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Last updated: Wed, 28 Mar 2007

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mysql_query

(PHP 4, PHP 5, PECL mysql:1.0)

mysql_query — Send a MySQL query

Description

resource mysql_query ( string $query [, resource $link_identifier] )

mysql_query() sends an unique query (multiple queries are not supported) to the currently active database on the server that's associated with the specified link_identifier.

Parameters

query

A SQL query

The query string should not end with a semicolon.

link_identifier

The MySQL connection. If the link identifier is not specified, the last link opened by mysql_connect() is assumed. If no such link is found, it will try to create one as if mysql_connect() was called with no arguments. If by chance no connection is found or established, an E_WARNING level warning is generated.

Return Values

For SELECT, SHOW, DESCRIBE, EXPLAIN and other statements returning resultset, mysql_query() returns a resource on success, or FALSE on error.

For other type of SQL statements, UPDATE, DELETE, DROP, etc, mysql_query() returns TRUE on success or FALSE on error.

The returned result resource should be passed to mysql_fetch_array(), and other functions for dealing with result tables, to access the returned data.

Use mysql_num_rows() to find out how many rows were returned for a SELECT statement or mysql_affected_rows() to find out how many rows were affected by a DELETE, INSERT, REPLACE, or UPDATE statement.

mysql_query() will also fail and return FALSE if the user does not have permission to access the table(s) referenced by the query.

Examples

Example 1375. Invalid Query

The following query is syntactically invalid, so mysql_query() fails and returns FALSE.

<?php
$result
= mysql_query('SELECT * WHERE 1=1');
if (!
$result) {
    die(
'Invalid query: ' . mysql_error());
}

?>

Example 1376. Valid Query

The following query is valid, so mysql_query() returns a resource.

<?php
// This could be supplied by a user, for example
$firstname = 'fred';
$lastname  = 'fox';

// Formulate Query
// This is the best way to perform a SQL query
// For more examples, see mysql_real_escape_string()
$query = sprintf("SELECT firstname, lastname, address, age FROM friends WHERE firstname='%s' AND lastname='%s'",
   
mysql_real_escape_string($firstname),
   
mysql_real_escape_string($lastname));

// Perform Query
$result = mysql_query($query);

// Check result
// This shows the actual query sent to MySQL, and the error. Useful for debugging.
if (!$result) {
   
$message  = 'Invalid query: ' . mysql_error() . "\n";
   
$message .= 'Whole query: ' . $query;
    die(
$message);
}

// Use result
// Attempting to print $result won't allow access to information in the resource
// One of the mysql result functions must be used
// See also mysql_result(), mysql_fetch_array(), mysql_fetch_row(), etc.
while ($row = mysql_fetch_assoc($result)) {
    echo
$row['firstname'];
    echo
$row['lastname'];
    echo
$row['address'];
    echo
$row['age'];
}

// Free the resources associated with the result set
// This is done automatically at the end of the script
mysql_free_result($result);
?>

See Also

mysql_connect()
mysql_error()
mysql_real_escape_string()
mysql_result()
mysql_fetch_assoc()
mysql_unbuffered_query()



add a note add a note User Contributed Notes
mysql_query
x_terminat_or_3 at yahoo dot fr
10-Mar-2007 11:27
It says in the manual:

The query string should not end with a semicolon.

However, I read somewhere that it is good practice to add a semicolon at the end of your query, and that it increases security against SQL-injection attacks. Therefore I have issued a requirement that all my developers end queries with semicolons.

So far, PHP & MySQL have happily accepted those queries, with only one exception:

If you use more then one query in the same call to mysql_query, MySQL sometimes only executes the first query and fails on the others.
JustinB at harvest dot org
09-Mar-2007 12:01
If you're looking to create a dynamic dropdown list or pull the possible values of an ENUM field for other reasons, here's a handy function:

<?php
// Function to Return All Possible ENUM Values for a Field
function getEnumValues($table, $field) {
   
$enum_array = array();
   
$query = 'SHOW COLUMNS FROM `' . $table . '` LIKE "' . $field . '"';
   
$result = mysql_query($query);
   
$row = mysql_fetch_row($result);
   
preg_match_all('/\'(.*?)\'/', $row[1], $enum_array);
    if(!empty(
$enum_array[1])) {
       
// Shift array keys to match original enumerated index in MySQL (allows for use of index values instead of strings)
       
foreach($enum_array[1] as $mkey => $mval) $enum_fields[$mkey+1] = $mval;
        return
$enum_fields;
    }
    else return array();
// Return an empty array to avoid possible errors/warnings if array is passed to foreach() without first being checked with !empty().
}
?>

This function asumes an existing MySQL connection and that desired DB is already selected.

Since this function returns an array with the original enumerated index numbers, you can use these in any later UPDATEs or INSERTS in your script instead of having to deal with the string values.  Also, since these are integers, you can typecast them as such using (int) when building your queries--which is much easer for SQL injection filtering than a string value.
massiv at nerdshack dot com
19-Feb-2007 02:29
Small change in mysql_dump function, to remove the ";" char at the end of the query.

<?
 
function parse_mysql_dump($url, $ignoreerrors = false) {
  
$file_content = file($url);
  
//print_r($file_content);
  
$query = "";
   foreach(
$file_content as $sql_line) {
    
$tsl = trim($sql_line);
     if ((
$sql_line != "") && (substr($tsl, 0, 2) != "--") && (substr($tsl, 0, 1) != "#")) {
      
$query .= $sql_line;
       if(
preg_match("/;\s*$/", $sql_line)) {
        
$query = str_replace(";", "", "$query");
        
$result = mysql_query($query);
         if (!
$result && !$ignoreerrors) die(mysql_error());
        
$query = "";
       }
     }
   }
  }
?>

... Massimo
noah at missionecommerce dot com
16-Dec-2006 02:26
I got so tired of having to type out all the 11 letters in "mysql_query()" and even more tired of having to iterate through the result set....

So I created the perfect little all purpose wrapper function, called "q()";

<?
function q($query,$assoc=1) {
   
$r = @mysql_query($query);
    if(
mysql_errno() ) {
       
$error = 'MYSQL ERROR #'.mysql_errno().' : <small>' . mysql_error(). '</small><br><VAR>$query</VAR>';
        echo(
$error); return FALSE;
    }
    if(
strtolower(substr($query,0,6)) != 'select' ) return array(mysql_affected_rows(),mysql_insert_id());
   
$count = @mysql_num_rows($r);
    if( !
$count ) return 0;
    if(
$count == 1 ) {
        if(
$assoc ) $f = mysql_fetch_assoc($r);
        else
$f = mysql_fetch_row($r);
       
mysql_free_result($r);
        if(
count($f) == 1 ) {
            list(
$key) = array_keys($f);   
            return
$f[$key];
        } else {
           
$all = array();
           
$all[] = $f;
            return
$all;
        }
    } else {
       
$all = array();
        for(
$i = 0; $i < $count; $i++ ) {
            if(
$assoc ) $f = mysql_fetch_assoc($r);
            else
$f = mysql_fetch_row($r);
           
$all[] = $f;
        }
       
mysql_free_result($r);
        return
$all;
    }
}

?>

Example:

<?
$r
= q('Select id,foo FROM blah');
echo
$r[0]['id']; // first row, field 'id'

// for single field single row selects
// only the value is returned
$count = q('SELECT count(*) from blah');
// $count is the number
?>

Returns affected_rows and/or insert_id for anything other than select's. If you dont want field name keys then pass 0 for second parameter.
babba at nurfuerspam dot de
25-Nov-2006 11:42
Following function creates a minimal update query by comparing two arrays with old and new values (phpmyadmin-like). An easy way to use it in your forms is to print out the old values in hidden fields with name old[$key] and name the visible form fields new[$key]. Feel free to send comments via mail.

<?php
function getUpdateString($tablename, $whereclause, $old, $new) {
   
$changedvalues = "";
    foreach(
$old as $key => $oldvalue) {
       
$newvalue = $new[$key];
        if(
$oldvalue != $newvalue) {
            if(
$changedvalues != "")
               
$changedvalues .= ", ";
           
           
$changedvalues .= "`".$key."`=";
            if(!
is_numeric($newvalue))
               
$changedvalues .= "'".$newvalue."'";
            else
               
$changedvalues .= $newvalue;
        }
    }
   
    if(
$changedvalues == "")
        return
"";
   
    return
"UPDATE ".$tablename. " SET ".$changedvalues." WHERE ".$whereclause;
}
?>
axiak at mit dot edu
24-Oct-2006 12:13
Gconner at sgi...

your function breaks when you give it a question mark!
Here's a function which correctly implements what I think you want. I'm using it in a pet project of mine.

The code:
<?php
function mysql_prepare ($query, $phs = array()) {
   
$phs = array_map(create_function('$ph',
                    
'return "\'".mysql_real_escape_string($ph)."\'";'), $phs);

   
$curpos = 0;
   
$curph  = count($phs)-1;

    for (
$i=strlen($query)-1; $i>0; $i--) {

      if (
$query[$i] !== '?')  continue;
      if (
$curph < 0 || !isset($phs[$curph]))
   
$query = substr_replace($query, 'NULL', $i, 1);
      else
   
$query = substr_replace($query, $phs[$curph], $i, 1);

     
$curph--;
    }
    unset(
$curpos, $curph, $phs);
    return
$query;
}
?>
veyita_angi at hotmail dot com
04-Oct-2006 04:35
this could be a nice way to print values from 2 tables with a foreign key. i have not yet tested correctly but it should work fine.

$buscar = mysql_query("SELECT k.*, e.Clasificacion FROM cat_plan_k k, cat_equipo e WHERE Tipo='$tipo' AND k.ID_Eq=a.ID_Eq");
    while ($row=mysql_fetch_array($buscar))
        {
            $nombre = "e.Clasificacion";
            $row[$nombre] = $Clasific; echo $row[$nombre].'convertido en '.$Clasific;
        }         
    mysql_free_result($buscar);
cc+php at c2se dot com
02-Sep-2006 12:39
Here's a parameterised query function for MySQL similar to pg_query_params, I've been using something similar for a while now and while there is a slight drop in speed, it's far better than making a mistake escaping the parameters of your query and allowing an SQL injection attack on your server.

<?php   # Parameterised query implementation for MySQL (similar PostgreSQL's PHP function pg_query_params)
        # Example: mysql_query_params( "SELECT * FROM my_table WHERE col1=$1 AND col2=$2", array( 42, "It's ok" ) );

       
if( !function_exists( 'mysql_query_params' ) ) {

                function
mysql_query_params__callback( $at ) {
                        global
$mysql_query_params__parameters;
                        return
$mysql_query_params__parameters[ $at[1]-1 ];
                }

                function
mysql_query_params( $query, $parameters=array(), $database=false ) {

                       
// Escape parameters as required & build parameters for callback function
                       
global $mysql_query_params__parameters;
                        foreach(
$parameters as $k=>$v )
                               
$parameters[$k] = ( is_int( $v ) ? $v : ( NULL===$v ? 'NULL' : "'".mysql_real_escape_string( $v )."'" ) );
                       
$mysql_query_params__parameters = $parameters;

                       
// Call using mysql_query
                       
if( false===$database )
                                return
mysql_query( preg_replace_callback( '/\$([0-9]+)/', 'mysql_query_params__callback', $query ) );
                        else    return
mysql_query( preg_replace_callback( '/\$([0-9]+)/', 'mysql_query_params__callback', $query ), $database );

                }
        }

?>
joe
29-Aug-2006 07:45
alteration to the script reposted by
webmaster at vs2055067 dot vserver dot de

   $fields = implode(array_keys($toAdd), ',');
   $values = "'".implode(array_values($toAdd), "','")."'";

should really be

   $fields = "`".implode(array_keys($toAdd), '`,`')."`";
   $values = "'".implode(array_values($toAdd), "','")."'";

as keys like `desc` (short for description) cause errors
spencer at barekoncept dot com
24-Aug-2006 04:15
Here's an easy way to store the column names from a specified table in the array "cnames".

$result = mysql_query("SHOW COLUMNS FROM tablename");
$count = 0;
while ($row=mysql_fetch_row($result)){
    $cnt = 0;
    foreach ($row as $item){
        if ($cnt == 0){
            $cnames[$count] = $item;
            $cnt++;
            $count++;
        }
    }
}

Then, to display the results comma delimited:

foreach($cnames as $c){
echo $c.",";
}

I hope this helps some people as it took me a while to figure it out.
webmaster at vs2055067 dot vserver dot de
27-Jul-2006 03:03
in the first note the function doesn't work and the other function is pretty complicated. Here is the corrected version of the first one and a function for update.

<?php
function mysql_insert($table, $toAdd){

  
$fields = implode(array_keys($toAdd), ',');
   
$values = "'".implode(array_values($toAdd), "','")."'"; # better

  
$q = 'INSERT INTO `'.$table.'` ('.$fields.') VALUES ('.$values.')';
  
$res = mysql_query($q)OR die(mysql_error());

   return
true;
  
  
//-- Example of usage
   //$tToAdd = array('id'=>3, 'name'=>'Yo', 'salary' => 5000);
   //insertIntoDB('myTable', $tToAdd)
}

function
mysql_update($table, $update, $where){
   
$fields = array_keys($update);
   
$values = array_values($update);
    
$i=0;
    
$query="UPDATE ".$table." SET ";
     while(
$fields[$i]){
       if(
$i<0){$query.=", ";}
    
$query.=$fields[$i]." = '".$values[$i]."'";
    
$i++;
     }
    
$query.=" WHERE ".$where." LIMIT 1;";
    
mysql_query($query) or die(mysql_error());
     return
true;
    
    
//Example
     // mysql_update('myTable', $anarray, "type = 'main'")

}
?>
rob desbois
07-Jul-2006 09:38
Note that the 'source' command used in the mysql client program is *not* a feature of the server but of the client.
This means that you cannot do
   mysql_query('source myfile.sql');
You will get a syntax error. Use LOAD DATA INFILE as an alternative.
cedric ___at___ sadai ___dot___ net
05-Jun-2006 03:26
This is a quick way for adding data to a table. It is the same way than PEAR::DB, so if you are working on a server without PEAR, it enables you to keep up with your habits.

<?php

function    insertIntoDB($table, $toAdd)
{
   
$fields = implode(array_keys($toAdd), ',');
   
$values = implode(array_values($toAdd), ',');

   
$q = 'INSERT INTO `'.$table.'` ('.$fields.') VALUES ('.$values.')';
   
$res = mysql_query($q)OR die(mysql_error());

    return   
true;
}

//-- Example of usage
$tToAdd = array('id'=>3, 'name'=>'Yo', 'salary' => 5000);
insertIntoDB('myTable', $tToAdd)

?>
matt
21-Mar-2006 11:45
Just realised I posted the wrong functions. Oops!

Here you go....

<?php
function compile_insert_string($data)
{   
   
$field_names  = "";
   
$field_values = "";
   
    foreach (
$data as $k => $v)
    {
       
$v = preg_replace( "/'/", "\\'", $v );
       
//$v = preg_replace( "/#/", "\\#", $v );
       
$field_names  .= "$k,";
       
$field_values .= "'$v',";
    }
   
   
$field_names  = preg_replace( "/,$/" , "" , $field_names  );
   
$field_values = preg_replace( "/,$/" , "" , $field_values );
   
    return array(
'FIELD_NAMES'  => $field_names,
                
'FIELD_VALUES' => $field_values,
                );
}

//------------------------------------------
// insert_query
//
// Wrapper for an insert query
//------------------------------------------

function insert_query($data, $table)
{
    if (!
is_array($data) or count($data) < 1)
    {
       
$this->fatal_error("Insert data missing");
    }

   
$insert = $this->compile_insert_string($data);
   
$query = "INSERT INTO {$table} (".$insert['FIELD_NAMES'].") VALUES (".$insert['FIELD_VALUES'].")";

    return
$this->query($query);
}
?>
yankee at gmeil dot com
10-Mar-2006 10:07
Another shorter possibility to print options of an ENUM as <select>-tag:
<?php
$result
=mysql_query('SHOW COLUMNS FROM <your table> WHERE field=\'<you column>\'');
while (
$row=mysql_fetch_row($result))
{
   foreach(
explode("','",substr($row[1],6,-2)) as $v)
   {
     print(
"<option>$v</option>");
   }
}
?>
gconnor at sgi dot com
02-Mar-2006 01:19
I happily grabbed and used the "mysql_prepare()" function given in the first note above.  All is well.

I made a slight tweak so that I could feed in NULL values without getting an empty string (or 0) instead.

   // mysql_query() wrapper. takes two arguments. first
   // is the query with '?' placeholders in it. second argument
   // is an array containing the values to substitute in place
   // of the placeholders (in order, of course).
   // Pass NULL constant in array to get unquoted word NULL
   function mysql_prepare ($query, $phs = array()) {
       foreach ($phs as $ph) {
           if ( isset($ph) ) {
               $ph = "'" . mysql_real_escape_string($ph) . "'";
           } else {
               $ph = "NULL" ;
           }
           $query = substr_replace(
               $query, $ph, strpos($query, '?'), 1
           );
       }
       return mysql_query($query);
   }

Sample function call:
        // Check to see if all variables are defined
        if ( isset($f_hostid,$f_eventid,$f_owner,$f_comment) ) {
                // For numeric values, blank means NULL
                if ( $f_eventid=="" ) { $f_eventid = NULL ; }
                $result = mysql_prepare(
                        'UPDATE Hosts SET event_id=?, owner=?, comment=? WHERE id=?',
                        array( $f_eventid,$f_owner,$f_comment, $f_hostid )
                        );
                if (!$result) {
                        $message  = 'Error while updating: ' . mysql_error() . "<br />\n";
                        die($message);
                }
                echo "Update successful. <br />\n" ;
        } else {
                echo "Missing value.  Update failed... check form logic. <br />\n" ;
        }
23-Feb-2006 07:11
If, like me, you come from perl, you may not like having to use sprintf to 'simulate' placeholders that the DBI package from perl provides. I have created the following wrapper function for mysql_query() that allows you to use '?' characters to substitute values in your DB queries. Note that this is not how DBI in perl handles placeholders, but it's pretty similar.

<?php
   
// mysql_query() wrapper. takes two arguments. first
    // is the query with '?' placeholders in it. second argument
    // is an array containing the values to substitute in place
    // of the placeholders (in order, of course).
   
function mysql_prepare ($query, $phs = array()) {
        foreach (
$phs as $ph) {
           
$ph = "'" . mysql_real_escape_string($ph) . "'";
           
$query = substr_replace(
               
$query, $ph, strpos($query, '?'), 1
           
);
        }

        return
mysql_query($query);
    }

   
// sample usage
   
list($user, $passwd) = array('myuser', 'mypass');

   
$sth = mysql_prepare(
       
'select userid from users where userid=? and passwd=?',
        array(
$user, sha1($passwd))
    );
   
$row = mysql_fetch_row($sth);

   
// successfull username & password authentication
   
if ($row !== false) {
        echo
"logging in as '{$row[0]}'!\n";
    }

   
// oops, wrong userid or passwd
   
else {
        echo
"Invalid username and password combination.\n";
    }
?>
brjann at no dot gmail dot spam dot com
22-Feb-2006 10:07
Using mysql 4 w/o stored procedures can become quite tedious, especially when writing a lot of standard sql-statements all the time.

These two functions, standardSQLInsert and standardSQLUpdate, handle most of my uncomplex cases of  updating and inserting into tables. Note the use of the quote_smart function, described at http://php.net/mysql_real_escape_string, making all queries safe.

<?php
   
function standardSQLInsert($strTableName, $arrValuePairs){
       
$strSeparator = '';
       
$strCols = '';
       
$strValues = '';
        foreach (
$arrValuePairs as $strCol => $strValue) {
           
$strCols = $strCols.$strSeparator.$strCol;
           
$strValues = $strValues.$strSeparator.quote_smart($strValue);
           
$strSeparator = ',';
        }
       
mysql_query("INSERT INTO $strTableName ($strCols) VALUES($strValues)");
    }

    function
standardSQLUpdate($strTableName, $arrValuePairs, $arrConditionPairs){
       
$strSeparator = '';
       
$strSetStatements = '';
       
$strUpdateConditions = '';
        foreach (
$arrValuePairs as $strCol => $strValue){
           
$strSetStatements = $strSetStatements.$strSeparator.$strCol.'='.quote_smart($strValue);
           
$strSeparator = ',';
        }
       
$strSeparator = '';
        foreach (
$arrConditionPairs as $strCol => $strValue){
           
$strUpdateConditions = $strUpdateConditions.$strSeparator.$strCol.'='.quote_smart($strValue);
           
$strSeparator = ' AND ';
        }
       
$strUpdateConditions = '('.$strUpdateConditions.')';
       
mysql_query("UPDATE $strTableName SET $strSetStatements WHERE $strUpdateConditions");
    }

//example
$arrValuePairs = array('Col1' => 'Value1', 'Col2' => 'Value2');
$arrConditionPairs = array('Col3' => 'Value3', 'Col4' => 'Value4');

standardSQLInsert('mytable',$arrValuePairs);
//yields "INSERT INTO mytable (Col1,Col2) VALUES ('Value1','Value2')"

standardSQLUpdate('mytable',$arrValuePairs,$arrConditionPairs);
//yields "UPDATE mytable SET Col1 = 'Value1', Col2 = 'Value2' WHERE (Col3 = 'Value3' AND Col4 = 'Value4')"
?>
aidan at mcquay dot org
07-Feb-2006 08:03
Here's a slight revision of --celtics parse sql file function.  Just fixed a typo: $sql_line != $sql

<?
 
function parse_mysql_dump($url, $ignoreerrors = false) {
  
$file_content = file($url);
  
//print_r($file_content);
  
$query = "";
   foreach(
$file_content as $sql_line) {
    
$tsl = trim($sql_line);
     if ((
$sql_line != "") && (substr($tsl, 0, 2) != "--") && (substr($tsl, 0, 1) != "#")) {
      
$query .= $sql_line;
       if(
preg_match("/;\s*$/", $sql_line)) {
        
$result = mysql_query($query);
         if (!
$result && !$ignoreerrors) die(mysql_error());
        
$query = "";
       }
     }
   }
  }
?>
Harmor
18-Dec-2005 01:32
Modification of hipsurgery submission.  Here's a utility function that will return an array of a table.  Don't forget to connect to the DB before calling this function.
<?php
//Returns an array[columnName] = value of a $table_name
function table_to_array($table_name)
{
 
$columns = array();

 
$result_all= mysql_query("SELECT * FROM $table_name");
 
$result_columns = mysql_query("SHOW COLUMNS FROM $table_name");

 
//get the columns from the table into $colums[] 
 
while ($columnRow = mysql_fetch_array($result_columns, MYSQL_ASSOC))
  {
   
$columns[] = $columnRow
 
}

  while (
$data = mysql_fetch_assoc($result_all, MYSQL_ASSOC))
  {
    foreach (
$columns as $column_name)
    {
     
$array[$column_name] = $data[$column_name];
    }
  }
return
$array;
}
?>
hipsurgery at gmail dot com
05-Nov-2005 06:30
This function will take the contents of any MySQL table, given only the table name, and return it as an index / associative multi-dimensional array in the form of:

$array[$row_number][$column_name] = $value;

I've found this very useful when you don't want to parse the table's contents in to HTML tags during a mysql_fetch_array() iteration.

<?php
function db_to_array($table_name) {

$cols = array();
$x=0;
$this_row=0;

mysql_connect(HOST,USERNAME,PASSWORD);
@
mysql_select_db(DATABASE) or die( "Unable to select database");

$result_all=mysql_query("SELECT * FROM $table_name");
$result_cols = mysql_query("SHOW COLUMNS FROM $table_name");

mysql_close();

$numfields = mysql_num_fields($result_all);

for(
$i=0;$i<mysql_num_rows($result_cols);$i++)
  {
   
$cols[] = mysql_result($result_cols, $i);
  }

while (
$data = mysql_fetch_assoc($result_all))
  {
    if (
$x<$numfields)
      {
       
$x++;
      }
    else
      {
       
$x = 0;
       
$this_row++;
         }

    foreach (
$cols as $col_name)
      {
       
$array[$this_row][$col_name] = $data[$col_name];
      }

   
mysql_data_seek($result_all, $this_row);
 
  }

return
$array;

}

// Test the function...

$test_array = db_to_array("shows");

foreach (
$test_array as $outer_key => $single_array)
  {
    foreach (
$single_array as $inner_key => $value)
      {
        echo
"\$test_array[$outer_key][$inner_key] = $value<br />";
      } 
  }
?>

I'm just a hobbyist, so feel free to comment on my code or (worse!) tell me that there's some native PHP function that already does this!
congaz at yahoo dot dk
25-Oct-2005 09:46
Here's a little trick to help you keep track of MySQL table/column names, and the values you want to insert/select.

I always use constants instead of variables for my table/column names. The script that define the constants can then dynamically be set to initialize different table/column names if needed. However, here comes the trick.

Say you have an Insert statement like this:
<?=
// define(TABLE_DOCUMENT, 'table_name');
// define(COL_DOC_PUBLIC, 'column_name');
// etc....

$sql =     "INSERT INTO ".TABLE_DOCUMENT."
                        ("
.COL_DOC_PUBLIC.", ".COL_DOC_UPLOAD_TSTAMP.", ".COL_DOC_CREATOR_NAME.") VALUES (".$doc_public.", ".$doc_upload_tstamp.", ".$doc_name.")";
?>
Now, with long insert statements, I find it easy to loose track of which values goes with which column names. If I somehow could use the constants as variable names, keeping track of all that sql mishmash would be quite a lot easier.

As it turns out, constants names can be used as variable variables (not quite the correct definition when we're actually dealing with constants, but what the heck).

So,the sql above could instead be like this:
<?=
${COL_DOC_PUBLIC} = $doc_public;
${
COL_DOC_UPLOAD_TSTAMP} = $doc_upload_tstamp;
${
COL_DOC_CREATOR_NAME} = $doc_name;

$sql =     "INSERT INTO ".TABLE_DOCUMENT."
                        ("
.COL_DOC_PUBLIC.", ".COL_DOC_UPLOAD_TSTAMP.", ".COL_DOC_CREATOR_NAME.") VALUES (".${COL_DOC_PUBLIC}.", ".${COL_DOC_UPLOAD_TSTAMP}.", ".${COL_DOC_CREATOR_NAME}.")";
?>
This little trick made things alot easier for me - especially when dealing with extended querys, where you might have to use the same values in severel insert/select statements. Another thing is, that you can wait to use addslashes()/my_sql_real_escape_string until you create the "variable constants" - thus the task of remebering which values have been prepared to be used in an sql-statement has become fool-proof.

Hope somebody finds this usefull...
php at arcannon dot com
01-Oct-2005 10:30
I believe there is a typo in celtic at raven-blue dot com version with:

if (($sql != "") && (substr($tsl, 0, 2) != "--") && (substr($tsl, 0, 1) != "#")) {

I think you really ment:

if (($tsl != "") && (substr($tsl, 0, 2) != "--") && (substr($tsl, 0, 1) != "#")) {

I changed the $sql to $tsl
celtic at raven-blue dot com
10-Sep-2005 02:03
Here's a revision of ix at nivelzero -and- thomas at pixur's code. This SQL dump parser fixes the check for comments that was present in the old (ie. a '--' located anywhere in the string would make it ignore that line!), and adds the check for the # comment. That had me thinking.

<?php
 
function parse_mysql_dump($url, $ignoreerrors = false) {
  
$file_content = file($url);
  
$query = "";
   foreach(
$file_content as $sql_line) {
    
$tsl = trim($sql_line);
     if ((
$sql != "") && (substr($tsl, 0, 2) != "--") && (substr($tsl, 0, 1) != "#")) {
      
$query .= $sql_line;
       if(
preg_match("/;\s*$/", $sql_line)) {
        
$result = mysql_query($query);
         if (!
$result && !$ignoreerrors) die(mysql_error());
        
$query = "";
       }
     }
   }
  }
?>
thomas -at - pixtur -dot- de
15-Aug-2005 09:14
a comment on nivelzero's excellent sql-dump-script.

It was excactly what I was looking for. Sadly in my case the sql-dump had dos-style linebreaks. Changing the regex to ...

   if(preg_match("/;\s*$/", $sql_line)){

... will make the function working on both platforms. Thanks for the script.
ix at nivelzero dot ro
14-Aug-2005 10:07
here's a script for parsing a *.sql file (tested only on dumps created with phpMyAdmin) which is short and simple (why do people say "here's a short and simple script" and it has a 100 lines?). the script skips comments and allows ; to be present within the querys

<?php
 
function parse_mysql_dump($url){
   
$file_content = file($url);
   
$query = "";
    foreach(
$file_content as $sql_line){
      if(
trim($sql_line) != "" && strpos($sql_line, "--") === false){
       
$query .= $sql_line;
        if(
preg_match("/;[\040]*\$/", $sql_line)){
         
$result = mysql_query($query)or die(mysql_error());
         
$query = "";
        }
      }
    }
  }
?>
kagekonjou at gmail dot com
31-May-2005 05:06
Due to the easy ways SQL can be injected into websites and thus virtually ruin a website that is dependant on databasing, I created a 'prepare' function similar to the way sprintf works.

<?php
/* Wildcard Rules
 * SCALAR  (?) => 'original string quoted'
 * OPAQUE  (&) => 'string from file quoted'
 * MISC     (~) => original string (left 'as-is')
 */
function prepare() {
 
/* MySQL Prepare Function
  * By: Kage (Alex)
  * KageKonjou@GMail.com
  */
 
$data = func_get_args();
 
$query = $data[0];
 
$tokens = split("[\&\?\~]", $query);
 
$preparedquery = $tokens[0];
 
$count = strlen($tokens[0]);
 for (
$i=1; $i<count($tokens); $i++) {
 
$char = substr($query, $count, 1);
 
$count += (strlen($tokens[$i])+1);
  if (
$char == "&") {
  
$fp = @fopen($data[$i], 'r');
  
$pdata = "";
   if (
$fp) {
    while ((
$buf = fread($fp, 4096)) != false) {
    
$pdata .= $buf;
    }
   
fclose($fp);
   }
  } else {
  
$pdata = &$data[$i];
  }
 
$preparedquery .= ($char != "~" ? mysql_escape_string($pdata) : $pdata);
 
$preparedquery .= $tokens[$i];
 }
 return
$preparedquery;
}
?>

This function has been stress-tested, and does work.  Example use:

$prep_query = prepare("SELECT ?,? FROM ? WHERE '?' LIKE '&'", "lastname", "address", "addressbook", "lastname", "B%");

$prep_query now has the value of "SELECT lastname,address FROM addressbook WHERE 'lastname' LIKE 'B%'"

In essence, as explained in the Wildcard Rules, ? is a quoted string, & is quoted from file, and ~ is raw ('AS-IS').  This function is to be used to make-safe SQL that is touched by a web interface.  A main example would be forum pages (Ie. thread.php?fid=12&tid=12345).  SQL could be injected at this point, such as " thread.php?fid=12&tid=12345'; DELETE FROM prefix_posts WHERE `id` LIKE '1%' ", which would essentially destroy that forum unless routine backups are made.  This function, if used properly, can prevent any type of injections, turning the above injection into " thread.php?fid=12&tid=12345\'; DELETE FROM prefix_posts WHERE \`id\` LIKE \'1%\' ", making it look for thread-id of everything from 12345 to 1%', making it a safe, though broken SQL.

Comments and suggestions are welcome, and use of this function is free and under the Honor System (hoping you give credit where credit is due), since I'm too lazy to tack on a GNU.
wjyong at sh163 dot net
30-Apr-2005 11:21
The following query is not valid as expected:
<?php
$username
= 'dicteworld';
$username{4} = '';
$sql = "SELECT * FROM `user` WHERE `User` = '$username'";
print(
$sql); // Result: SELECT * FROM `user` WHERE `User` = 'dictworld'
$res = mysql_query($query);
$row = mysql_fetch_array($res);
print_r($row);// Result: still return Array(), supposed that the user 'dictworld' exists.
?>
Pay more attention that null string '' is equivalent to '\0',therefore SQL statement above is equivalent to SELECT * FROM `user` WHERE `User` = 'dict\0world',though printing string is right.
jon at websandbox dot net
26-Jan-2005 01:25
I think it's important to note (for newbies, like me especially) that an empty result is not the same as an error:
<?php
/* 'bar' is an empty table in the db */
$rs = mysql_query("SELECT `foo` FROM `bar`")
if(
$rs) {
  echo
mysql_num_rows($rs); //outputs: 0
}

andregodin at gmail dot com
18-Nov-2004 09:03
Another "dumping" function but with the optional possibility to choose wich field_name to be dumped.  "Have Fun and please email me if you do optimization of this code"

<?php
function mysql_format($strTemp){
   
//Format sql sentence for insert
   
$bad_chars= array("\\", "'", "\"");
   
$good_chars = array("\\\\", "''", "\"\"");
    return
str_replace($bad_chars, $good_chars, $strTemp);
}

function
mysql_dump_table(){
   
/*******************\
    *  MYSQL_DUMP_TABLE  *********************************\
    *  Param�tres :                                       *
    *    1- Table Name                                     *
    *   2- Field(s) (in string format) Name to be dumped  *
    *       If empty, all field will be dumped            *
    \******************************************************/

   
if (!(func_num_args())) die ("<b>mysql_dump_table</b>: Need At Least A Table Name");

   
$arg_list = func_get_args();
   
$arrReturn = "";
   
$strTblName = mysql_format("`{$arg_list[0]}`");
   
$strFields = "*";

    if (
func_num_args() > 1){
       
$strFields = "";
        for (
$noArg=1; $noArg<func_num_args(); $noArg++){
            if (
$strFields) $strFields .= ", ";
           
$strFields .= "`$arg_list[$noArg]`";
        }
    }

   
$result = mysql_query("SELECT $strFields FROM $strTblName") or die ("Incapable d'ex�cuter la requ�te");

   
$nbRecord = 0;
    while (
$row = mysql_fetch_assoc($result)){
       
$strFieldsNames = "";
       
$strFieldsValues = "";

        foreach (
$row as $field_name => $field_value){
            if (
$strFieldsNames) $strFieldsNames .= ", ";
           
$strFieldsNames .= "`$field_name`";

            if(
$strFieldsValues) $strFieldsValues .= ", ";
           
$strFieldsValues .= "'" . mysql_format($field_value) . "'";
        }

       
$arrReturn[$nbRecord++] = "INSERT INTO $strTblName($strFieldsNames) values($strFieldsValues);";
    }
   
mysql_free_result($result);
    return
$arrReturn;
}

require_once(
"config_connexion_db_test.php");

/****************
* AUTRE EXEMPLE  **********************************************
*    Vous pouvez d�cider d'afficher quelques champs seulements *
*  en sp�cifiant les champs d�sir�                            *
**************************************************************/
$db = mysql_connect(DBTEST_HOST, DBTEST_USER, DBTEST_PASSWORD) or die("Impossible de se connecter : ");
mysql_select_db(DBTEST_NAME, $db);

$result = mysql_dump_table("tbl_produits", "code_produit", "description");

foreach (
$result as $sentence){
   
//Afficher chaque �l�ment du tableau
   
print "$sentence<br>";
}
mysql_close($db);

//Retourne
/********************************************************
INSERT INTO `tbl_produits`(`code_produit`,`description`) VALUES('produit1', 'don\'t have description');
INSERT INTO `tbl_produits`(`code_produit`,`description`) VALUES('produit2', 'without \"description\" too');
INSERT INTO `tbl_produits`(`code_produit`,`description`) VALUES('produit3', '1\\3 more than before');
...
...
*********************************************************/

?>
PHP is a very nice language!
Andr� Godin :)
me at harveyball dot com
11-Sep-2004 08:13
Just thought id post this as i couldnt find a nice and simple way of dumping data from a mysql database and all the functions i found were way overly complicated so i wrote this one and thought id post it for others to use.

//$link is the link to the database file
//$db_name is the name of the database you want to dump
//$current_time is just a reference of time()

//returns $thesql which is a string of all the insert into statements

function dumpData()
{
global $link,$db_name,$current_time;
$thesql="";
$thesql.="#SQL DATA FOR $mdb_name \n";
$thesql.="#BACK UP DATE ". date("d/m/Y G:i.s",$current_time)." \n";
$result = mysql_list_tables($mdb_name);
while ($row = mysql_fetch_row($result))
    {
    $getdata=mysql_query("SELECT * FROM $row[0]");
    while ($row1=mysql_fetch_array($getdata))
        {
        $thesql.="INSERT INTO `$row[0]` VALUES (";
        $getcols = mysql_list_fields($mdb_name,$row[0],$link);
            for($c=0;$c<mysql_num_fields($getcols);$c++)
                {
                if (strstr(mysql_field_type($getdata,$c),'blob')) $row1[$c]=bin2hex($row1[$c]);
                //Binary null fix if ever needed
                if ($row1[$c]=="0x") $row1[$c]="0x1";

                //delimit the apostrophies for mysql compatability
                $row1[$c]=str_replace("'","''",$row1[$c]);
                if (strstr(mysql_field_type($getdata,$c),'blob'))
                $thesql.="0x$row1[$c]";
                else
                $thesql.="'$row1[$c]'";
                if ($c<mysql_num_fields($getcols)-1) $thesql.=",";
                }
            $thesql.=");;\n";
        }
    }
return $thesql;   
}

Please note the sql statements are terminated with ;; not a ; this is so when you want to do a multiple query you can tokenise the sql string with a ;; which allows your data to contain a ;

If you want to run the multiple query then use this simple function which i wrote due to not being able to find a decent way of doing it

//$q is the query string ($thesql returned string)
//$link is the link to the database connection
//returns true or false depending on whether a single query is executed allows you to check to see if any queries were ran

function multiple_query($q,$link)
    {
    $tok = strtok($q, ";;\n");
    while ($tok)
        {
        $results=mysql_query("$tok",$link);
        $tok = strtok(";;\n");
        }
    return $results;
    }
mark @t ilisys dot c0m au
14-Jul-2004 04:05
The default mysql max_allowed_packet setting is in fact 16MB. The gotcha you can fall into is your text field type.
eg:
TEXT    Variable-length string up to 65,535 characters long.
MEDIUMTEXT    Variable-length string up to 16,777,215 characters long.
LONGTEXT    Variable-length string up to 4,294,967,295 characters long.
(corresponding sizes for blob, mediumblob, longblob)
samm at os2 dot ru
18-May-2004 09:15
Small correction to the klync post (18-Jan-2004 09:05)
instead

foreach ( explode(";", "$sql_query") as $sql_line) {

its better to use

foreach ( explode(";\n", "$sql_query") as $sql_line) {

to avoid errors on strings lines like:
INSERT INTO `cms_text` VALUES ('test; test');
Predrag Supurovic
01-Dec-2003 12:52
If you need to execute sevaral SQL commands in a row (usually called batcg SQL) using PHP you canot use mysql_query() since it can execute single command only.

Here is simple but effective function that can run batch SQL commands. Take cere, if string contains semicolon (;) anywhere except as command delimiter (within string expression for example) function will not work.

function mysql_exec_batch ($p_query, $p_transaction_safe = true) {
  if ($p_transaction_safe) {
      $p_query = 'START TRANSACTION;' . $p_query . '; COMMIT;';
    };
  $query_split = preg_split ("/[;]+/", $p_query);
  foreach ($query_split as $command_line) {
    $command_line = trim($command_line);
    if ($command_line != '') {
      $query_result = mysql_query($command_line);
      if ($query_result == 0) {
        break;
      };
    };
  };
  return $query_result;
}
chris at hotmail dot com
01-May-2003 01:28
Windows programmers, keep in mind that although table names in Windows queries are not case sensitive, many *NIX versions of Mysql require the correct table name case (perhaps others as well). So you're better off using the right case from the beginning, in case you ever decide to go with a *NIX server.
davidc at edeca dot net
19-Apr-2003 07:30
Regarding the idea for returning all possible values of an enum field, the mySQL manual says that "SHOW COLUMNS FROM table LIKE column" should be used to do this.

The function below (presumes db connection) will return an array of the possible values of an enum.

function GetEnumValues($Table,$Column)
    {
    $dbSQL = "SHOW COLUMNS FROM ".$Table." LIKE '".$Column."'";
    $dbQuery = mysql_query($dbSQL);

    $dbRow = mysql_fetch_assoc($dbQuery);
    $EnumValues = $dbRow["Type"];

    $EnumValues = substr($EnumValues, 6, strlen($EnumValues)-8);
    $EnumValues = str_replace("','",",",$EnumValues);

    return explode(",",$EnumValues);
    }

Cavaets:

1) If the LIKE matches more than one column you get the enum from the first, so be careful with the $Column argument
2) You can't have ',' as part of one of the enums (I guess mySQL would escape this, but I haven't tried)
3) If the field isn't an enum you'll get garbage back!

This is just a quick example to show how to do it, some tidying up needs to be done (ie checking if the field is actually an enum) before it is perfect.
09-Apr-2003 07:43
Until this function prohibits them, watch out for SQL comments (--) in your input.
allen a brooker gb net
28-Mar-2003 01:35
One way to reduce the dangers of queries like the dlete command above that dletes the whole DB is to use limits wherever possible.

EG. If you have a routine that is only deisnged to delete 1 record, add 'LIMIT 1' to the end of the command. This way you'll only lose one record if someone does something stupid.

You should also check all input, especially if it is sent using GET. ie. make sure that $_GET['id'] is not NULL or == "", is a number that is positive, not 0 (generally, I know this doesn't apply to some table types, but it applies to the default) and is within the valid range for that field.

Just don't trust ANY data that is sent to your script.

HTH
Allen
antony%40terian%2Eco%2Euk
27-Mar-2003 03:50
A useful URL for queries to search for duplicate records is: http://www.onlamp.com/pub/a/onlamp/excerpt/mysqlckbk/index1.html?page=last
php at mereck dot net
19-Jan-2003 04:59
phpinfo at t-online dot de,

good point about the security hole potential in multple query handling. I just wanted to say that in some cases its a good idea to use multiple queries for performance issues. For example, according to http://www.mysql.com/doc/en/Insert_speed.html :

"If you are inserting many rows from the same client at the same time, use multiple value lists INSERT statements. This is much faster (many times in some cases) than using separate INSERT statements."
claude_minette at hotmail dot com
18-Nov-2002 12:15
I nedded to have a select box containing the fields of an ENUM in a MySQL table.

Use this if you need it too. it may be useful. Be sure to be connected and use $table to choose the table you want to describe.

$table="Ma_table"
$describe=mysql_query("describe $table");
while ($ligne=mysql_fetch_array($describe)){
    extract($ligne);
    if (substr($Type,0,4)=='enum'){
        echo $Type;
        $liste=substr($Type,5,strlen($Type));
        $liste=substr($liste,0,(strlen($liste)-2));
        $enums=explode(',',$liste);
        if (sizeof($enums)>0){
            echo "<select name='enum'>\n";
            for ($i=0; $i<sizeof($enums);$i++){
                $elem=strtr($enums[$i],"'"," ");
                echo "<option value='".$elem."'>".$elem."</option>\n";
            }
            echo "</select>";
        }
    }
}

Hope it will help...
Some improvements can bee done, if you do, please mail me the improvements you've done...

Min's
acloutier at agricom dot ca
16-Nov-2001 11:03
You can put multiple query with PHP && MySQL:

//initialise MySQL users variables
mysql_query("select @a:=0,@b:=0");

//select values of variables
mysql_query("select @a:=sum(rate), @b:=count(*) from ratetable where rated_user_id='$id'");
 
//finally, select for result   
$rate_id_select=mysql_query("select @c:=round(@a/@b) as effective_rate");
      
//..and result $rate_user=mysql_result($rate_id_select,0,"effective_rate");

...

echo $rate_user;

Alain Cloutier
webmaster@saguenay.cc
nikhil-php at nols dot com
02-Jan-2000 08:38
When trying to INSERT or UPDATE and trying to put a large amount of text or data (blob) into a mysql table you might run into problems.

In mysql.err you might see:
Packet too large (73904)

To fix you just have to start up mysql with the option -O max_allowed_packet=maxsize

You would just replace maxsize with the max size you want to insert, the default is 65536

mysql_real_escape_string> <mysql_ping
Last updated: Wed, 28 Mar 2007
 
 
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