning Robert's involvement in the tractarian or high church movement and his decision to leave the Anglican Church.

Available Sterling Price: 1400 - US Dollar Price: $2250

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Wilberforce: Slavery, Religion and Politics
Series One: The Wilberforce Papers from the Bodleian Library, Oxford Part 2: Papers of Samuel Wilberforce (1818-1873)
20 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm
A single guide accompanies Parts 1-3

Parts 2 and 3 of this series offer the Papers of Samuel Wilberforce (1818-1873). Samuel was successively Bishop of Oxford and of Winchester. He also served as chaplain to Prince Albert and as sub-almoner to Queen Victoria. He presided over many church reforms and earned a reputation for controversy due to his involvement in the Hampden trial and the Evolution debate.

Samuel Wilberforce's papers are important for the insights they provide into Victorian Society. Religion and morality assume a central position, informing politics and literature.

The correspondence is very strong featuring many well known names, but also many lesser known people whose views are equally informative.

From the world of state and politics there are: Prince Albert, Brougham, Disraeli, Emma, Queen of the Sandwich Islands, Edward Everett - US Ambassador, Gladstone, James Graham, Palmerston, Robert Peel, Lord John Russell, and Queen Victoria.

From the world of art, literature and learning there are: Matthew Arnold, Christian Bunsen, Thomas Carlyle, John Singleton Copley, François Guizot, Edward Hawtrey - provost of Eton, Thomas Huxley, Benjamin Jowett, Mark Lemon, Bulwer Lytton, Monckton Milnes, John Murray, Caroline Norton, Samuel Rogers, William Whewell and Charlotte Mary Yonge.

Leading religious and philanthropic figures featured are: Edward Bickersteth - Dean of Lichfield, Charles Blomfield - Bishop of London, Lady Burdett-Coutts, Anthony Ashley Cooper - Earl of Shaftesbury, Edward Denison - Bishop of Salisbury, Charles Ellicott - Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol, John Keble, Edward King - Bishop of Lincoln, David Livingstone, F D Maurice, George Mountain - Bishop of Quebec, John Henry Newman, Edward Pusey, Arthur Penrhyn Stanley - Dean of Westminster, John Strachan - Bishop of Toronto, John Sumner, Archibald Tait and Frederick Temple - Archbishops of Canterbury, Richard Trench - Archbishop of Dublin, Charles Wesley, and Richard Whately.

The collection also includes his diaries, 1830-1846, pocketbooks and much on the Church overseas, - especially in South Africa, Central Africa, North America, the West Indies, India and Australasia.

July 1999 Sterling Price: 1550 - US Dollar Price: $2500

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Wilberforce: Slaver, Religion and Politics
Series One: The Wilberforce Papers from the Bodleian Library, Oxford Part 3: Papers of Samuel Wilberforce (1818-1873)
19 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm
A single guide accompanies Parts 1-3
Part 3 of this series completes coverage of the Papers of Samuel Wilberforce (1818-1873). They are an important source for the study of Victorian life and culture. There is much on literature, religion and politics, as well as on the scientific debates of the day.

June 2002 Sterling Price: 1500 - US Dollar Price: $2400

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Wilberforce: Slavery, Religion and Politics
Series Two: Papers of William Wilberforce (1759-1833) and related slavery & anti-slavery materials from Wilberforce House, Hull
15 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm plus guide

For over 200 years, Wilberforce House was the property of three important Hull merchant families, the Listers, the Thorntons and the Wilberforces. Since 1906 it has been a slavery museum, with unique archival collections relating to its most famous resident, William Wilberforce, and his fight to abolish the slave trade.

These papers are now made available to a wider audience in this microfilm edition.

Pride of place must go to the Diary, 1814-1823, which provides a daily record of Wilberforce's activities during a period which witnessed the Luddite riots, the Peterloo massacre, Burdett's failed bill to introduce universal suffrage, Lord John Russell's reform proposals, the death of King George III and the coronation of the Prince Regent, and the Cato Street Conspiracy. Wilberforce was also busy trying to build on the 1807 Act for the Abolition of the Slave Trade, in attempting to outlaw slavery in the colonies. This eventually came to pass in 1833.

Significant correspondence held at Wilberforce House includes 179 letters, 1792-1832, by William Wilberforce. Some 45 of these are to Thomas Fowell Buxton, fellow abolitionist and MP. Topics include American affairs, Madame de Staël's exile, the importance of peace in Europe, the case of a coloured Trinidadian, Brougham and Buxton's place at the head of the anti-slavery movement, the scandal of Mauritius, and French slave trading.

The second largest sequence of letters from Wilberforce is a group of 44 letters, 1818-1832, to his son, Henry Wilberforce. In addition to family matters, topics include education, Peel and the Catholic question, Henry and Mr Newman, Christianity among the lower classes, the power of the West India Interest, and failures of treaties limiting the slave trade. There are also letters from Wilberforce to Lord Bathurst, J Butterworth, Zachary Macaulay and Granville Sharp.

Letters to Wilberforce (51 in total) include items by Lord Bathurst, Lord Castlereagh, Rev Dr Thomas Coke, Lafayette, Hannah More and William Windham.

There is also a Letter Book marked 'Slavery', complete with a contemporary index and running to 316 pages, containing abstracts of Wilberforce's letters on this subject, 1832-1833.

Additional material relating directly to William Wilberforce is contained in four substantial boxes of manuscript and ephemeral material. These concern:

Wilberforce Miscellanea - including a letter copy book of Wilberforce, dated c1707; Anna Laetitia Barbauld's "Epistle to William Wilberforce on the Rejection of the Bill for Abolishing the Slave Trade."; indentures; cuttings; and other material.
1807 Election Ephemera - including Election posters, song sheets, handbills and polling records recording his great parliametary battle with Lord Milton and Henry Lascelles.

Wilberforce and Slavery - including The case of Andrew and Jeronimy Clifford, Planters, Surinam, 1698; an Account of Jamaica, 1779; the Act establishing the Sierra Leone Company, 1791; the Act concerning the shipping and carrying of slaves on British vessels, 1793; an account of the voyage to the Western coast of Africa by the sloop Favourite, 1805; the Record kept by the Chief Commissioner of Police of Mauritius, 1812-1820; Proceedings before the Privy Council on the Compulsory Manumission of the Colonies of Demerara and Berbice, 1827-1828; and the Report of the Commission of Enquiry into the state of the colony of Sierra Leone, 1827.

Wilberforce Government Papers and Slavery cuttings - including correspondence with the Principal Secretary of State for the colonies concerning apprenticeship, feeding, clothing and wages; manuscript reports on events in Demerara; annotated parliamentary papers regarding abolition together with voting records; correspondence from Downing Street about the introduction of field labourers in British Guiana, and laws for improving the conditions of slaves; and British, American and Dutch newspaper cuttings.

A considerable collection of slavery ephemera, c1730-1860, is contained in four further boxes of material. There are numerous bills of sale for slaves in America and the West Indies, adverts for runaway slaves, slave lists, illustrations and accounts of slave capture and plantation life, pro- and anti-slavery pamphlets, posters, songs, poems, speeches, claims for compensation post abolition, and cuttings regarding key abolitionists.

Other individual items of importance for the history of slavery are:
A Royal African Company broadsheet, c1700
Letters of instruction to the captain of the slave ship Nancy, c1760
A Slave Trader's Log book, 1764
Original slave receipts and punishment records
the famous model of the slave ship Brookes
An Inventory of the Valley Plantation, St John's, Jamaica, 1787

Correspondence of other leading abolitionists , 1792- 1862, features letters by George Troutner to Granville Sharp (on plantations), Esther Copley to William Hone (on a History of Slavery which she was preparing) and Samuel Gurney to John Scoble (on the actions of the Liverpool Anti-Slavery Committee).

The final substantial section of material at Wilberforce House consists of original plantation records.

Firstly, there is the correspondence of Thomas King, J A Williamson and J Wells, 1786-1840, concerning King's initial voyage to Barbados, the establishment and running of his estates in Berbice and Demerara, the sale of sugar, the introduction of an apprenticeship system and compensation for the release of slaves.

Secondly, there are the West Indian Plantation Journals of 'Hope and Experiment', 1812; 'Gendragt and Monrepos', 1825; 'Friendship', 1828-1829 (together with punishment records); 'Good Success', 1830-1831 (also with punishment records); 'Bacolet', 1832-1843; 'Schepmoed', 1835-1840; and 'Good Intent', 1837-1844 (together with pay lists). There are also the punishment records for 'Sarah' plantation, 1827-1830.

These records can be usefully compared with the papers relating to the Butler Plantations in Georgia (see page 3) to examine the similarities and differences in slave management in the West Indies and the Southern States of America.

The Wilberforce House Collections will be of great interest to all those studying slavery and the campaign against the slave trade, providing details of the capture, sale and use of slaves, as well as to scholars of African Studies, the Caribbean and World History. There is particularly important material on the abolition crusade, with special emphasis on the role of William Wilberforce.

Sterling Price: 1170 - US Dollar Price: $1875

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A Woman's View of Drama, 1790-1830
The Diaries of Anna Margaretta Larpent from the Huntington Library
9 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm plus guide

Anna Margaretta Larpent (née Porter) kept a diary through much of her life. All 17 volumes are presented here in their entirety covering 1790-1800, 1802-1830 (the main diary sequence) and 1773-1780 (the "Methodized Journal").

This diary is a gold mine for social historians as well as for theatre historians. There is much on taste, consumption and morality, and this is an important record of family life in the Georgian era. There are many reviews of contemporary plays and operas. The diary also records the books that she read and her views on them, as well as offering intriguing (and lengthy) lists such as: "Books I read in 1780: those of study included" and "Books Useful to buy" (1793).

The daughter of Sir James Porter, a British diplomat, and a minor European aristocrat, she was born in Pera, Turkey in 1758. In 1782, she married the widower John Larpent, who was seventeen years her senior. He had been a successful civil servant, working in the Foreign Office, and in 1778 he had been appointed Examiner of Plays in the Office of the Lord Chamberlain. He held this position throughout their marriage.

The Examiner of Plays was an extremely influential figure in the development of drama and was much more powerful than modern censors. All plays required licensing before performance and the Examiner had the sole power to award them. Both husband and wife collaborated in the work with the result, according to L W Conolly's study of John Larpent in 1976, that Anna Margaretta Larpent became "practically a Deputy Examiner." She had sole responsibility for the censorship of Italian Opera since she was fluent in the language (as well as French) while her husband was not. She also became a champion of Mrs Inchbald (1753-1821), who went on to write some 20 plays for the stage. The following excerpt from Larpent's diary shows admiration for Lover's Vows, Inchbald's adaptation from Kotzebue's play that later featured in Jane Austen's Mansfield Park (enacted by the Bertram family):

"Friday 11 January 1799
Went to the play. Lover's Vows and Rosina. The former play from the German. Highly interesting, great ingenuity in the management of that Interest. The Characters err - but remorse - & Sentiments amiable in themselves - Soften our disgust, we pity, we pardon. - I cannot see the least Immorality in this Drama. On the Contrary the cause of truth & Virtue seem served by it. The Character of Amelia is Captivating & excellently kept up. Rosina I have often seen & always been pleased - It is Elegant & the Music was particularly pleasing by the acquisition of Mrs Atkins a very sweet Singer."

She is less kind in her observations on the Prince of Wales at a royal performance of a comedy by John O'Keefe:

"Monday 20 April 1795
Went to the Play.... The Royal Family - The Prince & Princess of Wales were there. ... The Sight was a very fine one as to decoration, fullness of the house &c. The reflective Scene occupied the Speculative mind. The Princess is not tall nor large. Fair but the fairness of red hair, not creamy white, pinkish. Her figure to me was made up, or rather I should say set off by a dress. ... The Prince - looks bloated, sodden, in short, were he my footman with such a look - I should say he was drinking himself out of the world.... The reception they had was very flattering - it Seemed Sincere. ... The play Life's Vagaries - wou'd have disgraced a puppet show for absurdity."

Other actors and authors commented upon are Eliza Atkins, Isaac Bickerstaffe, George Colman the Elder (& the Younger), Hannah Cowley, Mrs Crespigny, David Garrick, Mrs Jordan, Charles & John Philp Kemble, George Lillo, Frederick Reynolds, R B Sheridan, Sarah Siddons and Mariana Starke.

In addition to her unsung work as a censor and critic, Larpent brought up two children of her own and one stepson. She was a pious, serious-minded Anglican, who was active in good works from soup kitchens to Sunday schools. These activities are also recorded in the diaries together with notes on Gaming Houses, Elections, a visit to the Foundling Hospital, the sight of a rhinoceros, Sir Joseph Banks' aboriginal companion, Botany Bay, the Trial of Warren Hastings, weddings, the price of bread, automatons and the heroism of Nelson.

The diaries are well laid-out and easy to read and provide an invaluable guide to life, literature and leisure, 1773-1830.

Sterling Price: 700 - US Dollar Price: $1100

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Woman Advising Women
Advice Books, Manuals and Journals for Women, 1450-1837 Part 1: Early Women's Journals, c1700-1832, from the Bodleian Library, Oxford
17 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm plus guide

One of the first projects published by Adam Matthew Publications, Women Advising Women has established itself as an important component in undergraduate and graduate research and teaching across the world.

Students can be invited to compare differing perceptions of women's status in 1450, 1550, 1650, 1750 and 1837. They can examine the changes evident in cookbooks, household manuals, volumes on childbirth, and other topics across this period and the Journals provide unique access to poetry, essays and short stories by women otherwise forgotten by history. Used in conjunction with Women and Victorian Values they can continue the comparisons through the Victorian and Edwardian periods. Used in conjunction with Masculinity, 1560-1918 they can compare the type of advice being offered to girls and boys and men and women.

Part 1 concentrates on Early Women's Journals, c1700-1832, and fills a major gap in the provision of source materials for Women's Studies. For whilst much has been done to make available women's journals of the 19th and 20th centuries, there has hitherto been very little available concerning the 18th century.

This lacunae is significant because between the emergence of the first women's periodicals in the 1690's and the appearance of Mary Wollstonecraft's A Vindication of the Rights of Women in 1792 it has been said that there was a fundamental shift in the status of women. Conventional chronology points to a decline of the early modern intellectual and economic independent-mindedness and the rise of breathless, wilting Victorian femininity.

An examination of the original source materials enables such theories to be tested. were 18th century women regarded as equals in intellectual debate? Were they more outspoken than their Victorian counterparts? When did the image of woman as home-maker actually emerge? Was modesty a Victorian virtue? When did the glorification of womanhood begin? When did the cultivation of appearances assume a central role? How radical was the shift in attitudes towards women between 1690 and 1860? Did men and women perceive the role of women differently?

This first part is based largely on the Hope Collection of Early Newspapers and Essayists at the Bodleian Library, Oxford. From the very first periodical for women, The Ladies Mercury (1693), through to the angry, political strains of The Isis (1832), this part offers 40 rare women's journals. Other titles include: Delarivier Manley's Female Tatler (1710); The Mirrour (1719); Ladies Journal (1727); The Parrot (1728); Eliza Haywood's The Female Spectator (1744-1746) and The Invisible Spy (1759); The Lady's Weekly Magazine (1747); The Midwife (1751-1753); The Lady's Library (1751); Have at You All (1752); The Lady's Curiosity or Weekly Apollo (1752); The Old Maid (1755-56); The Pharos (1786-1787); and The Lady's Miscellany (1793).

"The eighteenth century represents something of a black hole in the social history of women, a vaguely defined nowhere land between the well-documented nineteenth century and the more exciting seventeenth. To be sure, caricatures of the eighteenth century have served as preludes to accounts of Victorian gender or postscripts to studies of seventeenth century patriarchy, but sustained research on the years 1700 to 1780 has been comparatively rare. By contrast, scholars of English Literature have long been preoccupied with the eighteenth century rise of the novel, and its implications for Georgian women. Furthermore, a younger generation of feminist literary critics are now concerned to take this project forward, examining the role of eighteenth century print in the construction of a radically new model of ideal femininity and appropriate behaviour for men and women. And it is this project, leaning heavily on material written notionally by women for women which looks set to unite the preoccupations of historians and literary scholars in the years to come."
Dr Amanda Vickery, Consultant Editor for this Series,
Lecturer in Modern British Women's History, Royal Holloway, University of London

Sterling Price: 1330 - US Dollar Price: $2100

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Women Advising Women
Advice Books, Manuals and Journals for Women, 1450-1837 Part 2: Advice Books, Manuals, Almanacs and Journals, c1625-1837, from the Bodleian Library, Oxford
20 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm plus guide to Parts 2-4

"Conventional wisdom holds that numerous ideologies emerged in England between 1625 and 1837. Guided by the historiography of the family one might expect to find the cult of romantic love, sentimental motherhood, and child-centred family life promulgated in advice books from the late seventeenth century. Inspired by the concerns of literary criticism, a student might scour early eighteenth century print for the appearance of the 'new domestic woman' freshly discovering the joys of private reading and self-consciously displaying a new range of polite feminine accomplishments to the male gaze. Directed by the orthodox account of nineteenth century women's history, the reader might assume that an ideology of separate spheres advocating the confinement of women to a purely domestic role and realm would surface in prescriptive literature in the last decades of the eighteenth century. Now all these preconceptions can be challenged or confirmed by the long run of contemporary commentary contained in Women Advising Women Part 2. The reader of Women Advising Women is afforded the opportunity to map a multiplicity of eighteenth century discourses and to engage with a range of debates in social, cultural and literary history."
Dr Amanda Vickery, Consultant Editor for this Series,
Lecturer in Modern British Women's History, Royal Holloway, University of London

This second part concentrates on prescriptive literature, offering over 300 household manuals, cookbooks, guidance books on marriage, child-birth and child-rearing, letter-writing manuals, recreational volumes and primers on the law and medicine for women. Titles range from Hannah Wolley's Accomplish't lady's delight (1675), Gentlewoman's Companion (1675), and The Compleat Servant Maid (1685); through The Ladies Dictionary (1694), Every Woman her own Physician (1739) and The Lady's Poetical Magazine (1780-1783), to The Lady's Cabinet Lawyer (1837) and the longevious Ladies Diary: or woman's almanac (1706-1840).

Sterling Price: 1550 - US Dollar Price: $2500

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Women Advising Women
Advice Books, Manuals and Journals for Women, 1450-1837 Part 3: The Lady's Magazine, 1770-1800
15 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm

"The year 1770 brought what may perhaps be regarded as the first objective and professional effort to create a magazine acceptable to women."
Cynthia White
writing in Women's Magazines, 1693-1968

The Lady's Magazine is a gold mine of poetry and prose by women, news of the latest fashions, pen portraits of female role models, and frank and revealing correspondence by women readers.

During its lifetime it claimed to witness a sea-change in the status of women. In its early days it saw no reason to constrain the education or activities of women. By 1825, however, it lamented that "Women have completely abandoned all attempts to shine in the political horizon, and now seek only to exercise their virtues in domestic retirement ... contented with truly feminine occupations."

Did such a sea-change occur? How did women's writing and language change over this period? How did the format and nature of the magazine change?

We have pieced together a complete edition of The Lady's Magazine from 1770 to 1832, by drawing on the resources of four British and American libraries.

This microfilm edition covers the Original Series (vols 1-49, 1770-1818); the New Series (vols 1-10, 1820-29); and the Improved Series (vols 1-5, 1830-32). We also include a short-lived rival using the same title (The Lady's Magazine, 1791) and an earlier magazine with the same title (The Lady's Magazine, 1738-1739).
Each volume is indexed.

Scholars can use this source to eavesdrop on the conversations of fashionable soirées, to monitor the rise of the cult of appearances, and to sample women's writing in the age of Jane Austen.

Sterling Price: 1170 - US Dollar Price: $1850

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Women Advising Women
Advice Books, Manuals and Journals for Women, 1450-1837 Part 4: The Lady's Magazine, 1801-1832
17 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm

"A crucial publication."
Professor Isobel Grundy
Department of English
University of Alberta

Parts 3 and 4 make available a complete run of The Lady's Magazine from 1770 to 1832. This long running journal is valuable not only for the large quantities of writing by women that it contains (poetry, stories and reviews), but also as a source for social history.

Part 3 made available all of the issues for the Eighteenth Century (1770-1832). Part 4 covers all the issues for the Nineteenth Century (1801-1832).

Sterling Price: 1330 - US Dollar Price: $2100

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Women Advising Women
Advice Books, Manuals and Journals for Women, 1450-1837 Part 5: Women's Writing and Advice, 1450-1700
22 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm plus guide

In answer to the requests of many scholars we have devoted Part 5 of Women Advising Women to sources for the study of Medieval and Early Modern women. Drawn from the resources of the Bodleian Library, Oxford, we cover literary texts, ballads and broadsides, as well as advice books.

Manuscripts of Medieval Women Writers are an important feature of this part. We include the Fables (c1250) of Marie de France, and Le Livre de fais d'armes des Chevalrie and Livre des trois vertues (c1450) of Christine de Pisan. We also feature a holograph translation by Princess Elizabeth of Le Miroir de l'ame pecheresse (c1575) by Margueritte de Navarre and the Heptameron (1654).

Women also earned literary respect as translators of instructive texts and we include a selection of key works translated by Margaret of Richmond, Mary Herbert, and Agnes More.

Rare ephemeral broadsides and ballads from the Douce Collection provide a rich source for social history and help to establish sexual stereotypes. There are over 800 items describing nags, cuckolds, helpmeets and harridans.

Prophetic and religious writing was another major forum for women in this period. Julian of Norwich experienced a series of visions in 1373 which she recorded in XVI Revelations of Divine Love. This was still in print in 1670, as can be seen by our edition. For the 16th century we include Gertrude More's - Spiritual Exercises (1554), and for the 17th century we have over 20 works by Lady Eleanor Douglas, Mary Rande (Mary Cary), and Margaret Fell.

The state of knowledge concerning Child-birth and Child-rearing is admirably shown by three works in this fifth part. Jacob Rueff's De conceptu et generatione hominis (1554) is copiously illustrated and shows both the child in the womb and the many instruments used to deliver it. Over 100 years later, Nicholas Culpeper's A directory for midwives (1675 & 2nd Part 1676) became the standard vernacular text for practitioners. Breast-feeding is the focus of The Countess of Lincoln's Nursery (1622).

Over twenty volumes of Advice Books for Women are covered, including the highly influential Country contentments (1623) and The English house-wife (1688) by Gervase Markham. Together with Roger Carr's A Godly forme of householde Government (1600), these established a format for household manuals which was much copied. Other items include The Mother's Blessing (1616) by Dorothy Leigh and The lawe's resolution of women's rights (1632).

We also include a number of lively Pamphlet Disputes such as:
John Sprint's The Bride-Womans Counsellor and Mary Chudleigh's replies - The Female Advocate (1700) and The Ladies Defence (1701); John Dunton's Petticoat Government (1702) and its reply The Prerogative of the Breeches (1702); Joseph Swetnam's Arraignment of Lewde, idle froward, and unconstant women (1615 and 1733 editions) and counterblasts by Constantia Munda, Rachel Speght, Ester Sowernam, and anon (1617-20); and Mary Evelyn's Mundus muliebris (1690) and its reply Mundus foppensis (1691);
.
There are fewer advice books for women for the medieval and early modern period than for the 18th and 19th centuries. As such, we have decided to include a broad range of Literary Texts by Women Writers, 1567-1737. These do reveal much about the lives and expectations of women and highlight the shifts in their role in society.

Early writers covered include Isabella Whitney (the first Englishwoman to publish a book of poems), Elizabeth Grymeston, Aemilia Lanyer (sometimes identified as Shakespeare's Dark Lady), Francis Southwell,
Lady Mary Wroth - (the first woman to write a full length prose fiction - The Countesse of Montgomerie's Urania, 1621), Elizabeth Cary and Anna Weamys.

For Margaret Cavendish we reproduce 11 key works, 1653-68, enabling scholars to analyse her work in detail. These are: Poems & Phancies, Philosophical fancies, Philosophical & physical opinions, The World's Olio, Nature's Pictures drawn by fancies pencil to the life, Playes, Orations of divers sorts, CCXI Sociable Letters, The Life of William Cavendish, Grounds of Natural Philosophy, and Observations upon experimental philosophy (featuring the New Blazing World).

The influence of French women writers in translation is made evident by the inclusion of 11 works by Comtesse de la Fayette and Madeleine de Scudery, including A triumphant arch erected and consecrated to the glory of the feminine sexe and The Female Orators.

We also offer rare first editions of over 45 plays, poems, memoirs and novels by Aphra Behn, Mary Chudleigh, Delarivier Manley and Susanna Centilevre. These show how important women writers were in British theatre between 1670 and 1737, and the central role that they played in the development of the novel.

Memorials to Women make up another interesting category of material included here. They often feature brief biographies and original writings by women. We include eight volumes devoted to the memories of Anne Askew, Margueritte de Valois, Mary, Countess of Warwick, Katherine Clark and others.

Sterling Price: 1720 - US Dollar Price: $2750

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Women and Victorian Values, 1837-1910
Advice Books, Manuals and Journals for Women Part 1: Sources from the Bodleian Library, Oxford
20 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm
A single guide accompanies Parts 1-4

Women and Victorian Values answers the need for accessible and legible materials that can be used for supplemental reading, project work and dissertations in the field of Victorian Studies. Following on from Women Advising Women this project makes available a rich collection of prescriptive literature for women. It also provides a number of rare women's journals, including early magazines for girls (a term that seems to have come into its own in the 1870's) as well as literary companions for the mother, housewife and maid.

Part 1 offers 89 advice books, manuals and journals across a broad spectrum of areas. There is an interesting range of cookery books dating from 1827 to 1896, which provide information on recipes and entertaining, not only for the upper classes of society, but also practical, cheap recipes for the housewife working to a budget. There is a delightful series of children's plays set to music to teach girls how to go about the household chores which they were expected to undertake. Those working on domestic life will be interested in a series Family Budgets, 1891-94, showing the income and expenditure
of 28 Victorian households.

Leisure activities open to women range from gardening as described by Every lady's guide to her own greenhouse, hothouse and conservatory (1851) to team driving, rifle shooting and kangaroo hunting described in Ladies in the field (1894).

Women's work is described in reports of the Society for Promoting the Employment of Women (1872 and 1910), A letter from a lady to women & girls who work in factories (1870), Female Servants Union News (1892), and Women's workers directory (1909).

There are also works on courtship; marriage; the duties of motherhood; entertainments; fashion, society and beauty; etiquette and letter-writing; women's rights; and health.

Sterling Price: 1560 - US Dollar Price: $2500

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Women and Victorian Values, 1837-1910
Advice Books, Manuals and Journals for Women Part 2: Sources from the Bodleian Library, Oxford
20 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm
A single guide accompanies Parts 1-4

Part 2 offers a further 131 advice books, self-help manuals and primers describing women's life in all arenas from the nursery to the workhouse.

Schooling played a crucial role in the socialisation of girls, as can be seen in works like The nursery maid: Her duties and how to perform them (1839), Guide for governesses, English & Foreign (1875), Girls at home: a domestic economy reader for use in schools (1895) and Girls and their ways, by one who knows them (1881). Role models are given in Women of Worth (1859), and Women Adventurers (1893). There are also many examples of nursery literature including The mother's picture alphabet (1862), The nursery treasure picture book of funny stories, good music and pretty rhymes by Mercie Sunshine (1883) and The mother's book of song (1902).

Workhouses and women's work (1858) reveals what life was like for the less fortunate in Victorian Society with six articles on the work performed by women at these institutions. Similarly informative is The working-classes, by a daughter of the people (1869). There are also valuable portrayals of women in the rope-making, confectionary and printing trades as well as in local government and in health care. A celebration of women's progress is lavishly served up in the original souvenir programme for the Women's Exhibition, Earl's Court (1900).

Women's Health comes to the fore in A hand-book of domestic medicine (1855), The mother's medical adviser and guide for emergencies (1862), and The family physician (1878). These touch on many of the taboos of Victorian Society, notwithstanding advances in medical knowledge. The growing popularity of exercise for women is exemplified in a Series of Calisthenic and Hygenic Exercises (1854) which also emphasises correct posture. Women's rights are argued for in A woman's view of women's rights (1867) and Women's Suffrage Record (1903-1906).

Sterling Price: 1560 - US Dollar Price: $2500

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Women and Victorian Values, 1837-1910
Advice Books, Manuals and Journals for Women Part 3: Sources from the Bodleian Library, Oxford
20 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm
A single guide accompanies Parts 1-4

Parts 3 & 4 offer a wealth of rare journals aimed at women. Their range bears witness to the increased specialisation of periodical publications in the Victorian period. They are valuable not only for the advice, stories and reader's letters that they contain, but also for the contemporary advertising.

Part 3 covers 14 journals starting with The Cosy-corner novels (1905-1907) which are an excellent source for studying the aspirations of middle and working class women. In addition to the serialised stories there is much on romance and travel.

The Mother's Magazine (1842-1862) and The Mother's Companion (1887-1896) also feature articles on travel, as well as stories and much on domestic life and women's health. Differing portrayals of domestic life are given in The wife: a journal of home comforts (1892-1893), The ladies' home (1898), and the rather elitist
The Lady's World (1886-1890), which has much on fashion and society. Woman's World (1868) is more down to earth and features advice on how to get a husband and how to run the household as well as letters. For instance:

"Dear Editress, I am the eldest of 7 and the others are all boys. We have very little money and cannot afford to keep a servant and it is drudge, drudge, drudge from morning to night. I get no time to improve myself, scarcely any for reading and I am now 18. ... Other people seem to have pleasant occupation, why should my life be so horrid? Elsie.

Dear Elsie, Just at present ... life seems a little hard, but there is no reason why you should call yourself a drudge. ... I would like you to turn to p22 of this issue and see how Christ honours the very meanest work. ... Be content with your lot, strive to help others with kind words, a bright smile or sympathy and in helping them you will gain happiness yourself."

The education of women and the profession of teaching are the main theme of The Girl's Mistress (1893-1895), The Infant's Mistress (1893-1898) and the Journal of the Women's Education Union (1874-1881). They cover everything from nursery teaching to finishing schools with discussions of appropriate texts and women's rights to higher education. Other titles include Reports of the Mother's Union (1892-1912), The working gentlewoman's journal (1906-1910), Working ladies report (1879-1887) and The Girl's Companion (1908), which intriguingly describes itself as "a journal for engaged girls only."

Sterling Price: 1560 - US Dollar Price: $2500

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Women and Victorian Values, 1837-1910
Advice Books, Manuals and Journals for Women Part 4: Sources from the Bodleian Library, Oxford
20 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm
A single guide accompanies Parts 1-4

The seven titles featured in this fourth part cover an equally broad range of topics. Every Girls Magazine and Every Girls Annual (1878-1888) are two classic collections of stories and advice for girls, whilst The Girl's Empire (1902-1904) alerts women to the part that they can play in Empire.

The Women's Library (1903), edited by Ethel Mckenna, provides a series of investigations by women authors into women's work (Teaching, painting, journalism, medicine and the theatre) as well as much concrete advice on the home and garden.

Womanhood (1899-1907), edited by Ada Ballin, has much on "the progress of women" and is an important resource for women's art. Women's Work in the great harvest field (1874-1884) covers women's missionary work on behalf of numerous organisations in places ranging from Egypt and India, to the London Poor and widows in Spitalfield.

Women's Health and Beauty (1902-1908) proclaims that "Health is Beauty, Ugliness is Sin" and lays the foundations for feelings of guilt and inadequacy in its readers.

Women & Victorian Values provides the sources that will enable students and scholars alike to explore the established roles and patterns of authority in the home and workplace.

It also provides rich evidence for the study of women's education, travel, notions of beauty and taste, gentility, domesticity, and consumerism.

Sterling Price: 1950 - US Dollar Price: $3100

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Women, Education and Literature
The Papers of Maria Edgeworth, 1768-1849 Part 1: The Edgeworth Papers from the Bodleian Library, Oxford
25 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm

This microfilm project facilitates the study of all aspects of Maria Edgeworth's life and work from her education and upbringing to her reading and her creative works.

It provides a platform for the study of Anglo-Irish Literature, Female education, Literary life and society, c1789-1850, and Women's Writing and Women's Reading.

Part 1 covers the papers of Maria Edgeworth (1768-1849) and family from the Bodleian Library, Oxford. These feature a strong collection of literary manuscripts, together with correspondence for the period 1819-1849.

The literary manuscripts feature 15 notebooks with draft passages for published and unpublished works; story plans, poems, and notes on reading. There are also draft and fair copies of published works, anecdotes and outlines of plays.

The correspondence is equally rich and includes c2000 letters from Maria Edgeworth, and many more from her family. Correspondents include: Joanna Baillie; Mrs Barbauld; Lady Bathurst; Erasmus Darwin; Leigh Hunt;
Elizabeth Inchbald; André Morellet; and William Roscoe.

Also included are Financial and Estate Papers; Pedigrees and Genealogical notes; Drawings, silhouettes, daguerreotypes and photographs; and a Calendar of the Edgeworth family correspondence in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, and the National Library of Ireland, compiled by Christina Colvin.

Sterling Price: 1800 - US Dollar Price: $3000

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Women, Education and Literature
The Papers of Maria Edgeworth, 1768-1849 Part 2: The Edgeworth Papers from the National Library of Ireland
20 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm

Part 2: The Edgeworth Papers from the National Library of Ireland
20 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm

Part 2 covers all of the Edgeworth Papers from the National Library of Ireland, with the correspondence for the period up to 1817 - the period in which Maria Edgeworth enjoyed her greatest literary success.

The development of Maria Edgeworth's own writing can be traced through letters discussing the origins, preliminary versions, publication and critical reception of Castle Rackrent, Letters for Literary Ladies and many other works. Contemporary criticism of her work includes Joseph Priestley's comments on Practical Education and Mrs Inchbald's views of Ormond (1817).

Maria's schooldays and family life are well documented, including her own reflections on the education and upbringing of women and consideration of works such as Rousseau's Emile and Locke's On Education.

Views of contemporary literature include discussions of Austen's Mansfield Park and Emma, Franklin's Autobiography, Mme de Staël's Delphine, Erasmus Darwin's The Temple of Nature, Scott's Waverly and Lady of the Lake, Barbauld's Evenings at Home, Lewis's The Monk, Hume's Essays, Mrs Inchbald's A Simple Story, and many other novels. Also discussed are subjects such as publishing practice; fees and advances; women's magazines and literary society.

The literary manuscripts covered in this second part include four albums of family verse; Maria's Memoirs of Richard Lovell Edgeworth Esq., with numerous corrections in her own hand; a commonplace book; two more notebooks; and Maria's diary for 1803 and her account books for 1826-9 and 1837-8.

Sterling Price: 1560 - US Dollar Price: $2500

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Women, Education and Literature
The Papers of Maria Edgeworth, 1768-1849 Part 3: Edgeworth Papers from other libraries
4 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm plus guide to Parts 1-3

Part 3 comprises the manuscript of Helen from the British Library; an important clutch of letters from Birmingham University Library; correspondence between Maria Edgeworth and Sir Walter Scott from the National Library of Scotland; correspondence between Maria Edgeworth and Joanna Baillie from the Royal College of Surgeons of England; and a poem and further letters from Bristol Record Office.

June 1999 Sterling Price: 300 - US Dollar Price: $500

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Women, Emancipation and Literature
The Papers of Harriet Martineau, 1802-1876, from Birmingham University Library
17 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm plus guide

The Papers of Harriet Martineau provide exceptional insights into the worlds of Nineteenth Century Journalism and Literature.

Her working relationships with the Atlantic Monthly, Daily News, Edinburgh Review, Household Words, Once a Week, Westminster Review and other journals are fully detailed in extensive correspondence with their editors. In addition these letters touch upon many aspects of Victorian life, literature and society.

Over 60 letters to John Chapman, editor of the Westminster Review concern the commissioning of articles, editorial changes and public responses. They also discuss Charles Dickens, the management of Household Words, the writings of Comte and Froude.

Dickens is also discussed with James Thomas Fields, editor of the Atlantic Monthly, together with Martineau's autobiography and reflections on the death of Mrs Gaskell.

There are over 100 letters to and from Frederick Knight Hunt, William Weir, and Sir John Richard Robinson of the Daily News. Topics raised include emigration, US politics, slavery, Sumner, Ireland, Queen Victoria, life in the sick room, Mazzini, Gladstone, Robert Browning, and (yet again) Dickens.

With Henry Reeve of the Edinburgh Review she discusses mining, the cotton industry and the transportation of convicts.

With H W Wills of Household Words she exchanges views on Charles Dickens and the factories, mesmerism, plans for a home for ladies and the perceived anti-catholicism of Household Words.

Harriet Martineau's dealings with publishers are also fully covered in substantial correspondence with Jeremiah Garnett, Samuel Lucas, Alexander Macmillan, John Murray, George Smith (of Smith & Elder), Ticknor & Fields and Truebner & Co.

There is also a fascinating Calculation of income from periodicals and several volumes of Harriet Martineau's accounts of income and expenditure, 1863-1870.
Correspondence with eminent literary figures of the day is another strong feature of this collection.

With Elizabeth Gaskell and Patrick Brontë there is much lively correspondence concerning the life and writings of Charlotte Brontë.

With Matthew Arnold there are exchanges of views concerning education, ragged schools, the middle classes and public schools.

George & Harriet Grote offer views on J S Mill, politics and the Poor Laws.

Harriet Beecher Stowe and Lady Noel contribute to an animated debate concerning Lady Byron.

Sara Hennell discusses Herbert Spencer, Mesmerism, Darwin, the authorship of Adam Bede and George Eliot.

Other significant correspondents include: John Anderson (a fugitive slave from Missouri), Thomas Arnold, George Babb, Josephine Butler, Samuel Courtauld, W E Gladstone, Samuel Lucas, Richard Monckton Milnes, 1st Baron Houghton, Florence Nightingale, Lord John Russell, Charles Sumner, Henry Whitworth and William Wilberforce.

In addition to the rich correspondence there are also autograph manuscripts of Harriet Martineau's Autobiography, History of the Forty Years Peace, Poor Laws and Paupers Illustrated (nos I & IV), Briery Creek, Modern Domestic Service, Salem Witchcraft, What can Women Do?, Out for a Holiday and material collected by Martineau concerning strikes and Ireland.

A remarkable woman and a pioneer of middle class radicalism, Martineau is a crucial nineteenth century commentator. This collection should prove essential for Women's Studies libraries and all those interested in the women's movement, radical politics, the abolition of slavery and Victorian Society and Literature.

Sterling Price: 1325 - US Dollar Price: $2100

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Women, Politics and Welfare
The Papers of Nancy Astor, 1879-1964, from Reading University Library Part 1: Autobiography, Political Diaries, Speeches, Articles and Newscuttings
20 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm plus guide to Parts 1 & 2

This major project makes available for the first time the correspondence and papers of Nancy Astor and will make a substantial contribution to the examination of issues such as:

Gender and Politics
The Origins of the Welfare State
Political Oratory
Anglo-American Relations, 1914-1964
The Rights of Women and Children
The Cliveden Set

A true net-worker, Nancy Astor relished the opportunity to put people together - acting as a catalyst for action.
George Bernard Shaw, with whom she visited the Soviet Union in 1931, was a regular visitor to the family home at Cliveden, as were Sean O'Casey, Sir John Simon, Neville Chamberlain, Lord Halifax and Anthony Eden. Despite allegations of pro-Nazism, the papers show that Nancy Astor was staunchly anti-Nazi. The "Second Foreign Office" (as Cliveden became known) exerted a major influence on Foreign Affairs from 1931 onwards (and it was at Cliveden that Christine Keeler met John Profumo by the swimming pool in 1963).

"One of the penalities of public life is that the line, between one's private and one's public life is blurred... legends arise about public figures which have little foundation in fact. The legend which has most distressed myself and my husband is that associated with the so-called Cliveden Set. According to this legend, my husband and myself and our friends are somehow or other regarded as conspirators ....according to the highly-coloured accounts, the Chancelleries of Europe are influenced by our wishes. A whisper at Cliveden causes Legations to tremble and Embassies to rock.... What Elstree-Hollywood nonsense it all is!... I wish those people who believed in the legend of the Cliveden Set could come to Cliveden and see the Visitors' Book. They would get their eyes opened. They would see the kind of people whom we like and in whom we are interested.
They would find to their surprise that names of obscure social workers who are in need of rest and refreshment occur more frequently than the better-known names of politicians & statesmen.
"
Draft for Chapter XI of Autobiography

Part 1 makes it possible to examine and assess Nancy Astor's full and interesting life. It includes her unpublished manuscript autobiography, political diaries, notes for speeches, articles and her volumes of newscuttings. It will be of interest to those studying Gender and Politics, Modern History, the Welfare State, Diplomacy and Anglo-American Relations.

In the following extracts she gives her thoughts on the training of women in domestic work and the setting up of juvenile unemployment centres and on the question of insurance:

" It may be asked why train them? Why not take them straight into your houses? Everyone ought to know that some of these girls have gone straight from school into the factories where they were a national asset but the minute the War was over the State dispensed with their services and it was suggested that they should go into domestic service. Many of them had not the slightest idea as to how things should be done...."
March,1923 Political Diaries

"....something is wrong about insurance and I do not think it is a good thing for the House of Commons to say that there is nothing wrong and that the doctors are all right....."
April ,1930 Political Diaries

Sterling Price: 1500 - US Dollar Price: $2500

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Women, Politics and Welfare
The Papers of Nancy Astor, 1879-1964, from Reading University Library Part 2: Subject Files - Children and the Family
24 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm
A single guide accompanies Parts 1 & 2

Part 2 of this microfilm project offers complete coverage of Nancy Astor's Subject Files for: Adoption, Baby Week, Child Welfare, Education, Family Endowment, Guardianship, Head Mistresses, Child Slavery, Infant Welfare and Maternity, Milk, Playing Fields, the Children's Bill, Juveniles, Children in Institutions and Nursery Schools.

Nancy Astor was one of the earliest advocates of the Welfare State. This collection documents many of the crucial issues leading up to the Beveridge Report in 1942. It will be of great interest to scholars examining Social Policy, Education, Employment, Poverty, and the creation of the Welfare State.

These files provide good detail on her many campaigns and give a clear insight into the topics which were so close to Nancy Astor's heart - all matters relating to women and children.

This collection will enable scholars to re-assess her career. The files provide important primary evidence on the major social and political issues of the Twentieth Century.

Sterling Price: 1900 - US Dollar Price: $3000

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Women, Politics and Welfare
The Papers of Nancy Astor, 1879-1964, from Reading University Library Part 3: Subject Files - Health, Birth Control and Social Insurance
c20 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm plus guide to Parts 3 & 4

Part 3 offers complete coverage of Nancy Astor's files on Health, Birth Control and Social Insurance. As such, it complements the material on Children and the Family provided in Part 2 and is of the first importance for those studying the Welfare State. There are files on the Food Council, Health, Illegitimacy, Insurance, Moral Hygiene, Mother's Pensions, Nurses, Nutrition, Pensions, Prostitution and Settlements.

Issues covered include the control of prostitution, the elimination of venereal disease, the provision of sound dietary advice, the provision of a good health service and care for the elderly.

"...something is wrong about insurance, and I do not think it is a good thing for the House of Commons to say that there is nothing wrong and that doctors are all right..."
Nancy Astor, Political Diaries, April 29, 1930

Sterling Price: 1560 - US Dollar Price: $2500

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Women, Politics and Welfare
The Papers of Nancy Astor, 1879-1964, from Reading University Library Part 4: Subject Files - Women, The Franchise, Marriage Laws and Papers regarding Pressure Groups
c20 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm
A single guide accompanies Parts 3 & 4

Nancy Astor was the first woman to take her seat in Parliament. She fought and won the by-election at Plymouth in 1919 when her husband, Waldorf Astor, had to resign the seat after succeeding to the Viscountcy. She declared her intention "to fight, not only for the men, but for the women and children of England."

Successively elected seven times until her retirement in 1945, Nancy Astor fought for equal pay and opportunities for women, better education and health provision and the appointment of women to public boards and inspectorates.

She remained the only woman in the House of Commons until 1921, when she was joined by Margaret Wintringham, a Liberal. In 1924 the number of women rose to 6; and in 1929 to 14.

Many women's organisations sought her support and this part provides details of her dealings with them. It also shows her involvement with a whole range of other pressure groups working for social and welfare reform.

This is an excellent source for the study of Gender and Politics in Britain and also provides many useful comparisons with women's political progress in the United States.

Sterling Price: 1560 - US Dollar Price: $2500

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Women, Suffrage and Politics
The Papers of Sylvia Pankhurst, 1882-1960, from the Internationaal Instituut voor Sociale Geschiedenis, Amsterdam Part 1: 25 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm
A single guide accompanies Parts 1 & 2

Of all the Women's Studies research titles currently available, the Papers of Sylvia Pankhurst are perhaps the most suitable for use in courses for "World History". This rich collection reveals that her activities stretched well beyond the Suffrage Movement , the Third International or the East London Toy Factory:

Ethiopia, Somalia and the Pan-African Movement - Sylvia devoted the period from 1936 to 1960 to an unceasing campaign on behalf of Ethiopia. As editor of the New Times and Ethiopia News, 1936-1956 and the Ethiopia Observer, 1956-1960, she made a major contribution to African affairs and maintained contacts with leading figures in the Pan-African Movement. WEB DuBois remarked that "the great work of Sylvia Pankhurst was to introduce black Ethiopia to white England." She drew attention to Italian atrocities in Abyssinia, vigorously opposed the return of Eritrea and Somaliland to the Italians after the war, fought for Ethiopian independence never shirking conflict with the British Foreign Office, assumed the role of unofficial spokesperson for Emperor Hailie Selassie, and raised funds for a vital hospital. Scholars can assess whether she was a "True Ethiopian patriot" or a misguided "puppet of the Emperor". Seven manuscript notebooks provide Sylvia's innermost thoughts on Ethiopia.

Italy - there is much material on the rise of fascism and European politics. Sylvia married an Italian, Silvio Corio, and he supported her in her tireless efforts against fascism and oppression in Ethiopia. Manuscripts include New Italy, The opposition in Italy, Mussolini's women soldiers and Civil servants in Italy, censorship and espionage.

Germany - there is material on the Anti-Nazi Council, negotiations with Czechoslovakia in 1938 and her notes on leading German Socialists.

The Soviet Union - Sylvia became an enthusiastic adherent of the Russian Revolution and set up a "Russian People's Information Bureau". She was an influential English correspondent of the Communist International periodical International Communist. In June 1920 she re-baptised the Workers' Suffrage Federation into the Communist Party, British Section of the Third International. She attended the second congress of the Third International in Moscow. One notebook covers her journey to Russia in 1920.

Rumania - ten notebooks cover her concern for this country and her interest in the poet Mihail Eminescu. Her outpouring of articles on Rumania are typical of her fascination with people and places beyond Britain.

Albania - there are notes on her support of King Zog.

Ireland - notes on the Irish Civil War.

The United States - observations on her long journeys through the United States in 1910 and 1912.

India - notebook on Buddhism and her "questionnaire for Indian women".

In addition to a wealth of material on these subjects, the collection provides:

Letters covering the early years of the suffrage movement, especially from Lydia Becker to Dr Richard M Pankhurst, Mrs Jacob Bright to Emmeline Pankhurst and Mrs Wolstenholme Elmy to Sylvia Pankhurst - the latter providing Sylvia with information about the early women's movement when she was writing The Suffragette (1911).

Correspondence with James Keir Hardie, Dora Russell, Emmeline Pethick-Lawrence, Christabel Pankhurst and Ramsay MacDonald.

Minute Books and Papers of the East London Federation/Workers' Suffrage Federation, 1913-1924.

Heavily annotated proofs for Annual Reports of the East End Movement in London.

Records of the Women's Franchise League, 1896-1897.

Documents on Sylvia's involvement with the Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU)

All Sylvia's manuscript notebooks including drafts on the Suffragette Movement, Women's Work and Red Twilight - along with notes on Lydia Becker, the First World War, the General Strike and Maternity Care.

A large section on the Workers' Dreadnought, 1917-1924.

This archive opens up many opportunities for comparative study. It is an excellent source for Women's History, Social History, Politics and World History.

This project is split into two parts and we have supplied the Contents of Reels so that scholars can see how the material is arranged.

"To understand Sylvia Pankhurst the Pan-Africanist, I also had to understand Sylvia Pankhurst the monarchist - and beyond that Sylvia the anti-Fascist of the early 1930s, the communist of the early 1920s, and the suffragette and socialist of the 1910s ... she was in contact and correspondence with some of the most important personalities of her day."
Professor Patricia W Romero
writing in E Sylvia Pankhurst: Portrait of a Radical
(Yale University Press, 1990)

Sterling Price: 1950 - US Dollar Price: $3000

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Women, Suffrage and Politics
The Papers of Sylvia Pankhurst, 1882-1960, from the Internationaal Instituut voor Sociale Geschiedenis, Amsterdam Part 2: 12 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm
A single guide accompanies Parts 1 & 2 This archive opens up many opportunities for comparative study. It is an excellent source for Women's History, Social History, Politics and World History.

This project is split into two parts and we have supplied the Contents of Reels so that scholars can see how the material is arranged. This second completes coverage of her papers (with Inventory numbers 225-362) and also covers her pictures and photographs.

Sterling Price: 950 US Dollar Price: $1500

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Women's Autobiographies
from Cambridge University Library Part 1: Rare printed autobiographies covering thirty-three women's lives, 1713-1859
12 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm plus guide to Parts 1 & 2

The study of women's autobiographies has become an important subject for literary scholars, historians and sociologists. The texts offer examples of the constructions of women's narratives and reveal common tropes. They provide a first hand record of women's experience in a variety of areas. They also provide a valuable body of evidence for those studying childhood, class, education and the creation of gendered spaces and identities.

With the publication of Barbara Penny Kanner's Women in Context: Two Hundred Years of British Women Autobiographers: A Reference Guide and Reader (G K Hall, 1997) scholars gained access to a structured overview of more than 1,000 women's autobiographical texts from the 1720's to the modern era. Many of these were relatively unknown and record the experiences of the poor as well as the rich, professional women as well as voluntary workers, and well travelled women as well as those that stayed at home.

This new microfilm project begins the task of making these sources more widely available by reproducing the original texts (filming first or early editions). Part 1, published in September 1999, covers the lives of 33 women who lived between 1713 and 1859, with a total of 54 texts.

One of the first autobiographies is A Narrative of the Life of Mrs Charlotte Charke, Daughter of Colley Cibber (1755) which describes the life and experiences of Charlotte Charke (1713-1760). There is much on 18th Century Theatre as she both acted and wrote farces for the stage and knew Henry Fielding and David Garrick. Her great success as Macheath in The Beggar's Opera is described, as well as her proclivity for cross-dressing off-stage which will make her of great interest to gay studies.

The Memoirs of Laetitia Pilkington, Written by Herself (3 volumes, 1800) offers a polished account of the life of an Anglo-Irish writer (c1706-1750) whose fortunes veered from the friendship and patronage of Jonathan Swift, to imprisonment in London for debt. At one stage her husband encouraged her to form liaisons with other men to further his career and she later bemoaned the lack of jobs for women, so there is much interesting commentary on the position of women in the 18th century. By way of counterpoint, we also include her husband's reaction to the Memoirs and her own Biography for Boys (1799) and Biography for Girls (1800) suggesting gender differences.

Ann Candler (1740-1814), workhouse inmate and poet, details her troubled life in Poetical Attempts by Ann Candler, a Suffolk Cottager, with a Short Narrative of Her Life (1803). The loss of three children in infancy, desertion by her husband and workhouse life are all described.

The Memories of The Life of the Late Mrs Catharine Cappe, Written by Herself (1822) take us into the life of an Evangelical social reformer who established a Female Benefit Club for miners' wives and daughters in Yorkshire and founded District Committees of Ladies to help poor women throughout the country. Once again, in addition to the autobiography we also feature her Observations on Charity Schools, Female Friendly Societies, and other Subjects (1805), Thoughts on various charitable and other institutions (1814) and Thoughts on the desirableness and utility of ladies visiting the female wards of hospitals and lunatic asylums (1816).

Also featured are:
Mary Alexander (1760-1809), Mary Ashford (1787-c1840), Elizabeth Ashridge (1713-1755), Catharine Cary (c1770-c1825), Mary Clarke (1776-1852), Margaret Coghlan (c1763-?), Lady Elizabeth Craven (1750-1828), Ann Crowley (1766-1826), Mary Dudley (1750-1823), Grace Elliott (1765-1823), Anne Grant (1755-1838), Priscilla Gurney (1757-1828), Dorothea Herbert (1770-1829), Mary Jemison (1743-1833), Elizabeth Johnston (1764-1848), Cornelia Knight (1757-1837), Lady Sydney Morgan (c1783-1859), Elizabeth Mortimer (1754-1835), Charlotte Papendiek (1765-1839), Catherine Phillips (1727-1794), Hester Thrale Piozzi (1741-1821), Hannah Robertson (1724-c1800), Mary Robinson (1758-1800), Mary Schimmelpennick (1778-1856), Mary Sherwood (1775-1851), Sarah Siddons (1755-1831), Mary Talbot (1778-1808), Joanna Turner (1732-1785) and Mary Wells (c1740-1787).

September 1999 Sterling Price: 950 - US Dollar Price: $1500

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Women's Autobiographies
from Cambridge University Library Part 2: Rare printed autobiographies covering twenty-two women's lives, 1780-1889
10 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm
A single guide covers Parts 1 & 2

This second part provides details of a further 22 women's lives. They include:

Anne Eliza Bray (née Kempe) (1790-1883)
Autobiography. 1884
Letters written during a tour through Normandy. 1828

Rebecca Burlend (née Burton) (1793-1872)
A True Picture of Emigration. [1848]

Lucy Lyttleton Cameron (née Butt) (1781-1858)
The Life of... 1861

Elizabeth Cadwaladyr Davis (1789-1860)
The Autobiography of... 1857. 2v

Ann Freeman (née Mason) (1797-1826)
A Memoir... 1826

Ann Taylor Gilbert (née Taylor) (1782-1866)
Autobiography... 1874. 2v

Elizabeth Grant (1797-1885)
Memoirs, 1797-1827. 1898

Elizabeth Ham (1783-c1852)
Elizabeth Ham, by Herself: 1783-1820. E Gillet (ed). 1945

Mary Howitt (née Bonham) (1799-1889)
An Autobiography. 1889. 2v
My Own Story. The autobiography of a child. 1849

Anna Jameson (née Murphy) (1794-1860)
Winter Studies & Summer Rambles in Canada. 3v. 1838
Visits & sketches at home and abroad and the Diary of an Ennuyé 4v. 1834
The Romance of biography; or Memoirs of women loved and celebrated by the poets. v2. 1837
Social Life in Germany. 1840

Mary Lisle (c1795-c1856)
Long, Long Ago. An Autobiography. 1856

Anne Lutton (1791-1881)
Memorials of a Consecrated Life. 1882

Mary Russell Mitford (1787-1855)
The Life of... 3v. 1870

Amelia Matilda Murray (1794-1884)
Recollections from 1803 to 1837. 1868
Letters from the United States. 1856. 2v

Fanny Parks (née Archer) (1794-1875)
Wanderings of a Pilgrim in Search of the Picturesque. 1850

Louisa Potter (c1800-?)
Lancashire Memories. 1879

Susan Sibbald (née Mein) (1783-1866)
The Memoirs..., 1783-1812. 1926

Mary Somerville (née Fairfax) (1780-1872)
Personal Recollections, from Early Life to Old Age... 1873

Charlotte Elizabeth Tonna (née Browne) (1790-1846)
Personal Recollections... 1841

Charlotte Murdoch Wake (née Tait) (1800-1888)
The Reminiscences... 1909

Hariette Wilson (née Dubochet) (1786-1846)
Memoirs. 4v. 1825

Sterling Price: 750 - US Dollar Price: $1250

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Women's Journals, 1919-1968: From Franchise to Feminism Part 1: Eve, 1919-1929
26 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm plus guide

What happened to the Women's Movement after partial suffrage was granted in 1918? What impact did the loss of almost an entire generation of British males have upon the women of England after the First World War? Who was the New Woman and how did she differ from her predecessors? How did the advent of electrical household appliances, popular motor cars, lipstick and sun-tan cream change women's lives?

These questions, and many others, can be explored in Eve, a new pictorial for women launched in 1919. It is breezy and self-confident, deliberately seeking to challenge the status quo. It declares:

"We do not rule out one single emotion or experience as being impossible or improper to any person or set of persons. We are determined to let in the air - to ventilate every corner of our mansion...."

It is a marvellous source for the exploration of popular culture. There are regular features on the Cinema, the Theatre and the Musical Theatre. There are articles on movie stars and musicians, and reviews of the Diaghalev Ballet, the entertainments of Noël Coward and the Ziegfield Follies. The impact of popular culture on dance, dress and behaviour is shown through features such as "Their Gestures" which shows, among other things, the stylish way to hold a cigarette.

Serious articles such as "Why be Shocked?" by Margot Hirons (27 February 1929) explore the psychological under-pinning of "today's freedoms" compared with "the artificiality of the past". There are detailed reviews of new literature by Hemingway, Sinclair Lewis and Lewis Bromfield. An article in the issue dated 7 October 1925 discusses the poetry of Rimbaud and Verlaine. There are excerpts from new novels by authors such as Rose Macaulay, and original stories such as "The Infant Prodigy" by Colette (26 August 1920).

Above all, Eve pays homage to the new Consumer Age. "Eve goes Shopping" is a regular feature and the magazine is a rich source of advertising - whether for "Minerva, The Goddess of Automobiles" or "Lacoste Snow Vanishing Cream - the inseparable companion of the woman of refinement". This makes Eve an ideal source for the study of Consumption and Desire.

Eve makes it clear that luxury goods and an elegant lifestyle were now within the reach of a much broader audience and this was having a powerful transformative effect. In the Victorian period Babylonish commodities such as powder, cold cream, lipstick and lingerie were kept out of the middle class home. Now they were available to all.

The Domestic Space was also undergoing a transformation. In the period in which Eve was published - from 1919 to 1929 - the number of households with electricity rose from 1 in 17 to 1 in 3. An advertisement by the Electricity Development Association offered:

"ELECTRICITY at your service. The ELECTRICITY which fills your house with light, will also cook your food, warm your rooms, do your washing and ironing, and clean the house for you...."

Labour-saving devices supposedly generated new freedoms and reduced the need for servants. An advert for Singer Electric Sewing Machines claimed that "An extra sewing maid could not be a greater help."

Part of the appeal was the "Scientific" basis of the new domestic breakthroughs. As one woman exclaims: "I love sewing now! All the drudgery is removed and better, quicker stitches are produced with SCIENTIFIC NEEDLES."

Articles such as "Other People's Houses" and "On Decorating the Average Small London House" (13 January 1926) further describe the geography of the home. The rise of the Modernist movement in furniture, household design and architecture is reflected in articles such as "More about Modern Decoration" and "The Ingenuity of these Moderns" (13 Feb 1929).

Eve and her Car asks the question: "Does the manufacturer study her needs?" It describes the way in which cars are presented at the Olympia Motor Show so as to appeal to women and considers the requirements and interests of women drivers. Eve Plays the Game discusses the increasing range of sporting activities open to women including ski-ing, golf, athletics and tennis. The recipe section is entitled Feed the Brute, and a series of essays in 1920 discuss notions of "The Ideal Love", "The Ideal Friendship" and "The Ideal Marriage."

Eve also acted as the Hello magazine of the 1920's with features on the Asquiths in America, Society Events, Life on the Riviera and Who's Who in Switzerland. Many readers must have lived vicariously with the daughters of the New Rich and thrilled at their revolt against the ancien régime.

Profusely illustrated throughout, Eve is the embodiment of the "Roaring Twenties" and will enable scholars to take a fresh look at the rise (and fall?) of the New Woman. It will be welcomed by libraries supporting gender studies, fashion, twentieth century social history and women's studies.

Sterling Price: 1950 - US Dollar Price: $3200

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Women's Journals, 1919-1968
From Franchise to Feminism Part 1: The Women's Penny Paper and Woman's Herald, 1888-1893
4 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm plus guide

"Lively and uncompromising feminism; the most vigorous feminist paper of its time. Contents included interviews with prominent feminists, and regular reports from a variety of organisations, e.g. BWTA, WLF, Primrose League; from May 1890 the Central National Society for Women's Suffrage was given a column of its own... "Helena B Temple" was the pen-name of Henrietta B Muller (d.1906), sister of Eva McLaren and a prominent feminist. As well as being in at the start of the Women's Printing Society, she was a pioneer school board member (for Lambeth), and early tax-resister (for the vote, in 1884), and later a Theosophist and associate of Annie Besant".
David Doughan
Feminist Periodicals, 1855-1984

Miss F Henrietta Muller (see Vol IV No 161 28 November 1891 for an interview with her), Editor of the Women's Penny Paper, was born in Valparaiso, Chile. At the age of 9 she went to Boston, USA, and then on to London where she was educated. She returned to Valparaiso for a further two year spell when she was 11, but returned again to London to complete her education. After finishing her schooling in London, she proceeded to Girton College, Cambridge, which she enjoyed immensely. In her own words -

"After a great deal of difficulty and opposition from my family I managed to go to Girton where I spent three most happy years... Miss Davies was the Principal of Girton when I was there. I had to work hard and when I came out with Honours I was immensely proud. I took Moral Sciences, which include Political Economy, Philosophy, Psychology etc... After a little while, at the suggestion of Professor Fawcett, I made up my mind to stand for the London School Board."

The advice of Henry Fawcett (husband of Millicent Garrett Fawcett) proved to be fruitful. Henrietta Muller came top of the poll and worked for the London School Board for 6 years.

Her sister, Eva McLaren was a prominent feminist. They travelled together to Switzerland where they enjoyed the mountaineering. On their return to England they bought a house at Cadogan Place in London and became a suffragist cause célèbre when they refused to pay taxes "as a protest against being denied the right to vote". They were arrested, prosecuted, and their goods were distrained.

Henrietta Muller decided to launch a women's newspaper to help the suffrage cause. She reflected on her reasons for doing so some years later:

"One of the things which always humiliated me very much was the way in which women's interests and opinions were systematically excluded from the World's Press. I was mortified too, that our cause should be represented by a little monthly leaflet, not worthy of the name of a newspaper called the Women's Suffrage Journal. I realised of what vital importance it was that women should have a newspaper of their own through which to voice their thoughts, and I formed the daring resolve that if no one else better fitted for the work would come forward, I would try and do it myself...

The Woman's Herald started just three years ago, under the name of the Women's Penny Paper. It has had to struggle with endless difficulties of every kind, but the fact that it weathers them all seems to me to be an evidence of its vitality.

Our readers know that the aim of the paper is to further the emancipation of women in every direction and in every land. I hold that this aim was part of the Mission of Christ in spite of what is advanced to the contrary. The editing has been carried out under the name of Helena B Temple and Co. My chief reason for this was in order that my own individuality should not give a colouring to the paper, but that it should be as far as possible, impersonally conducted and therefore open to reflect the opinions of women on any and all subjects."

The political stance of the paper was both feminist and progressive, without allegiance to any particular party. As she proclaimed in the first issue:

"Our policy is progressive: home politics, that is, industrial, social, and education questions, are of primary importance in our estimation; in treating of these our endeavour will be to speak with honesty and courage, and as befits women of education and refinement. General politics, when truly progressive, can accept neither the Conservative nor Liberal programme as final; they must reject much in both and will accept much in both.

Although we claim for women a full shore of power with all its duties, responsibilities and privileges in public and private life, and although we do so with a full sense of the gravity of our claim, we will not forget the lighter and brighter side of things, the beauty, the brightness and the fun which make the chequered lights on our way".

Henrietta Muller edited the paper for five years. In April 1892, she handed over control to Mrs Frank Morrison. At first, it was a straightforward continuation, but after Muller went to India, the paper became more and more committed to the Liberal cause and the Women's Liberal Federation. Two further editorial changes took place in 1893 with the editorship passing first to Christina Bremner, and then to Lady Henry Somerset who championed the cause of Temperance.

Finally, the paper was taken over by the Woman's Signal which ran from 1894 to 1899 and was edited by Florence Fenwick-Miller from 3 October 1895.

A typical issue of the Women's Penny Paper contained a variety of articles such as:

London School of Medicine for Women;
Lady Candidates for the London School Board;
National Women's Christian Temperance Union;
A Review of Women and Work by Emille Pfeiffer;
Interview with Mrs Priscilla Bright McLaren;
News of Mrs Fawcett, Mrs Hodgson Burnett, Miss Anna Pascell, Mrs Ashton Dilke, Mrs Besant, Annie Hicks;

These were all in the first issue. Later issues featured topics such as:

Civil and Political Liberty;
Leeds Weavers;
Our Australian Sisters;
Journalism as a Profession for Women by Frances Power Cobbe;
Women's Liberal Federation at Birmingham;
Women Lawyers in France and Belgium;
Lady Dufferin and the Lahore Ladies;
Art and Craft by Mrs Mary Beed;
Women as County Councillors;
Mary Wollstonecraft's "Rights of Women";
Subordination of German Women;
Women as Electors;
A Day at Newnham College by Miss Effie Johnson;
Sir Charles Waren's Resignation;
Norwegian Women by Dorothea Sebboe;
I Thought I Stood by Olive Schreiner;
Women as Poor Law Guardians; and
Women Voters in America.

There were also interesting features on literature, including an early feminist reaction to The Doll's House by Henrik Ibsen:

"Every woman, especially the married women, ought to have seen the play called "The Dolls House" at the Novelty Theatre. If prevented from doing so let her read, and what is more, mark, learn, and unwordly digest the idea that is revealed by one of the greatest poets of modern times... the Development of Woman...
"The Doll's House" is the type of dwelling from which we must free married womanhood... Let us shake ourselves free from the shackles of pettiness and feebleness, let us become strong to bear one another's burdens...."
29 June 1889

The final section of the paper that demands attention is the regular interview feature, taking up as much as two complete pages of the newspaper. The full range of interviewees is here.

Name (issue number)

Mrs Annie Abbott, the "Little Magnet" 162
The Rt Hon the Countess of Aberdeen 185
Madame Adam 23
Mrs Alexander 83
Miss Julie Ames, Editor, Union Signal, USA 103
Eleanor E Archer, Rate Collector at Barford 225
Miss Florence Balgarnie 21
Florence Balgarnie - Women in America 208
Ada S Ballin 79
Mrs Emily Barnard, Artist 131
Marie Bashkirtseff, Artist and Writer, Pt I 171
Marie Bashkirtseff, Artist and Writer, Pt II 172
Miss Lydia Becker 19
Mrs Beddoe 66
Miss Amy E Bell 9
Madame Th Bentzon (Therèse Blanc), French Novelist and Critic 126
Mrs Annie Besant 4
Mdlle Sarmisa Bilcesco, LL.D. (of the Faculty of Paris) 169
Madame Blavatsky 133
Miss Mathilde Blind 86
Madame Bodichon 75
Madame Isabella Bogelot 69
Rosa Bonheur 56
Catherine Booth, A Modern Priestess 104
Mrs Bramwell Booth 200
Mrs Brander, Inspector of Girls' Schools in Madras 176
Miss A L Browne - Hon Sec Paddington WLA and Hon Sec to the Society for Promoting the Return of
Women as County Councillors 223
Elizabeth Barrett Browning - The "Priestess of Poetry" 148
Sophie Bryant D.S.C 81
Mrs Burgwin, Head Mistress of Orange-Street Board School 98
Lady Burton 190
Frances Mary Buss 33
Maria, Mrs Septimus Buss of Shoreditch 49
Mrs Byers 54
Mrs Mona Caird 88
Lady Caithness, Duchess of Pomar 61
Mrs Julia Margaret Cameron, Founder of Photography as Fine Art 128
Mdme Louisa Starr Canziani, Artist 211
Mrs Chaffee-Noble, Elocutionist 130
Mrs Ormiston Chant 6
Mrs Amelia Charles 25
Madame Marya Chéliga-Loevy, Author, Chef de L'Union Internationale des Femmes 188
Miss Jane Hume Clapperton 35
In Memoriam - Miss Clough, Late Principal of Newnham College, Cambridge 175
Miss Colenso 70
Miss Jessie Connah 20
Miss Alice Cornwall 52
Mrs Costelloe, President of the Westminster, Chelsea and Guildford Women's Liberal Association 112
Mrs Craigie 189
Mrs Crawford 71
Mrs Rose Mary Crawshay 177
Miss Caroline Crommelin 57
Mrs Daniell 95
Miss Daston 209
Miss Gertrude Demain-Hammond, Artist 116
Marie Deraisme 26
Miss Rachael Knox Dick 219
Mrs Dietz-Clymer, President of Sorosis 121
Mrs Ashton Dilke 3
Lady Florence Dixie 77
Her Excellency the Rt Hon Countess of Dufferin and Ava 174
Mrs Earle 74
Miss Amelia B Edwards, Authoress and Egyptologist 187
George Eliot (novelist) 170
Miss Rosalind Ellicott, Orchestral Composer 151
The Queen Emma, Regent of Holland 113
Margaret Van Eyck 2
Miss Emily Faithfull 93
Dr Maria Velleda Farné 48
Miss Jessie Fothergill (Authoress) 145
Millicent Garrett Fawcett 2
Mrs Bedford Fenwick, Late Matron of St. Bartholemew's Hospital 129
Miss Von Finkelstein (Mrs Mountford) - Lecturer 114
Miss Forsyth 82
Mrs J Ellen Foster, Attorney-at-Law, USA 108
Miss Jessie Allen Fowler 28
Mrs Grace Coleridge Frankland 17
The Empress Frederick - Princess Royal of England 147
Miss Friedrichs 89
Elizabeth Fry (Prison Reformer) 179
Miss Agnes Garrett 65
Mrs Gladstone, President of the Women's Liberal Federation 203
Miss Frances Helena Gray, BA LID 178
Miss M E Green 91
Janet Hamilton, Poet, Essayist, and Apostle of Temperance 158
Miss Jane E Harrison 44
Mrs Ernest Hart 47
Mrs Haweis 8
Mrs Mary Wyatt Haycraft 40
Mrs Annie Hicks 5
Miss Hicks 206
Miss Hickson 123
Mrs Hilton 165
Miss Holyoake, Secretary, Women's Trade Union League 222
Mrs Pryce Hughes, West London Mission 166
Mrs Hunt, Conductress and Musician 117
Miss Jean Ingelow, Poetess 163
Mrs Jenness-Miller, USA - Apostle of Dress Reform 105
Mrs Jopling-Rowe 7
The Story of Angelica Kaufmann 144
Countess Alice Kearney 224
Arabella Kenealy 58
Madame Kettler 167
Lady Knightley 94
The Rev Florence Kollock MA 218
Miss Lankester, Secretary of the National Health Society 118
Miss Leale, Markswoman 143
Mrs Mary Clement Leavitt 53
Mrs Frank Leslie 42
Reminiscences of Jenny Lind 124
Mrs Belva A Lockwood 50
Mrs Elizabeth Lofgren, Founder of the Finnish Women's Union 157
Miss Margaret Bright Lucas 24
Mrs Maitland, MLSB 96
Mrs Charles Mallet, Candidate for the West Lambeth School Board 159
Miss E A Manning 45
Mrs Marrable, President of the Society of Lady Artists 101
Miss Kate Marsden, Amongst the Lepers in Siberia 149
Miss Kate Marsden 210
Mrs Emma Marshall 80
Madame Maria Martin, Editor de La Citoyenne 132
Harriet Martineau, Authoress and Journalist 181
Miss M H Mason 59
Mrs Massingberd 12
Miss Helen Mathers (Mrs Henry Reeves) 78
Miss L McGill, Studios 8, Strathmore Gardens, Kensington 99
Fru Johanne Meyer 215
Don Miguel's Daughter 146
Miss Milner 85
Miss Fannie Moody, Artist 136
Memoir of Mrs Augustus de Morgan 182
Madame de Morsier 37
Miss Honnor Morten, Journalist 110
Miss F Henrietta Müller, Editor of the Woman's Herald 161
Catherine Maude Nichols 38
Florence Nightingale 186
Madame Esther Noël 64
Madame Olga Novikoff 68
Mrs Cooper Oakley 13
Dr Olga von Oertzen 10
Miss Ormerod, Entomologist 196
Madame Bergman Österberg, Principal, Hampstead Physical Training College 138
Louise Otto 22
Mrs Pankhurst 120
Mrs Louisa Parr, Novelist 156
Miss Ida A Perman, MA/ Dr Annie Wilson Patterson 199
Emily Pfeiffer 67
Mrs Wynford Philipps, President of the Westminster Women's Liberal Association 173
Miss De la Poer-Beresford, Artist 204
Mrs Beatrice Potter (Mrs Sydney Webb) 202
Miss Honore Potter-Palmer, President of the Board of Lady Managers at the World's Fair, Chicago 152
Anne Pratt 55
Adelaide Proctor, Poetess 168
Mrs Richard Proctor, Lecturer 125
Mdlle Puêjac 73
Miss Henrietta Rae (Mrs Normand) 201
Miss Catherine Ray, Dame of the Pitt Habitation, Hampstead, etc 102
Miss Edith Emily Read, Girton 194
Miss Amye Reade 60
Mrs Isabel Reaney 140
Miss Annie Rive 72
Miss Charlotte Robinson 16
Ernestine Rose 15
George Sand (Madame Dudevant) Pt I 191
George Sand (Madame Dudevant) Pt II 192
Margaret Lady Sandhurst 11
Pundita Ramabi Sarasuati 31
Mrs Scharlier MD BS 14
Lady Charlotte Schreiber 195
Miss Scott, Lady Sanitary Inspector 127
Miss Elizabeth Scovel, A New Evangelist 153
Miss Adeline Sergeant, Authoress 137
Miss Harriette A Seymour 27
Mrs French Sheldon - Africa from a Woman's Point of View 122
Mrs Sheppard 41
Francesca Stuart Sindici 29
Mrs Burnett Smith (Annie Swan) 97
Miss Donald Smith, Artist 92
Mrs Hannah Whitall Smith 43
Mrs J S Smith 39
Miss Ethel M Smyth, Composer 217
Mrs Warner Snoad, President of Women's Progressive Society 180
The Lady Henry Somerset, President, British Woman's Temperance Association 155
Bruno Sperani (nom de plume of Italian women novelist) 100
Mrs Stanley nee Dorothy Tennant 160
Miss Daisie Stanley, Captain of the Blue Eleven 84
Mrs Elizabeth Cady Stanton, President of the American Women's Suffrage Association 106
Miss M F Stawell, Newnham 194
Miss Kate Steel, The First Lady Professor at the Royal Academy of Music 111
Doctor Alice Stockham of Chicago 46
Mrs Beecher Stowe 76
Miss M Jennie Street 207
Miss Stuart-Snell, Professor of Physical Education and Hygiene at Alexandria House, Kensington Gore, Holloway College, Oxford High School etc 119
In Memoriam - The Late Miss Emily Sturge 193
Madame Syamour 30
Carmen Sylva, The Queen of Roumania 109
Miss Annie Thomas of New York 90
Miss Isabella Tod 51
Mrs Mabel Loomis Todd 135
Ambrosia Tonnesen 62
Her Majesty the Queen [Queen Victoria] 141
The Countess Constance Wachtmeister, President of the Working League of the Theosophical Society 154
Mrs Humphry Ward 184
Miss Julia Wedgewood, Authoress 134
Miss Wigham, of Edinburgh 87
Miss Wilkinson, Landscape Gardener 107
Miss Frances Willard, President of the National Women's Christian Temperance Union 139
Miss Frances Willard 216
John Strange Winter (Mrs Arthur Stannard) 36
Stephanie Wohl - Authoress 115
Mademoiselle Audzia de Wolska 34
Mrs Mary Brayton Woodbridge, Recording Secretary to the NWCTU 142
"Giana" Lady Wolverton - Foundress of the Needlework Guild 150
Mary Worley, M A 63

Sterling Price: 300 - US Dollar Price: $490

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Woman's Language and Experience, 1500-1940
Women's Diaries and Related Sources Part 1: Sources from the Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire County Record Offices
16 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm plus guide to Parts 1 & 2

"The local record offices of Great Britain hold staggering quantities of manuscripts written by women. Only now is this vast resource being tapped. Women's own writings facilitate the exploration of a multiplicity of themes from the construction of identity to the composition of political communities, from the intimacies of emotional life to the structure of society. The examination of women's manuscripts will enable scholars to engage critically with the categories, modes of explanation, and chronology of recent women's history. Feminist theory can be evaluated and developed by applying it to the range of empirical material offered in Women's Language & Experience."
Dr Amanda Vickery, Consultant Editor
Lecturer in Modern British Women's History,
Royal Holloway, University of London

Scattered throughout the local record offices of England, Scotland and Wales are vital yet neglected sources for the study of women's history: Diaries, commonplace books, travel journals and letters which describe women's lives and experiences in their own language.

This new project brings together such sources for the first time and makes possible a general overview of the condition of women in Britain from 1500 to 1940. It will suggest answers to questions such as:

Did women actually conform to prescribed models of authority?

How did women's aspirations and fantasies match up with their real lives?

Did women employ the rhetoric of submission selectively,
with irony, or quite cynically?

This project will encourage work by scholars across many disciplines including English, Politics, Literature and Language, History, Sociology, Gender Studies, the social history of medicine, Social Policy and Women's Studies.

Subjects covered include:

Sexuality, masculinity & femininity
Courtship & marriage
Household organization & authority
Childbearing, childrearing & parenting
Medicine & health
Women's paid & unpaid work
Informal & institutionalized charity
Religion & ethical values
Gentility, politeness & snobbery
Tourism, taste & commercialized leisure
Women's reading & visits to the theatre
Political culture & social structure
Perceptions of female destiny
Female education & professional aspirations
Equal rights feminism


The project is based on a nationwide trawl of women's diaries in public libraries, university libraries and county and regional record offices carried out by Dr Amanda Vickery, Consultant Editor for this project.

Correspondence with and subsequent visits to many of the libraries and record offices concerned established that many hundreds of such diaries survive. They vary widely in style, clarity, content and extent.

To create a useful microform edition we have generally excluded diaries which are very sparse, those which are difficult to read, and those which are full but deal exclusively with topics such as weather observations. However, all diary sequences filmed have been filmed in their entirety, and the aim has been to provide as broad a range of diaries as possible, covering as many types of women as possible, over a broad date range.

Part 1 is based on sources from the Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire County Record Offices. In all it comprises nearly 100 volumes describing the lives of 25 women for the period from 1670 to 1922.

The earliest sequence of diaries (in 7 volumes, with 7 further volumes of commonplace books) describe the life of Dame Sarah Cowper between 1670 and 1715. She pours forth her views on almost every subject, especially on marriage and fidelity:

"Sunday, going early to Church, I chanced to be present at a wedding, the most melancholy sight one can see, and affects me strangely. ...To hear a simple woman promise to love without cause, and obey without Reason, is amazing...." (Volume I, p268)

The 18th Century is particularly well covered. No fewer than 13 volumes describe the lives of Mary, Harriet, Charlotte and Anne Orlebar in the period from 1751 to 1830. As well as their daily observations on their households, their children and their social lives, there is much of literary interest - including the poetry of Mary, their unofficial poet laureate, who commemorated important family events in verse.

Another volume of great poetical interest is the Commonplace book of Lady Anne Blount, marked on the spine as "Stella's works". It contains 35 lyrics including "To Lady Blount - a panegyrick on the friendship of a modern Pilades and Orestes of my acquaintance", a song entitled "how great is that ruin, when pleasure pursuing, we passion obey" and "To Sir Harry Blount, on his saying he wou'd not have a fiddle on his lady's birthday" (the later is marked "Pope" at the top).

Further 18th Century diaries include those of Mary, Countess Cowper (covering 1714-1720), Catherine Talbot (for 1745), Elizabeth Wheeler (for 1778, an excellent diary with outspoken political comments and notes on her reading) and an anonymous volume for 1720.

The manuscript autobiography of Frances Stackhouse covers her life from 1794 to 1881 and is especially valuable for her comments on her schooling, the birth of her daughter, and on the visits of Humphry Davy and Sidney Smith.

Equally wide-ranging in subject matter are the diaries and travel journals of Frederica St John Rouse-Boughton (covering 1859-1864). Many are gloriously illustrated. We also cover her devotional volume which witnesses the changes in her spiritual beliefs. At one point she remarks:

"I for my own part I think an immense deal of nastiness often lurks behind the 'respectability' of us 'ladies'...."

Two long diary sequences are those of Jane Johnston (in 23 volumes, 1817-1840, with notes on the living conditions of labourers and servants, charity work, gambling and contemporary amusements) and Louisa Arrowsmith (in 17 volumes, 1792-1837, with much about her garden and visits to the theatre).

The diaries of Adela Capel, aged 14, and Eliza Stevens, aged 9 (by her governess) describe the education and upbringing of girls in the first half of the 19th Century. Both texts illuminate the construction of gender roles and the socialization of girls.

Women's diaries have fulfilled the roles of friend, confessional, scrapbook and analyst. Now they are offered as a revealing historical record.

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Women's Language and Experience, 1500-1940
Women's Diaries and Related Sources Part 2: Sources from Birmingham Central Library and Birmingham University Library
24 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm plus guide to Parts 1 & 2

Part 2 of this project brings together Diaries, Commonplace Books, Travel Journals and Letters from Birmingham Central Library and Birmingham University Library describing women's lives and experiences in their own language. It covers the lives of a further 33 women in the period from 1744 to 1940.

Amongst the items reproduced here from Birmingham University Library are five travel journals providing excellent sources for the social history of leisure and offering sources for comparisons between women's lives in Europe, America, Asia and Africa; a humourous and gloriously illustrated account of a ball; accounts of the education of young girls; plus a large body of material from the Church Missionary Society Papers in the form of diaries, letters, journals and photographs.

The two volumes of a mid-nineteenth century journal kept by Annie Lambert, daughter of John Lambert, wine merchant of 33 Tavistock Square, London provide a detailed record of middle class family life in the early years of Queen Victoria's reign. The first volume covers the period January - September 1845. It faithfully describes visits to and from a wide circle of friends and her father's business acquaintances, records gossip and intrigue, visits to theatres and concerts, shopping ("walked to the Bazaar, bought 2 camp stools & some ribbon for trimming our bonnets") and, on a more serious note, the occasional visit to a junior school, where she observes the children's progress and chats to the schoolmistress. On July 4 she and her mother drive to Walton-on-Thames ("took luncheon in the Duke's Head; the landlord a very civil man") where they arrange to take Captain Stephens' house for 2 or 3 months. Thereafter, until September, her activities are in the country, with walks or drives to Esher, Sunbury, Addlestone and Hersham and renewed socialising. Its very triviality creates an accurate picture of the life of a middle class girl of the period.

The second volume begins in November 1845 when the family is about to start a 12 month visit to Oporto in Portugal, where Annie's brother John worked in the port wine trade. Annie finds Oporto "a much more civilised kind of place than I had expected" and takes full advantage of dances at the Assemblée, socialising with other great "wine" families (eg: the Sandemans), the company of the young naval officers from the "Cyclops" and other visiting British warships; she enjoys riding on the banks of the Douro, the gossip of "the Factory House", and much attention from male admirers.

The Diary of Lavinia Bartlett also reveals much about the personality of the writer. She tells of her tour to Paris in 1843 in the company of her husband, Charles Bartlett. The diary is written for her five young children. The trip to the Pyrenees and the Riviera in 1851 were intended to benefit the health of her husband. Accompanied by three daughters and one niece, they visit the thermal baths of the French Pyrenees, Toulouse, Montpellier, making their way along the French Riviera to winter in Nice, and continuing to the Italian Riviera. The diary ends in Genoa.

The manuscripts of "Lady Noble's Ball" (a humurous 23 page account of a Ball) and "A Book to the Wise, a story in letters from two young ladies concerning the most interesting period of their lives" (47 pages) contain charming pen and ink drawings depicting episodes from the two stories. The accounts are written and dedicated to her aunt Ann by Issy of Bond End, Knaresborough, dated 13 August 1850.

A journal by A M Tierney of Malvern Wells describes six months residence in Bonn from October 1855 to April 1856. She is presumably a girl in her early teens and the journal is written with humour and a keen perception of people and the things she sees. Here is a brief extract:

"We are very comfortable, Mama & Agnes have a room, Matt has one & Harriette & I one, all of which open one into the other off the drawing room. Our rooms are on the second floor from the bottom. Miss Fook's room is at the end of the passage & the School room is next to hers .... We are delighted to think we are English when we see the way the Germans go on - the men sit with their elbows flat on the table & lap up the sauce with their knives. The smells in the street of Bonn are dreadful, the Germans are very coarse in their manners, especially the women .... Oct. 22nd .... unpacked all our things & settled ourselves for the Winter .... discovered Mr Hensler the Music Master ...."

Another journal by a young lady details a tour from Leeds to Scotland and to Lichfield in 1837. She writes on the first page: "The first thing that attracted our attention en route this morning was the spire of the church at Chesterfield; it is 220 feet high and so curiously twisted that whichever way you look at it, it appears falling down." Other volumes cover a tour to Paris in 1802; the diary of a young woman living near Bath; a family journal for 1823 to 1827 written by a farmer's wife on the Warwickshire-Leicestershire border; visits to Paris in 1888, 1893 and 1896 and part of a voyage from England to Mombassa.

The Diaries and Photograph Albums of Miss Edith Baring-Gould, 1894-1939 make up the bulk of the Church Missionary Society material included here. They encompass tours of North America, much material on Japan and China - she sails from Vancouver on the "Empress of Japan" arriving in Yokohama, and spends a considerable amount of time travelling throughout Japan. She records visits to Paris, New York, Niagara, Toronto, Winnipeg and the Rocky Mountains, whilst a number of volumes feature the CMS Delegation to the Far East in 1912-1913. Her travels and experiences all round the world are noted down in solid detail in 41 volumes.

Other Church Missionary Society material comprises the Corby Diaries for 1930, 1931 and 1933 with sections on teaching and education, summer holidays and "nine hundred miles of motoring in Central Africa"; the Martha Venn Diary of 1838-39 and Emelia Venn's Diary of 1815 with accounts of Waterloo, visits to Liege and Worms and travels in France and Switzerland. There are the Letters and Journals of Frances Dennis (sister of Archdeacon Dennis) whilst stationed in Southern Nigeria in 1902-1906; the Diaries of Mrs William Compigne Shaw; the Diaries and Papers of Miss Ellen Brighty, 1899-1937, including missionary activity in Persia and the CMS Medical Mission; and the Journal letters of Isobel E Barbour recording a visit to Uganda and Kenya in 1927, Jubilee celebrations of the Church in Uganda, and the long journey from Marseilles via Port Said to Port Sudan, Aden, Mombassa and the final destination.

Material reproduced from Birmingham Central Library begins with 12 volumes of Travel Diaries of Helen Caddick, 1889-1914. They cover Palestine, Egypt, Canada, Japan, China, Cambodia, the Yangtse, Korea, Burma, Hong Kong, Moscow, the Philippines, Java, Australia, New Zealand, India, South Africa, British Columbia, Africa, Uganda, USA, Mexico, Peru, the Andes and Buenos Ayres, Panama and the West Indies.

A small typescript volume contains the Early Reminiscences of Elizabeth Anne Galton, a young lady from Birmingham, eldest daughter of Samuel Tertius Galton, a prosperous Birmingham banker of an old Quaker family. Francis Galton, the Eugenicist, was her younger brother and Erasmus Darwin her grandfather. The volume starts with references to the coronation of Queen Victoria.

Six remarkable journals, 1790-1801, of Mary and Martha Russell (family friends of Joseph Priestley) document a truly amazing set of experiences, starting with reflections on the French Revolution and first-hand accounts of the Birmingham Riots, and proceeding with their voyage to America, and their capture en route by French pirates. Their portrayal of events provides a vivid and refreshing view of a very turbulent period, politically and socially.

Other diary sequences include the Autobiography of Miss Florry, 1744-1812, the daughter of an ironmaster in Birmingham, who took over and ran the business from 1788 onwards; a Diary of excursions to London, Lichfield and Cheltenham by Sarah Sargent, 1822-1832; The Diary of Sarah Robinson, c1800; and the Diary of Mary Elizabeth Hall, 1891-5, who writes:

"I have been very busy and like it, we are expecting a lot of people here on Tuesday to see the Prince & Princess of Wales, I hope I shall be in a good temper" with an afternote "The Princess came and everyone including myself was in a good temper. Jack was in prime form and took good care of me...I love Jack more each week; he is so good, & oh ! how thankful I am that I wrote to him as I did last February 19th ... for I want to obey him, as much as I can, & how could I, if he had been of a different way of thinking & had wished me to do things contrary to the will of my King ?" The entries end just after her marriage.

There is a small diary of Margaret Pigott, a nurse in 1913. Miss Smythe's travels in France in 1917 are documented in a 4 volume diary. The Diary of Miss M C Albright records a missionary visit to Madagascar in 1924.
The Travel Diaries and Notebooks of Rosamund and Winifred Bayes, c1922-1935, cover journeys throughout Europe, Greece, the Balkans and the Middle East. Volume 27, stretching from August 1928 to April 1929 features a European tour, another volume is entitled "From the Baltic to the Aegean Sea", volume 31 records European, African and Asiatic Travels, many other volumes contain much material on Greece and the Balkans, the Middle East, archaelogy, family matters, the Refugee Settlement Commission, with descriptions of the local people, the terrain, mode of travel, other fellow travellers. One group comes in for some criticism:

"There was an American missionary and his wife and 4 children going home on a furlough from Abyssinia, 3 days journey on mules, then several by boat on the Nile, a journey of several weeks, not altogether a joy ride with that family."

There is also one diary of the wife of a Wesleyan minister for the early nineteenth century and two commonplace books written by Sarah Mary Breedon (1793-1850). The latter describes various religious and natural phenomena.

Forthcoming parts of this project will make available sources from Suffolk Record Office and Cambridge University Library (see Part 3 below - now published and available); the National Library of Wales and the National Library of Scotland (in preparation as Part 4); and from 2001 onwards it is hoped that we will be able to add further parts to the microfilm project from Essex Record Office, Wiltshire Record Office, Hampshire Record Office and Somerset Record Office.

Sterling Price: 1850 - US Dollar Price: $2900

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Women's language and Experience, 1500-1940
Women's Diaries and Related Sources Part 3: Sources from Suffolk County Record Office and Cambridge University Library
25 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm plus guide

Part 3 of Women's Language and Experience, c1500-1940 is based on sources from Cambridge University Library and from Suffolk County Record Office. It includes 162 volumes of diaries, two volumes of correspondence, three commonplace books and 2 Ladies Pocket Journals. These describe the lives of 27 different women covering the period from 1799 through to 1943.

Reels 1-4 cover the material from Cambridge University Library.

Jane West's Tour in Wales and Ireland, 1810 begins with a description of Chester and her subsequent travels continuing through Flintshire, Denbighshire, Conway, Bangor to Holyhead, then the passage to Dublin, thence her journey to Dromore, from the coast of Antrim to Scotland, Port Patrick, Dumfries and so to Carlisle, thence through Yorkshire to Leicestershire.

There are a number of poems and other verses at the end of this volume; for instance on folio 75 there is a poem "To Glen Luce"; on folio 78 a poem "To Mrs Isted on Her Return from Ireland in 1807" and finally on the verso of folio 83, a further poem by Jane West entitled "A Farewell to Leamington, 1833".

Her diary of her tour in Wales and Ireland provides considerable detail of her travels.

The following are two brief extracts from her descriptions of the trades people in Dublin:

"A great number of labourers were employed upon the pier: an English eye could not help being struck with the difference between the sturdy, close buttoned, self-importance of an English porter, and the figures which now surrounded us: their forms slight, a sort of melancholy ferocity in their countenances: many without shoes or stockings, or hats, and all of them having some part of their garniture floating in the wind..."
On ff 31 and 32 she returns to this same theme:

"... But in our sister Kingdom there is not that gentle gradation of ranks which preserves society in one continuous chain from the prince to the beggar: when you get below the rank of gentry, the difference of inhabitants on each side of the channel is striking: The trades people at Dublin in manner and appearance, held no comparison with those I had been accustomed to see: You seldom meet well dressed women in the streets. From the window of the hotel in Frederick Street, I looked with surprise on the walking costume which most frequently passed, and it would be difficult to conceive one of less compactness and symmetry: I speak not of those who "bare footed trod the flinty pavement" reminding me of Jane Shore's penance, but of such as I should suppose were the wives of artisans, or household servants: The upper garments of these were brown great coats, loaded with a superfluity of capes, and fastened at the throat with one button: No hat, but to supply the deficiency, a double quantity of cap and border... Respecting the want of shoes and stockings, I do not think the deprivation costs so much in suffering, as it does in comfortable appearance..."

The journal compiled by Mrs Harriet Miller covers her tours on the Continent in the Alps and in Germany during 1856. The diary opens with a description of Harriet Miller and her husband, Professor W H Miller leaving Cambridge to spend a few days with their friends General and Mrs Sabine in Westminster en route to Switzerland. They arrive in London in time for the General and her husband to depart for the club dinner of the Royal Society. Mrs Sabine has just received a picture from Humboldt which represents him sitting in his study writing his Cosmos.

A sequence of twenty-four volumes provides an insight into the life and activities of Jane Margaret Bacon, 1837-1870. These diaries cover social visits, tours to Yorkshire, wages for servants, and activities in Cambridge, London and Birmingham, for instance:

Saturday 13 March 1869
"Called on Lady Hooker and Miss Palmer.
Took MaB who visited part of the Warehouse, and got a walk.
"

Tuesday 8 June 1869
"Annabella married. Called on Mrs Chappell, Mrs Osborne, Mrs Enfield, Mrs Phillott."

Wednesday 9 June 1869
"Burlington House."

Saturday 12 June 1869
"Called on Mrs Chappell, Mr J Chappell and Mrs D D. Lady Millicent called."

Saturday 10 July 1869
"Paid Rebecca wages and Johnson by cheque c 3.15 from me and 1 from her daughter."

Wednesday 25 August 1869
"S.J. Went on Yorkshire tour."

Although the entries are all rather brief they do, taken as a whole, provide quite a good overview of the diarist's social activities and contacts.

We also include 2 volumes of correspondence from Cambridge University Library. The first of these covers correspondence between Sarah Siddons, Mrs Pennington and Sir Thomas Lawrence for the period 1798 through to 1803.

Sarah Siddons, the actress, writes long detailed letters in very clear handwriting. On 26 July 1803 she writes to Mrs Pennington at Worcester:

"My dear Mrs Pennington
Your goodness to my dear Girl is what I expected, but I am not able to express my gratitude for it dear Soul add I still to the number of your favours by telling me every particular about her! Her accounts to Sally are too general to content so restless a creature as I... I know she went to the Ball, I hope it did no harm! This weather has prevented her riding too, tell me about her pulse, her perspirations, her cough, anything! and tell me too that your mind is at ease about your brother. I am playing every night to very full houses, but how the people can sit to see such representations is quite wonderful for anything so bad...
"

The Correspondence of Maria S Grey covers the period 1829 to 1848. The letters are from her family and friends.

We also include three commonplace books. Anne Webb's spans the period 1801-1851. It contains notes, poems and some delightful sketches of the Church at Fornham and also of Fornham Parsonage and Lutterworth Church. Formally Anne Gould, she was the wife of Dr W Webb, Master of Clare College, Cambridge.

The commonplace book of Elizabeth Lyttleton c1680 includes poems, notes, essays, lists of proverbs and notes on sermons. It opens with Sir Walter Rawleiys letter to his wife after his Condemnation (3 pages). As well as her considerable notes on sermons there is "The Prayer of Luther at his death", a poem entitled "Upon a Tempest at Sea", written by her father at the Crowe Jane in Chester at his coming from Ireland; Some Arabian Proverbs; Italian and French Proverbs, a poem entitled "Elizabeth Littleton is not a little blest"; an epitaph upon Queen Elizabeth; a description of the Royal progress of King James to the house of Sir Pope Knight when his Lady was lately delivered of a daughter; a Turkish Prayer and Dr Alablasters Verses upon Dr Reynolds and his Brother.

The final commonplace book is that of Sophia Churchill, Countess of Oxford, covering the period 1777-1780. This contains poems, plays, quite a lot of writings in French, recipes, epigrams, some notes on the death of David Garrick, Notes on Reading Habits and her views on a wide range of different books.

Page 203 from this commonplace book, from a section entitled "To Miss - From Mrs -" (pages 200-209, December 1778) runs as follows:

"As a book of equal entertainment and information, Robertson's History of Charles ye 5th is unequalled. His first Volume gives the most elegant view of the State of Europe, after the subversion of the Roman power, yet published. His History of the discovery of America just come out is also well worth reading. You mentioned to me a love for Memoirs. Those of Sully are charming. The Memoires du Cardinal de Retz are also extremely curious.
Dalaymphs' History of the Revolution is interesting beyond the usual run of that species of writing. The very momentous incidents he relates are so finely painted as to draw tears from every passing Eye...
"

The section of material from Cambridge University Library is completed by two Ladies Pocket Journals. The volume for 1799 provides illustrations of ladies in the fashionable dress of 1798 and the inside of Brandenburgh House Theatre at Hammersmith, the seat of His Serene Highness the Margrave of Anspach. There are printed articles on Face Painting by the Ladies, General Observations and Moral Sentences; The Folly of Affecting Acquaintance with our Superiors; essays On Uncertainty and On Good and Bad Company; New Country Dances for the Year 1799, and then in the middle of the volume, there are ruled pages for Memoranda or brief diary notes of people to see and things to do.

The volume for 1804 opens with illustrations of a Lady in the Dress of the Year 1803 and a view of Russell Square in Bloomsbury. Again there are a number of interesting printed articles. These cover the New Window Tax; House Tax; the Tax on Servants; Rules and Maxims for the Conduct of Life; an Ode to Fancy; an Ode to Humanity; an Ode to Friendship; an Essay on the Modern Christian as well as Marketing tables followed by similar memoranda and brief diary entries as per the previous volume.

The next 21 reels are devoted to material held at Suffolk Record Office. Most of the items come from the Ipswich branch with the addition of a number of smaller items from the branch at Bury St Edmunds and also the branch at Lowestoft.

Some smaller items include the Pocket Diary of Catherine Mannock of Giffords Hall, 1814-1819; The Pocket Diaries of Miss E A Gideon of Paddington, 1817-1818; the Travel Diary of Ann Gurdon, 1854, describing her tour of the Lake District and Scotland; the Pocket Diaries of Isabella Brett of Ipswich, 1867-1873; the Pocket Diary of Henrietta Gurdon, 1879 (with daily entries of about 8 lines per day, complete throughout and with names of people annotated in the right hand margin); the social and local events journal of Anna Maria Roper of Boyton Hall, 1863-1865 and the travel diary of Cecilia Hanbury covering her visit to Venice in 1903. This latter item includes a number of postcards pasted into the volume as well as detailed daily entries covering the period 20 September 1903 through to 29 October 1903.

The Travel Journals of Elizabeth Sarah White, 1858-1878, throw up some remarkable and fascinating material. Many of the Travel Journals are written on letter paper in diary form. The volume for 1873 describes her visit to Venice and Florence. The volume for 1878 describes her experiences at the Paris Exhibition. Another volume for the same year covers her visit to Normandy and Brittany. Other Travel Journals cover visits to Russia, Dresden and to Italy. Another Journal covers her stay in Oxford during June 1886. However, the best items are 3 bound volumes of about 150 folios each. These all include a tremendous amount of detail and some excellent illustrations. The first volume is entitled "The Chronicles of Lingholm, 1886". The second volume is "The Coryton Log, 1889" covering the period 2 August - 29 October 1889. The third volume is a description of the family's holiday in Cornwall, 18 August - 24 October 1890.

The Coryton Log opens with an account of their travels to Coryton Park at Axminster. Dramatis Personae (the members of the family participating in the holiday) are listed on the versos. The diary provides a very witty and readable account of the family holiday and social activities with an average of 6 folios of description per day.

The entry for Monday 23 September, 1889 begins:

"Arrived at the farm, the hampers are quickly unpacked and as two brace of birds have fallen to the guns of the gentlemen they appear satisfied with their mornings work, and make a very hearty meal. After lunch two photographs are taken of the farm and yard and Mrs Dare in her best suit dress is a prominent feature in them. The gentlemen proceed on their way with their guns and secure one more bird. The ladies pack up the hampers and as it is raining return home as fast as they can. After tea three of the party settle down to play trios. The climax of the day arrived after dinner, when Mr Gambier Parry, Mr Jassell and Eaton performed a Dumb Charade "Rain-e-ses" (seas). The last scene when Eaton appeared as a mummy and was unrolled by two lively tourists with white umbrellas, was the gem of the piece. Aunt Ellen arrived by the 9.16 train. The family played "Cat and Mouse" and another strange game depicted on the opposite page." - (the drawing depicts playing the ancient game of Blowing ye feather).

The entry for Thursday 3 October, 1889 from "The Walk" includes an entertaining news cutting:

"The above highly interesting picture has been forwarded to us this day October 8 by Miss Goschen as a suggestion for enabling walkers to be continually aware of the flight of time. This is the more ingenious as no excuse could be made for those even who complain of the presence of ladies being attended with such an absorbing interest as to make them forget their engagements. The more ladies a party contained under the above system, the less would be the chance of the time being forgotten."

The entry for Thursday 3 October continues with details of the Dance in the evening.

A complete run of the diaries of Juliet Godlee (née Seebohm) in 59 volumes cover the period 1884 right through to 1943. She was the wife of surgeon Sir Rickman John Godlee, (referred to as "John" in the diaries) who was related to Lord Lister. Early volumes cover the children's upbringing, Uncle H, her father's illness, her marriage in 1891, her husband's work, social visits and lunch and dinner parties. The first few diaries have quite short daily entries. However, by about 1890 there is much more detail on a daily basis with at least a solid paragraph being written every day right through to 1943.

The volume for 1889 begins as follows:

Tuesday January 1, 1889
"Girls Club entertainment. Perfect success."

Wednesday January 2, 1889
"My two Children arrived. Miss Bathurst to lunch."

Saturday January 5, 1889
22 Courtfield Gardens "Took my children up to Fairfield and left them. Came here by 5.12 train. Uncle H in bed with bronchitis and fever. Read to him and felt very desperate."

Friday January 18, 1889
Belgrave Private Hotel "Moved in here. Pure air, large rooms, glorious view. Breathe freely again. Mrs and Miss Peugelly called."

Saturday January 19, 1889
"Arthur Lister arrived after dinner - on business with Uncle H."

Wednesday December 11, 1889
"Studio. Uncle Henry thrown from his hotel in the Park. Brought home insensible by a lady in her carriage. Not any limbs broken, but head severely bruised. Talked and read to him - much too lively. New model man in yellow satin and wig."

Thursday December 12, 1889
"Studio in the morning. Mrs Spencer and Ethel called. Afternoon had the carriage, shopping and Committee at Bedford College. Uncle H not so well. Hardly awake all day. Browning died at Venice."

Friday December 13, 1889
"Home. Studio in the morning. Shopping on my way home. Mr Waterhouse here to dine. Club girls & practise dialogue. "All bristles"..."

Saturday December 14, 1889 "Esther and Hugh went to Lyme. Called on Nancie and Meta. Painted subject for Sir James and Christmas cards."

The following are some later extracts:

Monday November 23, 1908
"Town: to find that Father is wanting to hurry our Mrs Gould's visit and cannot hold out like this much longer. So he is to go down tomorrow prepared to operate and John has engaged nurses. Hasty packing up and arriving with Mary Bradford to take my duties and putting off others. John and I to Hitchin by train to find Father bright & angelic as ever."

Thursday July 30, 1914
"To the office as usual. Luncheon party. Dr and Mrs Millar of New Orleans,
Dr and Mrs T; Miss Rodman; Mrs Martin; Mrs Percy; Mrs Tomes - and a call on Miss Syme. Then dinner party of 16. Charles Mayos, Dr Murphy, Lunds, Dr Armstrong, Mrs McCrae, Mrs Jackson, Dr Cameron, Barlows, Makinses and Sir James Reid. John out to Committee meeting with some and I left with the rest till 10 o'clock.
"

There are interesting volumes describing her life during the First World War and then later, by way of comparison, the first four years of the Second World War:

Wednesday October 7, 1914
"I dentisting. Bright day outwardly fine, dark within. John heard at the War Office that the Antwerp Garrison is demoralized and sick of it all and they are going to give in and a little army is on its way from us to where it may be cut up. Call from Gracie. Amy Tomes to tea, and then Hugh on his way to Will & Gracie. John busy at the War Office. Consultation over Tetanus and other horrors amongst the wounded in the field."

John was extremely active on the Central Medical War Committee and also became chairman of the Belgian doctors and pharmacists relief fund. He served as President of the Royal College of Surgeons, 1911-1913 and as President of the Royal Society of Medicine, 1916-1918.

Monday June 17, 1940 "Horrible news of French Army laying down its arms. Spain to negotiate peace with Hitler and Mussolini. Blackest of the black days."

Wednesday June 19, 1940 "News from France excruciating. Daphne came after breakfast with Clarissa on the back of her bicycle - quite fearless. Mrs Rayden to tea and exchange of views on the situation - and what about the French Fleet?"

Thursday July 25, 1940 "News of Sinking of Lancastria at Dunkirk now "released from America" (and 1000 troops drowned) a great shock after thinking we were told everything."

Friday August 30, 1940 "Still parching wind and sun. Call from Daphne under the cherry tree; who said Tuesday's raid was at Sonning. Dr Gilfrid's young partner had witnessed bombing of a hospital and machine gunning while he was dealing with patients. The dispenser must have been a 5th Columner as he disappeared leaving the dispensary door and all its cupboards locked and they had to be broken open."

The Pocket Diary of Elizabeth Rope of Fresingfield, 1861-1871, provides brief entries on who she had letters from, what they did and who they saw. The volume for June - November 1862 is rather more interesting as it describes her visit to London and visits to the Exhibition. The final volume, a Diary of a Visit to the Channel Islands (undated) also provides much more detail. It begins:

"July 19. Started from Brighton 1/2 past two ; had a brougham to the Waterloo station. Started from there 10 minutes past three, travelled by express train to Southampton - only stopping at Basingstoke, Winchester and Bishops Stoke stations. Arrived at Southampton 1/2 past five. Walked about the town a short time - then went and had a cup of coffee. Afterwards went out again. It is a very clean town and very good shops. Had a capital view of the Isle of Wight. Went down to the Nashown (Narrows ?) about half past nine; there was a large vessel preparing to start for Alexandria in Egypt "the Bangalore" so we went and looked over it - was much amused - the cabins were magnificently filled up and there were sheep on board and places for cows and hens, a butcher's shop and hake office... went on board our steamer "The Southampton", booked our beds... had ale and a hearty supper. Sat up for an hour afterwards and then went to our berths. I slept for about two hours. Marian had no sleep, got up about 1/2 past six. I was a little ill when I commenced dressing but we went on deck and soon felt all right. We arrived at Guernsey about half past ten, landed for half an hour and had a cup of coffee and roll and butter. Arrived at Jersey about 1/2 past twelve. The tide being low was obliged to land in small boats and .... at Brooke Hotel on the Esplanade... After luncheon went for a walk around the town and through the market - a very good one. Returned home and dined at Table d'Hote at six o'clock - with thirty - only one lady besides ourselves. After dinner wrote home and then took a walk on the pier. Not an ornamental one it was made for the Nashown (Narrows ?)...."

The personal and travel diaries of Fredericia Loraine, 1878 and 1881-1893 again contain brief daily entries along with lots of observations and notes. The entry for Saturday 23 April 1892 describes Sydney's marriage to Clare Schreiber at Barham Church, the reception at Barham Hall afterwards and the afternoon entertainments. The volumes for 1888, 1889, 1890 and 1891 include charts on health and temperature as well as memoranda on the weather and her health.

The final two reels of the project comprise material from the Bury St Edmunds and Lowestoft branches of Suffolk Record Office. The most interesting items are the travel diaries of Susanna Cullum (6 volumes) including a description of her journey from Hardwick to Normanton, Yorkshire, 1799 and her journey to London, November - December 1800:

Friday 9 August: "As it rained very hard we did not get up till 8 o'clock. Breakfasted upon tea and coffee and French roles. We could not get off till 11 o'clock as it rained so hard; we however set out and with two or three showers got on very well. We saw today a hiland lad and laddie who were dressed in the Hiland dress and the lady was dressed in short petticoats without stockings and had a fine white leg indeed. We went on two miles from Grantham and we observed that our chaise horse went very lame and seemed very stiff so we stopped our horse to have a farrier look who said that it was owning to his having some gravel in his foot so he took off his shoes and found matter under one of them which he cut and it eased him. We then went on to the Newark where we dined upon currant dumpling and beef steaks and cold veal at 3 o'clock..."

We also include the Travel diaries of Susannah Arethusa (née Cullum),1822-1830. These cover her tours in Germany, France and Italy which are recorded in considerable detail with some very lovely sketches.

The journal written at Plymouth, Bristol and Torquay by Emily Hervey, 1849-1850 describes the birth of a new baby, the ill health of her husband, the new baby's ailing health and his recovery, as well as her daily struggle to bring up the children as reflected by her diary entry of 17 October 1849:
"Clifton. This morning I went to Communion. William was very unwell today, and looks ill. The cough is rather less troublesome, however, since he has kept at home. When shall we see a real amendment, and improvement in his health? Dr Symonds is here every day. We have had uncommonly cold weather and I have tried myself taking long walks into Bristol with Mina to get our Winter things together, which for five of us to manage pour faire l'economie is no trifle. Today the wind has changed and it is quite fine and mild. I walked with the brats."

Finally the Travel journal of Lady Harriet Walker describes her tour in Scotland in 1837 and the Journal of Agnes Eden of Ford House, Wangford in Suffolk, describes her tour of Brittany in 1886, visiting Dieppe, Rouen, Caen, Avranches, Dinan, Morlaix, Quimperle, Rennes and Le Mans. The second half of this volume describes her tour in Scotland during 1888-1889.

I am most grateful to Gwyn Thomas, Area Archivist of Suffolk Record Office for his help with this project. I am also grateful for Patrick Zutshi's assistance with the material from Cambridge University Library. I would also like to take this opportunity to extend our thanks to all those who gave permission for diaries deposited at Suffolk County Record Office to be included in this microfilm project.

This part of the microfilm project is accompanied by a paperback guide which provides full contents of reels information and also a detailed listing of all the diaries included in this part of the project.

Sterling Price: 1950 - US Dollar Price: $3100

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Women's Language and Experience, 1500-1940
Women's Diaries and Related Sources Part 4: Sources from the National Library of Scotland and the National Library of Wales
c25 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm plus guide

With writings as varied as those of the Scottish Covenanters such as Katherine Ross and Jean Collace, from 1650 onwards, the Confessions of Witches of 1658, and women's diaries from 1660 to 1937, including the Diary of Katherine Wynn, 1692 and the Commonplace Book of Katherine Thomas, 1660 along with more modern source material such as the Diaries of Ethel Harris, 1915-1916 and Elizabeth Haldane, 1887-1937, this material spans the lives of over 40 different women.

Some significant items include:
Journal of Miss Ewbank of York, 1803-5, including her tour of the Lake District and the Dales, and much about social life in York.
Isabella Bremner's voyage to India in 1853.
Medical journal of Lady Clementina Malcolm, 1831. describing her fight against breast cancer.
Journals of Mrs Graham and Mrs Fielding, 1781-1791, including tours in France and Spain, with good descriptions of people, medical matters, education and the care of the poor.
Letters and Verses of Marjory Fleming, 1811-12.
Diaries and Papers of Lady Nairne, 1789-1845.
Visit to America by Anna Geddes, 1900.
Diaries of Elizabeth and Sarah Ann Ellis, 1786-1839.
Journal of Lady Ann Erskine, 1824-1826.
Diary of Elizabeth Haldane, 1887-1937.

"The local record offices of Great Britain hold staggering quantities of manuscripts written by women. Only now is this vast resource being tapped. Women's own writings facilitate the exploration of a multiplicity of themes from the construction of identity to the composition of political communities, from the intimacies of emotional life to the structure of society."
Dr Amanda Vickery
Royal Holloway, University of London
and Consultant Editor for this microfilm project.

July 2000

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Women's Suffrage and Government Control, 1906-1922
Papers from the Cabinet, Home Office and Metropolitan Police Files in the Public Record Office (CAB 41, HO 45, HO 144, MEPO 2 & MEPO 3)
c20 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm plus guide

How did Government seek to address the question of Women's Suffrage? - these PRO files provide scholars with a wealth of evidence on this fascinating subject. There is significant material representing both sides of the struggle and featuring prominent Suffragettes such as:

Beatrice Helen Saunders and Harriet Johnson
Emmeline Pankhurst and Meredith Macdonald
Mary Richardson, Phyllis Brady and Lilian Lenton
Agnes Lake, Harriet Kerr, Ethel Slade and Ella Stevenson
Sylvia Pankhurst, Alice Chapin and Alison Neilsan
Anne Kenney, Clara Giveen, Rachel Peace and Jane Short

CAB 41 files include material on the Suffragette prisoners in Holloway, the Women's Suffrage Bill, Women's Suffrage Amendments to the Franchise Bill, the Withdrawal of the Franchise Bill, Suffrage Disorders, the Treatment of Suffrage Prisoners and details on prominent Suffragettes.

HO 45 files provide evidence on complaints made by Suffragettes concerning the conditions under which they were conveyed to prison in police vans, 1913-1922; the Suffragette's Memorandum: Treatment in prison and remission of sentences, 1922; the speech of Mr Cecil Chapman, Metropolitan Magistrate, in favour of Women's Suffrage, 1911; the Women's Social and Political Union meeting on 23 January 1912; Reports on Suffragette activities and meetings, 1912-1913; the attempted Suffragette deputation to the King, 1914; Forcible Feeding Committee (Medical) Deputation, 1914; Civil Proceedings against certain subscribers to the Women's Social and Political Union, 1914; Protection of Polling Stations and Ballot Boxes from Suffragettes, 1910-1912; Representation of the People Bill, 1912; Women's Suffrage Bill and Prisoners (Temporary Discharge for
Ill-Health) Bill, 1913.

HO 144 files offer considerable detail covering Suffragettes' prosecutions; Picketing of Downing Street,1909; the temporary release from prison of various women under the "Cat and Mouse" Act; the Metropolitan Magistrate forced to withdraw from the Men's League for Women's Suffrage, 1911; Male supporters of women's rights; campaign for the release of Sylvia Pankhurst; George Lansbury's release from prison; obstruction, arson, conspiracy and possession of explosives charges against Suffragettes; Drugs illegally conveyed to activists in Holloway Prison, 1914; Police raid on the headquarters of the Women's Social and Political Union,1914; Mrs Emmeline Pankhurst,1913-1917; Hunger strikes and forcible feeding, 1912-1914; the disturbance at Limehouse, 1909; the prevention of annoyance to Cabinet Ministers by women activists; and the award of five hundred pounds in compensation to Mrs Meredith Macdonald for treatment received in a prison hospital, 1909-1910.

The MEPO 2 and MEPO 3 files include: Disturbances and Convictions, 1906-1908; Suffragettes: legal opinion as to the appropriate charge; Instructions to Police, 1910; the Prosecution of Emmeline Pankhurst and others in 1910; Police Procedures at Suffragette demonstrations, 1911; the Arrest of two hundred Suffragettes for assaults on police and other offences, 1911-1912; Accident involving His Majesty's horse and jockey, 1913; Aids to check interference by Suffragettes at borough elections, 1912; Supervision of Suffragettes' movements by police sergeant on motor cycle, 1913-1914; Suffragette demonstration at the House of Commons, 1913; Supervision of Westminster Hall entrance, 1913 and Suffragettes: Complaints against Police.

Additional items such as PCOM 8/228: Suffragettes: Instructions to Governors and WORK 19/25/2: Protection from suffragist attacks: reports - question of providing forms of payment of extra police and watchmen (1913-1920) are also incorporated into this microfilm edition.

This collection will allow much greater access to the key files for 1906-1922 providing researchers with the opportunity for renewed investigation of public records essential for a complete understanding of the Suffrage Movement, the Government response and the day by day handling of difficult situations by the Police and other law enforcement organisations.

December 2000 Sterling Price: 1600 - US Dollar Price: $2500

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Women's Suffrage Collection
from Manchester Central Library Part 1: Lydia Becker and the Manchester Society for Women's Suffrage (M50/1/1-18)
12 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm

From 1881 Lydia Becker was Secretary of the Central Committee of the National Society for Women's Suffrage. In 1870 she had founded the Women's Suffrage Journal and she continued as Editor until 1890. From 1867 up to her death in 1890 she was the driving force behind the Manchester Society for Women's Suffrage.

As the most important figure of the suffrage movement in the north of England and with powerful influence through the Women's Suffrage Journal and with a position at the heart of the National Society for Women's Suffrage, her papers deserve much greater attention and analysis.

This collection includes:
Excellent correspondence from Emily Davies, Henry Fawcett, Millicent Garrett Fawcett, Josephine Butler, Laura McLaren, Frances Power Cobbe and Priscilla Bright McLaren. They discuss at length important issues with Lydia Becker and other colleagues in the Suffrage Movement.
Lydia Becker's Letter Book, 21 March -29 November 1868.
Lydia Becker's own copies (sometimes annotated) of the Women's Suffrage Journal ( the official organ of the National Society for Women's Suffrage published on a monthly basis)
The Common Cause, edited by Mrs F T Swanwick - issues for 1909-1912
Circulars produced by Lydia Becker
Press cuttings (8 volumes covering the Suffrage Movement, 1867-1897).
Papers of the Manchester Society for Women's Suffrage, including Minutes of the Executive Committee, 1912-1914, and Annual Reports, 1868-1919.
Papers of Margaret Ashton and the International Woman Suffrage Alliance, 1908-1913.

Scholars can use this archive in conjunction with Audrey Kelly's study Lydia Becker and the Cause (Cambridge University Press, 1992).

This title will be of interest to all libraries supporting Women's History and Gender Studies.

Sterling Price: 950 - US Dollar Price: $1500

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Women's Suffrage Collection
from Manchester Central Library Part 2: The Papers of Millicent Garrett Fawcett - Sections on Women's Suffrage, Education, Employment, Welfare, The First World War and other Women's Issues (M50/2-8)
18 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm
A single guide accompanies Parts 1 & 2

Millicent Garrett Fawcett was a most energetic campaigner for the right to vote for women and built an international network of contacts as she worked to achieve her ends. She was totally against the use of violence, but the excellent international correspondence reproduced in this collection, includes both militant suffragettes and constitutional suffragists.

In 1867 she married Henry Fawcett, Professor of Political Economy at Cambridge and MP for Brighton. This brought her into close contact with radical thinkers such as John Stuart Mill.

She was on the Executive Committee of the National Society for Women's Suffrage from 1867. She served as President of the National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies (NUWSS) from 1897 to 1918. She was Vice-President of the International Woman Suffrage Alliance.

Besides the suffrage question, Millicent Garrett Fawcett was involved in many other causes to improve the position of women. She was one of the founders of Newnham College - there are several papers in the collection about her attempts to have women admitted to degrees (M50/3/1-3) and others which show her interest in the advancement of female education in general (M50/3/4-28). She was also concerned about conditions of employment and the formation of women's sick benefit societies.

This collection includes:
Correspondence between leading figures of the international feminist movement, from America, Australia, Europe, Britain and New Zealand - women such as Carrie Chapman Catt, Lucy Stone, Emily Davies, Eva McLaren and Amy Delay.
Her Subject Files and Minutes of the NUWSS.
Papers of the International Woman Suffrage Alliance
Papers of the International Council of Women, 1911-1920.
Newspaper Cuttings (1876-1911) and Pamphlets on Women's Suffrage (1866-1919).
Papers on the Men's League for Women's Suffrage, the Women's Franchise League, the Women's Freedom League and the Women's Social and Political Union.

Sterling Price: 1400 - US Dollar Price: $2250

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Working Women in Victorian Britain, 1850-1910
The Diaries and Letters of Arthur J Munby (1828-1910) and Hannah Cullwick (1833-1909) from Trinity College, Cambridge
32 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm plus guide

"A collection which highlights in a unique way the class and gender contradictions of Victorian England."
Dr Philippa Levine
Department of History, University of Southern California

Thousands of detailed accounts in diary and letter form offer an almost inexhaustible source of literature for researchers studying Victorian Britain.

What did working women talk about? What were their hours of work? What were their wages? What did they like? What did they complain about?

We get to know many of the women extremely well. Like Mayhew, Munby draws compelling vignettes, but he also particularises them and packs them with detail. He is just as adept at describing divorce court proceedings, the meeting of a suffrage society, work in a factory or entertainment in a music hall.

Hannah Cullwick, a Victorian maid of all work, was Munby's servant. They were married secretly in 1873.
Her life, before and after her marriage, is well documented in this microfilm project.

Hannah's own handwritten autobiography (AJM Ms 98.17) and 16 volume diary (AJM Ms 98.1-16) provide Hannah's story in her own words. These materials are complemented by her 850 letters to Munby. They act as a perfect foil to the thousands of interviews recorded by her husband.

The Munby diaries are a rich source for information on literary and artistic circles in Victorian Britain. Friends and acquaintances who feature regularly include R D Blackmore, Ruskin, Rossetti, Arthur and Mary Severn, Helen Taylor and Thackeray. An early diary note records one of Munby's meetings with Ruskin: "After luncheon he showed us the pictures round the room - two large Turners in oil, a Sir Joshua/Angelica Kauffman, and several charming W Hunts, and others. À propos of a Capital head of a village girl by Hunt, which Ruskin took me aside to look at, I spoke to him of my favourite project - namely that someone ought to paint peasant girls and servant maids as they are -... and so shame the false whitehanded wenches of modern art."
(AJM Ms 1, f.103, Diary for 1859)

Other episodes include a walk in the night air with Dickens, discussing realism in fiction, deliberations with the Fawcetts concerning women's rights, and evening meetings of the Gargoyles - a dinner club devoted to the performance of plays.

Major figures of the Victorian period who are recorded on the pages of Munby's diaries are: Dr Arnold, Madame Bodichon, Robert Browning, Hartley Coleridge, J A Froude, William Gladstone, Holman Hunt, Charles Kingsley, Sir Edwin Landseer, Harriet Martineau, John Stuart Mill, John Millais, Monckton Milnes, Lord Palmerston, Baden Powell, Algernon Swinburne and Thomas Woolner. Many are met at luncheon, in clubs, at exhibitions, at plays or at political meetings. More than anything else it is probably this aspect of the diaries along with the huge wealth of detail on the poorer sort in society which guarantees that they cannot fail to be interesting (as Austin Dobson argued in The Times as early as 5 February 1910).

Typical volumes of the diary are:
Volume 31. 1863. 29pp + 52ff + notes (with index).
There is a list of journeys made and letters written in 1863. Diary entries cover an Army Clothes Factory; Brickmakers; a Brewery and Colliery; a Dustwoman; Female Porters; Field Labour; Milkwomen; Quakers; Mrs Rae; Rossetti and Ruskin.

Volume 33. 1865. 32pp + 52ff (with index at the front).
Diary entries relate to a Black Irishwoman; R D Blackmore; Women of British Columbia; Factory Girls; Field Labour; Fishergirls; J A Froude; Harriet Langdon; Milkwomen; Parkhurst Female Prison; Servants; The Severns; a Tatooed woman; A Tennyson and Wigan Pitgirls.

These sources have hitherto remained largely unpublished. Derek Hudson's Munby - Man of Two Worlds (John Murray, London, 1972) drew attention to this material, and provided some brief extracts from the diaries and letters. Liz Stanley's The Diaries of Hannah Cullwick, Victorian Maidservant (Virago Press, London, 1984) concentrated purely on Hannah, and in 328 pages could only hope to sample her autobiography and diaries. Michael Hiley's Victorian Working Women: Portraits from Life (Gordon Fraser, London, 1979) featured some of Munby's photographs.

Here we offer all of Munby's diaries (64 volumes averaging at least 200 pages each - crammed with detail for gender analyses by the social historian); his 12 notebooks on working women; the 29 volumes of Visits to Hannah; Munby's two volume life of Hannah; 12 further notebooks on Hannah; Hannah's own 16 volume diary; Hannah's autobiography; over 850 letters; the manuscript of Faithful Servants, 2 boxes of manuscript poetry and 7 albums of photographs.

Sterling Price: 2500 - US Dollar Price: $3900

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Butler Plantation Papers
The Papers of Pierce Butler (1744-1822) and successors, from the Historical Society of Pennsylvania
22 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm plus guide

The Butler Plantations were made famous by Fanny Kemble's Journal of a Residence on a Georgian Plantation 1838-1839 (1863). In this work, British actress Fanny Kemble, who had married plantation owner Pierce Butler II in 1834, described the horror of her first experience of the slavery system.

She felt "the weight of an unimagined guilt" on her conscience and was appalled by "the manifest injustice of unpaid and unforced labour; the brutal inhumanity of allowing a man to strip and lash a woman, the mother of ten children, to exact from her toil which was to maintain in luxury two idle young men, the owners of the plantation."

Scholars can now examine Fanny's written descriptions of life on the Plantations in conjunction with these original records which will help to provide answers to questions such as:

How brutal was slave management on the Butler estates?
How profitable was rice-growing and cotton-planting, and how important was slavery to that profitability?
How did the situation in 1786 compare with the situation in 1800, 1820, 1840, 1860 and 1880?

This microfilm publication provides long, detailed runs of documentation concerning the running of the South Carolina and Georgia estates from 1786 to 1885. As a series of plantation records they provide a total overview of the business from the Revolutionary period, through the Civil War, to the 1880's. Records include:

Plantation managers' correspondence:
George Hooper, 1786-1803; Roswell King, 1803-30;
Roswell King Jr, 1815-54; Alexander Blue, 1847-59;
S W Wilson, 1848-49; James M Couper, 1879-85;
Owen J Wister, 1879-85; James W Leigh, 1877-85;
Frank K Leigh, 1879-85; and J H Johnston, 1879-85.

Slave Registers, 1775-1815 - with details of name,
age and character.

Birth and Death lists of slaves, 1800-1834

Purchases and sales of slaves, and notes of
punishments, 1780-1804

Crop and livestock reports, 1800-1884

Shipping agents' correspondence and
accounts, 1773-1884

Land transactions, 1779-1881

Taken together these sources build up a complete economic picture of slave-holding and the cotton planting business - but they are also rich in insights into the social history of slavery. The correspondence of the plantation managers, in particular, is full of observations concerning life on the plantations both for the slaves and the managers.

This project also makes available the Political Papers of Pierce Butler senior (1744-1822), Signer of the Constitution and founder of the Butler Plantations, including:
Letterbooks, 1787-1822 - featuring letters to John Adams, John Quincy Adams, Aaron Burr, Albert Gallatin, Thomas Jefferson, Roswell King, General James Wilkinson and others; Notes on the finances of South Carolina, 1775-1788; Notes on debates, 1787-1803; Congressional Papers on Domestic Debt and the U S Treasury, 1790-1793; Papers on Foreign Affairs, 1791-1799 - including the Treaty with Algiers, 1791 and John Jay's envoy to Britain, 1794; and Papers on the Bank of the United States, 1801-1819.

This source will be of interest to all those studying Slavery and US and World History and will help to illuminate an important work of abolitionist literature.

Sterling Price: 1720 - US Dollar Price: $2750

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Cabinet Papers
Complete classes from the CAB & PREM series in the Public Record Office
Series Two: CAB 50 & CAB 51 - The Papers of the Committee of Imperial Defence - Papers of the Oil Board, 1925-1939, and Middle East Questions, 1930-1939

13 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm plus guide

"The Committee of Imperial Defence files in CAB 50 and 51 (the Oil Board, 1925-1939, and Middle East Questions 1930-1939) will be of high importance to students of British Imperial policy and strategy in the inter-war period."
Corelli Barnett
Fellow of Churchill College, Cambridge

The Middle East was an area of immense strategic importance n the inter-war years which heightened as war approached. The discovery and exploitation of large oil resources assumed a new dimension with the increasing demand for oil for both armies and industry.

Britain was the dominant colonial force in the area with colonies, mandates and protectorates in Egypt, Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, British Somaliland, Iraq, Palestine, Trans-Jordan, Aden, Kuwait and Muscat & Oman.

The scramble for oil rights (involving American, British, Dutch and French companies amongst others) was exacerbated by the Arab Revolt in Palestine, a reaction to British support for a Jewish homeland, and increasing demands for greater autonomy throughout the region.

CAB 50 & 51 are crucial sources for any analysis of the Middle East during this period. They not only explain British policy, but also provide the background memoranda which prompted the decisions.

The Committee of Imperial Defence was established in 1902, as an advisory body with no executive powers. With the assistance of numerous sub-committees (such as the Oil Board and the Middle East Sub-Committee) it advised the Cabinet and government departments on both general principles and on detailed issues. The Prime Minister was its Chairman and only permanent member.

The Papers of the Oil Board include minutes of meetings from June 1925 to July 1939 and some 346 detailed memoranda together with sub-committee papers on Oil Requirements in War, Sources & Supplies, Tankers, Treatment of Coal, Aviation Spirit and Petroleum Reserves.

The Papers of the Middle East Questions Sub-Committee include minutes of meetings, February 1931 to August 1939 and 317 Memoranda (dating from September 1930 onwards).

Sterling Price: 1000 - US Dollar Price: $1625

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Canterbury Cathedral Library Catalogue of Pre-1801 Books (Also includes Rochester Cathedral Library Catalogue of pre-1901 books)
17 silver-halide positive microfiche in binder with guide

In 597 St Augustine arrived in Kent from Rome. He converted Ethelbert, King of Kent, and established his cathedral at Canterbury. During the following 1400 years Canterbury became the hub of the Church in England, a place of pilgrimage, and a centre of learning.

The Cathedral Library has been in continuous existence since the middle of the 10th century and contains about 50,000 printed books. Particular strengths include bibles, liturgical works, Civil War tracts, pamphlets on slavery and other political issues, and works on travel, the natural sciences, theology and history. Two parish libraries are deposited in the Library, a Dr Bray library from Preston next Wingham, and the family library of c1300 books of the Oxindens (17th century) and the Warlys (18th century) which became the Elham parish library.

This Catalogue contains detailed descriptions of all printed items held in the Cathedral Library dating from the beginning of printing in the 15th century through to 1800. Over 14,000 titles are described, providing: AUTHOR. TITLE. Place of Publication. Names of printers/publishers. Date of Publication. Format and pagination. Copy specific notes including provenances, annotations, imperfections and bindings. STC/Wing/Adams references. Canterbury Cathedral Library reference.

The Catalogue runs to over 1,200 pages and is supplemented by a Provenance Index.
We also include the Rochester Cathedral Library Catalogue of pre-1901 books (171pp).

The Catalogue is a major reference work which will be of great value to all libraries with an interest in: Ecclesiastical History & Theology; The History of the Book; Medieval and Early Modern History; 17th Century pamphlets; Bibliography, Literature and cathedral libraries.

Sterling Price: 95 - US Dollar Price: $145

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Catalogue of Medieval & Renaissance Manuscripts in the Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Yale University
Volume I: Manuscripts 1-250
Volume II: Manuscripts 251-500
Volume III: Marston Manuscripts

"One of the best manuscript catalogs ever published.... This is an excellent piece of scholarship - knowledgeably and carefully written and beautifully produced."
Philip Rider, American Reference Books Annual.

Edited by Barbara Shailor, this three volume reference work describes nearly 750 literary manuscripts from the holdings of the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University. Each volume describes the contents of each codex or manuscript fragment, including incipits and explicits, parchment or watermarks, foliation, dimensions, collation, scribes, scripts, decoration, binding and provenance. Each volume contains 64 pages of plates as well as extensive indices.

The collection of medieval and renaissance manuscripts preserved in the the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University, is one of the major holdings in the United States. Although Yale University has been acquiring early manuscripts since 1714 when Elihu Yale presented a copy of Speculum Humanae Salvationis, the collection at the Beinecke is a relatively new one, with many manuscripts purchased in the 1960's and 1970's. Volumes I & II describe these manuscripts including the Albergati Bible, the Rothschild Canticles, many Books of Hours, Arthurian Romances and the Ziskind Collection. Most are not listed in De Ricci. Volume III covers the collection of manuscripts assembled by Thomas E Marston and acquired by Yale University in 1962.

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Crown Servants
Series Two: Papers of the Wynns of Gwydir, 1515-1690, and the Clennau Letters and Papers, 1584-1698 from the National Library of Wales
23 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm plus guide

This second series of Crown Servants makes available the Papers of the Wynns of Gwydir, 1515-1690, from the National Library of Wales. These document the lives of two generations of an important and influential Welsh family whose power base was in North Wales.

We are also including the Clenennau Letters and Papers, 1584-1698 in this project.

These papers have two major attractions for the Early Modern scholar:

They provide an excellent case study of the relations between the core and the periphery in British politics from the reign of Henry VIII, through the Civil War, to the Restoration.

They provide a rich seam of 17th century newsletters, 1623-1682, a genre that is attracting increasing study from political, cultural and social historians.

Sir John Wynn (1553-1627), the first baronet, was a landowner, administrator, patron of the arts and businessman. A member of the Council of Marches in Wales, he served as Deputy Lieutenant of Carnarvonshire and was involved in the mustering of soldiers and the administration of local government.

Like many prominent local landowners Sir John kept in close touch with Court life and London business by sending his son to Court. Sir Richard Wynn, his son, served successively as assistant to the Lord Chamberlain; Secretary to Prince Charles (accompanying the Prince on his trip to Spain in 1623); Groom of the Bedchamber to King Charles I; and Treasurer of the Household to Queen Henrietta Maria. Richard was thus at the heart of the Royal establishment and in an excellent position to feed his father with information and gossip, enabling him to stay one step ahead of his local rivals.

Sir John's brother Owen and Sir John's other sons, Maurice and William, also held a variety of positions in local and national government enabling the family to keep a firm grip on power.

The correspondence between the various family members and their agents in London and Wales covers:

Catholicism under Mary I, and the return of Protestantism under Elizabeth I
The Commital of Sir Walter Raleigh and Lords Cobham and Grey
The Gunpowder Plot and other intrigues
The war in the Palatinate
The progress of the Plague across Britain
Prince Charles' visit to Spain and his marriage to Henrietta Maria
The Impeachment of Strafford and Laud
The fall and recall of Lord Keeper John Williams
The Civil War, including the conflicts in Ireland and Scotland
Rebellion under Sir George Booth (Sir Richard Wynn joined the Rebellion)
The Restoration and revenge on regicides
The Fall of Clarendon, the Great Plague and the Fire of London

Above all, the papers of the Wynns of Gwydir will enable scholars to look at the nation's events from a British perspective.

June 1999 Sterling Price: 1800 - US Dollar Price: $2800

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Eighteenth Century Journals
from the Hope Collection at the Bodleian Library, Oxford
20 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm plus guide

(including The Actor, Anti-Theatre; The Bee, The Covent Garden Chronicle, The Eaton Chronicle, The Free Briton, The Microcosm, Pig's Meat, The Rhapsodist, The Spy at Oxford & Cambridge, The Templar & Literary Gazette, Towntalk, Weekly Remarks and 25 other titles)

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Popular Newspapers during World War I

Part 1: 1914-1915 (The Daily Express, the Daily Mirror, the News of the World, and The People)
26 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm
Part 2: 1916-1917 (The Daily Express, the Daily Mirror, the News of the World, and The People)
19 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm
Part 3: 1918-1919 (The Daily Express, the Daily Mirror, the News of the World, The People and The Sunday Express)
17 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm
A single guide accompanies Parts 1-3


When the world descended into the First World War, a barbaric struggle of unparalleled brutality, the primary method for the dissemination of news was the popular press. The British Government realised this and exercised strict controls over reporting. However, these newspapers still have a great deal to offer historians of this period.

Many reporters followed the troops at the front and provide eye-witness reports of conflicts such as the Somme and Gallipoli. They report on the resigned bravery of the common soldier, and the attitudes of their commanders; on the efforts of the nursing corps, and the fate of prisoners of war; on the inflexible nationalist fervour of domestic politicians, and the revolutionary struggles in Russia.

Complete sets of The Daily Express, The Daily Mirror, The News of the World, The People and Sunday Express enable researchers to compare and contrast the reporting of the particular issues and events across the breadth of the popular press. In the case of The Daily Express, scholars can see the impact made on the editorial content of a newspaper by a change in ownership - as William Maxwell Beaverbrook, aged 36, acquired The Daily Express from R D Blumenfeld in 1915.

Part 1 covers 1914-1915. War did not seem at all inevitable in early 1914 and on 4 January 1914 The News of the World even ran a story on "Our New and Cordial Relations with Germany". Even in May 1914, talk of war is more likely to refer to the American war in Mexico. Women's Suffrage issues are widely and contrastingly reported. But after 28 June when Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife were murdered at Sarajevo, Bosnia, with shots that rang out around the world, the imperatives of nationalism forced Austria to declare war on Serbia (28 July), Russia to support Serbia, Germany to declare war on France (3 August) and Britain to declare war on Germany in support of Belgium and France (4 August). By 16 August the newspapers were describing "the World's Greatest Battle: 2,000,000 Men Meet in Mighty Conflict". Allied attempts to overcome the stalemate of trench warfare by maintaining landings in Gallipoli in 1915 are also described in detail. The ultimate failure of the assaults on Turkey and Mesopotamia caused widespread gloom.

Part 2 covers 1916 amd 1917, encompassing the indecisive naval battle of Jutland, the first battle of the Somme (in which a nine mile advance cost over 400,000 lives to the British forces), the submarine war-fare in the Atlantic and the eventual entry into the conflict of the United States of America in 1917. The drive to conscript men comes vividly alive, both in the editorial justification of enrolling working men without consent or choice and also in Lord Kitchener's recruitment adverts which leap from the pages. The condemnation and persecution of conscientious objectors is also followed, largely unsympathetically.

Germany was relieved on the Eastern Front when the Bolsheviks signed a peace treaty following the Russian Revolution, but the Allies made gains in the Middle East as Allenby captured Palestine from the Turks. Also in 1917, Allied forces were again able to make only small gains for the loss of enormous numbers of lives in the mud of Ypres, but the issue of tanks at Cambrai promised to end trench warfare. Beaverbrook was closely involved with the replacement of Asquith as Prime Minister in December 1916 by Lloyd George and this is reflected in The Daily Espress.

Part 3 concludes the project and covers both 1918 and 1919. The cumulative impact of Allied naval supremacy (consequently reducing Axis supplies) and the growing presence of American forces on the Western front forced the war to a conclusion. After watching Bulgaria, Turkey and Austria collapse, the Kaiser fled and peace was formalised by the armistice of 11 November 1918. Over 7 million men had been killed in the war and the economies of many of the major powers were wrecked. The Peace Treaties signed in 1919 were deliberately punitive and sowed the seeds for the Second World war twenty years later. In Britain, women were given the vote and were to enter nearly all public offices and professions and Lady Astor was the first women MP elected to take her seat in Parliament. Union power began to exert an influence as a threatened miners' strike and a successful railway strike paved the way for labour unrest in the 1920's and 1930's. Violence at the General Strike in Glasgow (31 June) threatened social unrest.

These newspapers provide a mass of evidence for the social history of this period, as the popular press always sought to reflect popular culture and stay in touch with public opinion concerning the war, labour disputes, women's right to vote and work, and the human issues of the period.

Adam Matthew Publications Home Page


Popular Newspapers during World War II
Part 1: 1939 (The Daily Express, the Daily Mirror, the News of the World, The People & the Sunday Express)
26 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm
Part 2: 1940 (The Daily Express, the Daily Mirror, the News of the World, The People & the Sunday Express)
16 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm
Part 3: 1941 (The Daily Express, the Daily Mirror, the News of the World, The People & the Sunday Express)
9 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm
Part 4: 1942-1943 (The Daily Express, the Daily Mirror, the News of the World, The People & the Sunday Express)
16 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm
Part 5: 1944-1945 (The Daily Express, the Daily Mirror, the News of the World, The People & the Sunday Express)
16 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm
A single guide accompanies Parts 1-5

This microfilm publication makes available complete runs of the Daily Express, The Daily Mirror, the News of the World, The People, and the Sunday Express for the years 1939 through to 1945. The project is organised in five parts and covers the newspapers in chronological sequence. Part 1 provides full coverage for 1939; Part 2: 1940; Part 3: 1941; Part 4: 1942-1943; and finally, Part 5 covers 1944-1945.

At last social historians and students of journalism can consult complete war-time runs of Britain's popular newspapers in their libraries. Less august than the papers of record, it is these papers which reveal most about the impact of the war on the home front, the ways in which people amused themselves in the face of adversity, and the way in which public morale was kept high through a mixture of propaganda and judicious reporting.

Most importantly, it is through these papers that we can see how most ordinary people received news of the war. For, with a combined circulation of over 13 million in 1939, increasing to over 22 million by 1948, and a secondary readership far in excess of these figures, the News of the World, the People, the Daily Express, The Daily Mirror and the Sunday Express reached into the homes of the majority of the British public and played a critical role in shaping public perceptions of the war.

Extended runs of such papers are only held by a handful of libraries and their physical condition is generally perilous. Some books have made available selections of front pages, lauding the importance of headlines and pictures in conveying news. But here - for the first time - are complete runs of these papers including the fashion, sports, entertainments and advertisements, providing countless teaching and research opportunities for those studying social history, journalism and popular culture.

These papers show how both the hopes and the fears of the British people writ large. Air-Raids, black outs, the destruction of property, evacuation of children, the loss or absence of loved ones, rationing, and conscription all became facts of life.

These papers played a central role in satisfying the public's appetite for news and in carrying out the government's wishes to control morale. They created and fed off the products of popular culture - especially popular music, sports and cinema - and gave the war a human scale by relating events to individuals.

The First Part of this project offers complete runs of each of the newspapers for 1939. It is interesting to compare coverage of identical issues and events and to identify political viewpoints and attempts to gain readership in particular sectors. A good example is the handling of the tense international situation before was broke out. On Sunday January 1, 1939 the News of the World declared that "we must be ready at any moment, as the Prime Minister declares we are ready to meet a life-and-death challenge". In contrast the Daily Express ran a story pacifying the public - "This is why you can sleep soundly in 1939".

Chamberlain's "satisfactory" negotiations with Mussolini and Hitler can be contrasted with the fierce struggles of Arsenal, Blackpool, Wolves and Everton in the League Championship. Throughout September and October the mood changes significantly as Europe was pushed over the precipice into war. Even the advertising was placed on a war-footing as fruit-gums, for instance, are suggested as the ideal alternative to cigarettes for sailors.

Part Two - covering 1940 - carries us through the fall of Belgium, Holland and Luxembourg and the redundancy of the Maginot line to the miracle of Dunkirk in which a defeat was turned into a victory in the eyes of the press. The Battle of Britain was joined and night-raids on London forced mass evacuation which is well reported. Chaplin's "Great Dictator" and Selznick's "Gone With the Wind" are rapturously received. Although all newspapers in Britain were limited in size in 1940 because of the shortage of newsprint, and circulation numbers were restricted to the then prevailing level for the duration of the war, the newspapers lost none of their appeal or popular enthusiasm.

Part Three covers 1941. Lend-Lease, the sinking of HMS Hood followed by the hunt and sinking of the Bismarck, Operation Barbarossa and the German advance towards Moscow, the sudden switch of allegiance to Russia and her heroic armies, the intensification of the German U-Boat Campaign, Rommel's determined counter-offensive in North Africa, meetings between Roosevelt and Churchill and the signing of the Atlantic Charter, marked a year culminating in the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour. The year of 1941 also witnessed the loss of HMS Repulse and HMS Prince of Wales, the surrender of Hong Kong to the Japanese, and a fierce and resolute struggle to turn the tide in the Battle of the Atlantic. Through the setbacks and the triumphs the Popular Press played a key role in controlling civilian morale.

Part Four covers both 1942 and 1943 as paper rationing continued to reduce the size of newspapers. 1942 was in many ways a mirror image of 1941. 1942 began where 1941 had left off - with a string of disasters for the Allies such as the fall of Singapore and the capture of Tobruk. German forces regained the initiative on the Eastern Front. But commando raids along the French coast help to revive public morale, the RAF began its unrelenting saturation bombing of German cities, and the Battle of Midway turn the tide of war in the Pacific. The Battle of Stalingrad ended Germany's forward progress in Russia and Montgomery courted media attention as his Eighth army engaged and defeated the Afrika Korps at El Alamein and recaptured Tobruk.

1943 saw a different sort of disappointment. The Allied forces pushed back Axis opposition on all fronts (North Africa is cleared, German forces quit Stalingrad, Italy surrenders); but hopes of a rapid end to the war are revealed to be no more than wishful thinking and the Allies commence the hard slog towards Axis capitulation.

Part Five concludes the project and covers 1944-1945. The difficulties of gaining victory are exemplified by drawn-out campaigns at Monte Cassino, Kohima/Imphal, and Guam in 1944. However, the Second Front that Stalin had pressed for was created when Allied forces landed in Normandy and Paris was promptly recaptured. German V1 and V2 attacks created a mini-blitz in London and morale was tested again after the failure of Arnhem and the loss of supplies during the German counter-offensive in the Ardennes.

1945 brought an end to the war and political changes throughout the world. Roosevelt died in sight of victory, Churchill was ousted in the July election by a Labour landslide, and Stalin's race for Berlin heralded the onset of a Cold War that was to last for 45 years. Anyone reading the pages of the newspapers will find it difficult not to understand the Allied motives for the saturation bombing of Dresden and the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The allies - particularly Britain - had been economically and emotionally drained by the war and sought a swift end to it. The horrendous revelations of German and Japanese concentration camps fueled hatred. Enemy resistance as troops bore down on Berlin and Okinawa became more intense and required immense sacrifice to ensure conquest. The Popular Press fanned the flames of vengeance without regard to moral propriety. However, a new world order was eventually set in place. The newly created United Nations promised much, the World Bank was created and reconstruction began. The seeds of European Unity were planted, and the Labour government in Britain presided over the creation of the Welfare State and the final collapse of the British Empire.

Within each part the newspapers are organised aphabetically, with complete runs of the two dailies - the Daily Express and The Daily Mirror, followed by the three Sunday papers - the News of the World, The People and the Sunday Express.

Brief portraits of the papers:

The Daily Express

If Winston Churchill was Britain's bulldog, then Lord Beaverbrook's Daily Express and Sunday Express were surely his bark. His papers were always bright, lively and fiercely patriotic, and Beaverbrook had no qualms in telling a Royal Commission on the Press that he used them "purely for the purpose of making propaganda". This is particularly true in the period after 10 May 1940 when Beaverbrook entered the war-time government at first as Minister for Air Production and later as Minister of Supply. His record achievements - a factor in the Battle of Britain - are regularly reported on. He entered the War Cabinet on 3 August 1940 (as one of only six members) as Churchill respected his dynamic entrepreneurial style, scything through red tape to make matters happen. In 1941 he took part in an official visit to Russia and he helped to change public perceptions towards Stalin.

However, in the month before the war the Daily Express had a less than sure touch. George Malcolm Thomson's assurance that "there will be no great war in Europe in 1939" was followed by a number of articles on the same theme. Japanese agitation in China was viewed as the most serious threat until Chamberlain's August 25th announcement of the "imminent peril of war".

The Daily Express always carried a high news content together with analysis by a stable of regular writers supplemented by special field reporters and outside contributors. The regular writers included Anthony Cotterell, Sefton Delmer, William Barkley, Selkirk Panton, Olga Collett and Hilde Marchant. Delmer also contributed memorable field reports concerning the Spanish Civil War. Feature writers of note included Michael Foot writing on the spread of anti-semitism (23 March 1939); G B Shaw predicting peace (26 May 1939); J B S Haldane on the future (13 September 1939); and Leon Trotsky in an exclusive article explaining that "Stalin is afraid of Hitler" (18 September 1939). Lord Beaverbrook also wrote a number of leaders such as "Britain's Financial Debt to America" and why it should not be repaid (6 January 1940); "They Also Serve" (17 February 1940); "Prospects of Victory" (13 January 1940); "The way the war is going" (4 March 1940); "Paying for the War" (5 March 1940); "What is the Damage? (6 May 1940); Man, the Front Line of Science (18 June 1940); and on Production (29 January 1942). Robert Menzies explains the colonial dimensions of the war in "we do not turn away from you" (6 January 1942) and in 1945 Chapman Pincher ponders the implications of the dropping of the atomic bomb on Nagasaki and the nightmare vision of the nuclear age (10 August 1945). Also in 1945, Winston Churchill is given an opportunity to put his ideas in front of the electorate in "I stand for the rights of the Common Man" (5 June 1945).

Serialised stories were also a strong feature and were of the highest calibre. Agatha Christie's Poirot was a regular visitor to the pages of the Daily Express as were short stories and serials by writers such as Lord Dunsany, R C Sherriff, Ring Lardner, Dorothy Parker and Ngaio Marsh. The Air Ministry's account of "The Battle of Britain" was also extremely popular, appearing from 31 March 1941.

Other noteable elements of the Daily Express were William Hickey's gossip column, book reviews by James Agate, theatre and sports reviews by Jonah Barrington and film reviews by Guy Morgan and Paul Holt. Mention should also be made of the back page, reserved for Photonews (photos are used sparingly otherwise). Also to the endearing and beautifully drawn Rupert stories (as paper restrictions contracted the papers, Rupert shrinks from three illustrations to just one).

A paper that claimed the "World's Largest Daily Sale" also attracted numerous advertisements and it is interesting to see how such staple products such as Marmite, Ovaltine and Robinsons's Wine Gums adapted their campaigns. Sailors banned from smoking were encouraged to chew gums instead, Marmite was a filling food in times of rationing and Ovaltine offered the prospect of a sound sleep even through the Blitz.

The Daily Mirror

The Daily Mirror offers a complete contrast to the Daily Express. It is a tabloid where the Express is a broadsheet, it is full of pictures and large captions where the Express is more soberly styled, and the Mirror offers glamourous showgirls and Hollywood filmstars as pin-ups for Britain's heroes - at home or at the front. The Daily Express could be equally enigmatic with stories such as "Mrs Hitler gets rates demand" and "Tattooed seaman on beach reveals new disaster off St Ives", but the Mirror cornered the market in bizarre accounts, stories to amuse rather than inform, and human interest stories. One early example asks "What would have happened if Hitler had married Mae West?"

The Daily Mirror also offered a wealth of cartoons - Pip, Squeak and Wilfred; Beelzebub Jones; Ruggles; Belinda Blue Eyes; Buck Ryan; Popeye; and the "Jane" stories, which put the 'strip' back into 'strip cartoons' and was followed eagerly by the troops. Readers were also given a chance to air their views and receive advice through "Our Live Letterbox", "Ivor Lambe's Tales", Eileen Ashcroft's "Sincerity" and "Cassandra". They were soothed by Patience Strong's "Quiet Corner".

More than any other paper The Daily Mirror also showed that it had its finger on the pulse of popular culture by creating the images and ideas which whipped up jingoistic and patriotic sentiments. In October 1939 it offered a front page to be cut out and pasted onto a dartboard, with Hitler as the target. On 4 September 1939 and following, it issued "Wanted" posters for Hitler and Ribbentrop, picturing them as gangsters. The Daily Mirror promoted a smile campaign and its pictures of the Queen amidst the Blitz (September 1940) helped to turn the Queen's brave and compassionate actions into a powerful royalist myth. In 1941 The Daily Mirror pushed the "Victory V" campaign which rapidly spread from Churchill to the people, the army and resisters in occupied Europe.

The Daily Mirror should certainly not be dismissed as a political lightweight. Its pages also carried important exclusives such as David Walker's reports from Europe. The following was sent from David Walker whilst touring the Balkan States (4 January 1939): "In Poland it has for some time been obvious that Germany is doing precisely what she did in Austria and Czechoslovakia. She first sent her bankers, then her secret agents. The country is stirred up and divided against itself. The German speaking Poles in the Ukraine (Hitler's objective) are encouraged to demand self-government.... Poles and White Russians are set at each other's throats.
Germany calculates that by the spring Poland will be so divided against herself that she will be too weak to say "No" to his demand for the Polish Corridor....
In the meantime, if you look at a map, you will see that Memel is the perfect curtain-raiser to the Polish scheme....
When [Hitler] came to power only a few years ago he demanded 100,000,000 Germans in the Reich. Britain greeted this demand with jeers and laughter. GERMANY HAS GOT 80,000,000 NOW
."

Winston Churchill also wrote a series of provocative features exclusively for the Daily Mirror prior to his call up as First Lord of the Admiralty (13 July 1939; 27 July 1939; 11 August 1939; 24 August 1939). Each is worthy of study and captures his deliberate, sonorous phrasing and his resolute spirit in the face of war. On the 13 July he places the responsibility for war squarely with Hitler;
"Whether was will come rests entirely in the hands of Herr Hitler and his circle of party leaders and party policemen.
Unless he gives the order no cannon will fire, no blood will flow....
....this war, should it come - which God forbid - will, because of the weapons of air terror, become incomparably more fierce and more impossible to stop....
Napoleon, sword in hand, sought victorious peace in every capital in Europe. He sought it in Berlin, in Vienna, in Madrid, in Rome and finally in Moscow. All he found was St Helena
."

On 11 August he shows his sadly misplaced belief in the impregnability of Britain's eastern fortress of Singapore:
"A great fortress like Singapore, armed with the heaviest cannon, and defended by air-craft and submarines is in no danger from a purely naval attack. High military opinion in France and England inclines to the view that in another two years China will have defeated Japan."

By 24 August he can be seen to have accepted the inevitability of war, but not of defeat.
"There can be no question of buying peace. No further concessions can be made to threats of violence....
If the Nazi regime forces a war up in the world the very existence of free government among men would be at stake.
Such a struggle could not end until the reign of law and the sovereign power of democratic and parliamentary government had once again been established upon these massive foundations from which in our carelessness we have allowed them to slip
".

Clement Atlee and Herbert Morrison were also leading feature writers for the Daily Mirror, which always had strong pro-Labour sympathies. Attlee appealed to the people of Germany to rise and overthrow Hitler (9 November 1939). Morrison leads attacks on Leslie Hore-Belisha (the War Minister who resigned on 16 January 1940). The Daily Mirror also unflaggingly attacked Chamberlain for his hesitant and uncertain handling of Britain's defence culminating with Morrison's attack on 7 May 1940 ("GET OUT").

Equally uncompromising were ZEC's fierce black and white cartoons, Grim Reapers, desolate landscapes and dark shadows were common to ZEC's work and the biting captions were the perfect complement. His portrayal of a sailor clinging to the debris of his ship accompanied with the line "The Price of Petrol had Gone Up-Official" was hastily censored as potentially demoralising.

The Woman's Page was rather less cynical. Hilde Marchant, formerly of the Daily Express, wrote on genuine women's issues such as the nature of women' s work. Her interview with Anne Loughlin, first woman chairman of the TUC, is particularly good on this issue. The paper followed land-girls working on farms throughout the country and recorded the work done by women in munitions factories. Mostly though, it preferred to find women on the beach. Its articles were typically about "how to help with the war effort and stay beautiful at the same time".

Social and political campaigns were another common feature and often occupied the centre spread of the paper. The paper understood the frustration of ordinary people fed up with rationing, poor housing and other privations. Typical examples are: "Fat Wallets or Fair Do's? Who is to get some where to live first?" and "Our post war aim should be more work - AND LESS OF IT" (arguing for total employment with shorter hours). These campaigns increase in 1945 when the General Election is announced and The Mirror lambasts Beaverbrook (Churchill's "confident and henchman") for conducting his political campaign "at the lowest level". The paper is jubilant at Labour's landslide victory, reported on 27 July 1945.

Of all the newspapers represented in this project, the Daily Mirror was undeniably the most modern in its tabloid format, its strong use of photos, its strong use of headlines, and its general organisation and content.

The News of the World

The News of the World could easily lay claim to the title of Britain's dominant newspaper during the war. Packed with news - as well as with popular serial, sports and entertainment features - the people liked what they saw and an estimated pre-war circulation of 3.75 million surged to an incredible 7.9 million by 1948.

A Sunday broadsheet, it offered a more traditional style of entertainment. George Formby contributed a regular laughter section in the early years of the war when half a page was also devoted to popular sheet music of the day (as sung by Gracie Fields, Jeanette MacDonald, Shirley Temple, and Flanagan & Allen amongst others).

It also featured strong film and theatre reviews, the latter accompanied by Arthur Ferrier's stylish sketches of stage-stars. A cartoon always dominated the front page, but serial cartoons were not a major element until 13 February 1944 when Ferrier was called upon to rival "Jane" in The Daily Mirror, with his own "Spotlight on Sally".

Sports were always well covered. The News of the World's team included Alex James on football, Henry Cotton on golf, and Freddie Fox on racing. They conjured to life the era of Hutton, Compton, Drake and Wooderson. Outrage was expressed on 14 May 1939 when England, touring Italy, were forced to a 2-2 draw with the Italian national team as a result of a hand-fisted goal by Piola.

Serial features were equally prominent. Bert Aza, agent to Gracie Fields, offered his music hall reminiscences; Walt Disney's Autobiography was serialized; Somerset Maugham contributed an account of his visit to Strasbourg (4 February 1940); and romances, case histories of the police and tales of heroic enterprise were all offered to stir or amuse readers.

The News of the World anticipated the rise to power of Churchill. When he was eventually recalled to government on 10 September 1939 they noted: "Mr Churchill was born for government, and on rising to address the House for the first time in his new office he placed his elbows on the dispatch-box with such easy familiarity that one could not imagine that he had been a back-bencher for a decade." The paper realistically foresaw a conflict "of three years or more".

The News of the World's coup in terms of news analysis was its signing of Leslie Hore-Belisha on 11 February 1940, shortly after his resignation as Secretary of State for War. He had been a Cabinet Member since 1931 and he offered weekly articles on a wide range of topics including: "War on three continents"; "What does Japan intend?" (21 July 1939); "Blame for Pearl Harbour"; "Meaning of Soviet Political Changes"; "American Post-War Responsibilities" (2 April 1944); and "How shall we Build the New Britain?" Hore-Belisha may have lost his position in government, but he continued to have influence, as it was estimated that his column was read by 16 million people each week.

Like most papers, the last issue of the year offered a retrospective analysis of the year and hopes for the future. The paper decided that 1945 was "Britain's greatest and best" year even if Churchill had been deposed, an event greeted with a re-drawing of the famous "Dropping the Pilot" cartoon (29 July 1945).

The People

The People had a pre-war circulation of about 3 million and thus reached into the homes of more people than any other paper except the News of the World. By 1948 its circulation had soared to 4.67 million. As its name suggests, The People took a particular interest in human interest stories and serialized many biographies.

At the start of the war it ran to 20 pages per issue, consisting of c7 pages of news, c4 pages of sport, c3 pages of serials, c2 pages of film and drama reviews, c2 pages for women, 1 page for readers' letters (the famous "Let's Talk it Over" column); and 1 page of horoscopes and games. Due to paper restrictions The People shrank to 16 pages in 1940 and then to 8 pages by the end of 1941, as it chose to preserve its circulation rather than continuing at its full size.

Harold Evans has said that "newspapers have become manufacturers of popular mythology and slaves to it" and The People certainly played its part in this respect. Its "Cavalcade of the Blitz" identified the courageous efforts of Wardens, Ambulancemen, and others in preserving a semblance of ordinary life in London, and it ran numerous series to exalt the "VC's of the air", "the heroes of the Desert War" and other heroes. It plundered history for further examples, discussed in series such as "Men who Made Britain Great" (noting the connection between Marlborough and Churchill) and "Naval Dramas of the Great War".

Romantic and Adventure Fiction was also very popular. A flavour of this material can be gleaned from the titles of some of the stories. For instance: the Flying Spy; Love Secrets of a Lost City; The Story of Gertrude Bell, Desert's Woman Chieftan; "White Queen of the Cannibals; Secrets of Nazi Espionage; Romance Tilts a Lance; and Sympathy in Blue.

Photographs edged out line-drawings by the end of 1939 to give the paper a more modern look, and it always retained its emphasis on amusing its readers, rather than investigating hard news.

The Sunday Express

Like its stable-mate the Daily Express, the Sunday Express was a zestful, patriotic newspaper, distinguished by the high calibre of its many contributors.

Captain B H Liddell Hart contributed a whole sequence of articles from 1939 onwards concerning the conduct of the war which bear re-examination. These include: "Can war be averted?" (9 July 1939); "Can Britain be invaded?" (16 July 1939); "How great is the Air Raid Peril?" (23 July 1939); "Is there a new way to fight this strange war?" (10 December 1939); "Are the Bombers Coming?" (11 February 1940); "Can Either Side Risk a Mass Attack?" (18 February 1940); "Can Finland be Saved?" (25 February 1940); and "Where Both Sides Stand Now" (3 March 1940). An advocate of tank warfare, Liddell Hart nevertheless expected a slow, stalemate war in Europe due to "the modern superiority of defence over attack". His news that "the soldiers' dream of the 'lightning war' has a decreasing prospect of fulfilment" was undone by Germany's rapid gains, but proved sound when the Allied forces tried to drive the Axis forces back. He rightly praised Trenchard's rapid build up of the Air-force as a cornerstone of Britain's defence and thought that any invasion attempt was doomed. Lloyd George, a close friend of Beaverbrook's, also contributed an interesting series of articles. These included: "The First Week of the War" (10 September 1939); "What is Stalin up to?" (24 September 1939) and "Is there still time?" (15 October 1939).

An American perspective was provided by Raymond Gram Swing, "America's most distinguished commentator", from January 1941 onwards. His weekly articles illuminated American foreign policy and enabled readers to understand American reluctance to enter the war.

Other notable contributors included: Dr Hermann Rausching, detailing his conversations with Hitler, 1933-1934 (26 November 1939); Leon Trotsky - "Stalin's Power is on the Decline" (17 March 1940) (Trotsky was assassinated later in the year); H G Wells on "The world of my heart's desire" (29 December 1940); J B Priestley, who had a weekly column from 15 September 1940; Guy Gibson VC on the "Device that made Germany's destruction certain" (7 January 1945 and following); George Bernard Shaw on "Stalin, Russia, Socialism and the Beveridge Report" (4 February 1945); Montgomery on "the German Surrender" (6 May 1945); and Winston Churchill on "My Policy for the New Britain" (10 June 1945). Lord Beaverbrook also contributed a number of items.

Regular staff writers included Godfrey Winn (who travelled to the front and to local villages to describe the way in which different people coped with the war); C B Fry (who headed a sports writing team that also included Patsy Hendren, George Allison, Bobby Locke and Stanley Matthews); Stephen Watts/ Isolene Thompson (a noteworthy film page, occasionally written by stars such as Merle Oberon and Anna Neagle); and Giles, whose cartoons became a part of the fabric of British life.

Like The Daily Express photos were largely relegated to the back-page, but fine maps and line drawings contributed to the reader's understanding of the war. Another attempt to make the war more intelligible to people at home was a revealing series of "this is what it is like" articles describing the experience of an allied bombing raid on Germany, a raid by the Chindits in Burma, a prison camp escape attempt and so on.

Starting with a pre-war circulation of 1.48 million (less than its daily companion which had 2.5 million). The Sunday Express increased its circulation to 2.58 million by 1948 to rank 3rd amongst Sunday papers and 5th overall amongst all newspapers.

Any library supporting studies of World War II should consider adding this set to their collections. It shows how the news of the world's events were mirrored and expressed to the people, how opinions were formed, and how people lived and survived. This is a most important collection for all those interested in Media Studies, the History of Journalism, and Newspaper History. It is also a most valuable resource for those concerned with the social and cultural history of the Second World War.


ABC Net Sales, 1939-1948

The Audit Bureau of Circulations Ltd (ABC) prepared a summarised list of the net sales of all publications belonging to its membership. The last list prepared before the war was for Jan - June 1939 and the first list prepared after the war was for Jan - June 1948. We have taken details from both of these analyses to form the following comparative table. Where details of a newspaper's circulation is not provided by ABC, we have taken the details from the newspapers' proprietors (these entries are marked*)

Title 1939 Circulation 1948 Circulation

National Dailies
Daily Express 2,510,019 3,855,401
The Daily Mirror 2,500,000 * 3,700,887
Daily Mail 1,532,683 2,076,659
Daily Herald - 2,113,856
News Chronicle 1,298,757 1,619,557
Evening News (London) 837,638 1,652,646
Star 488,119 1,081,812
Evening Standard 384,419 780,820
The Times - 238,682

National Sunday Papers
News of the World 3,750,000 7,887,488
The People 3,000,000 * 4,672,708
Sunday Pictorial - 4,004,571
Sunday Express 1,485,141 2,578,862
Sunday Dispatch 823,692 2,061,290
The Observer - 383,771

Provincial Dailies
Liverpool Echo 236,986 382,169
Birmingham Mail - 296,259
Glasgow Evening Times - 295,515
Yorkshire Evening Post 185,519 250,877
Evening Express (Liverpool) 104,322 114,700
Leeds Mercury &
Yorkshire Post (Leeds) 79,912 151,524
Bristol Evening Post 74,969 128,602
Evening News (Portsmouth)
& Southern Daily Mail 61,492 104,880

Magazines/Journals
Radio Times 2,981,986 6,992,046
Picture Post 1,300,492 1,229,788
Woman - 1,087,142
Everybody's Weekly 798,878 1,045,393
John Bull - 1,045,170
Sporting Record - 318,776
Lilliput 216,562 -
True Story Magazine 155,587 -
The Universe 130,017 -
Punch 116,264 175,950

Adam Matthew Publications Home Page


Stock Exchange Official Year-Book, 1875-1945
Part 1: 1875-1895
12 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm
Part 2: 1896-1910
24 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm
Part 3: 1911-1921
23 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm
Part 4: 1922-1929
24 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm
Part 5: 1930-1937
24 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm
Part 6: 1938-1945
24 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm

Officially authorised by the London Stock Exchange, this microfilm edition makes available a complete run of the Stock Exchange Year-Book (renamed the Stock Exchange Official Year-Book in 1909) for the period 1875-1945. It includes a copy of the extremely rare first volume (not held by the London Stock Exchange or Guildhall libraries) and due to the choice of the Comic (2A) filming format and the use of low reduction (8x-10x) these densely packed volumes are easy to read and will produce clear print outs. In consequence, this microfilm edition makes more reels than rival editions, even though it is sold for the same price.

The London Stock Exchange was at the centre of the world's financial and trading markets from 1875 to 1945. It was the place to raise capital and almost every country in the world featured in its lists of government securities and company stocks. The strength of the British economy in the period and the international spread of the British Empire contributed to its importance.

The Stock Exchange Year-Book started in 1875 and quickly grew in size and stature, eclipsing rival publications. Its readers acknowledged it as an essential reference source for tracking the growth and the development of individual companies, international markets and the economy as a whole.

Today it is acknowledged as a basic reference source for economic and business historians, but one for which most libraries only hold scattered issues. Even where volumes are held these are often in a poor state of repair due to the fragility of the paper and bindings and the heavy usage of such unwieldy volumes over time.

We can now offer a complete 70 year run of the Year-Book from 1875 to 1945, tracing the development of British Commonwealth and World finance and industry from the heights of the Victorian era to the end of the Second World War.

Every issue is packed with detail and is extensively indexed. They are large volumes. In the preface to volume 2 for 1876 it is stated that "it is the object of the STOCK EXCHANGE YEAR-BOOK to give an account of every public company and security known in this country."

Furthermore to provide "a careful digest of information relating to the origin, history, and present position of each of the Joint Stock Exchange Companies and Public Securities known to the markets of the United Kingdom." The volume then proceeds with an index to c1400 companies featured ranging from Aberdeen Jute through Baltic Iron Ship Building, Direct United States Cable, Lady Well Mining and Scottish Widows' Fund and Life to the Zealand Railway. The volume then lists:

Government Securities- Home, Colonial and Foreign
(including Bolivia; China; Colombia; Denmark; Egypt; India; Jamaica; Japan; Louisiana; NSW; New Zealand; Quebec; Russia; Santa Fe; Tasmania; Victoria and Virginia. Of Arkansas it notes: "this state, happily little known to European investors, appeared in this market in march 1972.")

Railways (including: Antwerp and Rotterdam Railway Co; Baltimore and Potomac Railroad Co; Bolivar Railway Co; East Bengal Co; Great Western Railway Co; Royal Swedish Railway Co; Union Pacific Railroad Co.)

Banks ( including: Anglo-Austrian, Bank of England, Bank of South Australia; Lloyds Banking Co; Midland Banking Co- established in 1863; Yorkshire banking Co)

Insurance (including Alliance; British & Foreign Life & Fire Insurance Co; Legal & General Life Assurance Co- founded in 1836)

Tramways, Telegraphs, Gas and Water, Mines, Steamships and Trusts, Miscellaneous Bonds

Miscellaneous Companies (including; Artisans', Labourers' & General Dwellings Co Ltd; British American Land Co; Darlaston Steel & Iron Co Ltd; Hudsons' Bay Co; Asiatic & American Co Ltd; London Tavern Co Ltd; River Plate Pressure Meat Preserving Co Ltd; Worcester & Birmingham Canal Co).

For each company the volume gives lists Of Directors, dates of establishments, capital value and the amount paid up or subscribed, details of trading, dividends and dates of meetings.

Subsequent volumes follow the same general format, but new categories are included and the list of companies covered expands dramatically. By 1886 there are close to 3,400 companies listed. By 1906 this grows to 7,200; by 1926 it reaches 15,000; and by 1936 it reaches 27,600 companies.

In later volumes specific listings are given of: Lighting and water Companies; Mining Companies; Iron, Coal and Steel Companies; Land Investment Finance & Discount Companies; Rolling Stock Companies; Tea, Coffee and Tobacco Plantation Companies, Hotel, Brewery and Distillery Companies; Dock, Canal, Harbour and Shipping Companies; Oil Companies.

Further invaluable data added concerns; Reviews of the Year; Statistical Analysis of the growth of commerce; notes on Stamp Duties and Bank of England Rates of Discount since1871; Lists of Trustees and Managers of the Stock Exchange; Lists of Brokers; Company Law; Municipal Finance and much more.

As such, these volumes are an indispensable source for studying:

The growth of World Trade

British Economic History 1875-1945

Particular sectors of the international economy
(eg. oil, banking, railways, land development)

Company Histories

Writing in 1900, Charles Duguid described the London Stock Exchange as ".....the mart of the world, the nerve-centre of the politics and finances of its nations, the barometer of their prosperity and adversity." Using these volumes we can chart the highs and the lows of international commerce and interpret the economic and business history of the period.

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Medieval & Renaissance Literary Manuscripts from the John Rylands University Library of Manchester
Part 2: Latin Manuscripts
20 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm plus guide to Parts 1 & 2

The John Rylands University Library of Manchester was built in 1890-1899 as a memorial to John Rylands, a Wigan based cotton magnate and philanthropist. The acquisition in 1901 of more than 6,000 manuscript volumes from the Bibliotheca Lindesiana assembled by the 25th and 26th Earls of Crawford and Balcarres quickly transformed it into a research library of truly international status. A further 3,000 manuscripts were acquired by 1921 and the collections continue to be added to.

The manuscripts are arranged in a number of series according to language. We now offer a choice selection of 140 medieval and renaissance literary manuscripts. They provide a cross section of the literary styles and traditions of England, France and Italy between the 8th and 17th centuries.

Part 2 covers manuscripts in Latin. It includes:

The earliest manuscript in the collection is Lat. Ms 12, an 8th or 9th century book of homilies, a popular and engaging verse from the early period emphasising the influence of religious scholasticism
on the development of literature. A further volume of homilies is found in Lat Ms 85, dating from the 11th century.

Bede (673-735), is represented by five manuscript texts (Lat Mss 107, 182, 192, 337 and 349) including Historia Ecclesiastica Genis Anglosum which appears here in a 12th century manuscript version (Lat Ms 182).

Walter Daniel is featured in a 12th/13th century manuscript from Rievaulx Abbey containing the centum sententia et sermones (Lat Ms 196). Other sermons can be found by Peter Lombard, Bernard and Nicholas de Gorran. One Latin text (Lat Ms 324) also includes a number of Old English proverbs with Latin translations.

Chronicle and Romance Literature is especially well represented. Guido delle Collone's Troy Book (Lat Ms 351, 15thC) was the source for Lydgate's 30,000 line Siege of Troy (Eng Ms 1, 15thC; see Part 1). Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain (Lat Ms 216, 13thC) is an important text for the Arthurian cycle. Other important chronicles featured are Ranulph Higden's Polychronicon (Lat Mss 170, 217, 218); De Gestis Romanorum (Lat Ms 338, 15thC); and the Latin Chronica (Lat Ms 146).

Classical sources include three manuscript texts (12th to 15th centuries) of the Aeneid by Virgil and collections by Terence and Cicero.

Further noteworthy items include a Biography of Sir John Savile (Lat Ms 250, 16th/17thC) and a remarkable Book of Hours (Lat Ms 21, Flemish, 15thC) that belonged to Mary Queen of Scots.

This second part completes our coverage of medieval and renaissance literary manuscripts from the John Rylands University Library of Manchester and bears witness to the strength and quality of the library's collections in this area.

May 2000 Sterling Price: 1500 - US Dollar Price: $2500

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Regions Beyond Missionary Union Archive

7 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm

Papers of the RBMU concerning the Congo, India, Nepal and Peru from the Centre for the Study of Christianity in the Non-Western World, New College, University of Edinburgh

Part 1: Minute Books of the RMBU, 1903-1955 The Regions Beyond Missionary Archive (RBMU) had its origins in the East End of London. Henry Guinness (1835-1910), whose uncle, Arthur Guinness, was the founder of the famous brewing empire, established the East London Training Institute for Home and Foreign Missions in Stepney Green in 1873. The Institute moved to larger premises in Harley House in Bow later that year. From the outset, the Institute was interdenominational and international, and sought to train missionaries for service with missions around the world. Its first student, Joshua Chowriappah, was from India, and by 1903 some 887 men and 281 women has been trained. Of these 215 left to work in Africa, 182 in Asia, 170 in the Americas and 26 in Australasia.

The name 'Regions Beyond Missionary Union' was adopted in 1899 in recognition of the growing global outreach of the Institute. It was committed to working among the poor regions peripheral to and beyond the British Empire and had established its own missions in the Congo (1878), Peru (1897), and in Bihar and Orissa, India (1899). Later missions were established in Kalimantan (Borneo) (1948), Nepal (1954), and Irian Jaya (1957).

The archive includes the minute books of the Board of Directors, c17,000 letters from missionaries in different regions, books, pamphlets, journals and photographs. These records contain information about the socio-economic development, as well as the growth of Christianity in these areas. They are a valuable source for world history and will serve scholars in a variety of disciplines.

Part 1 contains the complete run of Director's Minute Books from 1900 to 1955. These refer to all aspects of the administration and policy of the mission, including the training college; missionaries and mission fields; theological principles; membership of the board and councils; publications; fund-raising and finance; auxiliaries and branches; and relationships with other missions and bodies in the UK and in the mission fields.

June 2002 560

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Regions Beyond Missionary Union Archive

13 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm


Papers of the RBMU concerning the Congo, India, Nepal and Peru from the Centre for the Study of Christianity in the Non-Western World, New College, University of Edinburgh

Part 2: Correspondence and Reports of the RBMU - the Congo Mission, 1888-1955 Henry Guinness (1835-1910), whose uncle, Arthur Guinness, was the founder of the famous brewing empire, established the East London Training Institute for Home and Foreign Missions in Stepney Green in 1873. The Institute moved to larger premises in Harley House in Bow later that year. From the outset, the Institute was interdenominational and international, and sought to train missionaries for service with missions around the world. Its first student, Joshua Chowriappah, was from India, and by 1903 some 887 men and 281 women has been trained. Of these 215 left to work in Africa, 182 in Asia, 170 in the Americas and 26 in Australasia.

The name 'Regions Beyond Missionary Union' was adopted in 1899 in recognition of the growing global outreach of the Institute. It was committed to working among the poor regions peripheral to and beyond the British Empire and had established its own missions in the Congo (1878), Peru (1897), and in Bihar and Orissa, India (1899). Later missions were established in Kalimantan (Borneo) (1948), Nepal (1954), and Irian Jaya (1957).

The archive includes the minute books of the Board of Directors, c17,000 letters from missionaries in different regions, books, pamphlets, journals and photographs. These records contain information about the socio-economic development, as well as the growth of Christianity in these areas. They are a valuable source for world history and will serve scholars in a variety of disciplines.

Part 2 is devoted to records of the Congo Mission. Henry and Fanny Grattan Guinness were members of the Committee that established the Livingstone Inland Mission following Stanley's reports of his journey across Africa. The Harley Institute provided the first recruits. RBMU ran the mission from 1880 to 1884 before handing over responsibility to the American Baptist Missionary Union and the Swiss Missionary Fellowship. Instead, RBMU diverted its efforts to the foundation of the Congo Balolo Mission in 1888. This enabled the RBMU to reach the interior and 'Regions Beyond' existing missionary activity. By 1912 eight stations had been established and 123 missionaries sent out, of which 41 had died on, or soon after, returning from the field.

The RMBU became involved in anti-slavery action and protects against the atrocities, working closely with the Congo Reform Association. It continued to expand, setting up schools and hospitals and a printing press in Bongandanga. The Mission continued to attract local support even when colonial was being challenged.

The archive of the Congo Mission includes hundreds of letters and reports, as well as memoirs and diaries.

June 2002 1040

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Regions Beyond Missionary Union Archive

6 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm

Papers of the RBMU concerning the Congo, India, Nepal and Peru from the Centre for the Study of Christianity in the Non-Western World, New College, University of Edinburgh

Part 3: Correspondence and Reports of the RBMY - Peru, Argentina, India, Nepal, Kalimintan and Irian Jaya, 1893-1955 Henry Guinness (1835-1910), whose uncle, Arthur Guinness, was the founder of the famous brewing empire, established the East London Training Institute for Home and Foreign Missions in Stepney Green in 1873. The Institute moved to larger premises in Harley House in Bow later that year. From the outset, the Institute was interdenominational and international, and sought to train missionaries for service with missions around the world. Its first student, Joshua Chowriappah, was from India, and by 1903 some 887 men and 281 women has been trained. Of these 215 left to work in Africa, 182 in Asia, 170 in the Americas and 26 in Australasia.

The name 'Regions Beyond Missionary Union' was adopted in 1899 in recognition of the growing global outreach of the Institute. It was committed to working among the poor regions peripheral to and beyond the British Empire and had established its own missions in the Congo (1878), Peru (1897), and in Bihar and Orissa, India (1899). Later missions were established in Kalimantan (Borneo) (1948), Nepal (1954), and Irian Jaya (1957).

The archive includes the minute books of the Board of Directors, c17,000 letters from missionaries in different regions, books, pamphlets, journals and photographs. These records contain information about the socio-economic development, as well as the growth of Christianity in these areas. They are a valuable source for world history and will serve scholars in a variety of disciplines.

Part 3 documents the work of the RBMU in other areas. Several Harley Institute students commenced work in South America in the 1890s and this was put on a formal footing in 1897 when Henry Guinness visited the region. The mission to Argentina became self-supporting through their work with schools, but progress in Peru was difficult. The initial mission was handed over to the Evangelical Union of South America in 1911, but a new mission - the Peru Inland Mission - was established by nurse Annie Soper in 1929, based in Lamas. Correspondence, reports and minutes describe this work. There is also a run of the Lamas Evangel, 1933-1937, full of accounts of medical, educational and evangelical work in South America.

Work in India in 1899 with the establishment of RBMY missions in Orissa and Bihar. Bihar was truly at the edge of empire on the northern fringes of India, next to Nepal. Schools, churches and orphanages were all founded and in 1930 the Duncan hospital opened at Raxaul. The mission did not make many converts, but during the Quit India movement in 1942 it provided a safe haven for refugees from the Australian Nepalese Mission, thus demonstrating its independence from empire. Minutes of the Indian Council, 1900-1919, station reports, letters and a multitude of rare printed items record the work of the RBMU in South Asia.

There is only a small amount of material relating to the missions to Nepal, Kalimantan and Irian Jaya, as these were all established at the end of the period covered in this microfilm edition. However, there are many good letters and accounts of pioneering missionary activity in the middle of the twentieth century - at a time when colonial rule was being relinquished.

June 2002 480

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Regions Beyond Missionary Union Archive

20 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm plus guides to Parts 1-4

Papers of the RBMU concerning the Congo, India, Nepal and Peru from the Centre for the Study of Christianity in the Non-Western World, New College, University of Edinburgh

Part 4: Regions Beyond, 1878-1981, and Horizons, 1981-1990 Henry Guinness (1835-1910), whose uncle, Arthur Guinness, was the founder of the famous brewing empire, established the East London Training Institute for Home and Foreign Missions in Stepney Green in 1873. The Institute moved to larger premises in Harley House in Bow later that year. From the outset, the Institute was interdenominational and international, and sought to train missionaries for service with missions around the world. Its first student, Joshua Chowriappah, was from India, and by 1903 some 887 men and 281 women has been trained. Of these 215 left to work in Africa, 182 in Asia, 170 in the Americas and 26 in Australasia.

The name 'Regions Beyond Missionary Union' was adopted in 1899 in recognition of the growing global outreach of the Institute. It was committed to working among the poor regions peripheral to and beyond the British Empire and had established its own missions in the Congo (1878), Peru (1897), and in Bihar and Orissa, India (1899). Later missions were established in Kalimantan (Borneo) (1948), Nepal (1954), and Irian Jaya (1957).

The archive includes the minute books of the Board of Directors, c17,000 letters from missionaries in different regions, books, pamphlets, journals and photographs. These records contain information about the socio-economic development, as well as the growth of Christianity in these areas. They are a valuable source for world history and will serve scholars in a variety of disciplines.

Part 4 covers the principal periodicals published by the RBMU from its inception in 1878 as Regions Beyond to its closure in 1990 as Horizons. It is essential reading for any scholar trying to understand the work undertaken by RBMU as it draws together all of the strands of their work. It is also very well illustrated.

June 2002 160

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Anti-Slavery International
Part 1: Annual Reports, Submissions to UNCHR, Ephemera and Publications of Anti-Slavery International, 1980-2000
13 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm

£1050

Click here for details
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Anti-Slavery International
Part 2: Publications and Reports of Anti-Slavery International and predecesors, 1880-1979
5 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm plus guide

575

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Foreign Office Files for Cuba
Part 1: Revolution in Cuba, 1959-1960 (PRO Classes FO 371/139396-139521, 148178-148345 & PREM 11/2622)
13 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm

Part 1 of this microfilm project offers the complete Foreign Office Files for Cuba for 1959 and 1960. Charting the beginning of an era which would eventually bring the world to the brink of World War Three, these documents offer new perspectives on issues relating to the revolution in Cuba from the ending of the Batista regime to Fidel Castro's takeover and first year in power.

1065

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Africa through Western Eyes
Part 1: Original Manuscripts from the Royal Commonwealth Society Library at Cambridge University Library
9 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm

Parts 1 & 2 are based on the holdings of the Royal Commonwealth Society Library at Cambridge University Library and offers accounts by doctors, traders, planters, soldiers, colonial civil servants, missionaries and a Colonial Secretary. For further details Click here.

720

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The Empire Writes Back
Part 1: Indian views on Britain and Empire, 1810-1915, from the British Library, London
10 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm plus guide

What did Indian writers make of the sprawling metropolis of London? How do their views compare with those of English observers seeing India for the first time? What did they make of the great imperial project?

This microfilm collection makes available seventeen memoirs recording the views and experiences of Indian visitors to Britain, together with a number of supporting works describing the lives of Indians in Britain and Europe. Many of these works are extremely rare and most were published in India (in Bombay, Calcutta, Lahore, Madras, Poona, and Sukkur).

June 2003 820

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Australia: Colonial Life & Settlement
The Colonial Secretary's Papers, 1788-1825, from the State Records Authority of New South Wales Part 1: Letters sent, 1808-1825
19 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm

Part 1 covers the out-letter books or 'letters sent' from the Governor and his principal aide, the Colonial Secretary to others within the colony or to 'foreign parts', which included England and other colonies. The letters date from 1808 to 1825 and tell us much about the way in which the colony perceived itself and the demands that were placed upon it.

May 2002 1520

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Australia: Colonial Life & Settlement
The Colonial Secretary's Papers, 1788-1825, from the State Records Authority of New South Wales Part 2: Special bundles (topic collections), proclamations, orders and related records, 1789-1825
21 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm

Part 2 covers the 'special bundles' of documents, each relating to a particular subject or topic, in many cases reflecting the administrative importance of the matter at the time.

May 2002 1680

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Australia: Colonial Life & Settlement
The Colonial Secretary's Papers, 1788-1825, from the State Records Authority of New South Wales Part 3: Letters received, 1788-1825 Part 3 comprises the main series of letters received by the colony from Government officials and private individuals, 1788-1825.
32 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm plus guide to Parts 1-3

In addition, this series includes copies of agreements, despatches, general orders, instructions, ordinary regulations, proclamations, memoranda, reports and returns.

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Abolition and Emancipation
Part 1: Papers of Thomas Clarkson, William Lloyd Garrison, Zachary Macaulay, Harriet Martineau, Harriet Beecher Stowe & William Wilberforce from the Huntington Library
10 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm plus guide

Part 1 includes letters of leading abolitionists including Zachary Macaulay, editor of the Christian Observer, Granville Sharp, Thomas Fowell Buxton, Henry Thornton, Thomas Clarkson and Hannah More. There is good material on Macaulay's literary connections and the activities of the 'Clapham sect' in London. The Macaulay material on establishing a settlement in Sierra Leone is crucial to understanding this kind of imperial experiment and his ideas on an ideal society.

There is also a good sequence of correspondence between Fanny, Margaret and Hannah Macaulay with Margaret Cropper. This links well to the Cropper Family Papers included in Part 2 of this microfilm collection. James Cropper (1773-1840) was a successful Quaker merchant based in Liverpool. He was involved in the Tropical Free Labour Company, the American Colonisation Society and the Liverpool Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery in the 1820s and 1830s.

750

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International Trade and Colonial Journals
Selected Titles form the Bodleian Library, Oxford and the British Library Newspaper Library, London The Anglo-Japanese Gazette, 1902-1909
4 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm

Consultant Editor: Clive Trebilcok, Lecturer in Economic History, University of Cambridge Founded as a monthly review devoted to the commercial and social interests of the British Empire and Japan, this contains excellent material on trade with Japan and the Far East. Major subjects featured include the Hong Kong, Shanghai and Mitsui Banking Corporations, the National Industrial Exhibition of Japan, Shipbuilding in Japan, Railways in the Far East, Commercial Education in Japan, Iron and Steel Manufacturing, the New Steamship Service between Japan and Australia, Japanese Economic Penetration of Asia, Textiles, Coal and New Industrial Power Plants.

320

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International Trade and Colonial Journals
Selected Titles form the Bodleian Library, Oxford and the British Library Newspaper Library, London The Eastern World.
A weekly journal for Law, Commerce, Politics, Literature, and Useful Information, 1899-1908
5 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm

Consultant Editor: Clive Trebilcok, Lecturer in Economic History, University of Cambridge This provides a wealth of information for Japan and the Far East. Published in Yokohama, Japan it contains regular articles on the Commercial Code of Japan, the Japanese Diet, Patents and Trademarks, Banking, Joint Stock Companies, and Trade and Industry. There are also interesting pieces on the Great Fires of Yokohama, the Russo-Japanese War, 1904-5, and the Political Situation in Japan. Frequently featured are comparisons with the Western Powers, particularly technological innovation, railways and industry in Germany. There are sections of Economic and Trade Statistics and Literary Criticism and Reviews. Each issue contains shipping news and listings of stocks and shares.

400

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International Trade and Colonial Journals
Selected Titles form the Bodleian Library, Oxford and the British Library Newspaper Library, London The Pacific Mail, 1873-1876
1 reel of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm

Consultant Editor: Clive Trebilcok, Lecturer in Economic History, University of Cambridge This journal covered commercial and financial relations between Britain and South America. It published regular intelligence from the West Coast of South America and documented all matters affecting the interests of Chile, Peru, Bolivia, Columbia, Ecuador, and Venezuela. It is all about trade and steam packets plying their way from Southampton and Liverpool. Subjects covered include the treatment of British seamen, Guano exports from Peru, South American Credit, Emigration, Missionary Activity, New Railroads, the American Commercial Crisis, Peruvian Debt, Monetary and Commercial Reports, the River Plate and the Monroe Doctrine. There is also much material on Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay.

80

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International Trade and Colonial Journals
Selected Titles form the Bodleian Library, Oxford and the British Library Newspaper Library, London South Australian Chronicle and Colonial Record, 1852-1853
1 reel of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm

Consultant Editor: Clive Trebilcok, Lecturer in Economic History, University of Cambridge Each issue starts with a summary of the latest colonial news. There is much material on the South Australian Legislative Council, Exports and Imports, the Darien Ship Canal, the South Australian Mint, Shipping and Navigation, the Committee of Australian Colonists, Information on Emigrants, the Burmese War, Ministerial Explanations and the New Passenger Act.

80

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International Trade and Colonial Journals
Selected Titles form the Bodleian Library, Oxford and the British Library Newspaper Library, London The African Review of Mining, Finance & Commerce, 1892-1904
23 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm

Consultant Editor: Clive Trebilcok, Lecturer in Economic History, University of Cambridge This well illustrated journal documents the climax of the 'Scramble for Africa' at the end of the nineteenth century. There is much material on Cecil Rhodes, the Jameson Raid, crises in the Transvaal, Mining and Finance, the new Caper Liners, the British South African Company, the Situation in Egypt, the Suez Canal, the Boer War, the opening of the competition and economic exploitation. Stocks, Shares, Mining News, the Economic and Political Situation are featured in every issue. The Transvaal Coal Industry and Witwatersrand Gold Mining are well covered.

A typical issue (6 January 1894) covers topics as diverse as the Occupation of Egypt; The Matabele War; Cape to Cairo; Shipping; Mr Rhodes's speech; Uganda; Dr Leyds; An Ostrich Farm in London; The Cape Elections; The Imperial Institute; The Late Cape of Good Hope Bank; and Olace aux Dames. This is an excellent journal for all libraries interested in the role of the British in South Africa.

1850

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International Trade and Colonial Journals
Selected Titles form the Bodleian Library, Oxford and the British Library Newspaper Library, London The African Times & Orient Review, 1912-1914, 1917-1918
2 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm

Consultant Editor: Clive Trebilcok, Lecturer in Economic History, University of Cambridge Volume 1, No. 1, London, July 1912 proclaims that "the most recent Universal Races Congress, convened in the Metropolis of the Anglo-Saxon world, clearly demonstrated that there was ample need for a Pan-Oriental Pan African journal at the seat of the British Empire". Edited by Duse Mohammed, the first issue contains articles on the Negro Conference at the Tuskegee Institute, the report of the First Universal Races Congress, and sections on Morocco, East Africa, Uganda, Oriental mails and shipping. Other early issues include much material on black studies, racial issues and the need for inter-racial untiy, trade and Africa. Much emphasis is placed upon promoting the common fundamental interests of all races.

160

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International Trade and Colonial Journals
Selected Titles form the Bodleian Library, Oxford and the British Library Newspaper Library, London African Colonizer, 1840-1841
2 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm

Consultant Editor: Clive Trebilcok, Lecturer in Economic History, University of Cambridge "A source of information useful to emigrants, scholars and politicians, merchants and philanthropists... This journal is published, not only under a strong impression that the affairs of Africa, generally, are of deep concern to Great Britain, but, under a still stronger conviction that some of the most dearly cherished British interests will incur the greatest hazard, if steps be not speedily taken to enlighten and rouse the public respecting British Africa in particular". Subjects covered include the West African Gum Trade, the Slave Trade, Fine Woolled Sheep, Emigration, the Caffre War of 1834-5, the Colonial Office System, South Africa, the Aborigines Protection Society, Sierra Leone and regular shipping intelligence in each issue.

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International Trade and Colonial Journals
Selected Titles form the Bodleian Library, Oxford and the British Library Newspaper Library, London Colonial Enterprise. Review of Mines, Manufacturers & Industries of Greater Britain, 1894-1899
3 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm

Consultant Editor: Clive Trebilcok, Lecturer in Economic History, University of Cambridge With detailed reports, articles and statistical analysis, this journal covers Africa, Australia, British Columbia, Canada and other British colonial interests. It features a four page weekly Mining Share List compiled by Samuel James, Colonial Banking and Finance, Reports on Mining Companies and a strong emphasis on diamonds, gold, coal, manufacturing industry, electrical engineering and new technology. Early issues include articles on the need for monetary reform, the mineral resources of Portugal, the mineral wealth of British Columbia, the world's silver and gold production, successful mining in Victoria, Indian diamonds, and British trade in South Africa and Bimetallism. There is a report on the Inter-Colonial Conference at Ottawa, 1894 and analysis of Witwatersrand gold production.

£240

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International Trade and Colonial Journals
Selected Titles form the Bodleian Library, Oxford and the British Library Newspaper Library, London The Colonial Gazette, 1838-1847
8 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm

Consultant Editor: Clive Trebilcok, Lecturer in Economic History, University of Cambridge Published in association with the Colonial Society, this journal reports news from Canada, the West Indies, Malta, the Cape, Ceylon, Australia, the East Indies and China. There are also regular reports from the United States. There are articles on a Negro Emancipation; the Aborigine Protection Society; American Sympathy with Rebellion in the Canadas; Colonial Church Record; Colonial Shipping Intelligence; Anent Sugar; Cocoa-Nut Oil Establishment, Nariva; Affairs of New South Wales; Captain Rous in Canada; the Queen; the Navy; and Criticism of Colonial Government.

£640

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Empire On-Line Section I: Cultural Contacts, 1492-1969

On-Line access to over 16,000 images of original documents with introductory essays and indexing This new online project aims to bring together 60,000 images of original documents, both manuscript and printed materials, sourced from approximately twenty different libraries and archives around the world, including a strong core of document images from the British Library and from the Oriental and India Office Collections at the British Library.

Each section will have two or three thematic essays by leading scholars in the field of Empire Studies. The essays will relate directly to the source material covered by the online publication with approximately fifty hypertext links per essay to documentary evidence. The project offers good quality, meaningful content that academics can readily integrate into their courses. The thematic essays introduce students to the material, suggest possible approaches, and place the documents within a broad historical, literary and cultural context.

The keyword search facility allows users to search by document title, topic, name of individual, organisation or date. All source material in this project is well indexed in this manner.

Section I looks at cultural contacts throughout five centuries of Empire, from Columbus to decolonisation. It draws upon manuscript sources such as the diaries and eyewitness accounts of European travellers, correspondence and periodical literature. It includes evidence from native populations and indigenous tribes in Africa, India, Canada, Australia and the South Pacific. There is material from the Papers of Englebert Kaempfer on Persia, Sloane manuscripts on Voyages of Discovery, drawings and manuscripts relating to maritime exploration in the Papers of Sir Joseph Banks, Mungo Park's African Journal and records from missionary archives documenting their first contacts at the furthest outposts of Empire.

It examines how attitudes changed over time and the way Europeans worked both with and against indigenous groups in the quest for independence and self-government in the twentieth century.

Online access July 2002 4000

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Empire On-Line Section II: Empire Writing & the Literature of Empire

On-Line access to over 8,000 images of original documents with introductory essays and indexing This new online project aims to bring together 60,000 images of original documents, both manuscript and printed materials, sourced from approximately twenty different libraries and archives around the world, including a strong core of document images from the British Library and from the Oriental and India Office Collections at the British Library.

Each section will have two or three thematic essays by leading scholars in the field of Empire Studies. The essays will relate directly to the source material covered by the online publication with approximately fifty hypertext links per essay to documentary evidence. The project offers good quality, meaningful content that academics can readily integrate into their courses. The thematic essays introduce students to the material, suggest possible approaches, and place the documents within a broad historical, literary and cultural context.

The keyword search facility allows users to search by document title, topic, name of individual, organisation or date. All source material in this project is well indexed in this manner.

Section II focuses on the Literature of Empire and includes important texts describing the outreach and impact of colonial endeavour. There are writings by both pro- and anti-imperial authors, by agents of empire, by controllers of empire, and by imperial subjects. This section embraces poetry, prose and drama.

Online access July 2003 2000

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Empire On-Line Section III: The Visible Empire

On-Line access to over 10,000 images of original documents with introductory essays and indexing This new online project aims to bring together 60,000 images of original documents, both manuscript and printed materials, sourced from approximately twenty different libraries and archives around the world, including a strong core of document images from the British Library and from the Oriental and India Office Collections at the British Library.

Each section will have two or three thematic essays by leading scholars in the field of Empire Studies. The essays will relate directly to the source material covered by the online publication with approximately fifty hypertext links per essay to documentary evidence. The project offers good quality, meaningful content that academics can readily integrate into their courses. The thematic essays introduce students to the material, suggest possible approaches, and place the documents within a broad historical, literary and cultural context.

The keyword search facility allows users to search by document title, topic, name of individual, organisation or date. All source material in this project is well indexed in this manner.

Section III looks at all aspects of the Visible Empire, from Great Exhibitions, Pageantry, Art, Sports and Theatre, to commercial exploitation of empire. Central to this material is the way empire was presented and perceived. What impact did the colonial exhibitions in London, Sydney, Bombay and Cape Town have on the visiting public? How were these images of empire used for marketing and propaganda purposes? How did perceptions of Empire at Home differ from the views of those overseas in the Colonies.

Online access July 2004 2500

Adam Matthew Publications Home Page



Empire On-Line Section IV: Religion & Empire

On-Line access to over 10,000 images of original documents with introductory essays and indexing This new online project aims to bring together 60,000 images of original documents, both manuscript and printed materials, sourced from approximately twenty different libraries and archives around the world, including a strong core of document images from the British Library and from the Oriental and India Office Collections at the British Library.

Each section will have two or three thematic essays by leading scholars in the field of Empire Studies. The essays will relate directly to the source material covered by the online publication with approximately fifty hypertext links per essay to documentary evidence. The project offers good quality, meaningful content that academics can readily integrate into their courses. The thematic essays introduce students to the material, suggest possible approaches, and place the documents within a broad historical, literary and cultural context.

The keyword search facility allows users to search by document title, topic, name of individual, organisation or date. All source material in this project is well indexed in this manner.

Section IV concentrates on Religion and Empire. It features material on missionary work, indigenous churches and the annexation of existing local beliefs and customs. There are documents on different regions in India and Africa and on work amongst the Native American Indians in Canada. The Maoris, Aborigines and other tribes are covered in records on Australia and the South Pacific. What was the role of religion in helping to spread the Empire?

Online access July 2005 2500

Adam Matthew Publications Home Page



Empire On-Line Section V: Race, Class & Colonialism, c1783-1969


On-Line access to over 10,000 images of original documents with introductory essays and indexing This new online project aims to bring together 60,000 images of original documents, both manuscript and printed materials, sourced from approximately twenty different libraries and archives around the world, including a strong core of document images from the British Library and from the Oriental and India Office Collections at the British Library.

Each section will have two or three thematic essays by leading scholars in the field of Empire Studies. The essays will relate directly to the source material covered by the online publication with approximately fifty hypertext links per essay to documentary evidence. The project offers good quality, meaningful content that academics can readily integrate into their courses. The thematic essays introduce students to the material, suggest possible approaches, and place the documents within a broad historical, literary and cultural context.

The keyword search facility allows users to search by document title, topic, name of individual, organisation or date. All source material in this project is well indexed in this manner.

Section V focuses on Race, Class and Colonialism as important concepts in the study of Empire. How were imperial attitudes governed by assumptions about race, class, gender, and sexuality? Why were white settler territories the first to be granted independence? How did the colour question inhibit the expansion of empire? How did views in the Colonies differ from those at Home and how did attitudes towards race fuel nationalism? How did perceptions of 'the metropole' and 'the colony' alter over time? These records look at different views on colonialism and national identity. When did the inhabitants of empire first aspire to independence and self government and cease to think in terms of 'coloniser' and 'colonised'? Were many populations highly independent from the outset, or was change gradual over time, or is the picture far more complex, and varied from region to region?

Online access July 2006 2500

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Curzon, India and Empire
c25 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm

The Papers of Lord Curzon (1859-1925) from the Oriental and India Office Collections at the British Library, London Part 1: Demi-official correspondence, c1898-1905 Adam Matthew Publications are proud to be making available a new range of resources from the Oriental and India Office Collections (OIOC) at the British Library. The first of these offers the papers of one of the Raj's most noted figures, Lord Curzon, and provides a core group of papers of central significance for any study of British rule in India. The second, by way of contrast, offers a collection of diaries and related records describing life in India from c1750 onwards, enabling scholars to better understand the social history of India during the Raj. Taken together, these projects will provide a substantial base for fresh research in Indian and Imperial history, allowing the story to be told from a variety of perspectives.

July 2003 2050

Adam Matthew Publications Home Page



Curzon, India and Empire
c15 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm

The Papers of Lord Curzon (1859-1925) from the Oriental and India Office Collections at the British Library, London Part 2: Private correspondence, c1898-1905, and Official Papers on India: Internal Affairs, c1898-1905 Adam Matthew Publications are proud to be making available a new range of resources from the Oriental and India Office Collections (OIOC) at the British Library. The first of these offers the papers of one of the Raj's most noted figures, Lord Curzon, and provides a core group of papers of central significance for any study of British rule in India. The second, by way of contrast, offers a collection of diaries and related records describing life in India from c1750 onwards, enabling scholars to better understand the social history of India during the Raj. Taken together, these projects will provide a substantial base for fresh research in Indian and Imperial history, allowing the story to be told from a variety of perspectives.

1250

Adam Matthew Publications Home Page


Curzon, India and Empire
c20 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm

The Papers of Lord Curzon (1859-1925) from the Oriental and India Office Collections at the British Library, London Part 3: Official Papers on India: Foreign and Frontier Policy, c1898-1905 Adam Matthew Publications are proud to be making available a new range of resources from the Oriental and India Office Collections (OIOC) at the British Library. The first of these offers the papers of one of the Raj's most noted figures, Lord Curzon, and provides a core group of papers of central significance for any study of British rule in India. The second, by way of contrast, offers a collection of diaries and related records describing life in India from c1750 onwards, enabling scholars to better understand the social history of India during the Raj. Taken together, these projects will provide a substantial base for fresh research in Indian and Imperial history, allowing the story to be told from a variety of perspectives.

1650

Adam Matthew Publications Home Page



Curzon, India and Empire

c25 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm

The Papers of Lord Curzon (1859-1925) from the Oriental and India Office Collections at the British Library, London Part 4: Post viceregal correspondence regarding India, c1906-1925, and papers on the Kitchener controversy Adam Matthew Publications are proud to be making available a new range of resources from the Oriental and India Office Collections (OIOC) at the British Library. The first of these offers the papers of one of the Raj's most noted figures, Lord Curzon, and provides a core group of papers of central significance for any study of British rule in India. The second, by way of contrast, offers a collection of diaries and related records describing life in India from c1750 onwards, enabling scholars to better understand the social history of India during the Raj. Taken together, these projects will provide a substantial base for fresh research in Indian and Imperial history, allowing the story to be told from a variety of perspectives.

2050

Adam Matthew Publications Home Page


Curzon, India and Empire
c30 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm

The Papers of Lord Curzon (1859-1925) from the Oriental and India Office Collections at the British Library, London Part 5: Correspondence and papers on Foreign Affairs, 1906-1924 Adam Matthew Publications are proud to be making available a new range of resources from the Oriental and India Office Collections (OIOC) at the British Library. The first of these offers the papers of one of the Raj's most noted figures, Lord Curzon, and provides a core group of papers of central significance for any study of British rule in India. The second, by way of contrast, offers a collection of diaries and related records describing life in India from c1750 onwards, enabling scholars to better understand the social history of India during the Raj. Taken together, these projects will provide a substantial base for fresh research in Indian and Imperial history, allowing the story to be told from a variety of perspectives.

2460

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Curzon, India and Empire
c15 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm

The Papers of Lord Curzon (1859-1925) from the Oriental and India Office Collections at the British Library, London Part 6: Indian scrapbooks, travel diaries and files on the Far East Adam Matthew Publications are proud to be making available a new range of resources from the Oriental and India Office Collections (OIOC) at the British Library. The first of these offers the papers of one of the Raj's most noted figures, Lord Curzon, and provides a core group of papers of central significance for any study of British rule in India. The second, by way of contrast, offers a collection of diaries and related records describing life in India from c1750 onwards, enabling scholars to better understand the social history of India during the Raj. Taken together, these projects will provide a substantial base for fresh research in Indian and Imperial history, allowing the story to be told from a variety of perspectives.

£1250

Adam Matthew Publications Home Page



Foreign Office Files for Post-War Europe
Series One: The Schuman Plan and the European Coal and Steel Community, 1950-1957 Part 1: Complete FO 371 files for 1950-1953
20 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm

(PRO Class FO 371/85841-85869, 86977, 87168, 93826-93844, 94101-94107, 94356, 100247-100265, 100267-100272, 104012-104019, 105951-105961, 106069-106075 & 106077)

Britain's role in Europe and the process of European integration, 1950-1960, are examined in detail in this microfilm project. The files provide material to tackle many of the unanswered questions about one of the most significant debates for historians of post-war Britain.

1640

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Foreign Office Files for Post-War Europe

Series One: The Schuman Plan and the European Coal and Steel Community, 1950-1957 Part 2: Complete FO 371 files for 1954-1955
13 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm
(PRO Class FO 371/ 109621, 111250-111264, 111321-111330, 115990-115998, 116036-116057 & 116100-116105)

Britain's role in Europe and the process of European integration, 1950-1960, are examined in detail in this microfilm project. The files provide material to tackle many of the unanswered questions about one of the most significant debates for historians of post-war Britain.

1070

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Foreign Office Files for Post-War Europe
Series One: The Schuman Plan and the European Coal and Steel Community, 1950-1957 Part 3: Complete FO 371 files for 1956-1957
28 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm plus guide to Parts 1-3

(PRO Class FO 371/ 120815, 121918-121922, 121925-121928, 121932, 121949-121976, 121984-122005, 122014, 122018-122046, 122050-122061, 124380, 124418, 124451, 124519, 124543-124550, 124559, 124561-124573, 124587, 124590, 124733, 128292-128293, 128315-128324, 128327 & 128329-128330)

Britain's role in Europe and the process of European integration, 1950-1960, are examined in detail in this microfilm project. The files provide material to tackle many of the unanswered questions about one of the most significant debates for historians of post-war Britain.

2300

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Foreign Office Files for Post-War Europe
Series Two: The Treaty of Rome and European Integration, 1957-1960 Part 1: Files for 1957
c19 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm


(Public Record Office Class FO 371/128308-128314, 128325-128326, 128328, 128331-128396, 130988-130991, 131000, BT 241/1700-1701, CAB 130/176, T 237/196-197 & T 299/112-115 & 126)

May 2003 1560

Adam Matthew Publications Home Page



Foreign Office Files for Post-War Europe
Series Two: The Treaty of Rome and European Integration, 1957-1960 Part 2: Files for 1958-1959
c26 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm

(Public Record Office Class FO 371/134482-134545, 137145, 141134-141139, 142425, 142504, 142561-142569, 142588-142600, 142609-142636)

Forthcoming 2130

Adam Matthew Publications Home Page


Foreign Office Files for Post-War Europe
Series Two: The Treaty of Rome and European Integration, 1957-1960 Part 3: Files for 1960
c26 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm plus guide to Parts 1-3

(Public Record Office Class FO 371/150217-150227, 150263-150380 and T230/502)

2130

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Nuclear Policy & the Cold War: Manuscript Sources from the Public Record Office
c14 reels of 35mm silver-halide postive microfilm plus guide to Part 1
(PRO Classes AB 1, 16, CAB 101, 126, 130, 134, 168 and related documents)

Part 1: 1940-1952 Whilst a few files of a highly sensitive nature remain closed for national security reasons, there is now a huge mass of material recently released which will enable scholars to study nuclear policy from the early 1940s through to the British decision under Macmillan to acquire US systems during the Cold War.

Part 1 focuses on the following:

  • the Maud Commission
  • the Directorate of Tube Alloys (meaning nuclear weapons)
  • British participation in the Manhattan project
  • the Advisory Committee on Atomic Energy, set up by Attlee and chaired by Sir John Anderson, charged to make recommendations across the full range of nuclear matters
  • the Tube Alloys Consultative Council and Combined Policy Committee
  • discussions with the Americans, Canadians and Australians
  • the contributions of nuclear physicists, radiochemists, metallurgists and engineers

In 1945, with the prestigious Clarendon and Cavendish laboratories, Britain was heir to a rich tradiotion of theoretical and experimental science. Britain had initiated the research culminating in the Manhattan project. It expected to extend the work into the post-war years, but had to adopt to new challenges and financial stringencies. These papers allow researchers to study this policy dilemma. Was an independent nuclear deterrent ever a viable option for Britain? Despite Sir William Penny's achievements, was British policy misguided?

December 2002 1150

Adam Matthew Publications Home Page



Nuclear Policy & the Cold War: Manuscript Sources from the Public Record Office
c15 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm
(PRO Classes AB 1, 16, CAB 101, 126, 130, 134, 168 and related documents)

Part 2: 1953-1960 Whilst a few files of a highly sensitive nature remain closed for national security reasons, there is now a huge mass of material recently released which will enable scholars to study nuclear policy from the early 1940s through to the British decision under Macmillan to acquire US systems during the Cold War.

Parts 2 and 3 will cover the 1950s and 1960s with files on the proposed British medium range ballistic missile, Polaris and other American weapon systems. CAB 168 provides the files of the Chief Scientific Adviser to the Government, Solly Zuckerman, for the period 1966-1970. Negotiations with the Americans and British deliberations can be evaluated against a backdrop of escalating Cold War tensions, Anglo-American relations and changes in US policy.

1250

Adam Matthew Publications Home Page



Nuclear Policy & the Cold War: Manuscript Sources from the Public Record Office
c14 reels of 35mm silver-halide positive microfilm plus guide to Parts 2 & 3
(PRO Classes AB 1, 16, CAB 101, 126, 130, 134, 168 and related documents)

Part 3: 1961-1970 Whilst a few files of a highly sensitive nature remain closed for national security reasons, there is now a huge mass of material recently released which will enable scholars to study nuclear policy from the early 1940s through to the British decision under Macmillan to acquire US systems during the Cold War.

Parts 2 and 3 will cover the 1950s and 1960s with files on the proposed British medium range ballistic missile, Polaris and other American weapon systems. CAB 168 provides the files of the Chief Scientific Adviser to the Government, Solly Zuckerman, for the period 1966-1970. Negotiations with the Americans and British deliberations can be evaluated against a backdrop of escalating Cold War tensions, Anglo-American relations and changes in US policy.

1150

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2003/4 | Earlier publications: 1 | 2 | >3 | 4 | 5 | 6 |

 

September 2002