Agent Bible
Wild Animals: Ruminants

Red Deer:

Habitat:

Red deer prefer to graze in forests or at least in areas where they can run into woods if threatened. They are widely distributed across the world in all sorts of areas and in Tibet can be found almost anywhere from semi-tropical forest to the alpine steppe of the Himalayan foothills.
Diet:
Red deer seem to be able to graze on almost anything - this is probably the secret of their success. Although they prefer to graze on ferns and bracken in forest, they also eat grass, tender buds and leaves off trees and shrubs, strip bark off trees and tear up farmland - they can be a pest in agricultural areas.
LifeStyle:
Females and young form herds that are led usually by an old female. When young males reach adolescence, they are chased out of this herd and usually join a bachelor herd consisting of males of all ages. During the mating season, the bachelor herds break up and each male stakes a claim to territory, making himself as visible as possible by thrashing his antlers against bushes (this also help to strip the velvet that protected them during growth off them), marking the boundaries of his territory with waste and roaring to attract females. The female herds become widely spaced as each female chooses a male and remains in his territory until mated. violent fights often break out between rival males, and it is not uncommon for males to be killed during these battles. Females usually give birth to one fawn, which they hide in long grass while they graze with the herd. Only the males have antlers that they grow during the summer and shed during winter.
Special Skills:
Great vision - colour and good long sight (to spot things far off). Almost seem to have a 'sixth sense' that allows them to escape while a predator is still a long way off - could be just the excellent sight, but may also be ability to spot movement over long distances - probably wired to fixate on moving shapes. Wrap-around vision.
aura weight length
speed (mph)
size intelligence domesticity
3 200kg 160cm
9
7 3 7

White Lipped Deer:

Habitat:

Very little is known about this deer by scientists - almost as soon as science discovered it, so did hunters and numbers have dropped significantly. The remaining deer are now hard to find. However, it is usually found above the tree line in Tibet on the steppe in summer and rocky slopes in winter. it prefers the open to forested land, where its excellent sight can easily spot predators approaching. despite its large size, it is amazingly agile and can often be seen scrambling up almost vertical rock faces.
Diet:
The diet of this deer consists almost exclusively of grasses and flowering plants. In hardship it may strip bark off trees or scrape lichen off rocks.
LifeStyle:
White-lipped deer appear to have a fairly well-organised social hierarchy. Groups of up to 40 individuals are led by a large female who defends them against lone males and predators. Male fawns are chased away from the herd after their first year, and form bachelor herds for defence before attempting to form their own groups when adult. This female seems to vet any male who approaches the group and decides if he is 'good enough' to mate with the fertile females. female do not carry antlers, but the males grow extremely heavy and robust antlers each summer in time for the autumnal mating season.
Special Skills:
As above - good sight, great distance vision, fixation on moving objects. Wrap-around vision.
aura weight length
speed (mph)
size intelligence domesticity
4 130kg 130cm
9
8 3 9

Himalayan Tahr:

Habitat:

The tahr is usually found on the steppe or rocky slopes above it. It is generally active during the early morning and afternoon, preferring to clamber up some impossible cliff face and find a sunny ledge to bask on while digesting breakfast.
Diet:
Leaves and grasses
LifeStyle:
Old bucks are usually solitary, but most tahr gather together into loose herds of upto 50 or so animals. In winter the thick coat protects them from the extremes of temperature, and during the summer they moult, ending up looking like shag-pile rugs. Both sexes have horns and the males use them during the breeding season to push each other off small pinnacles of rock, settling breeding access to females. they are very wary and will sprint uphill to escape any danger.
Special Skills:
Excellent vision again, but only average smell and hearing. Vision may be slot-eyed.
aura weight length
speed (mph)
size intelligence domesticity
3 90kg 100cm
9
6 4 7

Goral:

Habitat:

The goral prefers to live in areas where it can hide in scrub when threatened, and is found on the steppe and slopes of the Himalayas between ,300-13,500 ft - which includes the edges of the temperate forest.
Diet:
The goral is a delicate grazer and quite selective. It generally eats leaves, grasses and herbs, but also tucks into fruit and nuts when they are in season.
LifeStyle:
Old males are solitary and females and young gather together into loose herds that may number upto 100 or so. They are generally active and nimble, but when they settle down to rest they are almost invisible and like most small animals freeze when threatened. herds do not hold a territory as such, but do have preferred grazing grounds. Males defend a small territory during the mating season that they attempt to entice females into for mating.
Special Skills:
Good sense of smell and vision - even in dark. Average sense of hearing. Scent used as communication between serow.
aura weight length
speed (mph)
size intelligence domesticity
3 40kg 120cm
9
5 4 5

Tibetan Antelope (Chiru):

Habitat:

Chiru are characteristic of the Tibetan steppe although they also seem to be happy on the rocky slopes at higher elevations. They are generally found between 3700 and 5500 m above sea level. Their extremely fine and thick wool (the main reason for their decline is poaching of adults to make 'shahtoosh' a fine wool) helps them to survive extreme conditions and they have been seen to be active and happy in temperatures of below -40 degrees.
Diet:
Grasses and rough herbs
LifeStyle:
Chiru are extremely wary of humans and predators, and rely on their speed to escape (along with a zigzagging course). When they settle to chew the cud, they first excavate a small depression in the soil to partially hide them. Males are solitary and herds usually contain females and young. During the rutting season males compete so intensively for females (they form harems and guard them) that they do to eat or rest. Fights frequently break out and many males become injured - even die. Females do not carry horns. When the time comes for the females to give birth, they migrate as a herd to a favoured nursery spot (that may be hundreds of miles from their normal feeding range) and then migrate back when the calves are older while the males remain behind.
Special Skills:
Excellent long-range vision in almost 360. Average smell and hearing
aura weight length
speed (mph)
size intelligence domesticity
3 30kg 100cm
9
6 4 8

Musk Deer:

Habitat:

Musk deer generally live in dense alpine forest where they can graze silently in peace. They venture out onto the more open steppe at night under cover of darkness to graze. They are often found high in the mountains - often as high as 14000 feet. originating in the Himalayan area, they are now spread through China, Tibet and the surrounding area, and have been imported as game animals into Europe.
Diet:
Musk deer spend a lot of time each day looking for food. during the short summer they are more likely to be found on the steppe grazing on the lush grass and tender shoots of plants, stocking up on a bit of fat for the winter and breeding. During winter they roam widely looking for food, and will take anything they find - twigs, bark, mosses, roots, fruit and berries - even lichen which can be rasped off the rocks.
LifeStyle:
The musk deer is considered to be primitive - neither sex has any antlers at all, and they are solitary animals with very little social graces. The males have a large gland on their bellies that they use to mark their territory, and the large canines that both sexes have grow in males into fangs that protrude from their top lip. Females have a territory of about 120 acres at most, and the territory of a male will overlap with that of several females that he defends and mates with. Mating takes place in autumn, with fawns being born in spring. Generally they are left in secluded areas by their mothers who go off to graze and return to suckle them. Once weaned, the fawns generally leave to set up their own territories. When disturbed, musk deer can make huge leaping bounds of over 15 feet to escape, and change direction sharply to throw off pursuit. They make little noise apart from a hissing sound when annoyed or scared.
Special Skills:

In common with most prey animals, the musk deer has vision that allows it to see as much as possible - including what is approaching from behind, making it useful for observation. It is not known whether it has colour vision, but it is sharp, long-distance and readily focuses on moving objects. Their sense of smell is better than human although not exceptional, although their hearing is acute.

aura weight length
speed (mph)
size intelligence domesticity
4 18kg 100cm
9
8 4 7

Blue Sheep (bharal):

Habitat:

Bharal are steppe sheep and live on the steppe and rocky slopes above it at altitudes of 10,000-18,500 ft.
Diet:
At this height - they eat anything plant-based!
LifeStyle:
Bharal live in very small herds, often consisting of a single family. They are very wary and agile, and if their excellent camouflage fails them when spotted out on the steppe, they will scramble up the nearest cliff and freeze again, blending into the rocky surface. They graze all summer on the rich grasses of the steppe (which unfortunately brings them into direct conflict with herders and their flocks) before migrating further up the slope in autumn.
Special Skills:
Good vision in slot-eye mode. Average sense of smell and hearing.
aura weight length
speed (mph)
size intelligence domesticity
3 60kg 150cm
9
5 4 4

Serow:

Habitat:

The serow is another inhabitant of the steppe where it can occasionally be seen grazing - if it doesn't spot you first and hide.
Diet:
The serow is another small and delicate grazer, nibbling the leaves off small bushes and trees, and chomping through the grasses of the steppe. Unlike other steppe herbivores, although it is nimble enough to climb the rocky slopes, it tends to stay on the steppe and so its numbers are reduced in areas where domesticated animals graze.
LifeStyle:
Serow, like most small herbivores, live in small family groups or even on their own. Each group has a feeding area that it prefers, and trails are worn away between this, favoured latrine sites (usually on the border of the grazing area) and favoured 'sunning spots' on rock ledges where the serow sits to bask and chew the cud. borders are defended more aggressively during the mating season with both sexes marking bushes and grass with secretions from their preorbital glands and fights may occur - serow chase each other taking swipes with their small but sharp horns at the unprotected flanks of the intruder. many become injured.
Special Skills:
Excellent sense of smell and good sight, even in darker places. Hearing is good.
aura weight length
speed (mph)
size intelligence domesticity
3 120kg 150cm
9
5 4 5

Argali Sheep:

Habitat:

Argali sheep are specialised to live in extreme conditions - they inhabit the steppe and rocky slopes in the west of Tibet.
Diet:
Argali sheep have an amazingly robust digestive system and will eat any plant they can.
LifeStyle:
Argali sheep are the largest species of sheep in the world, with the males weighing upto 350 pounds and having horns that can reach over 75 inches in length. They stand approx 4 feet tall at the shoulder.
Special Skills:
Slot-eyed b+w vision that should be almost 360, but is blocked by the massive horns behind the eyes. Reasonable sense of smell and hearing.
aura weight length
speed (mph)
size intelligence domesticity
3 140kg 180cm
9
6 5 6

Pere David's Deer:

Habitat:

Very little is known about the habits of this deer in the wild; the current populations in China and Europe came from the Imperial Gardens in Peking where a French missionary saw them in the early 1800s. He transported several deer back to Woburn in Bedforshire and deer have been re-released from here back to China. they are normally seen at reasonably high altitudes in open areas such as the steppe.
Diet:
This deer is a delicate grazer, nibbling grasses and the shoots of plants as they grow. Although they spend much of their time on the steppe, they do move down the mountain into forested areas during winter, where they graze on the undergrowth.
LifeStyle:
The habits of Pere Davids deer seem roughly to follow those of many other deer; herds are usually mixed except during the mating season when the males leave the herd to set up mating territories. Fights can be fierce and many males are injured fighting for the right to mate with the herds of females that cross their leks. Fawns follow the herd from a young age. Two are usually born in spring but only a small percent survive until adulthood.
Special Skills:
Extremely good vision - can see long distances and also in dark conditions. Also excellent hearing and good smell.
aura weight length
speed (mph)
size intelligence domesticity
4 135kg 180cm
9
8 4 8

Wild Ass (Kyang):

Habitat:

The wild ass is usually found roaming the wide open spaces of the steppe. They have excellent stamina and are said to be able to maintain a speed of nearly 30km/h for over three hours. They have been seen up to altitudes of nearly 17000 feet and can easily scramble up almost vertical rock slopes. They are the general 'go everywhere' all-surface animal of the steppe.
Diet:
The kyang are renowned for their ability to survive on not very much at all. During the summer on the steppe when the limited rain brings out the grasses and wildflowers they gorge themselves and can gain almost half their body weight. This serves them well both during the winter and also during the breeding season. Llike most 'donkeys', they will eat almost anything but grasses and scrubby bushes seem to feature highly in their usual diet. If times become extremely hard they may venture downhill towards more temperate land and graze in fields or woods, but this is rare. Kyang are good swimmers and frequently wallow in water if they find a body of it, but they do not seem to need to drink often. They can survive long drought by getting their water from the vegetation.
LifeStyle:
Herds are usually quite small - less then 50 individuals, but can exceed 200. They are usually led by an elderly female or male, and are an extremely cohesive unit. Sentries are posted when the herd grazes, and they rely on their amazing speed and stamina to get away from predators. During the breeding season, herds tend to break up into family groups, and the males then compete to form harems which they guard against defection by the females and theft by other males. Females usually have a single foal in isolation and rejoin the herd after a few days. Once the season is over, larger herds coalesce again with mature males forming bachelor herds and females and young in larger herds.
Special Skills:
Excellent vision - tends to fixate a bit on moving objects, but can spot danger approaching from a long way off. Good sense of smell if wind is in the right direction, and good hearing.
aura weight length
speed (mph)
size intelligence domesticity
3 250kg 200 cm
9
7 3 8
Other:

Wild Yak:

Habitat:

It occurs in treeless uplands, including plains, hills, and mountains, from as low as 3200 m (10,500 ft) up to the limit of vegetation at about 5400 m (18,000 ft).  It stays in high areas with permanent snow during the warmer months of August and September, and spends the rest of the year at lower elevations. Its huge heart and lungs, specialised blood cells and thick pelt help it to survive temperatures of -40 degrees in winter. The biggest threats to wild yak are hunting and in-breeding with the domesticated yak. there are thought to be more domesticated yak in Tibet than people.
Diet:
In the wild yak eat mainly the grasses of the steppe, along with small plants, bushes and herbs. In winter they descend to a point where their food is not covered by so much snow - although even at these altitudes heavy snowfall may reduce them to grazing lichen off rocks to survive.
LifeStyle:
Yak are truly huge animals, weighing over a tonne apiece. They usually roam n small herds of 10 - 15 animals, but have been seen in herds much larger when vegetation is particularly lush. In snow each yak follows the one in front in single file, treading exactly in eh footsteps of the one in front to prevent accidents, and they are also at home scrambling up rocky slopes. the massive males spend much of their time in bachelor herds, while the much smaller cows and young gather in large herds. Calves are born every two years and remain with their mother for at least 1 year.
Special Skills:
Male yaks have such large heads that they only have monocular vision and have to turn their head to get depth perception of an object. Average sight, smell and hearing - they rely more on size and numbers than senses to keep them safe. May be able to communicate with very low rumblings that travel down the legs and through the ground (like elephants) yak are known as the 'grunting ox'. May be able to detect approach of heavy machinery because of this.
aura
4
weight
length
speed (mph)
size
intelligence
domesticity
800 kg

325 cm

9
10
4
8

Takin:

Habitat:

Mountainous regions in the Himalayas at an altitude of 1,950-4,500 m / 6,500-15,000 ft. normally found on the steppe during summer when the grazing is lush and rocky areas during winter.
Diet:
Takin eat anything remotely vegetable-based including herbs, grasses, trees, roots, lichen, tubers, fruit and berries.
LifeStyle:
Females and young form small herds with a few males, while mature males tend to be solitary.
Special Skills:
Excellent sense of vision and fantastic sense of smell (has large nasal sinus to collect smell and warm air up a bit). Hearing average.
aura
3
weight
length
speed (mph)
size
intelligence
domesticity
350kg
200cm
9
8
4
6
(note: ratings and statistics are game stats only and may have been rounded or abstracted) ©2003 Gameware Development