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measure which would appear to be in some degree justified by Roman notions, if it followed the treaty with Mithridates. Plutarch (Set-tor. 22) mentions this fact before he mentions the treaty; but his chronology cannot be trusted.

Jealousy among the party of Sertorius was the immediate cause of his ruin. Many Roman nobles who served under him, envied the man who was their superior, and Perperna, for his own ambitious purposes, increased the disaffection. Pompeius, who was in the north of Spain, was now besieging Palencia (Palantia) in Leon, but he retreated on the approach of Sertorius, and joined Metellus. The two generals advanced against Calahorra on the Ebro, but here they were attacked by Sertorius, and sustained great loss. Metellus spent the winter in Nearer Spain, and Pompeius was compelled, by want of supplies, to spend the winter in Gallia, in the province of M. Fonterns (Cic. pro Font. 3). Sertorius was actively employed in visiting the south-east coast of Spain and inspecting his fleet, which was employed in intercepting any supplies to the enemy.

The events of the campaigns b. c. 73 and 72 are merely hinted at by the ancient authorities. Sertorius lost many towns ; but there was no de­cisive battle. He began to abate his activity, to indulge in wine and women, and to become cruel and suspicious. (Appian, i. 113). There was, indeed, good reason for his suspicions ; but as to the rest, Appian's testimony is doubtful. He had taken Spaniards for his guard, because he distrusted his own countrymen. The Spaniards of higher rank were dissatisfied with not having the same distinctions as the Romans ; and many were made indifferent to the cause of Sertorius by the success of Pompeius and Metellus. Many of the Romans " secretly damaged all his measures, and they oppressed the barbarians by severe treatment and exactions, on the pretext that it was by the order of Sertorius. This caused revolts and disturbances in the cities j and those who were sent to settle and pacify these outbreaks, returned after causing more wars and increasing the existing insubordination; so that Sertorius, contrary to his former moderation and mildness, did a grievous wrong to the sons of the Iberians (Spaniards) who were educating at Osca, by putting some to death and selling others as slaves" (Plut. Sertor. 25). But the conspi­rators against the life of Sertorius were all Ro­mans, and only ten in number. They sent to Sertorius a forged letter, which announced a victory gained by one of his generals. Sertorius offered a sacrifice for the happy tidings, and Perperna, after much entreaty, prevailed on him to accept an in­vitation to a banquet. The conspirators were afraid to do the deed that they had planned : they tried to provoke the anger of Sertorius by obscene language, which they knew that he hated, and by indecent behaviour under the assumed guise of drunkenness. Sertorius changed his posture on the couch by throwing himself on his back and pre­tending not to listen to them. But on Perperna taking a cup of wine, and, in the midst of the draught, throwing it away, which was the signal agreed on, Manius Antonius struck him with his sword. Sertorius attempted to rise, but Antonius threw himself upon him, and held his hands \vhile the rest of the conspirators despatched him. Thus ended the war of Sertorius b. c. 72. The termina* tion brought no glory to Metellus and Pompeius,


for the hands of assassins, and not their skill or courage, concluded the contest. The loss of all complete and authentic materials for the war of Sertorius is ill supplied by the life in Plutarch. Drumann (Pompeii) has collected and arranged the scattered fragments of the history, and he has done it with care and ability. A certain amount of con­ jecture or inference is, however, necessary to fill up even the scantiest outline of the war. Plutarch's Life of Sertorius, translated by G. Long, contains a few notes. Corneille has made Sertorius the subject of a tragedy ; and a modern writer, of a novel or romance, " The Fawn of Sertorius," Lon­ don, ] 846. [G.L.]

Q. SERVAEUS,was appointed to the government of Commagene in the reign of Tiberius, a.d, 18, having been previously praetor. He was a friend of Germanicus, and after the death of the latter was one of the accusers of Cn. Piso, in a.d. 20 [Piso, No. 23.] He was involved in the fall of Sejanus, was accused and condemned, but saved himself by turning informer, a.d. 32. (Tac. Ann. ii. 56,iii. 13,vi. 7.)

SERVIANUS, JU'LIUS, whose full name, as we learn from an inscription, was C. julius servilius ursus servian us, was the brother-in-law of Hadrian, having married his sister Do-mitia Paulina. This marriage took place before the accession of Trajan to the empire; and Ser-vianus was so jealous of the favour of his brother-in-law with Trajan, that he attempted to stop him when he was hastening to Trajan in Germany to announce the death of Nerva in A. d. 96. Ser-vianus afterwards became reconciled to Hadrian, and appears to have lived on good terms with him during the reign of Trajan. By this emperor he was twice raised to the consulship, as we see from inscriptions, once in a.d. 107, and again in 111. It was also during the reign of Trajan that he married his daughter to Fuscus Salinator, on which occasion Pliny wrote him a letter of congratulation. (Plin. Ep. vi. 26.) Hadrian, on his accession in a.d. 117, appeared to have quite forgotten and forgiven the former enmity of Servianus, for he treated him with distinguished honour, raised him to the consulship for the third time in a.d. 134, and gave him hopes of succeeding to the empire. But when he resolved to appoint L. Commodus Verus his successor, and made him Caesar in A. d. 136, he put Servianus and his grandson Fuscus to death, fearing that they might aspire to the throne. Servianus was then in his ninetieth year. (Spart. Hadr. 1, 2, 8, 15, 23,25 ; Plin.^o. iii. 17, vi. 26 ; Dion Cass. lix. 2, 17, comp. Ixxvi. 7.)

SERVFLIA. 1. The wife of Q. Lutatius Catulus, consul, b.c. 102. Their daughter Lutatia married the orator Q. Hortensius, whence Cicero calls Servilia the socrus of Hortensius (Cic. Verr, ii. 8.)

2. The mother of M. Junius Brutus, the mur­derer of Caesar. She was the daughter of Livia, the sister of the celebrated M. Livius Drusus, tribune of the plebs, b.c. 91. Her mother Livia was married twice ; first to M. Cato, by whom she had M. Cato Uticensis, and next to Q. Servi-lius Caepio, by whom she became the mother of this Servilia, and of her sister spoken of below. Servilia herself was married twice ; first to M. Junius Brutus [brutus, No. 20], by whom she became the mother of the murderer of Caesar, and se­condly to D. Junius Silanus, consul b. c. 62. This

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