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Geography and History
History And Culture
Mazandaran, Political Map

Geographical Position

Mazandaran Provincecovers an area of 23,833 sq. km. The townships of the province are as follows: Amol, Babol, Babolsar, Behshahr, Tonekabon, Chaloos, Ramsar, Sary, Savad Kooh, Qaem Shahr, Mahmood Abad, Neka, Noor, and Noshahr. The city of Sary is the center of Mazandaran Province.
Mazandaran (Khazar) Sea or the Caspian Sea is to the north, the provinces of Tehran and Semnan lie towards the south. To the west it has common borders with the Gilan Province, and to the east

stands the Province of Golestan. According to the census of 1996, the population of the province was about 2.6 million of which 46 % were registered as urban dwellers, 54 % dwell in the rural areas and the remaining were non-residents.
From the geographical point of view, Mazandaran Province is divided into two parts i.e. coastal plain and the mountainous area. The Alborz Mountain Range like a huge wall has surrounded the coastal strip and plains of the Caspian Sea. Due to permanent sea breeze and local winds of the southern and eastern coasts of the Caspian Sea, sandy hills are formed, causing the appearance of a low natural barrier between the sea and plain.


Mazandaran Province naturally comes under the influence of the geographical latitude, Alborz heights, elevation from sea level, distance from the sea, and the southern barren areas of Turkmenistan, local and regional air currents, and versatile vegetation cover. Therefore, prompting the climate of the province to be divided into three types:
Moderate Caspian weather with hot, humid summers, and mild, humid winters
Moderate mountainous weather with long, cold, and freezing winters and mild and short summers
Cold mountainous weather with long freezing winters and short cool summers. There is often snowfall during most of the seasons in this region, which continues until midsummer.Error processing SSI file

History and Culture

There is not much information available on the ancient history of the province, and basically the climatic conditions of the region have prevented the existence of historical monuments. There are no sound vestiges obtained related to the pre-Islamic periods in the coastal plains of Mazandaran. Besides, there is no monument or memorial present in the reputed cities of the early Islamic period, except for the Amol and Sary cities. On the encroachment of the Aryans and the migration of natives, the new settlers, came under the Achaemenian rulers for a period of time. In the year 30 A.H. during the caliphate of Osman, Saad-Ebne-Aas, the governor of Kufeh, conquered the coasts of Tabarestan, Roomian, and Damavand.
During the caliphate of Abou Jafar Mansour (136-158 A.H.), the second Abbasi Caliph, the people of Tabarestan revolted against him continuously. Ultimately, Vandad Hormoz established an independent dynasty in Tabarestan in 167 A.H. In the year 426 A.H. Sultan Mahmoud Qaznavi entered Tabarestan via Gorgan and was responsible for heavy damages.
Sultan Mohammad Kharazmshah invaded Tabarestan in the year 606 A.H. Thereafter, the Mongols governed the region and finally were overthrown by the Teimoorids.
On the death of Amir Teimoor, Sa'adat Marashi (807-850 A.H.) returned to the region and took over the power, but lost the same during the reign of Shah Abbas I.
After the dissolution of the feudal government of Tabarestan, which held power till the year 1006 A.H., the region was dominated by Shah Abbas I and his successors.
During the reign of Nader Shah, a ship building foundry or workshop was established in Mazandaran in order to confront with enemies specially the Russians. During the reign of Fathali Shah Qajar, the verdant region of Mazandaran was paid due attention as a recreational area. During the Pahlavi era, a network of roads was constructed in this region, as in other parts of the country. Suitable environmental conditions, pleasant and moderate climate, beautiful natural landscapes, and proximity to Teheran, have caused this province to be one of the main recreational and tourism areas of the country.
Besides catering to the local or native inhabitants, Mazandaran Province, has offered refuge to many other communities such as the Balooch, Turks, Lors, Afqans, Georgians, and the Armenians, who have upheld their respective traditions and culture till now.
The Tabari or Mazandarani language is the ancient language of the Iranians or (Persian) dialect. This was one of the languages that did not come under the influence of others, such as the foreign languages of the Mongols, Arabic and the Tatar, and remains till this date in various dialects in the region. Reputed scholars and poets have been raised in this territory, for example, Nima the famous contemporary poet of Iran.Error processing SSI file

Political Map
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Mahmood Abad
Qaem Shahr
Savad Kooh


The township of Amol is located to the west of the province. To the north and south of which are the alluvial plains, with a considerably warm and humid climate; and the Alborz mountains respectively. Some historians in the past have associated this ancient city with the periods of the Pishdadians and the 'Kianians'. In respect to the relics and coins found in this region, this city can be said to be the capital of this territory during the Sassanid era. The inhabitants of Amol city embraced Islam during the reign of Mahdi, the Abbasi Caliph, after which Islamic structures came into focus here.
But after the Mongol invasion, the region was subject to devastation and it was during this time that Sary was declared as capital. In the beginning of the 7th century A.H., Hessam-edin Ardeshir, shifted the capital from Sary to Amol, and constructed his palace there. But in the year 795 A.H., the cities of Amol and Sary were plundered by Amir Teimoor Gurkani and there after Amol suffered a set-back. The great scholar and religious personality (translator of The Holy Qoran), Mohammad Ebne Jarir Tabari is from Amol city. Today, the new city of Amol stands to the north of the ancient city, and is a thriving vicinity. Amol is situated at a distance of 240 km. from Tehran.Error processing SSI file


The township of Babol stretches out in a north-south direction, to the north of which is the township of Babolsar, and the coastal plains. Whereas, to the south is the township of Damavand in Tehran Province. Apart from the northern sector and central sections that are located in the plains, the southern segment in the mountainous region, being cold in the upper areas and humid and temperate in the plains. The original name of the city was Mamtir and in the 10th century A.H. the city of Barforoosh came up in its place and in the year 160 A.H. Maziyar Ebne Qaran constructed the Jame' Mosque.
During the Savafid and Qajar eras the city prospered and thrived specially in the economic field and took an important position during the reign of Fathali Shah. Before the October revolution in Russia, Babol maintained commercial ties with Russia, via the Port of Babolsar, and thereby became one of the important trading centers in Mazandaran Province. Today, it is one of the most beautiful cities of the province and is located 268 km. from Tehran.Error processing SSI file


The township of Babolsar is located in the coastal plains of Mazandaran, and its center is the city of Babolsar, which lies at a distance of 268 km. from Tehran. Babolsar, a city with more than a century of history, stands at the mouth of the Babol River and was called Meshadsar in the old times during which this portal city played an important role regarding trade and commerce between Iran and Russia. Later on, Babolsar lost its importance, only to be favored once again during the reign of Pahlavi I. This city though small is beautiful, and is famous for its recreational areas and relaxing atmosphere.Error processing SSI file


The township of Behshahr is to the east of the province and to the north of which is the Caspian Sea. This region experiences a temperate and humid climate with the city of Behshahr as its center, located 326 km. from Tehran. This city nestles in the northern skirts of the Alborz Mountains. This territory was formerly known as Kharguran, and was erected under the orders of Shah Abbas; thence known as Ashraf-ol-Belad. Shah Abbas was responsible for bringing a large number of Georgians to this territory in order to create a settlement.
Thereby in this city, various tribes or clans such as, the Georgians, Talesh, Lankaran and Taat live. This region today besides the natural landscape has historical relics too.Error processing SSI file


This township is within the limits of the Caspian Sea to the north and to Tehran in the south, with suitable geographical conditions. Its main city is Chaloos, which is situated in the form of a crossroad and accounts for one of the ancient cities of the province and located in the central coastal plains of the Caspian Sea. In the ancient times this city was called Saloos or Shahloos. Near this city were two other smaller cities by the names of Kabeereh and Kacheh. An historian writes that the ancient geographical scholars state that Chaloos was a part of Tabarestan.
Mohammad Ebne Ovais, one of the commanders of the Arab caliphates, appointed his son Ahmad as ruler of Chaloos. During the invasion of Amir Teimoor, the city was turned to rubble and for centuries remained a tiny village. At the beginning of 14th century A.H., with government support it gradually developed, turning into a city. Today it is a beautiful city with a wide range of facilities for tourists.Error processing SSI file

Mahmood Abad

Mahmood Abad in past, was one of the ports of Amol and held an important position concerning transport and trade between Iran and Russia. But with the development of ports such as, Noshahr and Anzali, Mahmood Abad lost its importance, and today is one of the cities on the fringes of the Caspian Sea that engulfs suitable recreational areas and offers service facilities to visitors.Error processing SSI file


This township is located to the southeast of Sary and in the fringes of the Caspian Sea, and close to the city of Behshahr. The said city is also considered as an industrial locality in the northern territory. Not much is known about this area in geographical or historical accounts of the past, that is till the Qajar dynasty. But in the geographical records of the early Islamic period, the name Mirdan a city near the current city of Neka has been mentioned. Deh Khoda has mentioned the River Neka in his encyclopedia. It seems that Neka was a vicinity or 'block' comprising of various rural settlements.
The present Neka has sprung up from the village of 'Naranj', alongside a bridge on Neka River within the past 70 years. Due to the railway line running across this area, and suitable network of communications, together with the establishment of the wood industry, oil reservoirs and an electric power plant, the area is one of the important developing centers of the province. Furthermore, Neka has a beautiful coastline and is near the Peninsula of Miankaleh.Error processing SSI file


The township of Noor is located in the center of the province, to the north of which is the Caspian Sea, and to its south the Province of Tehran. The city of Noor is located in the coastal plains with a humid and temperate climate, and at a distance of 243 km. from Tehran. In the past, Noor was reputedly known as Suldeh and is one of the ancient cities of western Mazandaran. The same has been named due to a sparkling Noor river in this vicinity and because of its strategic position held its own. The presence of castles and other fortifications reveal this fact.Error processing SSI file


The township of Noshahr is located within the limits of the Caspian Sea to its north, and the Alborz Mountains in the south. The southern region experiences a mountainous climate, whereas the northern sector in the plains, has a temperate and humid climate. Formerly, Noshahr was known as Khajak and because of its prominent coastal position and port facilitation, drew attention. With the passage of time, it came to be known as Habib Abad. In the year 1939 it was named Noshahr.
At present it enjoys good port facilities and is considered as one of the active ports in the Caspian Sea region. After the dissolution of U.S.S.R, Noshahr has maintained ties with various republics in the vicinity of the Caspian Sea and plays an important part in this realm. Noshahr is located 195 km. from Tehran.Error processing SSI file

Qaem Shahr

The township of Qaem Shahr is located to the west of Sary and to its northern limits is the Caspian Sea. Qaem Shahr is situated in a lush green plain and in past was known as Ali Abad. Ali Abad was a village having a mausoleum which drew pilgrims to this area. This vicinity also has a palace from the times of Shah Abbas. But with the passage of time, other villages amalgamating to the village of Ali Abad, and gradually grew into a city. In the year 1935 it was called Shahi, and since then has become an industrial city. It is said that this city is related to the Espahbodan period.Error processing SSI file


Ramsar is located to the extreme west of the province, to the north of which lies the Caspian Sea, and to the west and south are the provinces of Gilan and Qazvin respectively. Ramsar is one of the old cities of the province, and according to historical records dates to approximately a thousand years back. A reputed and large family dwelled here and a major portion of them were 'Saadat' (or descendants of the Prophet Mohammad A.S). Prior to 1931 Ramsar was a rural area by the name of Sakhtsar.
Today this historical city has expanded and thereby turned into an excellent recreational area in northern Iran, enhanced with natural beauty, a place to enjoy for foreign visitors.Error processing SSI file


Sary is the largest township of the province and is located in the center of the province and has a moderate and humid climate. The city of Sary is the capital city of Mazandaran Province, and is located 277 km. from Tehran. The city was primarily constructed in the pre-Islamic period and is related to Toos-Ebne-Nowdar. The large mosque of Sary was the first structure to be erected in the year 140 A.H. by the Moslems. In the year 298 A.H. the city was set to flames by tribes that thronged to it from the vicinity of the Caspian. In the beginning of the 4th century A.H., floods caused severe damage to this area. During the reign of Kharazmshah and the Mongol invasion, Sary was witness to further destruction. In the reign of Shah Abbas Safavid, important edifices were built in Sary.
During the Zandiyeh conquests in Tabarestan, the capital was shifted to Barforoosh (Babol). In the years 1200-1211 A.H. that is during the rule of Aqa Mohammad Khan Qajar, the capital city was once more transferred from Barforoosh to Sary, and once again promoted its importance. Today this beautiful city with the construction of private and government buildings, along with a railway line passing alongside the city, together with a good network of roads is a prospering vicinity.Error processing SSI file

Savad Kooh

The township of Savad Kooh has emerged from the setting and the expansion of the rural areas in the valley and mountainous region, with a habitat, full of natural vegetation with a moderate climate. Today this vicinity is one of the main centers of tourism.Error processing SSI file


The township of Tonekabon exists along the Caspian Sea in the north and has common borders with the Province of Qazvin from south. In its northern regions it has a moderate and humid climate and in the southern portions cold weather prevails. The main city is Tonekabon, which is 257 km. from Tehran. The territory of Tonekabon was originally part of Gilan.
Numerous evidences discovered in various parts of the region, indicate that it was a flourishing city in past. The ancient Tonekabon came under the realm of the Royan territory, also called Rostamdar. The Padusbanan held the power of this vicinity till the reign of Shah Abbas Safavid I. There after till the year 1209 A.H. which was the beginning of the reign of Aqa Mohammad Khan Qajar, this city was known as Faiz. After downfall of this dynasty, the city was called Shahsavar, and thence after the Islamic Revolution was reverted to Tonekabon once more. It is a thriving city worth visiting.Error processing SSI file

Historical Monuments
Palaces and Edifices
Historical Bridges
Old and Historical Houses
Old Public Baths and Water Reservoirs
Historical Caves
Other Historical Monuments

Palaces and Edifices
Baq-e-Shah (Safavi) Edifice and Garden, Behshahr

The municipality of Behshahr city is the former Baq-e-Shah, reputedly known as Ashraf-ol-Belad of the Safavid period, which is full of fir trees and beautiful flowers. A new structure has been built on the ruins of the old one, well known as the 'Dewan Khaneh'. The length of this building is thrice the width.Error processing SSI file

Farah Abad (Safavi) Aggregate, Sary

This aggregate is at a distance of 28 km. north of Sary, in the village of Farah Abad. During the reign of Shah Abbas Safavid, the same was considered as one of the important structures in the north of Iran. It was because of this reason that the royal palaces, mosques, schools, bazaars, baths, bridges and gardens were set up here. Unfortunately this was destroyed by a group of rebellious Cossacks of the Tzar. Only the mosque remained untouched in this turmoil.
The said structure, that is the mosque comprised of a central court-yard and chambers on the east, west and northern sides. It is unique in architectural techniques and was most probably utilized as a school. Today, this mosque is in a better condition as it has undergone repairs. But unfortunately, due to the passage of time, the palace (Jahan Nama) is heading towards deterioration.Error processing SSI file

Ramsar Edifice and Garden, Ramsar

The historical garden of Ramsar and its relative structures are on national record and under support of the Cultural Heritage Organization of Iran. This garden covers an area of 60,000 sq. m. and is one of the beautiful and traditional gardens in Mazandaran Province and Iran. The edifice within is a single storied, rectangular building, with a central hall, rooms and a porch with columns of stone. The architectural plan has involved great detail and shows the imprint of the reign of Pahlavi I, with its marble, plaster and mirror works.Error processing SSI file

Safi Abad Palace, Behshahr

This palace is situated on a mount overlooking the city of Behshahr. The palace is a relic of the Safavid period and has been repaired during the Pahlavi era. The said is square in structure and is a two storied edifice with a circular ceiling. Both internally and externally, the structure had been adorned with colored tiles belong to the same period. Unfortunately no trace of this effect has been remained today. On all sides of the palace are beautiful windows. Materials used in the construction are tiles and bricks.Error processing SSI file

Tamishan Palace, Noor

This palace is located 5 km. from Noor city, and was constructed under the orders of Ashraf Pahlavi (the sibling of Mohammad Reza Shah), during the reign of Pahlavi II. The said palace today is included in the aggregate of palaces which are under the surveillance of the 'Janbaz' (war veteran) Foundation. The grounds of the said palace are extremely large and include a swimming pool, stable and residential quarters for the guards. There is another palatial building opposite the palace, on the coast of the Caspian Sea; this was used as the private beach premises by the royal family.Error processing SSI file

Other Palaces and Edifices, Mazandaran

Other edifices and palaces in Mazandaran Province are: The Abbas Abad palace located 8 km. southeast of the township of Behshahr (related to the Safavid era): the Cheshmeh Emarat Palace in Behshahr (related to the Safavid period); the Owjabat Palace in Kalar Dasht (related to the Pahlavi era); the Babol palace in south Babol (related to the Pahlavi reign); and the Chaikhoran palace in Chaloos (related to the Pahlavi era).Error processing SSI file

Historical Bridges

Due to the fact that the province has numerous rivers, thereby from the past, bridges have been a must till date. Some of these ancient bridges have historical and cultural value.Error processing SSI file

Darvazeh Pelleh Bridge, Amol

This brick made bridge spans over the Haraz River in the city center of Amol, connecting the east of the city to the western section. It is 120 m. in length. The arches rest on rectangular pillars which are at a distance of 6 m. from each other. In a section a breakwater has been erected. This bridge was constructed in the 18th century A.D. and was brought under repair in the 19th century, by Mirza Shafi Mazandarani, a minister of Nasseredin Shah. This bridge has played a role, not only towards the vitality of the city, but also in respect to its spectacular architectural effect. It is a land mark in the history of Mazandaran.Error processing SSI file

Mohammad Hassan Khan Bridge, Babol

This large bridge was constructed in the year 1146 A.H., in the beginning of the reign of Karim Khan Zand. The bridge spans over the Babol River. The same has seven main aches and two smaller ones to the height of 11 m. The length of this bridge is 140 m. and is to the width of 6 m. The said is considered as one of the important and ancient bridges of the province.Error processing SSI file

Veresk Bridge, Savad Kooh

This bridge was constructed during the reign of Reza Shah, on the Veresk River in the vicinity of Savad Kooh. During World War II, it was reputedly known as the Pol-e-Piroozi, or the bridge of victory. The bridge is at an elevation of 110 m. and its arch measures 66 m. in length. The same is one of the master pieces of engineering to do with the railway track in northern Iran.Error processing SSI file

Other Old Bridges, Mazandaran

Other bridges of Mazandaran Province are named as, Chaloos Bridge, on Chaloos River, Babolsar Bridge and Small Babolsar Bridge, on Babolsar River, Feridun Kenar Bridge, on Namaz Rood River, and Sorkh Rood Bridge, on Haraz River.Error processing SSI file

Baladeh Castle, Noor

This structure ranks first in importance amongst the other castles in Mazandaran Province. It was utilized even in the early Safavid era, and was then one of the seats of local power. The loftiness of this castle is apparent in its remnants on the hill, overlooking a section of Baladeh. On the fall of the Paduspani dynasty, the structure fell into the hands of the Safavids. If the same, be repaired it will be an attractive sight-seeing area.Error processing SSI file

Kangaloo Castle, Savad Kooh

The same is at a distance of 20 km. southeast of Do Ab, and is situated on a rocky elevation. Due to the passage of time, a major part of this structure is in a state of ruin. The facade and ramparts are of stone, with watch towers at distances. The structure is circular internally and is a two storied one. Materials used in the construction are slabs of stone, and a mixture of gypsum and stone. The same is unique is respect to architecture, and is a relic from the early Safavid period.Error processing SSI file

Other Castles, Mazandaran

Other castles and towers of the province are Shahan Dasht castle, in the village of Larijan of Amol and Zain-ol-Abedin Tower, in Sary.Error processing SSI file

Mashhad Mir Bozorg (Mir Mara'shi) Tomb, Amol

This structure is one of the important historical constructions of Mazandaran. The original structure was square in shape, and was constructed in the 8th century A.H. But the current one is related to the Safavid era, that is the 11th century A.H. Here the internal appearance, facade, adornments, tile work, and particularly the entrance door is of great historical value. Holy phrases have been inscribed in the kufic script, on glazed bricks on the internal part of the dome, thus adorning the same.Error processing SSI file

Other Tombs, Mazandaran

Other famous Tombs of the province are: Aqa Shah Baluzadeh Mausoleum 21 km. southeast of Soldeh in the village of Ahoo Dasht, Noor; the Sultan Mohammad Taher Mausoleum on the Babol - Kiakolla road; the Mir Heydar (Sar Seyed) Mausoleum; the famous Atishkadeh Tower in Amol;Shah Fakhruddin Mausoleum (Kalma), and Shatir Gonbad Mausoleum in Sary; the Dervish Fakhruddin Mausoleum in Babol.Error processing SSI file

Lajim Tower, Savad Kooh

This tower is situated in the village of Lajim, in the township of Savad Kooh, and is incorrectly come to be known as Imamzadeh Abdollah. The same has been constructed on simple lines, but at the same time holds an elegance. It is round in shape and has a conical dome. Two inscriptions of brick can be noted here, bearing the Kufic, Pahlavi, and Sassanid scripts. The former reveals the date of 413 A.H. After essential repairs, this vicinity is presently a place of pilgrimage for the inhabitants of the Lajim Village and other rural areas of Savad Kooh.Error processing SSI file

Resket Tower, Sary

The Resket Tower is located in the vicinity of Do Dangeh, and has been constructed in the early 5th century A.H. The said is made of brick with a dome which has been decorated with arches. Two brick inscriptions are affixed here, in the Kufic, Pahlavi and Sassanid scripts.Error processing SSI file

Other Towers, Mazandaran

Sultan Zainol Abedin Tower in Sary is also considered as a tourist attraction site.Error processing SSI file

Old and Historical Houses
Alasht Old City Sector, Savad Kooh

The ancient locality of Alasht, 18 km. from Zirab, is the birth place of Reza Khan, the founder of the Pahlavi dynasty. The vicinity of Alasht is in a mountainous and forest region. Here the dwellings are mainly constructed of sun baked bricks, with roofs covered with wood. The birthplace of Pahlavi I is in the Pahlavi Khalil vicinity and the structure is a double storied one. After under going repairs, the same was converted into a public library.Error processing SSI file

Nima Yooshij House, Noor

The said is the house of the great contemporary poet of Iran, and is located in the village of Yoosh. The premises comprises of a central courtyard, surrounded by rooms bearing the effects of brick and plaster work, beautiful sash windows inspired by the decorative motifs of the Qajar period. Today this structure has been repaired and is known as the Cultural House.Error processing SSI file

Old Public Baths and Water Reservoirs
Ashraf Bath, Amol

The same has been constructed in the 12th century A.H. and is presently located in the Niaki Mahaleh of Amol. The structure has three large domes and seven small domes. This bath has two Khazeenehs or pool like areas, one containing warm and the other cold water. Besides it has an area resembling a cloak-room, known as the Sarbeeneh. The structure has been constructed of stone and brick, with ancient architectural effects. The same is the only old bath remaining in the city of Amol.Error processing SSI file

Mirza Mahdi Water Reservoir, Sary

The same is located in the city of Sary, and is related to the Afshar or Zand eras. It has been constructed out of brick and mortar, is circular in shape and has a dome.Error processing SSI file

No Water Reservoir, Sary

The said is located in the No Mahaleh of Sary and was constructed by Khorshid Khanum. The same comprises of an entrance, foot wash and stairway, and a portion of this water reservoir still exists. The top of the doorway is adorned by tile works. A part of this water reservoir is now within the premises of a private house.Error processing SSI file

Historical Caves

In the twists and turns of the heights of the Alborz, are large crevices, some of which are in the form of natural caves, whilst others are man-made. The followings are the caves of Mazandaran Province:

Espahbod Khorshid Cave, Savad Kooh

This cave is located between the railway station of Pol-e-Sefid and Sorkh Abad, in the vicinity of 'Do Ab'. It was discovered in the year 1956. The cave has a simple area or hall, with a ceiling 80 m. in width and height, and is considered spectacular in the world. Near this cave is a remnant of a ruined castle and tower, which was once a beautiful structure of stone and mortar. This cave is also known as 'Dej-e-Afsanehie', and this was most probably the defense center of the Espahbodan of Mazandaran in the past.Error processing SSI file

Div Sefid Cave, Noshahr

This cave is in the vicinity of 'Mazgah' close to the Div Sefid peak, and was used as a defense area by Espahbodan of Mazandaran in the ancient times. In distances between the sea, peak and the said cave, eight castles exist which have turned into the shape of ancient hillocks. These are named as Bardozdak, Hesht, Anjeerpol, Valiamoo, Imam Qalleh and Div Qalleh. But at present nothing is left to be seen.Error processing SSI file

Kamarband and Hotoo Cave, Behshahr

These caves are located in the village of Tarujen, 5 km. south west of Behshahr. The same were discovered in 1949. Discoveries made here have revealed the life style of primitive man in three periods related to the stone ages. Three human skeletons have been discovered in Kamarband cave, dating to approximately 75,000 years B.C. Besides these, there were blades made out of flint, and bones of walrus and deer. Articles discovered from these two caves are supplementary, and reveal the development of man from the ice age up to this date in the Mazandaran territory.Error processing SSI file

Peer-e-zan Khany Cave, Noor

This cave is near the village of 'Oklav' in the vicinity of Noor and Kujur. The entrance of the cave measures approximately 2m. x 2 m. and there are various crevices present here. Regarding the length, it is a small and tight cave.Error processing SSI file

Other Historical and Natural Caves, Mazandaran

Other caves of Mazandaran Province are the following: Ab Esk in the Haraz valley; Keeja Kochal in the heights of Do Ab; Yakh Morad near Gachsar; Siyahpur in the vicinity of Amiri between the Haraz Valley Larijan and Firooz Kooh; the Hildu cave near the Shurab village of Sary and the Khoram Abad cave near Khoram Abad of Tonekabon.Error processing SSI file

Other Historical Monuments
Shekl Shah, Chaloos

In the Bandborideh Pass, a portrait of Naseredin Shah along with other engravings, have been etched on the skirts of the mountains overlooking the Haraz River. This portrait which shows the monarch on a horse, surrounded by the courtiers, and the other inscriptions is 8 m. in length. Around the said engraving is a poetical engraving in the beautiful Na'staliq script.Error processing SSI file

Religious Monuments
Old Mosques
Mausoleums and Imamzadehs
Old Churches

Old Mosques
Amol Jame' Mosque, Amol

The same is located in the Masjed Jame' Mahaleh of Amol. Its primary structure dates to the first century A.H. Currently, this mosque has a square courtyard with constructions on the four sides. The nocturnal areas to the north and south, each have six huge pillars, (similar to elephant feet), and the areas to the east and west have nine such pillars. This structure has been repaired during the Qajar reign. In the corridor of the mosque is a stone tablet with a decree of Sultan Hossein Safavid dated 1106 A.H.Error processing SSI file

Babol Jame' Mosque, Babol

The primary structure dates to the year 160 A.H. and was constructed by Maziyar Ebne Qaran. This mosque has been repeatedly repaired during the Safavid reign. The current structure remains from the Qajar era and has been repaired since then. The mosque has two portals, one to the east and the other to the west. Each give way to an eight-sided vestibule. On top of the western doorway are holy verses embossed on tiles, and the year 1230 A.H has been written on it. The main nocturnal area has large and small domes, in addition to columns. There is an ancient altar in the western area, and two other newly constructed altars of tile work can be noted to the south. In the porch are verses inscribed from the works of the great poet of the times, Fath Ali Khan Saba, the poet laureate, written in the year 1227 A.H.Error processing SSI file

Baladeh-ye-Noor Jame' Mosque, Noor

The same is located in Balladeh (Noor) and has a nocturnal area with a domed ceiling which rests on three pillars (similar to elephant feet). Materials used for the structure are stone and limestone, and the facade is white-washed. In the southern part of the nocturnal area is a simple altar. There is also a pulpit sculptured out of one piece of black stone with five steps. Near the mosque is a tomb dated 979 A.H. related to a person known as Qaher Ali Beg Qajar Javoshlu. The said mosque was repaired in the year 1954.Error processing SSI file

Kerd Kola Mourning Place, Qaem Shahr

The same is an area for religious mourning rituals, and is situated 28 km. north east of Qaem Shahr. It is a rectangular brick structure with an earthenware tiled roof. The same also comprises of a porch with four wooden pillars, along side these are rooms in two floors symmetrical to each other. Besides architectural techniques, it is also artistically adorned with beautiful paintings of the Qajar period. The structure dates to 1280 A.H., that is simultaneous to the reign of Nasseredin Shah.Error processing SSI file

Moqarab Kola Mourning Place, Babol

Located in the Bandpey locality of Babol, the same is adorned with paintings, carvings and plaster work of extreme intricate design. The structure has two entrances, with a large hall in the center, surrounded by rooms. On the upper walls are poetical verses of the reputed poet Mohtasham-e-Kashani. These are carved on wood and affixed to the walls. The rooms of the upper floor are fitted with beautiful Orsi windows. According to records, this structure was constructed in the reign of Nasseredin Shah Qajar,by Abdol Hossein Khan Bandpeyie. Today it is known as Abdol Hossain Khani.Error processing SSI file

Sary Jame' Mosque, Sary

This structure is located in the Chenarbon Mahaleh of Sary, and its primary structure was constructed under the orders of Abol Qaseib, the Arab ruler of Tabarestan in the year 144 A.H. The current structure is devoid of any historical relics. It has a square court-yard, nocturnal areas and a porch.Error processing SSI file

Yaloo Jame' Mosque, Noor

The same is located in the village of Yali or Yaloo in the township of Noor. Its nocturnal area has six square shaped pillars (each side of which measures 118 cm.) These support the dome and ceiling. This mosque has an altar constructed of plaster, around which are plaster engravings from sacred verses. The mosque was repaired in the year 1230 A.H.Error processing SSI file

Other Old Mosques, Mazandaran

Other ancient mosques of the province are, Chahar Sooq Mosque, in Babol, related to the Safavid era. The Farah Abad Mosque, in Sary, related to the Safavid era. The Kazem Beg in Babol, Kamarbon Mosque in Noor, Mohadessin Mosque and Sheikh Kabir Mosque in Babol, Mirza Abdol Baqi Khan in Ramsar, related to the Qajar period and Mirza Ali Mosque in Amol.Error processing SSI file

Mausoleums and Imamzadehs
Imamzadeh Abbas, Sary

The said structure with a pyramid shaped dome, and in regards to other architectural finishes has both artistic and historical value. There is a beautiful and ancient wooden chest on the tomb with the date 897 A.H. engraved on it. Here three personalities have been laid to rest, named as Imamzadeh Abbas, Mohammad and Hassan. The external and internal parts of the structure reveal chalk and brick work, besides the inscriptions. The structure is 23 m. in height.Error processing SSI file

Imamzadeh Abdollah, Amol

The same is situated in the village of 'Osku Mahaleh', 12 km. southwest of Amol. The original structure was demolished in the year 1964, and a new one was erected. The sepulcher is of gold and silver, which is the work of artisans from the city of Esfahan. Other vestiges of the same are the tomb of Bibi Fatimeh and a type of remedial center. The Imamzadeh also provides facilities for pilgrims, in addition to a bazaar and other constructions around it.Error processing SSI file

Imamzadeh Ebrahim Tomb, Amol

The same is a four-sided brick structure with a pyramid like shaped dome. On the door and wooden chest there in, are carved inscriptions with the date 925 A.H. The texts of the said inscriptions are related to Abu Mohammad Ebrahim, the offspring of Imam Moosa Kazem (P.B.U.H.).
Apart from the spectacular architectural techniques this structure displays, its wooden relics such as the chest and doors, adornments and inscriptions related to the Qajar period are interesting features. There is a written account of the arrival of Imamzadeh Ebrahim to Amol and his martyrdom here.Error processing SSI file

Imamzadeh Qasem, Babol

This historical structure in the city of Babol dates back to the 9th century A.H. Here, where the offspring of Imam Moosa Kazem (P.B.U.H.) has been laid to rest, is also known as Astaneh Mausoleum. The said structure has pyramid shaped dome adorned with brick work in the lower portion. In the structure are two ancient wooden chests, the main chest dating to 888 A.H.Error processing SSI file

Imamzadeh Yahya, Sary

The brick tower of Imamzadeh Yahya is located in Sary, and has an ancient wooden chest and door. The inscription reveals the date of construction of the chest, being in the year 849 A.H. According to records Imamzadeh Yahya is one of the offspring of Imam Moosa Kazem (P.B.U.H.). The tower of the construction stands to the height of 20 m. circular in shape and with a pyramid like dome.Error processing SSI file

Other Imamzadehs, Mazandaran

The other famous Imamzdehs of the province are: Aqa Shah Baluzadeh Mausoleum 21 km. southeast of Soldeh in the village of Ahoo Dasht, Noor; Imamzadeh Abdol Haq Mausoleum in Zirab, Savad Kooh; Sultan Mohammad Taher Mausoleum on the Babol - Kiakalla Road; Imamzadeh Taher and Motahar in the village of Hezar Khal, Kujur-e-Noor; Chenar-e-Imamzadeh Yusuf Reza in Razi Hospital of Qaem Shahr; the Mir Heydar (Sar Seyed) Mausoleum; the famous Atishkadeh tower in Amol; Imamzadeh Qasem; Seyrat Dome (Bandpeyie); Imamzadeh Issa Ebne Kazem (Kharmian); Shah Fakhruddin Mausoleum (Kalma); Shatir Gonbad Mausoleum in Sary; the Dervish Fakhruddin Mausoleum in Babol; and Imamzadeh Abdollah (Atrab) in Neka.Error processing SSI file

Old Churches
Noshahr-Chaloos Church, Mazandaran

Due to the fact that the inhabitants of Mazandaran Province were in majority the followers of Islam, thereby religious structures pertaining to other religions are not commonly seen. But the Small Church (Firooz Kooh Road) was constructed for the religious rituals of the foreigners who were employed at accomplishing the railway track from Tehran to the north of Iran.
But due to negligence, the church is in a state of deterioration. Another church has recently been constructed and is reputedly known as Noshahr - Chaloos Church. The building of the same is extremely beautiful, and has been adorned with biblical verses and religious paintings.Error processing SSI file

Natural Attractions
Lakes and Wetlands
Forests, Valleys, and Plains
Altitudes and Summits
Protected Zones

Lakes and Wetlands

Besides the fact that Mazandaran lies alongside the largest lake of the world, i.e., the Caspian Sea, several other lakes (both large and small) are also located in the plains and heights of this region.Error processing SSI file

Abbas Abad Lake, Behshahr

Located in the southeast of Behshahr in the midst of the forest, is a lake with an area of about 10 hectares. Due to the fact that in past, Shah Abbas Safavid was responsible for constructions in this vicinity, thereby the name. Being easily accessible by vehicle, in addition to a resting area, ancient relics, sweet water and pleasant weather make this region a must place for tourists to visit.Error processing SSI file

Caspian Sea, Mazandaran

The largest lake of the world, Caspian sea (land-blocked body of water), covers an area of 438,000 sq. km. and is located between Iran and countries such as the Republics of Qazaqistan, Turkamanistan, and Azarbayjan. Its southern coast which extends from the Hosseinqoli Gulf to Astara is in the jurisdiction of Iran. In past this lake was known as Heerkani, and in foreign texts and maps was called 'Caspian'. The average depth of this lake in the north is 6 m. and to the west and south west regions is at the most 1,000 m. The coast of this lake is sandy and low-lying, with the Gulfs of Qarah Boqaz and Gorgan to the north east and southeast respectively. The latter is segregated from the Caspian Sea due to the presence of the Miankaleh Peninsula.
The Anzali Wetland also separates from this lake by the Qazian Island. The Caspian Sea comprises of three sections, the northern, central and the southern ones. The Iranian coast of the Mazandaran Sea stretches to the length and width of 3 to over 30 km. from Astara to Gomishan and the mouth of the Attrak. Its northern landscape engulfs the blue and considerably calm Caspian Sea, and in the southern region, except for the western sector which comprises of high lands and wetlands in general, are the scenic beauty painted by the forests on the skirts of the Alborz Mountains. Much beyond these forests, stand the majestic and snow-capped peaks of Alborz, enhancing a special beauty to the said landscape.
Besides which, surrounding the coastal area are citrus orchards, rice fields, verdant pastures- all rendering a glorious and eye-catching view! The most important regions in this vicinity that can be interesting regarding tourism are the following: Ramsar - Alamdeh axis, Alamdeh - Babolsar axis, and Babolsar - Farah Abad axis and Behshahr.Error processing SSI file

Daryook Dam Lake, Tonekabon

This lake (reservoir) has an area of about one hectare and is situated opposite the Vali Abad valley of Hezar Cham and in the skirts of the Dal Kamar Mountains. It is a sweet water lake with a depth of about 5 m. It is surrounded with pastures and meadows, thus providing a habitat for endemic birds and wildlife. It is coupled with natural beauty, and a wonderful landscape, in addition to being an area for therapeutic and research activities.Error processing SSI file

Estakhr-e-Posht Lake, Neka

This lake covers an area of about 6 hectares and is situated in the Estakhr-e-Posht village in the valley of Zarom River. The lake resembles a huge and circular water hole, around which are rice fields and rush-brakes. Temporary shelters can be found in the vicinity, though it is devoid of any type of service facilities. Access to this lake can be by the beautiful forest road from the city of Neka by vehicle. The valley and Zarom River add to the tourist attractions.Error processing SSI file

Gaz Wetland, Behshahr

This wetland is located to the southwest of Miankaleh Gulf, and extends over an area of more than 50 hectares. The same being a habitat for both endemic and immigrant birds, and is enhanced with the view of the Miankaleh Peninsula Island and the Ismal Saie Island, located opposite. The tamarisk trees along with other vegetations in keeping with the environment have painted a beautiful portrait in this region, and its special features in respect to the wetland, is one of the few seen around the globe. The advancement of the sea and gulf waters has rendered a second life to this area along with the beauty that these natural features embrace.Error processing SSI file

Kandochal Wetland, Chaloos

This wetland is situated in the dense forest 'Feyeen' of Chaloos. The same prolongs over an area of 1 hectare and is about 5 m. deep. This sweet water wetland is surrounded by trees, besides the rush-brakes within the water itself and other fauna. This area is a habitat for birds and wildlife that make use of the water here. The area provides space for camping purposes and sight-seeing.Error processing SSI file

Khezr-e-Nabi Lake, Noshahr

The said lake is located to the north of Noshahr, cradled amidst the forest. The natives believe this lake to be sacred. It is a sweet water lake with an area of less than half a hectare. The same provides a natural refuge for a variety of birds and wildlife. This beautiful region due to its natural landscape is breath-taking especially in the spring, summer and autumn seasons.Error processing SSI file

Lapoo Va Palangan Wetland, Neka

The said mass of wetlands lies at a distance of 1 km. south of the Caspian Sea and to the east of the electric power plant of Neka. Throughout the year this area can be said to have its own kind of attraction with respect to the season. For instance during the fall and winter season it is a habitat for waterfowls and other immigrant birds that flock to this area. Suitable environmental and weather conditions together with the facilities provided can be taken advantage of here by tourists who have planned a visit to this part.Error processing SSI file

Sarandoon and Balandoon Wetland Complex, Sary

The said is located near the village of Siyah Mahaleh, at a distance of 25 km. from Sary. The same comprises of two sections - Sarandoon in the south and Balandoon in the north. This wetland expands over an area of 30 hectares, and during the autumn and winter has a maximum amount of water, whereas in the spring and summer the water is of a lesser content, the water is sweet. Within these wetlands and the surrounding areas are rush-brakes and other types of vegetations suited to this area. The above mentioned vicinity provides an excellent habitat for birds and water species.
Besides which the natural environmental beauty together with easy access to this verdant area can provide the scope for it to be taken advantage of as a sight-seeing spot.Error processing SSI file

Valasht Lake, Chaloos

This lake encompasses an area of about 15 hectares, and is located in a deep valley to the southwest of Chaloos and to the northeast of Kelar Dasht region. This area forms a suitable habitat for waterfowls and a variety of water species. Unfortunately, no organized exploitation has been made in this lake regarding fishing industry, and fishing only takes place by fishing rods here. Access to this lake is from the west of the Chaloos Road and Marzan Abad.Error processing SSI file

Other Lakes, Mazandaran

These are the Sahoon Lake situated in the township of Amol in the southern skirts of the Damavand Peak. The Shurmast Lake located at a distance of 5 km. on the Firooz Kooh Road and the Gol-e-Pol Lake, south east of Qaem Shahr.Error processing SSI file

Forests, Valleys, and Plains
Babol and Amol Forests, Babol and Amol

This area with its elevated landscape and valleys has dense forests. Its tall hills overlook the plains and stretch out till the high slopes of the Damavand Mountains. The majestic and deep rocky valleys, rivers, numerous springs, elevated waterfalls, colorful vegetation, a variety of wild life, thermal springs, summer quarters, and rural settlements are some of the special factors which can prove attractive.Error processing SSI file

Chaloos Forests, Noshahr

This area is close to the sea, with high plains, suitable regional conditions, verdant, with heights and valleys and dense forests, lakes, and elevated waterfalls. These forests are located in the vicinity of Alam Kooh. Many people believe that these forests are unique in Iran and even in the world.Error processing SSI file

Forests, Mazandaran

These valleys usually run alongside the rivers, and surrounding these are dense forests with many types of vegetations. On some of these wide valleys terraces have been cut so as to allow cultivation. This brings about a wonderful sight. Examples of such valleys are, Chaloos, Tajan, Tellar, Neka, Jennat-e-Roodbar, Do Hezar and Seh Hezar. Amongst these valleys, the Chaloos valley is connected to the valley of the Karaj River by means of a long tunnel.
The Hezar Cham Pass and Waterfall, together with the mountainous landscape and special rural features are spell binding for the onlooker! It is unmatched in the world.Error processing SSI file

Mountain Valleys, Mazandaran

The same are generally situated amidst the elevated peaks, where permanent and gushing rivers flow, with meadows on the fringes. Examples of such valleys are, Eshkavar, Balladeh, Yoosh, Lar, Talma, Amiri and Sobat Kooh. Of these, the Yoosh, Balladeh and Eshkavar have a beautiful and breathless landscape!

Neka Forests, Neka

The city of Behshahr is responsible for adjoining the various forest areas of the region. These routes are narrow and situated in the dense forests. In these forests are landscapes such as mountainous valleys as well as those with rivers flowing trough them. These in turn have brought about the presence of streams, springs and waterfalls. For example, the Qol Marz Spring Neka, Tuska, Ramian and tens of other such springs. The waterfalls of Duzadeh, Darab Kella and Zanget and the beautiful valleys of Neka and Zarom Rivers, besides the Estakhr-e-Posht Lake are in this vicinity.
Moreover, the scattered rural areas with the traditional mode of structure can be of great interest to visitors.Error processing SSI file

Plains, Mazandaran

In Mazandaran Province, if the elevations below 100 m. be considered as those limited to the plains, two particular areas come into focus. The first is the narrow strip of Ramsar - Alamdeh and Galugah - Kord Kooy. These being near the forest heights and have a considerably steep gradient towards a limited flat region. The vast plains of the Amol - Babol and Sary - Behshahr segment, which have been formed at the mouths of Haraz, Babol, Tajan and Neka Rivers, can be accounted as the second sector.
Climatically, the plains of Mazandaran are moderately warm and the temperature rise is from west to east, thus bringing about a relative decrease in rainfall in the same direction in the region. These plains encompass various important cities and also rural areas, which bear an influence on the economic and industrial factors. Forest landscapes, the sea, citrus orchards, tea gardens, and even the natural cuts and separations in the forest heights bring forth a wonderful and matchless scene.Error processing SSI file

Sary, Kiasar and Savad Kooh Forests, Kiasar and Savad Kooh

These vicinities are variable in respect to the landscape, due to the presence of a number of forest valleys, majestic hills, rural settlements (in the heights), ancient castles, rivers, springs, meadows and scattered wheat fields can all be accounted for as areas of interest. The dense forest of Haft Khal and its large spring glows like a jewel in the midst of these forests, and can be said to be one of the most attractive forests not only in this province but so in Iran.Error processing SSI file

Tonekabon and Ramsar Forests, Ramsar

These green forests with a high percentage of rainfall are also reputedly known as the Do Hezar forests of Jennat-e-Roodbar and Eshkavarat. The same are located between the sea and the mountainous region. Suitable forest and rural roads, variable natural and regional factors are responsible for making these forests one of the peerless regions in Iran and the globe. It is a wonderful recreational area.Error processing SSI file

Altitudes and Summits

The Alborz Mountain Ranges to the east of Sefid Rood River run parallel to the southern coast of the Caspian Sea, extending till Gorgan valley. This range spans out majestically in an arch, between the plains of Mazandaran and the central plateau of Iran. Its elevation from sea level increases in the south, due to the steep gradient. This colossal mountain range divides into branches, these in general are:

Daylaman and Lahijan Mountains, Ramsar

These mountains run in an east to west direction, and form the natural borders of Gilan, Mazandaran and Zanjan provinces. Cheshm Chal is one of the peaks in this region that has an elevation of more than 4,500 m. and is covered with snow and permanent glaciers. To northern slopes of which is the Eich waterfall.Error processing SSI file

Khasnak and Shadkooh Mountains, Behshahr

The same are in the eastern portion of the Alborz mountains, and its famous peaks are Qadamgah, Nizva, Shah Kooh, Gavkoshan, Vichmanu, Shahvar, Khoshyeylaq, Amiri and Maran, which in the extremity adjoins the mountains Khorassan Province.Error processing SSI file

Lar and Damavand Mountains, Amol

These mountains form the two branch ranges of the central Alborz Mountains, and are the highest sections of this range. To the north, after the Kahu (Sefid Ab) Pass, in the village of Garmabdar (district of Roodbar-e-Qasran), it sub-divides into two, the north western and south eastern ranges. In the south western sector are the peaks of Takht-e-Khers and Seh Sang, extending towards the west, where the gigantic Damavand Peak is visible.
In the south eastern sector, after running along the plains of Lar, the famous peaks of Haft Saran are apparent, and to the south of these plains are the peaks of Mehr Chal, Atashkadeh, Siyah Chal and Maaz. In the south eastern direction it joins the Khansak and Shad Kooh Mountains.Error processing SSI file

Takht-e-Soleiman and Kolarestan Mountains, Chaloos

These mountains form natural borders between provinces of Mazandaran and Tehran. These mountains run in a west to east direction and with many peaks with elevations of more than 4,000 m. The tallest of these are the summits of Alam Kooh and Takht-e-Soleiman reaching the heights of 4,850 m. and 4,643 m. respectively. Gigantic and permanent glaciers are present in its southern valleys. The most important of these mountains are:
Alam Kooh Peak: This peak stands to the height of 4,850 m. From the north it joins the Shaneh Kooh Mountains, from the south it adjoins the Khersan peak and from east it connects to the Siyah Sang. To the west of its summit, is the glacier of Haft Khal and to its northwest lies the glacier of Alam Chal, which is considered to be the largest and tallest mountainous barrier of Iran.
This mountain has two branches, reaching an elevation of 4,750 m. (one to the east, known as the eastern branch of the Alam Kooh, and the other to the west, known as the western branch of the Alam Kooh). There are four colossal glaciers on four fronts of this mountain.
Takhte-e-Soleiman Peak: Reaching a height of 4,643 m. joins the Siyah Gug peak to the north, and in the south adjoins the Shameh Kooh peak.
Khersan Peak: The said comprises of two peaks, the northern and southern ones that adjoin, at an elevation of 4,640 m. In the north, a pass by the same name connects it to the Alam Kooh summit. To the south, it adjoins the Minareh peak and to the east, is the Khersan glacier. This peak ranks third in comparison to elevation after the summits of Damavand and Sabalan.
Sialan Summit: The same is located in the south of the township of Tonekabon and its elevation being 4,250 m. The ascent to the said is from the verdant forests. From one side, the Sialan peak faces the sea, and from the other, the snow-clad mountains in the surroundings are visible; the skirts of which are furnished with red flowers and rhubarbs in spring and summer seasons.Error processing SSI file

Other Summits and Altitudes, Mazandaran

The Amiri Mountains, which lie between the Hezar Valley of Larijan and Savad Kooh has an elevation of about 3,900 m. Sepand Kooh in Kellar Dasht, Chaloos at a height of 4,350 m. and Balladeh-Kujur Mountains which are important regarding wild life are counted as other important altitudes in this vicinity too.Error processing SSI file


Due to its natural environmental and regional qualities, Mazandaran Province has numerous rivers, some of which are gushing and some slow and lazily meandering in the vicinity. These rivers take their sources in the Alborz Mountain Ranges and are also habitat for a variety of fish. The said province is one of the areas in Iran with a high percentage of rainfall. The most important of these rivers are the followings:

Chaloos River, Chaloos

This river takes its source in the Kandovan Mountains which is a part of the Alborz Mountain Range. After adjoining the Zanusi River and numerous other springs and waterfalls, and flowing through a few villages, it flows into the Caspian Sea. The river follows a beautiful course, right from its source till it reaches the sea. The Kandovan peak, Alam Kooh Summit, Hezar Cham Valley and springs, forests and lush green rice fields all create a glorious painting of nature in this region.
The banks of this river offer excellent recreational areas as well as fishing at leisure. It goes without saying that the Tehran - Chaloos Road is one of the most enhancing routes in Iran that can be unforgettable for the onlooker!.Error processing SSI file

Haraz River, Amol

The Haraz River takes its source in the skirts of the Alborz Mountains in the region of Larijan. After flowing along the Haraz Road and Valley for about 100 km. it meanders in the midst of the city of Amol, from where it reaches the Caspian Sea. The fringes of this river are utilized as recreational areas as well as for fishing. The course that this river flows is beautiful and breath taking.Error processing SSI file

Neka River, Neka

The said takes its source in the Shah Kooh Mountains to the south of Gorgan, and west of Mazandaran. After flowing through the pass of Shamshir Bor, it flows into the Caspian Sea in the vicinity of Nowzar Abad. At first the course that this river flows is a mountainous one, with beautiful valleys covered with forests. On the condition that access is gained to the fringes of this river, recreational grounds or areas near Yanehsar can be accounted as attractive regions.Error processing SSI file

Talar Rood (Siyah Rood) River, Qaem Shahr

The Talar River takes its source in the Savad Kooh Mountains and along with many tributaries, after flowing through upper Qaem Shahr, flows into the Caspian Sea. Due to the meeting of the valley through which this river flows and the Firooz Kooh Road, a landscape of forest, valley and rice fields in the fringes forms a wonderful view.Error processing SSI file

Protected Zones
Forest Green Parks, Mazandaran

A few of the above mentioned areas in Mazandaran Province have been equipped with service facilities such as water, electricity, restaurants, and accommodation. Summer is the so called “peak season” when visitors throng to these vicinities. Some of these forest parks also enclose a zoo.
Mirza Kuchak Khan Forest Park: The same is located 18 km. on the Amol - Tehran road, the Haraz River flowing on the eastern side of which.
Noor Forest Park: This park is located at a distance of 2 km. from the city of Noor, close to the sea. In the groves surrounding this area the Iranian species of pheasant are found. Alike the Noor forest park, the forest park of Sisangan offers service facilities to visitors who come to this beautiful park enhanced with natural beauty.
Chaloos Forest Park: The said is located 7 km. on Chaloos - Tehran Road and the Chaloos River flows alongside.
Namak Abrood Forest Park: Located in Chaloos, it is one of the virgin forest parks, and considered beautiful throughout the globe. Various species of herbs can be noted here. The box-wood trees of this park are surmised to be more than 700 years old.
Khoshkeh Daran National Park: The said is en route from Tonekabon to Abbas Abad, and due to its prominence in respect to ecology, wildlife and alder trees is a protected place.
Shaheed Pour Ebrahimi Park in Sary, Sisarrah Park in Saqi Kallayeh and Vargaveech Park in Chaloos - Noshahr Road are other examples to be named.Error processing SSI file

Protected Wildlife Zones, Mazandaran

Some areas in Mazandaran Province, due to the presence of a variety of fauna and wildlife have come to be known as protected areas. In these areas, the most important wild species are reindeer, leopard, brown bear, wild goat, roe buck, boar, yellow deer (Iranian follow deer), as well as pray birds, flamingo, waders, pelican, turtledove, grouse, ringdove, vulture, owl, dull-yellow partridge, ortolan, spoonbill, kingfisher, pigeon, heron, goose, crane, duck, eagle starling, boar, etc.
Miankaleh Wildlife Refuges, Behshahr: These are in the Gulf of Gorgan, Ashooradeh Island and Miankaleh peninsula, and extent to approximately 7,000 hectares and are known to be among the most attractive areas in the world. It is protected by the Department of the Environment as a wildlife refuge and UNESCO has registered it as one of the Biosphere Reserves.
Semeskandeh Wildlife Refuges, Sary: The same extends over an area of approximately 1,000 hectares and the yellow deer (Iranian follow deer) is protected here.
Dasht-e-Naz Wildlife Refuges, Sary: The said extends over an area of approximately 55 hectares, and is located to the north east of Sary in the forest plains of this vicinity.
Do Dangeh and Chahar Dangeh Protected Area, Sary: Located in the forest lands covering an area of approximately 6,000 hectares in the rural vicinity of Do Dangeh and Chahar Dangeh.Error processing SSI file


Throughout the region of Mazandaran, especially in the mountainous areas are umpteen springs which have been recognized and being utilized. Some of these have such a powerful output of water that they resemble rivers; whereas some others can be used for therapeutic purposes. The names of the most important springs along with thermal springs are given below: The Jennat Roodbar region, Eshkurat, Do Hezar, Seh Hezar, Kelar Dasht, Balladeh, Kojur, Lar, Larijan, Galugah, Alla Dasht, Savad Kooh, Kiasar, the forests of Neka and Behshahr, the Sa'adin Spring, Chanusar, Golgollehsar, Haft Khal,Vaski, Kasru, Mian Khooni, Fak Cheshm, Shams Rood, Rokhn Dasht, Yencheh Khajeh, Tarkhoon and Aalivaq in the townships of Behshahr, Sary and Amol; the springs of Haft Khooni, Heli Kotab, Aiyor Kati, Shahrband, Qalleh Cheshmeh, Cheshmeh Shahrak, Roodaq, Aspeh-Ou, and Darukeh in the townships of Chaloos and Noshahr; Cheshmeh -e-Sar Cheshmeh, etc. in the townships of Tonekabon and Ramsar.
On the slopes of the central ranges of the Alborz Mountains and in the dormant peak of Damavand there are a number of thermal springs gushing out from various parts of this vicinity. Some of these are effective in the treatment of joint and bone aches, and some for skin diseases and gastro-intestinal disturbances.Error processing SSI file

Ab Esk (Larijan) Thermal Springs, Amol

The said is located in a village by the same name in the district of Larijan. Surrounding this spring are limestone deposits which through the passage of time turn into marble. The water from this spring is useful in the treatment of chronic wounds, and skin diseases.Error processing SSI file

Amoloo Mineral Water Spring, Amol

The water from this spring can be used for drinking purposes, and is useful in treating gastro-intestinal disorders. The same can be used for skin diseases also. Being close to the Haraz River this vicinity has a beautiful landscape.Error processing SSI file

Ramsar Thermal Springs, Ramsar

These thermal springs are comprised of a series of gaseous and sulfur springs, and are in regions such as Jawaher Deh, Kotalum, and Sa'dat Mahaleh, in the city of Ramsar. The aggregate of hotels, municipality buildings and private quarters have erected swimming pools, showers and baths to cater to the needs of visitors and the inhabitants of the city.Error processing SSI file

Rineh Thermal Springs, Amol

This thermal spring is near the Rineh village (Larijan). Its water is used in the treatment of joint disorders, skin diseases and infections.Error processing SSI file

Other Springs and Water Treatment Centers, Mazandaran

These are the followings: The Larijan thermal spring in the skirts of the Damavand Mountain, the Istarabaku Mineral Water Spring between Larijan and the village of Baijan, the Ab Ahan thermal spring or (Ab Farangi) in the upper village of Ab Esk Larijan.Error processing SSI file


Owing to the steep gradient of the Alborz Mountain Ranges in Mazandaran Province, where multiple rivers take their source, a number of waterfalls are also present. These are generally located in the central portion of the mountain range. The spring and summer seasons, with a pleasant climate, are suitable periods to visit the sites.Error processing SSI file

Alamol Waterfall, Amol

The said waterfall flows from the northern slopes of the Damavand Mountains, and is more than 100 m. in height. The massive output of water from this waterfall forms a spray like mist in the air and brings about a wonderful sight.Error processing SSI file

Eidj (Dahqoloo) Waterfall, Ramsar

This waterfall gains its flow permanently from the melting snows of the Cheshm Chal Mountains in the heights of Eshkavar-e-Oliya. After flowing for a distance, it cascades from a rock onto another, and then forms numerous other waterfalls, thus flowing into the depth of the Eshkavar-e-Oliya Valley. The focal point of this waterfall is its major output of water, and the cave-like cavities formed in the rocks behind this waterfall.
Springs are also present around this vicinity, coupled with the enhancing weather conditions and beautiful landscape of the permanent glaciers of the Cheshm Chal Mountains and the flora and fauna which in itself is a sight to witness.Error processing SSI file

Harijan Waterfall, Chaloos

This waterfall is located in the village by the same name near the Hezar Cham Gorge on Tehran - Chaloos Road. It has a height of more than 9 m. and is one of the beautiful waterfalls of the Alborz Mountains. The surrounding landscape forms a colorful picture, and falling down, this waterfall divides into a number of waterfalls. Access to this vicinity can be gained by vehicle.Error processing SSI file

Yakhi Waterfall, Amol

This waterfall is spectacular in that it is completely frozen, and is at an elevation of 5,100 m. in the vicinity of the Dood Kooh Mountains near the Damavand Peak. The same has a height of 70 m. and is 3 m. in girth which is in a state of constant increment. This increase is due to the trickle of water from the melting glacier above it, in the summer months at noon. This trickle flows alongside the waterfall, thereby adding to it. The same continues for a short while and soon freezes. The said waterfall is one of its own in the world.Error processing SSI file

Other Waterfalls, Mazandaran

Other important waterfalls in Mazandaran Province are as follows: The Ziyar Waterfall, (Ab-e-Sheikh Ali Khan), Akapol waterfall in Sardi Chal (Kalar Dasht Chaloos), Savasareh in the district of Balladeh, Shahan Dasht in Larijan near the Malek Bahman peak, Azarak in Sang Posht-e-Ramsar, Chardar in Roodbar Ramsar, Teemareh in Vana-e- Amol, Parumeh in Shams Abad (Larijan), Ranget in Ranget (Behshahr), Reesh Boraz in Roodbar Ramsar and the Darab Kella waterfall in Darab Kaie (Sary).Error processing SSI file

Islands and Peninsulas (Caspian Sea), Mazandaran

Throughout the southern coast of the Caspian Sea, there is only one peninsula, known as the Miankaleh Peninsula. The same is located in the south eastern most region of the Caspian Sea, and has got the name of Miankaleh by being situated between the north Kaleh and the south Kaleh. To the north of the peninsula is the Caspian Sea, to the south is the Gulf of Gorgan, to the east Ashoora Deh, and to the west lie the lands of Zaqmarz and the Lapoo Wetland.
The Miankaleh Peninsula (Island) prolongs over approximately 70,000 hectares, and due to sandy mounds reaching a length of 6.5 km. is segregated from the sea. Small trees of pomegranate and wild raspberry can be observed in this semi vegetated and pasture like area. Annually, that is in the winter, a variety of waterfowls and other species of immigrant birds inhabit the island, besides which there are the endemic birds too. The region is on record as a protected area (wildlife refuge) by the Department of the Environment, and hunting or shooting here and in the surroundings is strictly forbidden, except with a special permit.
To the east of this peninsula, is the Ashooradeh Island. The same is comprised of three large and small islands that increase or decrease in size with the advancement or withdrawal of the sea water. Mention must be made of the Ismal Saie Island located in the Palangan Wetland, and holds its own regarding the ecosystems in the world.
This mass of islands, i.e. the Miankaleh, Ashooradeh and Ismal Saie are wonderful in regards to natural attractions and environment, with special vegetation coverage and wildlife found only in these areas. Parts of the coastal area provide scope for swimming, and together with the groves and the Gulf of Gorgan issue a beautiful picture in this sector of the province.Error processing SSI file


In the twists and turns of the heights of the Alborz, are large crevices, some of which are in the form of natural caves, whilst others are man-made. The followings are the caves of Mazandaran Province:

Espahbod Khorshid Cave, Savad Kooh

This cave is located between the railway station of Pol-e-Sefid and Sorkh Abad, in the vicinity of 'Do Ab'. It was discovered in the year 1956. The cave has a simple area or hall, with a ceiling 80 m. in width and height, and is considered spectacular in the world. Near this cave is a remnant of a ruined castle and tower, which was once a beautiful structure of stone and mortar. This cave is also known as 'Dej-e-Afsanehie', and this was most probably the defense center of the Espahbodan of Mazandaran in the past.Error processing SSI file

Div Sefid Cave, Noshahr

This cave is in the vicinity of 'Mazgah' close to the Div Sefid peak, and was used as a defense area by Espahbodan of Mazandaran in the ancient times. In distances between the sea, peak and the said cave, eight castles exist which have turned into the shape of ancient hillocks. These are named as Bardozdak, Hesht, Anjeerpol, Valiamoo, Imam Qalleh and Div Qalleh. But at present nothing is left to be seen.Error processing SSI file

Kamarband and Hotoo Cave, Behshahr

These caves are located in the village of Tarujen, 5 km. south west of Behshahr. The same were discovered in 1949. Discoveries made here have revealed the life style of primitive man in three periods related to the stone ages. Three human skeletons have been discovered in Kamarband cave, dating to approximately 75,000 years B.C. Besides these, there were blades made out of flint, and bones of walrus and deer. Articles discovered from these two caves are supplementary, and reveal the development of man from the ice age up to this date in the Mazandaran territory.Error processing SSI file

Peer-e-zan Khany Cave, Noor

This cave is near the village of 'Oklav' in the vicinity of Noor and Kujur. The entrance of the cave measures approximately 2m. x 2 m. and there are various crevices present here. Regarding the length, it is a small and tight cave.Error processing SSI file

Other Historical and Natural Caves, Mazandaran

Other caves of Mazandaran Province are the following: Ab Esk in the Haraz valley; Keeja Kochal in the heights of Do Ab; Yakh Morad near Gachsar; Siyahpur in the vicinity of Amiri between the Haraz Valley Larijan and Firooz Kooh; the Hildu cave near the Shurab village of Sary; and the Khoram Abad cave near Khoram Abad of Tonekabon.Error processing SSI file

Culture & Art
Tribal Areas and Special Villages
Handicrafts, Music, and Foods

Kandolos Museum and Culture House, Noor

The village of Kandolos, today called Mikhsar, nestles in the green slopes of the Alborz Mountain Ranges in the Kujur region of Mazandaran. The Cultural House of Kandolos is located on the hill overlooking the village of Kandolos. The construction of this structure began in 1981, and was completed in the year 1987. The founder of this museum is Ali Asqar Jahangiri. The ultimate aim of this cultural house was to collect all evidences and documents in this ancient village, and keep these in safe custody. The collection includes earthenware, coins, historical documents, books, hand written texts, relics related to anthropology such as, tools used in agriculture and animal husbandry, handicrafts, ornamental articles, local apparel and paintings.Error processing SSI file

Tribal Areas and Special Villages
Tribal Area and Special Villages, Mazandaran

Some of the rural settlements of Mazandaran Province, besides being enveloped with natural beauty, are also endowed with historical attractions. These are named as, Soldeh in Amol, with its large Sadr A'zam Water Reservoir, Esk in Larijan Amol, with the ancient and beautiful Amini residence, Yakh in Noor, with the ancient house of Montazam Lashgar, Sa'adat Abad in Noor with the ancient house of Alameh Noori, Ali Abad in Larijan with the Kolah Farangi edifice, Moqarab Kola in Babol with the Moqarab Kola mourning place, Resket in Sary with the Resket Tower, Yoosh in Noor with the house of Nima Yusheej the contemporary poet of Iran.
Other rural areas of the province prove attractive due to the natural beauty. These are: the village of Langar in Sary; Jawaher Deh in Ramsar; Daulat Abad in Sary; Jennat-e-Roodbar in Galesh Mahaleh of Tonekabon; Eshkavarat-e-Oliya in Ramsar; and Shahan Dasht in Amol.Error processing SSI file

Handicrafts, Music, and Foods
Handicrafts and Souvenirs, Mazandaran

Handicrafts in Mazandaran Province are, carpet, Gelim (or a coarse type of carpet), silk weaves, textile, Jajeem (or a type of loosely woven woolen material), earthenware vessels, wooden articles, vessels and statues, felt weaving, wicker work, bamboo products, silk and cotton cloths, crocheting, and other handicrafts. In addition to the above there are silk scarves and apparel, articles made of felt, mats and wood. Handicrafts are put on for sale usually at the entrance and exit points of the cities and thereby paint a pretty picture!Error processing SSI file

Local and Regional Foods, Mazandaran

The regional cuisine of Mazandaran Province offers a wide array of colorful dishes. Breakfast brings forth a variety of jams accompanied with the traditional types of bread, etc. Lunch and dinner display umpteen kinds of meat, vegetable, leafy vegetable dishes accompanied by pickles of all sorts. There are a variety of Aash or the traditional type of soup with vegetables and meat stock such as, Aash-e-dooq, Aash-e-kalam, Aash-e-kadu, Aash-e gilaki, Aash-e- aloo, torsh Aash etc. to name a few. A variety of kababs (grilled meat or poultry) such as kabab-e-mazandarani, seeka kabab, qaz kabab,(or duck kabab), jujeh kabab, (or chicken kabab), tazeh kabab, heli kabab, kabab-e-mahi kafal (or a type of fish kabob) etc.; various types of kookoo (or a type of dish having a combination of eggs with vegetables, meat or fish) such as, kookoo badkubehyi, kookoo sabzi, baqla kookoo, kookoo gilani, kookoo mahi or fish etc.
A wide variety of fish dishes are also on the menu, including many kinds of curry with rice and condiments.Error processing SSI file

Local Music and Dances, Mazandaran

Music in this region relates to the life style of the inhabitants, and the melodies revolve around issues such as the forests, cultivation or farming activities and herding. The most famous dance of this area is the Qasem Abadi dance, not forgetting the stick dance that the men perform.Error processing SSI file

Travel & Accommodation

Most of the townships of Mazandaran Province have an excellent network of roads and telecommunications. Hotel and accommodation facilities including medical facilities are available in the majority of the cities in the province.Error processing SSI file


     Tourism Offices



(012222) 23011


(0111) 26011


(0191) 33910


(01931) 2083


(0194) 6610


(0191) 5002

Qaem Shahr

(012422) 4272


(0191) 35056


(01964) 4963

Mahmood Abad

(01296) 2576


(0157) 234877



     Hotels Mote


Osrom Hotel, Sary

(0151) 46539

Badeleh Hotel, Sary

(0151) 23128

Mazra'eh Hotel, Sary

(0151) 23334

Behshahr Hotel

(01572) 24177

Talar, Qaem Shahr

(012422) 8006-8

Khezer Shahr, Babolsar

(01291) 24434

Michka Hotel, Babolsar

(01291 24856

Shooka, Babolsar

(01291) 23020

Caspian, Babolsar

(01291) 22544

Noor Grand

(01964) 3338-9


(01964) 3814-5

Sadaf Hotel, Noshahr

(0191) 4262-3

Shalizar Hotel, Noshahr

(0191) 32090

Leon Hotel, Noshahr

(0191) 3204

Sahra l, Noshahr

(0191) 33511

Enqelab, Chalous

(0191) 22001-8

Malek, Noshahr

(0191) 24107

Ramsar Grand Hotel

(01942) 3592-4



     Restaurants of Sary



(0151) 27225


(0151) 23128



     Airlines and Travel Agencies


Airlines, Sary

(0151) 90922

Sary Airport

(0151) 29555

Iran Air, Sary

(0151) 20921-4

Ramsar Airport

(01942) 2788-09

Mamtir Gasht, Babol

(0111) 20235

Babolgasht, Babol

(0111) 23396

Mir Tour, Amol

(012222) 26968

Safar Yaran, Noshahr

(0191) 33678



     Hospitals and Pharmacies


Imam Khomeini , Sary

(0151) 37700-5

Nejat Pharmacy, Tonekabon

(01931) 2522


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