TIMEBASE 1919

1919 January Typescript copies of The Protocols of the Elders of Zion are distributed by anti-Bolshevik White Russians at the Versailles Peace Conference.They are also given to members of the U.S. Cabinet, judiciary, and intelligence agencies of the army and navy. (Segel/Levy)

1919 January 1 Karl Maria Wiligut (Weisthor) is discharged with the rank of colonel from the Austrian army, after serving almost 40 years. (Roots)

1919 January 5 The German Worker's Party (DAP) party is formally founded in Munich at the Furstenfelder Hof tavern by Anton Drexler and others. Drexler's constitution is accepted by 24 men, mostly from the locomotive works where Drexler is employed, and he elected chairman. Drexler is also an active member of the Thule Society (Germanenorden). (Drexler, 12 March, 1935; Michael Lotter, 19 October, 1935; Roots)

1919 January 6 Theodore Roosevelt dies at Sagamore Hill, his Oyster Bay, N.Y., home.

1919 January 7- 14 William H. Buckler, U.S. Embassy counselor in London, is sent by President Wilson to confer with Maxim Litvinov and other Soviet (Bolshevik) emissaries in Stockholm.

1919 January 15 Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht are murdered by German troops after an abortive Spartacus uprising in Berlin. Liebknecht is shot in the back while in custody, and Luxemburg's body is later found in the Landwehr Canal.

1919 January 18 The peace conference at Versailles (the Paris Peace Conference) officially opens, attended by 70 delegates, representing 27 victorious Allied powers. Neither Germany nor the new Russian Soviet republic are represented. The principal participants are the leaders of the four great powers: Woodrow Wilson of the United States, Georges Clemenceau of France, David Lloyd George of Britain, and Vittorio Orlando of Italy.

(Note: Germany is prepared to negotiate on the basis of Wilson's Fourteen Points, but since its representatives are not allowed to attend the conference, it matters little. The Germans are at the mercy of the armistice which will be renewed each month for the next six months. The blockade (including foodstuffs) remains in place during that time and conditions deteriorate severely in Germany, creating a residue of bitterness which will begin to raise havoc only a decade later.) (Schlesinger I)

1919 January 21 Wilson submits Buckler's report of his meeting with Litvinov to the Big Five in Paris. Buckler wrote that "agreement with Russia can take place at once, obviating conquest and policing and reviving normal conditions as disinfectant against Bolshevism."

1919 January 25 The Versailles conference unanimously adopts a resolution to establish the League of Nations. After a committee is appointed to draft the League's Covenant, peace terms are hammered out by the Supreme Council, consisting of the heads of government and foreign ministers of the five principal Allied powers: the U.S., Britain, France, Italy, and Japan.

1919 January-February Hitler returns to Munich from Traunstein and is again quartered at the List Regiment barracks.

1919 Edward R. Stettinius Sr. resigns from government service and rejoins J.P. Morgan and Company as a full partner, He remains in Europe and continues to coordinate massive purchases. Stettinius and Henry P. Davison, another Morgan partner in New York, establish the Foreign Commerce Corporation to engage in financing trade to rebuild Europe after the war.

1919 February The All-Russian Extraordinary Commission admits executing 5, 496 "political criminals," including 800 persons convicted of nonpolitical offenses, although the number was probably much higher. (Polyakov)

1919 February General Ludendorff returns from Sweden.

1919 February Rudolf Hess returns to Munich, depressed and embittered at the "treason" of the government in Berlin, and soon begins running errands for Baron Rudolf von Sebottendorff's secretive anti-Marxist, antisemitic Thule Society. (Missing Years)

1919 February 6 A new National Assembly meets at Weimar and begins drawing up a new constitution; hence the name Weimar Republic.

1919 February 12 Karl Radak, a member of the German Bolshevik delegation is arrested in the Bolshevik propaganda office in Berlin. Police discover an outline plan for a general Communist offensive to take place in the spring. According to this plan, The Red Army was to march through Poland into Germany to join up with a simultaneous German Communist insurrection. (Topitsch)

1919 February 13 The chairman of the Catholic Center Party deputation in the National Assembly declares that the party can not approve of the revolutionary upheaval that has overthrown the monarchy. In time the Center party will become one of the mainstays of the Weimar Republic.

1919 February 15 1700 Jews are killed in a pogrom at Proskurov in the western Ukraine. (Atlas)

1919 February 21 Kurt Eisner, the Socialist Prime Minister of Bavaria, is assassinated by Count Anton Arco-Vally, a young man of alleged Jewish descent, who was resentful at his exclusion from membership in the Thule Society. It was said that he shot Eisner as a demonstration of his nationalist commitment. (Roots)

1919 February 22 Bavarian Cardinal Michael Faulhaber refuses to order the ringing of bells and the showing of flags of mourning after the assassination of Eisner by Count Arco-Vally, a Catholic. (Lewy)

1919 February 22 U.S. Ambassador William C. Bullit and the radical journalist Lincoln Steffens, leave Paris for a meeting in Russia with the Bolsheviks.

1919 February 28 Eberhard von Brockhusen writes another letter to General Heimerdinger of the Germanenorden, again asking to be relieved of his office as Grand Master of the loyalist branch. (Roots)

1919 March 2 Philipp Stauff (alias Dietwart) writes to Brockhusen saying that the latter's resignation as Grand Master of the loyalist Germanenorden had been accepted. This does not seem to be the case as Brockhusen continues in office for quite some time. (Bundesarchiv, Koblenz; Roots)

1919 March 10 U.S. Ambassador Bullit arrives in Petrograd and is accompanied to Moscow by Grigori Chicherin and Maxim Litvinov.

1919 March 14 Lenin presents Ambassador Bullit with a Soviet peace plan drafted by Maxim Litvinov.

1919 March 23 Mussolini and other Italian war veterans in Milan found a revolutionary, nationalistic group called the Fasci di Combattimento, named for the ancient symbol of Roman power, the Fasces. The Fascist movement soon develops into a powerful "radicalism of the right," gaining the support of many landowners in the lower Po Valley, industrialists, and army officers. Fascist blackshirt squads carried on a local civil war against Socialists, Communists, Catholics, and Liberals.

1919 March 30 British Prime Minister Lloyd George informs Lord Riddell, "The truth is we have got our way... the German navy has been handed over, German merchant shipping has been handed over, and the German colonies given up. One of our chief trade competitors has been crippled and our Allies are about to become her biggest creditors. This is no small achievement." (Versailles Twenty Years After)

1919 Easter Lanz von Liebenfels, now living in Budapest, is almost executed on Easter Sunday by a Communist firing-squad during the Hungarian revolution. It seems significant that his linking of antisemitism and anti-Bolshevism date from this period. (Roots)

1919 April A coalition government established by Social Democrats led by Johannes Hoffman is forced to flee from Munich for Bamberg.

1919 April Eighty Jews are killed in a pogrom at Vilna in Poland.

1919 April 4 Max Hofweber, a comrade of Rudolf Hess at the training airfield at Lechfeld, introduces him to Dr. Karl Haushofer, beginning a long and intimate friendship. (Missing Years)

1919 April 4 TheJewish Chronicle in London states, " The conceptions of Bolshevism are in harmony in most points with the ideas of Judaism." (Soon afterward, Victor Marsden the London Morning Post's reporter in Russia wrote that 477 of the leading 545 Bolshevik officials were Jews. Once again, conservatives and antisemities used these words to stir up anti-Jewish sentiments.)

1919 April 6 A group of anarchist intellectuals in Munich, inspired by the example of Bela Kun in Hungary, proclaims what it calls the Bavarian Soviet Republic.

1919 April 13 After a right-wing uprising is crushed, a more serious band of Communists seizes power in Munich. Leadership is taken over by the Russian emigres Eugen Levine-Nissen, Tobias Axelrod, and Max Levien. All three are of Jewish descent and had been bloodied in the 1905 Russian revolution. During the reign of terror that follows, schools, banks and newspapers are closed due to looting and violence. (Roots)

1919 April 15 Hoffmann and his Social Democrats, who had failed to build a counter-revolutionary army at Bamberg, request the aid of Von Epp and several other Free Corps groups. Their anti-Republican sentiments had already led to their being banned in Bavaria.

1919 April 26 As Free Corps troops surround Munich, the Communists break into the Thule Society offices and arrest its secretary, Countess Heila von Westarp. Later that day, Thule members Walter Nauhaus, Prince Gustav von Thurn und Taxis, Baron Teuchert, Walter Deicke, Friedrich Wilhelm von Seydlitz, and Anton Daumelang are also captured. Rudolf Hess narrowly escapes capture by turning up late for a meeting, and watches helplessly as his friends are taken away. (Missing Years)

1919 April 29 The German delegation headed by Graf Ulrich von Brockdorff-Rantzau, the German foreign minister, arrives at Versailles.

1919 April 30 Seven hostages from the Thule Society are taken to the cellar of the Luitpold Gymnasium, a Red Army post since mid-April, and executed, supposedly in reprisal for the killing of Red prisoners by Whites at Starnberg.

1919 April Dietrich Eckart and Rudolf Gorsleben are arrested by the Communists. Only Eckart's quick-witted answers during interrogation prevent their execution along with the other Thule hostages. (Roots)

1919 May Sebottendorff moves the "Munchener Beobachter" offices from the Four Seasons Hotel to the premises occupied by H.G. Grassinger's local branch of the Deutsch-Sozialistische Partei (DSP), another antisemitic nationalist group founded in 1918. Henceforth Grassinger is the newspaper's production manager and the paper becomes his party's official organ. (Roots)

1919 Spring Guido von List and his wife leave Austria and travel to Germany, intending to stay with Eberhard von Brockhusen at Langen in Bradenburg. Brockhusen is a devoted List Society member and Grand Master of the loyalist Germanenorden. (Roots)

1919 May 1 Free Corps troops enter Munich and take it from the Communists after two days of heavy fighting. The famous Erhardt Brigade arrives at the city singing their marching song, which began with the words: "Hooked cross (swastika) on steel helmets..."

1919 May 1 Rudolf Hess is wounded for a fourth time, this time in the leg, while manning a howitzer during street battles fought by General Franz von Epp's ragtag army to liberate Munich. (Missing Years)

1919 May 4 Slovak General Milan R. Stefanik dies in a mysterious plane crash over Bratislavia. Stefanik is soon succeeded by Edouard Benes, a Czech.

1919 May 6 The Treaty of Versailles is finally ready to be presented to Germany, after three and a half months of argument and comprise. Except for the return of Alsace-Lorraine to France, which is unanimously agreed upon, all of the important treaty provisions regarding German territory are compromises:

(1) Allied occupation of the Rhineland is to continue for at least 15 years, and possibly even longer, and the region is to remain perpetually demilitarized, as is a strip of territory 30 miles deep along the right bank of the Rhine. Three smaller frontier regions near Eupen and Malmedy are to be ceded to Belgium. Parts of the German provinces of Posen and West Prussia are to be given to Poland to provide that revived nation with access to the Baltic Sea. The Baltic seaport of Gdansk (Danzig) is to become a free state, linked economically to Poland. This leaves East Prussia completely separated from the rest of Germany by what is called the "Polish Corridor" to the Baltic.

(2) All of Germany's overseas possessions are to be occupied by the Allies but are to be organized as "mandates," subject to the supervision and control of the League of Nations. Britain and France divide most of Germany's African colonies, and Japan takes over its extensive island possessions in the South Pacific.

(3) The treaty also requires Germany to accept sole responsibility and guilt for causing the war. Kaiser Wilhelm and other unspecified German war leaders are to be tried as war criminals. (This provision will never be enforced.)

(4) Several ther military and economic provisions are designed not only to punish Germany for its alleged war guilt, but also to insure France and the rest of the world against any future German aggression: The German army is limited to 100,000 men and is not allowed to possess any heavy artillery, the general staff is abolished, the navy is to be reduced. No air force will be permitted, and the production of all military planes is forbidden.

(5) Germany is to payfor all civilian damages caused during the war. This burden, combined with payment of Reparations to the Allies of great quantities of industrial goods, merchant shipping, and raw materials, is expected to prevent Germany from being able to finance any major military effort even if it is inclined to evade the military limitations.

1919 May 7 Rudolf Hess officially joins a volunteer unit of General von Epp's Freikorps. (Missing Years)

1919 May 7 Members of the German delegation are summoned to the Trianon Palace at Versailles to learn the new Allied treaty terms. After carefully reading the new treaty, Brockdorff-Rantzau denounces it, reminding them that President Wilson's Fourteen Points had clearly provided the basis for the armistice negotiations, and are as binding on the Allies as on Germany. He also insists that the economic provisions of the treaty will be impossible to fulfill.

(Note: In many respects the Treaty of Versailles was indeed unfair to Germany, which technically was not a defeated nation. She was a signatory to an armistice, not a surrender. Even some of those who had fought against Germany were disturbed by the severity of the treaty.) (Duffy)

1919 May 8 Provisional President Friedrich Ebert and the German government publicly brand the terms of the Versailles Treaty as "unrealizable and unbearable."

1919 May 8-15 After refusing to sign the treaty, the German delegation take it with them back to Berlin for further government consideration. Chancellor Philipp Scheidemann also denounces the treaty. The Allies, however, continue to maintain their naval blockade of Germany, and thousands of German civilians continue starving to death.

(Note: It soon became obvious that Germany has no choice but to sign. The suffering and misery the German people were forced to endure creates a hatred so deep and instinctual that it will haunt the German national psyche for decades to come.) (See June 28)

1919 May 17 Guido von List dies of a lung inflammation in a Berlin guest house before he can reach Brockhusen's home. He is later cremated in Leipzig and his ashes are placed in an urn at the Vienna Central Cemetery. (Roots)

1919 May 24 Philipp Stauff writes an obituary of Guido von List for the "Munchener Beobachter," a völkisch newspaper edited by Rudolf von Sebottendorff. This publication will soon become the official party newspaper of the Nazi party and will remain so until May 1945.

1919 May 30 Dietrich Eckart gives a lecture to the Thule Society at the Four Seasons Hotel. The Thule rooms were a haven for many völkish activists from November 1918 to May 1919. Thule guests included Gottfried Feder, Alfred Rosenberg, and Rudolf Hess, all to achieve prominence in the Nazi Party. (Hering, typescript 21 June 1939, Bundesarchiv, Koblenz. A list of Thule members is included in Sebottendorff, BHK)

1919 May 30 Colonel Edward Mandel House, President Wilson's chief advisor, meets in Paris with a group of American and British industrialists to discuss the founding of an institute for International affairs.

1919 May Friedrich Krohn, a member of the DAP, the Thule Society, and the Germanenorden since 1913, writes a memorandum entitled "Is the Swastika Suitable as the Symbol of the National Socialist Party?," which proposes the left-handed swastika (i.e. clockwise in common with those used by the Theosophists and Germanenorden) as the symbol of the German DAP. Krohn evidently preferred the sign in this direction because of its Buddhist interpretation as a talisman of good fortune and health, while its right-handed (anti-clockwise) counterpart symbolized decline and death (most of Guido von List's swastikas, as well as the Thule Society's, were right-handed). Hitler, who was not yet a member of the DAP, later chose the right-handed version (May 20, 1920). (Roots)

(Even more interesting is Krohn's use of the term National Socialist in the title of his memorandum. At that time, only the Austrian Nazis (DNSAP) were known to have been using this name.) (see August 1918 and December 1919)

1919 Summer Sebottendorff, now living in Constance, Switzerland, summons his sister, Dora Kunze, and his mistress, Kathe Bierbaumer. Soon afterward he converts the "Munchener Beobachter" into a limited liability company, the Franz Eher Verlag Nachf. Bierbaumer was given 110,000 of the 120,000 marks of capital stock issued and Kunze the remaining 10,000. (Roots)

1919 Summer General Heimerdinger abdicates the Chancellorship of the loyalist Germanenorden in favor of the Grand Duke Johann Albrecht of Mecklenburg. Mecklenburg used the alias "Irmin." (Irminism was the religion professed years later by Karl Maria Wiligut (alias K.M. Weisthor of Himmler's SS staff.) (Roots)

1919 June 21 German Chancellor Scheidemann and Prime Minister Brockdorff-Rantzau resign.

1919 June 21 The German High Seas Fleet, interned by the Allies at Scapa Flow, the British naval base in the Orkney Islands, stages a dramatic protest. German sailors scuttle all 50 of their warships in the harbor.

1919 June 22 Sebottendorff attends his last Thule Society meeting. Many members hold him negligently responsible for the loss of the Thule membership lists to the Communists who killed the Thule Society hostages in April. (Roots)

1919 June 28 The new German chancellor, Gustav Bauer, sends another delegation to Versailles. After informing the Allies that Germany is accepting the treaty now, only because of the need to alleviate the hardships on its people caused by the "inhuman" blockade, the Germans sign.

(Note: If Germany had refused to sign, Allied Commander-in-Chief Marshal Foch had instructions to occupy all of Germany. Article 23 of the treaty, the so-called "War Guilt Clause," was the suggestion of John Foster Dulles, later Secretary of State under President Dwight Eisenhower.)

(Note: The final treaty does not follow Wilson's Fourteen Points, upon which Germany had agreed to negotiate peace. Hitler will later distort this fact to claim that Germany had been betrayed, not defeated.) (Schlesinger I)

1919 Jean Monnet, an acquaintance of Colonel Edward Mandell House, is appointed as Deputy Secretary of the new League of Nations. After WWII Monnet will become known as the "Father of Europe."

1919 July Sebottendorff leaves Munich and resigns as Grand master of the Thule Society.

1919 July 6 Brockhusen writes Bernhard Koerner pleading for a constitutional reform of the loyalist Germanenorden. (Bundesarchiv; Roots)

1919 July 14 With the signing of the peace treaty, the embargo of trade with Germany is lifted and the U.S. resumes business relations. (Schlesinger I)

1919 July 26 Brockhusen writes to Koerner, accusing Stauff of slandering him. (Bundesarchiv; Roots)

1919 August Hitler is assigned to conducts political indoctrination classes at Lechfeld.

1919 August 4 Romanian troops occupy Budapest, contrary to the wishes of the government, and after two weeks of fighting, defeat Bela Kun's Hungarian Communists.

1919 August 11 The Weimar Constitution is announced. (Eyes)

1919 Autumn The Protocols of the Elders of Zion begin circulating in Germany, Europe and America. (Segel/Levy)

1919 September Walter Riehl sends copies of the Austrian Nazi program to Anton Drexler, chairman of the German DAP. Riehl suggests that Drexler change the name of his German organization to coincide with that of Riehl's Austrian Nazi party (DNSAP). (Forgotten Nazis)

1919 September 3 President Wilson, instead of negotiating the Versailles Treaty and the League of Nations Covenant with the Senate, departs on a tour of the country to rouse public support in favor of the project. He is already quite ill and proceeds against the warnings of his doctors.

1919 September 10 Representatives of the now tiny republic of Austria sign the Treaty of Saint-Germain, just outside Paris. The once great Habsburg empire had completely disintegrated in October and November 1918. Austria recognizes the independence of Czechoslovakia, Poland, Yugoslavia, and Hungary; it also recognizes the award of Galicia to Poland, and of the Trentino, South Tyrol, Trieste, and Istria to Italy. Austria is forbidden to unite with Germany, as many in both countries had envisioned.

1919 September 12 Adolf Hitler attends his first meeting of the German Worker's Party (DAP). Hitler had been ordered by Captain Karl Mayr, his immediate superior, to attend as a spy for the army. (Mayr, autobiography)

1919 September 15 Brockhusen writes another letter to Heimerdinger revealing a deep dismay at postwar conditions and a hatred for the Poles. Brockhausen it seems had kept his office as Grand Master of the loyalist Germanenorden. (Bundesarchiv; Roots)

1919 September 16 Hitler's first known, political writing on the "Jewish Problem," a letter addressed to Adolf Gemlich (identity unknown) shows that Hitler's belief in a worldwide Jewish-Marxist conspiracy was already well developed.

1919 September 20 Hitler is ordered by his superior, Captain Mayr, to join the German Worker's Party (DAP), even though he is still in the army and such an act is technically illegal. Captain Mayr later wrote that it was General Ludendorff himself who had come to him and personally suggested that Hitler should be allowed to join the party and build it up. (Mayr, autobiography) (See September 12)

(Note: Other sources state that Hitler joined the DAP on September 16, 1919. There seems to be some confusion on the actual date. (See Hitler's first party membership cards)

1919 September 25 President Wilson suffers a stroke in Colorado. For five weeks, he is delicately balanced between life and death. Outside his family, only his doctor, his secretary Joseph Tumulty, and infrequently, Bernard Baruch are permitted to see him. (Schlesinger I)

1919 October 10 The Allied Supreme Council, which had imposed a blockade on Soviet Russia, tells neutral countries how to bring economic pressure on "Bolshevik" Russia and to ensure strict observance of such a policy. British and French ships continue "to alter the course" of all ships heading for Soviet ports and citizens of Entente countries are not only forbidden to visit Russia, but even to communicate by letter, telegram or radiogram. (Polyakov)

1919 October 15 Rudolf Hess resigns from General von Epp's Freikorps. (Missing Years)

1919 October 16 A speech by Hitler at the Hofbrauhauskeller in Munich marks the beginning of his political career.

1919 November George Herbert Walker, the grandfather of former U.S. President George Herbert Walker Bush, organizes the W.A. Harriman & Co. private bank and becomes its president and chief executive officer.

1919 November 1 President Wilson is again in control of his faculties, although he never fully recovers. There is no provision in the law for declaring a president unable "to discharge the powers and duties of the said office."

1919 November 18 Field Marshal Hindenburg, possibly seeking to conceal his role in the armistice, publicly mentions the "stab in the back" while testifying before the Committee of Inquiry of the German National Assembly. Hindenburg claims that the army had been close to victory, but had been betrayed by civilian authorities and socialists in the government.

1919 November 19 The U.S. Senate rejects the act required to ratify the Versailles Treaty (55 to 39), including the provisions for the League of nations. President Wilson's hopes for a world governing organization are crushed.

1919 November 27 Bulgaria signs a treaty with the Allies at Neuilly, a suburb of Paris. Bulgaria recognizes the independence of Yugoslavia, and agrees to cede territory to Yugoslavia, Romania, and Greece.

1919 December The Interstate National Socialist Bureau of the German Language Territory is founded at a meeting in Vienna. Representatives come from Germany, the Sudetenland and Polish Silesia. Dr. Walter Riehl is named Chairman. (Forgotten Nazis)

1919 December Hitler drafts new regulations for the DAP committee, giving it full authority and preventing any "side government" by a "circle or lodge." This was obviously aimed at Karl Harrer, the Thule Society and other groups such as the Germanenorden. (Roots)

1919 French and British scientists seek to exclude German scientists from international meetings. Albert Einstein -- a Jew traveling with a Swiss passport -- remains an acceptable German envoy. His political views as a pacifist and a Zionist pitted him against conservatives in Germany, who had branded him a traitor and a defeatist. The public success accorded his theories of relativity evoked savage attacks during the 1920s by anti-Semitic physicists such as Johannes Stark and Philipp Lenard.

1919 General Edmund Allenby is promoted to field marshal and is made a peer. He takes the title of Viscount Allenby of Megiddo and Felixstowe. Megiddo is the old battlefield of Armageddon in Palestine. (See September 19, 1918)

1919 Ignace Paderewski, the famous pianist and patriot, becomes the first Premier of Poland.

1919 Polish armed forces capture much of Lithuania and the Ukraine. Polish leader Jozef Pilsudski aims to establish a Polish-Lithuanian-Belorussian federation allied with an independent Ukraine. It will soon lead to the Polish-Soviet War of April-October 1920.

1919 Violent antisemitic attacks in Hungary kill 300 Jews.

1919 Lady Astor, an American originally named Nancy Witcher Langhorne, wins her husband's seat and becomes the first woman member of the British House of Commons. She will continue to serve until 1945.

1919 The 18th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution establishes a national prohibition on the sale and possession of alcoholic beverages.

1919 Grigory Zinoviev, head of the Petrograd party organization, is appointed head of the Communist International (Comintern).

1919 British troops massacre demonstrators at Amritsar in India.

1919 Johannes Baum's New Thought publishing house moves to Pfullingen. (Spirits in Rebellion; Roots)

1919 Dietrich Eckart begins publishing the nationalist weekly "Auf Gut Deutsch," which attacks the Versaille treaty, Jewish war profiteers, Bolshevism, and Social Democracy. Among its earliest contributors are Gottfried Feder and Alfred Rosenberg. (Wistrich I)

1919 English aviators Alcock and Brown make the first nonstop transatlantic flight.

1919 The majority of Allied troops leave Russia. Several factors force them to leave: soldiers that refuse to fight against Soviet Russia and demand to be sent home, a mutiny in the French Black Sea squadron, the growing might of the Red Army, and the failure to achieve a quick victory. Yet another factor is the "Hands Off Soviet Russia" movement in the West. (Polyakov)

1919 Russian-American anarchist Emma Goldman is deported to the Soviet Union.


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