History

Kazan Khanate

Woman's traditional dress
Woman's traditional dress
In the XIII century Volga Bulgaria suffered from the mongol Batu-Khan aggression. In 1236 Bulgaria was conquered and annexed to Golden Horde. Golden Horde was the largest medieval state of Eurasia, the heart of rich civilization, represented by classic symbiosis of prior nomadic and new city cultures. The true masterpieces of medieval Tatar literature were created here.

After the final downfall of Golden Horde in the third-fourth decades of the XV century in its vast area were formed separate Tatar states. They include Kazan Khanate (1445) situated in the northern boundaries of Volga Bulgaria from the river Sura in the west to the river Belaya in the east. Kazan became the capital of Kazan Khanate. The XV century and the first half of the XVI century was the period of prosperity of Kazan Khanate and its capital.
The Cap of Kazan
"Cap of Kazan" (Khan's Crown)
(XV-XVI century)

Azimov Mosque
Interior of the main prayer hall
of Azimov Mosque
The main population of Kazan Khanate consisted of descendants of bulgars and new-comers kipchako-tatars. Their culture, religion and written language were adopted from Volga Bulgaria and Golden Horde. In the period of Kazan Khanate and other Khanates (Crimean, Kasimov's, Siberian and Astrakhan) the formation of the Tatar Nationality was finished.

As a result of armed conflicts, fires and rebuilding, among architectural constructions of Kazan Khanate Epoch only Suyumbika Tower (Khan's Mosque) and Nuraliev Mosque reserved on Kremlin territory.
According some of Tatar legends, Suyumbika Tower was erected at the tomb of Kazan Khan Safa-Girey by his wife - Queen Suyumbika. Today it is one of the "falling" towers (deviation from axis is 194 cm).
Suyumbika Tower
Suyumbika Tower

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On this Web-page we have used some materials from the books:
"Kazan. The Enchanted Capital" (Flint River Press Ltd, London, 1995);
"The Decorative Applied Art of the Kazan Tatars" (Sovietsky Khudozhnik Publishers, Moscow, 1990).

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