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ULTIMATE PLAYERS ASSOCIATION
4730 Table Mesa Dr.
Suite J-200
Boulder, CO 80305
800-872-4384
303-447-3472
303-447-3483 fax
Official Rules
(Download PDF version)
PREFACE
The purpose of the rules of Ultimate is to provide a guideline describing the way the game is played. It assumed that no Ultimate player will intentionally violate the rules; thus there are no harsh penalties for inadvertent infractions, but rather a method for resuming play in a manner that simulates what would most likely have occurred had there been no infraction.

In Ultimate, an intentional foul is considered cheating and a gross offense against the spirit of sportsmanship. Often a player is in a position where it is clearly to a player's advantage to foul or commit some infraction, but that player is morally bound to abide by the rules. The integrity of Ultimate depends on each player's responsibility to uphold the spirit of the game, and this responsibility should not be taken lightly.

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. Introduction
  2. Definitions
  3. Field of Play
  4. Equipment
  5. Length of Game
  6. Time Outs
  7. Substitutions
  8. Starting and Restarting Play
  9. In and Out of Bounds
  10. End Zone Possession
  11. Scoring
  12. Turnovers
  13. Thrower
  14. Marker
  15. Receiver
  16. Violations & Fouls
  17. Positioning
  18. Observers
  19. Etiquette
Appendix 1:Standard Field Diagram
  1. Introduction
    1. Description: Ultimate is a non-contact disc sport played by two teams of seven players. The object of the game is to score goals. A goal is scored when a player catches any legal pass in the end zone that player is attacking. Players are not allowed to run while holding the disc. The disc is advanced by throwing or passing it to other players. The disc may be passed in any direction. Any time a pass is incomplete, intercepted, knocked down, or contacts an out-of-bounds area, a turnover occurs, resulting in an immediate change of the team in possession of the disc.
    2. Spirit of the Game: Ultimate relies upon a spirit of sportsmanship which places the responsibility for fair play on the player. Highly competitive play is encouraged, but never at the expense of mutual respect among players, adherence to the agreed upon rules of the game, or the basic joy of play. Protection of these vital elements serves to eliminate adverse conduct from the Ultimate field. Such actions as taunting of opposing players, dangerous aggression, belligerent intimidation, intentional fouling, or other "win-at-all-costs" behavior are contrary to the spirit of the game and must be avoided by all players.
    3. Captain's Clause: A game may be played under any variations of the rules agreed upon by the captains of the teams involved. In tournament play, variations are subject to the approval of the event organizer(s). Such things as length of game, dimensions of the field, number of players and stall count can easily be altered to suit the level of play. Before a game starts, each team designates one captain to represent that team in disagreements and arbitration.
    4. Event Organizers: Event Organizers may modify rules that relate to the logistics of conducting a game to suit the event. Examples of logistics include: The length of the game (game total), upper score limits (caps), time of game limits (time caps), half-time length, number of time-outs, starting time point assessments, player uniform requirements, Observer operations (within the scope of Observer powers as defined below). Any such changes must be established before the start of competition.
    5. General vs. Specific Rules: Many of these rules are general in nature and cover most situations of play. However, some rules cover specific situations and override the general case.
  2. Definitions
    1. Best perspective: Best perspective is the most complete viewpoint available by a player that includes the relative positions of the disc, ground, players and line markers involved in the play. Best perspective on an unlined field may require sighting from one field marker to another.
    2. Brick: A brick is any pull that initially lands out-of-bounds, untouched by the receiving team.
    3. Defensive player: A defensive player is any player whose team is not in possession of the disc.
      1. A defensive player may not pick up a disc in play.
      2. A defensive player may not call for a pass from the thrower.
    4. Event organizer: An event organizer is the person, persons, or entity organizing the competition, whether it is a tournament, tournament series, league, single game or any other type of Ultimate event.
    5. Ground contact: Ground contact refers to all player contact with the ground directly related to a specific event or maneuver, including landing or recovery after being off-balance (e.g., jumping, diving, leaning, or falling).
    6. Legitimate position: Legitimate position is the stationary position established by a player's body excluding extended arms and legs that can be avoided by all opposing players when time and distance are taken into account.
    7. Line: A line is a boundary defining the playing areas. On an unlined field, the boundary is defined as an imaginary line between two field markers with the thickness of said markers. Line segments are not extrapolated beyond the defining markers.
    8. Offensive player: An offensive player is any player whose team is in possession.
    9. Pivot: A pivot is the particular part of the body in continuous contact with a single spot on the field during a thrower's possession. When there is a definitive spot for putting the disc in play, the part of the body in contact with that spot is the pivot.
    10. Player: A player is any of the up to 14 persons who are actually participating in the game at any one time.
    11. Possession of the disc: Possession of the disc is sustained contact with, and control of, a non-spinning disc.
      1. To catch a pass is equivalent to establishing possession of that pass.
      2. Loss of possession due to ground contact related to a pass reception negates that player's possession up to that point.
      3. A disc in the possession of a player is considered part of that player.
      4. The team whose player is in possession or whose players may pick up the disc is considered the team in possession.
    12. Pull: A pull is the throw from one team to the other that starts play at the beginning of a half or after a goal. It is not considered to be a legal throw for scoring and has many special provisions. See VIII.B for more details.
    13. State of the disc: The state of the disc describes the nature of play at any particular moment during the game. There are three states of the disc:
      1. Disc in play: A disc is in play any time the play may proceed without acknowledgment by the defense. The disc is subject to a turnover. To put the disc into play at a particular spot on the field means to establish the pivot at that spot on the field.
      2. Live disc: A disc is live when players are allowed movement, the disc is subject to a turnover, but the thrower cannot make a legal pass (e.g., walking the disc to the spot where it is to be put into play or after a call is made but before play has been stopped).
      3. Dead disc: A disc is dead when play has stopped and can only continue with a check. The disc is not subject to a turnover. When a disc is in the air following a legal pass, the thrower's team is considered the team in possession.
    14. Stoppage of play: A stoppage of play is any halting of play due to a call, discussion or time-out that requires a check or self-check to restart play.
      1. Play is considered to have stopped when the player in possession acknowledges the call. If that player gained possession after the call was made, play is considered stopped at the time possession is gained.
      2. The disc is not subject to a turnover unless the continuation rule applies.
      3. In general, before a check occurs, all players must resume their respective positions at the time of the call.
      4. The term “play stops” means a stoppage of play occurs.
    15. Throw: A throw is a disc in flight following any throwing motion, including after a fake attempt, that results in loss of contact between the thrower and the disc.
      1. A pass is the equivalent of a throw.
      2. The act of throwing is the motion of the thrower that transfers momentum from the player to the disc and results in a throw. Pivots and wind-ups are not considered part of the act of throwing.
    16. Turnover: A turnover is any event resulting in a change of the team in possession.


  3. Field of Play
    1. The standard field of play is a rectangular area with dimensions as shown on the accompanying diagram (Appendix 1).
    2. The standard field of play is a rectangular area 37 meters (40 yards) wide and 64 m (70 yards) long with 23m (25 yard) end-zones on either end. The Brick Mark is 18m (20 yards) from each end-zone midway between the sidelines.
    3. The playing field and surrounds should be essentially flat, free of obstructions, and afford reasonable player safety. Well-trimmed grass is the recommended surface.
    4. The playing field proper is the playing field excluding the end zones.
    5. The goal lines are the lines that separate the playing field proper from the end zones and are part of the playing field proper.
    6. The corners of the playing field proper and the end zones are marked by cones made of a brightly colored, flexible material.
    7. An additional restraining line is established at least five meters from the perimeter lines surrounding the field. Spectators and gear must remain behind this line to ensure the perimeter is safe and clear during play.
    8. All lines are marked with a non-caustic material.
  4. Equipment
    1. Any flying disc may be used as long as it is acceptable to both team captains. If the captains cannot agree, the current Official Disc of the Ultimate Players Association shall be used.
    2. Players may wear any soft protective clothing as long as it does not endanger the safety of any other player or provide unfair advantage.
    3. Cleats with any dangerous parts are not allowed. This includes metallic baseball cleats, track spikes, and worn or broken studs with sharp edges.
    4. Every player must wear a uniform or other clothing that distinguishes that player from the players on the other team. In tournament play, matching uniforms and numbered jerseys are recommended.
    5. Players may not use clothing or equipment to inhibit or assist the movement of the disc or another player.

  5. Length of Game
    1. Game to goals: A standard game is played until one team's number of goals scored first reaches or exceeds 15, the game total, with a margin of at least two goals.
      1. Current scoring attempt: The scoring attempt in progress. A scoring attempt begins when the previous goal is scored and ends when a subsequent goal is scored.
      2. Caps: Maximum score limits imposed before or during a game to limit the time required to declare a winner. The game ends when one team's score first reaches the cap.
        1. A soft cap is a maximum score limit imposed before the event
        2. A time cap is a maximum score limit imposed during a game once a predetermined time of play has elapsed and after the current scoring attempt is completed.
        3. A hard cap is the ending of the game once a predetermined time of game has elapsed and after the current scoring attempt is completed. If the score is tied, the teams play until one additional goal is scored.
      3. The team with the most goals at the end of the game is the winner.
    2. Halftime occurs when one team first reaches, or exceeds, half the game total. Halftime lasts ten minutes.
    3. Overtime occurs when the score is tied at one goal less than the game total wherein the winning score will exceed said game total. Play continues until a two-goal margin, or a cap, is achieved,. (Example: In a game to 15 goals, overtime occurs when the score reaches 14-14 and the minimum winning score is determined to be 16).
  6. Time-Outs
    1. A time-out call stops play and time limit counts either during the current scoring attempt or between one goal and the subsequent pull.
    2. Team Time-out: A standard game has two time-outs per half. The number of team time-outs per half is subject to adjustment by event organizers.
      1. Each team is permitted exactly one time-out in overtime. This means that any team time-outs remaining from regulation are discarded and each team is awarded a single team time-out.
      2. Each team time-out lasts 70 seconds.
      3. A time-out may be called by either team after a goal and before both teams have signalled readiness to start play. Any time limit count is halted and is resumed after 70 seconds has elapsed.
      4. Once both teams have signaled readiness, only the offensive player who has established possession of the disc and a pivot can call a time-out. The player must form a "T" with one hand and the disc and audibly say "time-out". The time-out begins at the moment the first of these actions is performed. The thrower must then place the disc on the ground at the pivot spot.
      5. When play resumes after a time-out:
        1. All offensive players must establish a stationary position by the end of the time-out and the defense has up to twenty seconds to check the disc into play.
        2. The players on the field at the time of the time-out must return to play unless an injury time-out has also been called.
        3. The player who had possession restarts play with a check at the spot of the pivot and the marker resumes the stall count with the word "stalling" followed by the last number uttered prior to the time-out plus one.
      6. If the team in possession has no has time-outs remaining and a player in possession of the disc attempts to call a time-out, it is a turnover. To avoid confusion, there is a stoppage of play and a check on the disc.
    3. Injury Time-out: A time-out called due to an injury to any player. During an injury time-out, the health and safety of the injured player is of primary concern.
      1. An injury time-out can be called by any member of the injured player's team. The time-out call is in effect at the time of the injury. In other words, the call is retroactive to the time the injury occurred.
      2. If the disc is in the air at the time of injury, the play is completed.
        1. The player determined to be in possession at the end of the play puts the disc into play with a check.
        2. If no player is in possession of the disc, the defense puts the disc into play with a self-check.
      3. When play restarts after an injury time-out:
        1. If the player in possession leaves the field following an injury, the replacing player takes possession.
        2. The player determined to be in possession restarts play at the appropriate spot with a check and the marker resumes any stall count with the word "stalling" followed by last number uttered before the injury plus one
        3. All players must assume their respective positions on the field when the time-out was called. Players may not set up when restarting play after an injury time-out, unless it is also a team time-out.
      4. An injury time-out results in a team time-out if the injured player does not leave the game. An exception is allowed if the injury was caused by an opposing player.
      5. If an injury time-out is called during a team time-out, the opposing team must be notified as soon as the injury is discovered.
      6. During the game, any player may call an injury time-out for a player who is bleeding or has an exposed open wound.
        1. This call is in effect at the time of the call and is not retroactive to the time of injury.
        2. The injured player must leave the game
          1. at that time if so requested by an opposing captain, or
          2. at the end of the current scoring attempt if such a request is not made.
        3. The injured player may return in accordance with Section VII only after the affected area is effectively covered.
    4. Equipment Time-out: An equipment time-out may be called to replace a broken disc or to correct a hazardous or illegal condition.
      1. Any player may briefly extend a stoppage of play (e.g. during a foul or violation stoppage) in order to correct faulty equipment, such as tying shoelaces or straightening a warped disc. However, active play may never be stopped for this purpose unless a hazardous situation exists. Note that play has not stopped during a turnover even if the disc is out-of-bounds.
      2. Any player recognizing a hazardous or illegal condition may call an equipment time-out.
        1. Play stops immediately and there is no continuation. If the disc is in the air, the play is completed and play stops when the team in possession is determined.
        2. Only the thrower may call an equipment time-out to replace a game disc. To do, so the disc must be cracked, torn, deeply gouged, creased, or punctured. Warped, wet, or dirty discs do not qualify for an equipment time-out.
      3. A player unable to correct hazardous equipment in a timely manner will be substituted in accordance with paragraph VII.A.3.
      4. When play restarts after an equipment time-out;
        1. The thrower restarts play at the appropriate spot with a check and the marker resumes any stall count as follows:
          1. If the equipment time-out was called during a stoppage of play, the count resumes at the appropriate count for the event that stopped play.
          2. If the equipment time-out stopped play
            1. If the defense called the equipment time-out, the count resumes with the word "stalling" followed by the last number uttered before the call plus one, or six if that number is above six.
            2. If the offense called the equipment time-out, the count resumes with the word "stalling" followed by last number uttered prior to the call plus one.
        2. If the player in possession leaves the field due to hazardous or illegal equipment, the replacing player puts the disc into play.
        3. All players must assume their respective positions on the field when the time-out was called. Players may not set up when restarting play after an equipment time-out.
      5. A team erroneously calling an equipment time-out will be charged with a team time-out, but play is to be restarted immediately. If that team is in possession and has no team time-outs available, it is a turnover.
  7. Substitutions
    1. Substitutions can be made only:
      1. After a goal and before the substituting team has signaled readiness.
      2. Before the beginning of a half.
      3. To replace injured players, or players with hazardous/illegal equipment. If a team replaces players, the opposing team has the option of substituting a like number of, or fewer, players.
  8. Starting and Restarting Play
    1. Start of the game:
      1. Representatives of the two teams fairly determine which team first chooses from the following options:
        1. To receive or throw the initial pull; or
        2. Which end zone they wish to initially defend.
      2. The other team is given the remaining choice.
      3. The second half begins with an automatic reversal of the initial choices (mirror) of the initial choices.
      4. If only one team fails to signal readiness for the start of a scheduled game, the opposing team may be awarded goals by the event organizer(s) at a rate of one goal for every 5 minutes elapsed after the posted start time.
    2. Pull:
      1. Play starts at the beginning of each half and after each goal with a pull.
      2. The pull consists of one player on the pulling team throwing the disc to the opposing team.
      3. Each time a goal is scored, the teams switch the direction of their attack and the team that scored pulls to the opposing team.
      4. The pull may be made only after the thrower and a player on the receiving team raise a hand to signal that team's readiness to begin play. Each team must have a minimum of two players and a maximum of seven players in order to signal readiness.
      5. Positioning before the pull
        1. The players on the pulling team are free to move anywhere in their end zone, but may not cross the goal line until the disc is released.
        2. The players on the receiving team must stand with one foot on the goal line they are defending without changing position relative to one another.
        3. As soon as the disc is released, it is in play and all players may move in any direction.
        4. If either team fails to maintain proper positioning before the pull, the other team may audibly announce "Off-sides" and a re-pull ensues. The call must be made immediately.
      6. No player on the throwing team may touch the pull in the air before it is touched by a member of the receiving team. To do so is a violation, and the receiving team may immediately request a re-pull.
      7. If the pull is allowed to hit the ground untouched, it is put into play as follows:
        1. If the disc hits and remains in-bounds, the disc is put into play at the spot where the disc comes to rest. (Note: Rules allowing players to stop a rolling disc apply.)
        2. If the disc initially hits in-bounds, then becomes out-of-bounds before being touched by the receiving team, the disc is put into play at the spot on the playing field proper (i.e., excluding the end zones) nearest to where it last crossed the perimeter line before becoming out-of-bounds.
        3. If the disc becomes out-of-bounds after being touched by the receiving team, the disc is put into play at the spot on the playing field nearest to where the disc last crossed the perimeter line before becoming out-of-bounds.
        4. If the disc initially hits an out-of-bounds area, the receiving team has the option of putting the disc into play:
          1. at the spot on the playing field proper nearest to where the disc last crossed the perimeter line in flight; or,
          2. after signaling for a brick/middle by fully extending one hand overhead and calling "brick" before gaining possession of the disc:
            1. at the brick mark closest to the end zone the receiving team is defending; or
            2. at the spot on the long axis of the field nearest to where the disc last crossed the perimeter line in flight.
      8. If the pull is caught, the disc is put into play at the spot on the playing field nearest to where the disc was caught.
      9. If the pull is touched by the receiving team before the disc hits the ground and then allowed to hit the ground, it is considered a dropped pull and results in a turnover. The disc is put into play in the same manner as a turnover as described in Sections II, IX, X, XII, and XIII.
      10. After a pull, the disc must be put into play by whichever player takes possession of the disc. If a player drops the disc while carrying it to the spot where the disc will be put into play, the other team gains possession of the disc at the nearest spot on the playing field proper.
      11. There is no stoppage of play when putting the pull into play. If the disc is put into play at some point other than where possession was gained (e.g., if the disc was out-of-bounds or a brick/middle was called), then the thrower signifies the start of play by touching the disc to the ground after establishing a pivot at the spot on the playing field where the disc will be put into play.
    3. Time between pulls:
      1. The maximum time allowed between the scoring of a goal and the ensuing pull is ninety seconds.
        1. The receiving team has up to seventy seconds to signal readiness.
        2. The pulling team has up to twenty additional seconds to prepare its defense and pull the disc.
    4. The Check
      1. When any call or event stops play, all players must come to a stop as quickly as possible and remain in their respective positions until play is restarted.
      2. When the situation is resolved, the player determined to be in possession offers the disc to the marker for a check.
        1. The marker restarts play by touching the disc in possession of the thrower. If the thrower attempts a pass before the marker touches the disc, the pass does not count regardless of whether it is complete or incomplete, and possession reverts to the thrower.
        2. Any stall count in effect is resumed in accordance with XIV.C.5.
        3. Change of field position by any player before the disc is in play is a violation and requires a return to original positions before restarting play.
      3. Offensive Self-check: Whenever play is to be restarted with a check, but no marker is near enough to touch the disc in the thrower's hand, play is re-started using a self-check.
        1. To restart play using an offensive self-check,
          1. The defense must acknowledge readiness.
          2. The thrower establishes a pivot at the appropriate spot on the field, touches the disc to the ground, and announces "IN PLAY".
      4. Defensive self-check: Whenever play is to be restarted with a check but no offensive player is near enough to take possession of the disc at the appropriate spot, play is restarted using a defensive self-check.
        1. To restart play using a defensive self check:
          1. The disc is placed at the appropriate spot on the field.
          2. The offense must acknowledge readiness.
          3. The defender closest to the disc announces the disc "IN PLAY".
  9. In- and Out-of-bounds
    1. The entire playing field is in-bounds. The perimeter lines are not part of the playing field, and are out-of-bounds.
    2. Any area not in-bounds [IX. 1. A] is out-of-bounds.
    3. Any object or player contacting an out-of-bounds area is out-of-bounds. An airborne player whose last ground contact was with an out-of-bounds area is out-of-bounds. All out-of-bounds objects and out-of-bounds offensive players are considered part of the out-of-bounds area. The following exceptions apply:
      1. In the event that momentum carries a player out-of-bounds after gaining possession of an in-bounds disc and landing in-bounds, the player is considered in-bounds. The disc is put into play at the spot on the perimeter line where the player went out-of-bounds. If the player traversed the end zone being attacked, then rule XI.C applies.
      2. The thrower may pivot resulting in contact with an out-of-bounds area, providing that the pivot remains in contact with the playing field. Movement of the pivot out-of-bounds is a travel.
      3. Contact between players does not confer the state of being in- or out-of-bounds from one onto another.
    4. A disc becomes in-bounds when it is put into play, or once play is started or restarted.
    5. A disc becomes out-of-bounds when it first contacts an out-of-bounds area. Contact between a disc and an out-of-bounds defensive player does not make the disc out-of-bounds.
    6. The disc may fly outside a perimeter line and return to the playing field, and defensive players may go out-of-bounds in order to make a play on the disc.
    7. For a player to be considered in-bounds after gaining possession of the disc, that player's first point of ground contact with any area must be completely in-bounds.
      1. If any portion of the first point of contact is out-of-bounds, the player is considered out-of-bounds.
      2. If a defender gains possession while airborne and the first ground contact is out-of-bounds, the possession is negated up to that point.
    8. To continue play when the disc becomes out-of-bounds, a member of the team gaining possession of the disc must carry the disc to, and put the disc into play at, the spot on the playing field proper nearest to where the most recent of the following events occurred:
      1. The disc completely crossed the perimeter line.
      2. The disc contacted an in-bounds player.
      3. The disc contacted a defensive player.
      4. The disc became out-of-bounds due to contact with an out-of-bounds area while the any part of the disc was inside the perimeter line.
    9. Events occurring after the disc becomes out-of-bounds do not affect where the disc is put into play.

  10. End Zone Possession
    1. If a team gains possession in the end zone which it is defending following a turnover, the player taking possession must make the immediate decision to either:
      1. Put the disc into play at the spot of the disc, (to fake a throw or pause after gaining possession commits the player to put the disc into play at that spot); or
      2. Carry it directly to the closest point on the goal line and put it into play at that spot. If this option is chosen, the player taking possession must put the disc into play at the goal line. Failure to do so is a travel.
    2. If a player catches a pass from a teammate in the end zone which they are defending, that player does not have a choice of advancing the disc to the goal line.
    3. If a team gains possession other than by interception of a pass in the end zone which it is attacking, (which is a goal under Section XI.A), the player taking possession must carry the disc directly to the closest spot on the goal line and put the disc into play from there.
  11. Scoring
    1. A goal is scored when a player catches any legal pass in the end zone of attack. (Note: This rule legalizes the Callahan goal and the self-caught tipped pass).
    2. In order to be considered in the end zone after gaining possession of the disc, the player's first point of contact with the ground must be completely in the end zone.
    3. A player cannot score by running into the end zone with the disc. Should momentum carry a player into the end zone after gaining possession, that player must carry the disc back to the closest spot on the playing field proper and put the disc into play at that spot.
    4. A player must be completely in the end zone and acknowledge that a goal has been scored, regardless of any active calls by an official. If that player plays the disc unknowingly into a turnover, then no goal is awarded.
  12. Turnovers
    1. An incomplete, intercepted, or knocked down pass, or a pass in which the disc becomes out-of-bounds, results in a change of the team in possession. If a disc in play is dropped by the thrower without defensive interference, and it contacts the ground before the thrower regains possession, it is considered an incomplete pass.
    2. A pass is considered intercepted if a defensive player catches a pass. If a defensive player catches a pass and accidentally loses possession of it before or during ground contact related to that catch, the defender is considered to have blocked rather than intercepted the pass according to II.D.2.
    3. The following actions result in a change of the team in possession and a stoppage of play:
      1. The marker's count reaches the maximum number.
      2. The disc is handed from player to player.
      3. The thrower catches the thrown disc. However, it is not a turnover if the disc is touched by another player during its flight unless the thrower intentionally deflected the throw off another player.
      4. The thrower calls a team time-out when none remain.
      5. A player's movement is intentionally assisted by a teammate in catching or blocking a pass. If a defender assists a teammate, the intended receiver retains possession.
      6. A player uses an unfair equipment advantage to catch or block a pass. If a defender uses unfair advantage, the intended receiver retains possession.
  13. The Thrower: The thrower is the offensive player in possession of the disc, or the player who has just released the disc.
    1. If the disc is on the ground, whether in- or out-of-bounds, any member of the team becoming offense may take possession of the disc.
      1. Once an offensive player has picked up the disc, that player is required to put the disc into play.
      2. If possession is gained at the spot where the disc is to be put into play, the thrower must establish a pivot at the spot of the disc.
      3. If the disc is to be put into play at a spot other than where possession was gained, the thrower must carry the disc to the appropriate spot on the field, touch the disc to the ground, and put the disc into play at that spot.
      4. If the disc is on the playing field proper, a member of the team becoming offense must put the disc in play within ten seconds. After ten seconds have elapsed, a defensive player in position at the spot of the disc may restart play by announcing "Delay of Game", and may initiate and continue the stall count. In order to invoke this rule the marker must give warnings of ten and five seconds.
      5. If the disc is not on the playing field proper, a member of the team becoming offense must put the disc in play within twenty seconds.
        1. If the disc is not retrievable within twenty seconds, (i.e., far out-of-bounds, or through a crowd), then the thrower may request and be provided an alternative game disc. Any delay count is halted until the offensive player is in possession of the new disc.
        2. After twenty seconds have elapsed, a defensive player in position at the spot the disc is to be put into play may restart play by announcing "delay of game", and may initiate and continue the stall count. In order to invoke this rule the marker must give warnings of twenty, ten and five seconds.
    2. The thrower has the right to pivot in any direction. However, once the marker has established a legitimate stationary position, the thrower may not pivot into the marker's body.
    3. The thrower may throw the disc in any manner and in any direction.
    4. Traveling: The thrower must establish a pivot at the appropriate spot on the field and may not change that pivot until the throw is released. Failure to do so is a travel and results in a stoppage of play and a check. The continuation rule [XVI.G] applies.
      1. The thrower must keep all or part of the pivot in contact with a single spot on the field. If the thrower loses contact with the appropriate spot, the thrower has traveled.
      2. Whenever a pivot spot is defined in the rules and the thrower fails to establish contact with that spot, the thrower has traveled.
      3. If a player speeds up, changes direction, or obviously takes more steps than are required to stop after catching a pass and before establishing a pivot, that player has traveled.
      4. If an offensive player after receiving a pass on the run, releases a pass after the third ground contact and before coming to a complete stop, that player has traveled.
      5. A defensive player who establishes possession of the disc becomes the thrower, but may not throw the disc before establishing a legal pivot. To do so is a traveling violation.
      6. Exceptions:
        1. A non-standing player may lose contact with a pivot point in order to stand up without a traveling violation provided there was no previous throw or fake attempt.
        2. It is not a travel in the case where the thrower has just received a pass and is throwing before the third ground contact in accordance with XV.D.
  14. The Marker: Only one defensive player may guard the thrower at any one time; that player is the marker.
    1. There must be at least one disc diameter between the upper bodies of the thrower and the marker at all times. It is the mutual responsibility of both players to respect each other's position and not encroach into this area once it is established.
    2. The marker's extended arms and legs cannot be positioned in such a manner as to restrict the thrower from pivoting or throwing. Contact resulting from such an action is a foul on the marker.
    3. Stalling: Generally, the thrower is allowed ten seconds of possession in order to release a throw. This possession may be timed by the marker's stall count.
      1. The count consists of the marker loudly announcing "Stalling" and counting from one to ten loudly enough for the thrower to hear.
        1. All intervals between the beginning of one word and the beginning of the next are to be a minimum of one second.
        2. All stall counts, whether initiated, re-initiated or resumed, must start with the word "stalling"
      2. Only a marker within three meters of the thrower's point of ground contact may initiate or continue a stall count. If an offensive player stands over a disc without taking possession, the marker may issue a "Delay of Game" warning. If the disc is not picked up, the marker may initiate and continue a stall count regardless of the actions of the offense.
      3. If the thrower has not released the disc at the first utterance of the word "ten", it is a turnover. The marker loudly announces "Stall" and play stops.
        1. In the event of a stall call, the disc is given to the former marker prior to a check at the location of the stall. The once marker, now offensive player, may either:
        2. (1) place the disc on the ground; After acknowledgment by the defense, the offensive player touches the disc and announces "IN PLAY"; or, (2) retain possession and have the former thrower, now marker, restart play with a check.
        3. The thrower may contest a stall call in the belief that the disc was released before the first utterance of the word "ten". In the event of a contested stall;
        4. (1) If the pass is completed, play stops, and possession reverts to the thrower. After a check, the marker resumes the stall count at "nine". (2) If the pass is incomplete, it is a turnover, and play continues without interruption.
      4. If the defense switches markers, the new marker must re-initiate the stall count. A marker leaving the three-meter radius and returning is considered a new marker.
      5. Any time the marker's count is interrupted by the call of a stall, foul, violation, strip, time-out, fast count, or double team, it is the responsibility of the thrower and marker to agree upon the correct count before the check. The count reached is the last number uttered by the marker prior to the call. The count is resumed with the word "stalling" followed by the number listed below after a one second interval:
            
        a)Defensive Foul/Strip Uncontestedone
        b)Defensive Foul/Strip Contestedcount reached plus one or 6 if over 5
        c)Offensive Foul Uncontestedcount reached plus one
        d)Offensive Foul Contestedcount reached plus one or 6 if over 5
        e)Violations By Offensecount reached plus one or 6 if over 5
        f)Violations By Defenseone
        g)Fast Count/Double Team 
         (1)First Callcount reached minus one; Disc is in play.
         (2)Second Callone; with a check.
        h)Contested Stallnine
        i)Offsetting Callscount reached plus one or 6 if over 5
        j)Unresolved Callscount reached plus one or 6 if over 5
        k)Equipment time-out by defensecount reached plus one or 6 if over 5
        l)Equipment time-out by offensecount reached plus one.
      6. Fast count: If the marker counts more quickly than at one second intervals, or if the marker fails to use the word "stalling" to initiate or resume the count, the thrower may call "fast count".
        1. The first "fast count" call is a warning. On the first "fast count" call, the marker must subtract one from the number last uttered at the time of the call and continue the stall count from that number preceded by the word "stalling".
        2. If "fast count" or "double team" is called again during the same possession by the thrower, play stops and is resumed after a check with the count reset to one.
        3. The continuation rule [XVI.G] applies to fast counts.
        4. If the fast count occurs in such a manner that the thrower does not have a reasonable opportunity to call "fast count" before the utterance of the word "ten," the play is treated the same as a contested stall [XIV.C.3.b].
    4. Double-team:
      1. Only one marker is permitted to guard the thrower.
      2. No other defensive player may establish a position within three meters of the pivot of the thrower, unless that defender is guarding another offensive player in that area. To do so is a double team.
      3. Only a thrower recognizing a double-team situation may call "Double-Team". The offending player must retreat from the marker to beyond the three-meter radius. Failure to do so can result in a second call.
      4. On the first "double-team" call, the marker must subtract one from the last number uttered at the time of the call and continue the stall count with the resulting number preceded by the word "stalling".
      5. If "double-team" or "fast count" is called again within the same possession by the thrower, play stops and is restarted after a check with the count reset to one
      6. The continuation rule [XVI.G] applies to double teams.
    5. The marker may not straddle (i. e., place one foot on either side of) the pivot of the thrower. To do so is a violation by the marker that can only be called by the thrower.
    6. Deliberately blocking a thrower's vision is a violation by the marker and can only be called by the thrower
  15. Receiver: Any offensive player either in the act of catching the disc, or not in possession of the disc.
    1. Bobbling to gain control of the disc is permitted, but purposeful, controlled bobbling to oneself (i. e., tipping, delaying, guiding, or brushing) in order to advance the disc in any direction is considered traveling and is not allowed.
    2. No player may intentionally assist a teammate's movement in order to affect a reception or turnover. To do so results in a loss of possession for that team.
    3. After catching a pass, the receiver is only allowed the fewest number of steps required to come to a stop and establish a pivot.
    4. If the receiver is running or jumping while catching the disc, the receiver may throw a pass before the third ground contact after catching the disc without attempting to stop. However, changing direction or increasing speed while in possession of the disc is a travel.
    5. If the disc is caught simultaneously by offensive and defensive players, the offense retains possession.
    6. If a pass arrives in such a manner that it is unclear whether a catch was made before the disc contacted the ground (grass is considered part of the ground), the player with the best perspective makes the call.
    7. If it is ever unclear whether a receiver was in- or out-of-bounds at the point of making a catch, the player with the best perspective makes the call.
    8. Force-Out Foul: If an airborne player catches the disc, is contacted by a opposing player before landing, and that contact caused the player in possession to land out-of-bounds instead of landing in-bounds, the contacted player may call a foul on the offending player and retain possession at the spot of the foul. If this foul occurs in the end zone being attacked, and results in the player landing outside the end zone, and the call is uncontested, a goal is awarded.
  16. Violations & Fouls
    1. In general, whenever a foul or violation occurs that stops play, players must resume their respective position at the time the foul or violation was called.
    2. In general, whenever there is an infringement of the rules, play stops. Play restarts with the disc at the spot of possession when play stopped. Exceptions are specified elsewhere in these rules.
    3. If a dispute arises concerning a foul, violation, or the outcome of a play (e.g., a catch where no one had a good perspective), and the teams cannot come to a satisfactory resolution, the disc is returned to the thrower and put into play with a check, with the count the same or at six if over five.
    4. If a foul or violation occurs which has no effect on continued play, (e.g., A violation away from the play), play stops, the result of the play stands, and play is restarted with a check.
    5. A rolling or sliding disc may be stopped by any player, but advancing it in any direction is a violation.
    6. Should a foul or violation result in possession reverting to a thrower who was airborne while releasing the disc, play shall be restarted at the spot on the playing field proper closest to where the throw was made.
    7. Continuation Rule: Whenever a call is made, play continues until the thrower in possession acknowledges the call. If the disc is in the air or the thrower is in the act of throwing at the time of the call, play continues until the outcome of that pass is determined. However, play may continue further under the conditions described below:
      1. If the disc is in the air or the thrower is in the act of throwing at the time of the call;
        1. Play continues un-halted if the team that called the foul or violation gains (or retains) possession as a result of that pass (e.g., an incomplete pass following a traveling violation, or offensive foul). In this situation, players should call "play on."
        2. Play stops and the call (possibly contested) is resolved in accordance with the appropriate rule if the team committing the foul or violation gains or retains possession.
      2. If the disc is not in the air and the thrower was not in the act of throwing at the time of the call and the thrower subsequently attempts a pass:
        1. Play continues un-halted if the pass was incomplete and:
          1. the defense called the foul or violation; or;
          2. the thrower called the foul or violation.
        2. Play stops and possession reverts to the original thrower if:
          1. the pass was complete and the call does not result in the defense taking posession (e.g.. an uncontested offensive foul by the receiver); or
          2. the pass was incomplete, but the offensive reception attempt was directly affected by the violation.
    8. If offsetting infractions are called by offensive and defensive players on the same play, the disc reverts to the thrower with the count the same, or six if over five, and play restarts with a check.
    9. Fouls: A Foul is the result of physical contact between opposing players that affects the outcome of the play.
      1. It is the responsibility of all players to avoid contact in every way possible.
      2. In general, the player initiating contact is guilty of a foul.
      3. A foul can only be called by the player who has been fouled and must be announced by loudly calling out the word "Foul!" immediately after the foul has occurred.
      4. Dangerous, aggressive behavior, or reckless disregard for the safety of fellow players or harmful endangerment is always a foul. This rule is not superseded by any other rule.
      5. If a player's attempt to make a play on the disc causes significant impact with a legitimately positioned stationary opponent, before or after the disc arrives, it is considered "harmful endangerment".
      6. Throwing Fouls:
        1. A throwing foul may be called when there is contact between the thrower and the marker. The disc in a thrower's possession is considered part of the thrower.
        2. A throwing foul results in a turnover only if the continuation rule applies.
        3. Although it should be avoided whenever possible, incidental contact occurring during the follow-through (after the disc has been released) is not sufficient grounds for a foul, unless the contact constitutes harmful endangerment.
      7. Receiving Fouls:
        1. A receiving foul may be called when there is contact between opposing players in the process of attempting a catch, interception, or knock down. A certain amount of incidental contact before, during, or immediately after the catching attempt is often unavoidable and is not a foul.
        2. If a player contacts an opponent before the disc arrives and thereby interferes with that opponent's attempt to make a play on the disc, that player has committed a foul.
        3. If a receiving foul occurs and is uncontested, the player fouled gains possession at the spot of the infraction. If the call is contested, the disc reverts to the thrower. If an uncontested foul (with the exception of a force-out foul [XV. H]) occurs in the end zone being attacked by the fouled player, the player fouled gains possession at the spot on the goal line closest to the location of the infraction.
        4. The Principle of Verticality: All players have the right to the space immediately above them. Thus, a player cannot prevent an opponent from making an attempt on a pass by reaching over an opponent. Should contact occur before the outcome of the play is determined, it is a foul on the player restricting the vertical space.
      8. Blocking fouls:
        1. When the disc is in the air, players must play the disc, not the opponent. A player may not move in a manner solely to prevent an opponent from taking an unoccupied position via an unoccupied path.
          1. Contact resulting from playing the opponent is a foul on the blocking player.
          2. If adjacent opposing players simultaneously vie for the same unoccupied position, the contact is considered incidental and is not a foul.
        2. When the disc is not in the air, players may not take a position that is unavoidable by a moving opponent when time, distance, and line of sight are taken into account. Contact resulting from a player taking an unavoidable position is a foul on the blocking player.
      9. Strip: No defensive player may touch the disc while it is in possession of an offensive player. If a defensive player initiates contact with the disc, and the offensive player loses possession as a result, it is a strip. A strip is handled in the same manner as a foul, but an uncontested strip in the end zone is a goal.
    10. Violations:
      1. A violation occurs when a player violates the rules in a manner that does not result in physical contact.
      2. A violation may be called by any player who recognizes that a violation has occurred, unless specified differently elsewhere. The player must immediately call "violation" or the name of the specific violation loudly.
      3. Play stops and is restarted with a check.
    11. Picks:
      1. No offensive player may move in such a manner to cause a defensive player guarding a receiver to be obstructed by another player. Obstruction may be the result of contact with, or the need to avoid, the offending player. To do so while the obstructed defensive player is within three meters of the receiver is a "pick".
      2. In the event of a pick:
        1. the obstructed player must immediately call "Pick" loudly.
        2. Play stops and is restarted with a check, unless the continuation rule [XVI.G] applies.
        3. The obstructed player is allowed to recover the relative position lost because of the pick.
  17. Positioning
    1. It is the responsibility of all players to avoid contact in every way possible.
    2. Every player is entitled to occupy any position on the field not occupied by an opposing player, unless specifically over-ridden elsewhere, provided that no personal contact is caused in taking such a position.
    3. A player who jumped is entitled to land at the same spot without hindrance by opponents. That player may also land at another spot provided the landing spot was not already occupied at the time of take-off and that the direct path between the take-off and landing spot was not already occupied.
  18. Observers
    1. Observers may be used if desired by the captains and/or tournament organizers. Observers are non-players whose role is to carefully watch the action of the game.
    2. Observers may perform any or all of the following duties, as designated in advance:
      1. Track time limits.
      2. Announce time limit warnings and expirations.
      3. Resolve player disputes in a timely manner.
        1. Any player directly involved in the disputed call may request observer resolution.
        2. An observer may actively resolve a continuing dispute.
      4. Censure or eject players for sportsmanship infractions.
      5. Render opinions on other on-field events (such as line calls and offside calls), within the scope determined in advance by the tournament organizer(s).
    3. By playing under observers, the players agree to abide by the observers' decisions.
  19. Etiquette
    1. If a foul is committed and not called, the player who committed the foul should inform the infracted player of the foul.
    2. It is the responsibility of all players to avoid any delay when starting, restarting, or continuing play.
    3. Should a dispute or confusion arise on the field, it should be common practice to stop play. Play restarts with a check when the matter is resolved.
    4. If a novice player commits an infraction out of sincere ignorance of rules, it is common practice to stop play and explain the infraction.
Appendix 1: Standard Field Diagram