early political talks explained nuclear fission. More and more,
he started expressing the need for international treaties and the
use of international law to settle disputes instead of war. During
the McCarthy era, many scientists who had taken an anti-nuclear
stand avoided the controversy and were putting their efforts back
into science. Pauling maintained his stance and was investigated
by the Senate committee. With continual questioning about where
Pauling had been given certain information, Pauling made the statement,
"Nobody tells me what to think, except Mrs. Pauling."
Pauling lost funding grants from the NIH and the
NSF. When he asked the NIH why he had been denied his grants,
he was told to reapply under the name of his associates. The grant
was reinstated and even increased.
1958 Pauling wrote No More War! which discussed
the threat of nuclear war and testing. He and Ava Helen, with
the support of students, circulated then submitted an anti-nuclear
petition to the United Nations, which included the signatures
of over 11,000 scientists from 49 countries.