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where he lost his great favourite Hephaestiori; and his grief for his loss knew no bounds. From Ecba-tana he marched to Babylon, subduing in his way the Cossaei, a mountain tribe ; and before he reach­ed Babylon, he was met by ambassadors from almost every part of the known world, who had come to do homage to the new conqueror of Asia.

Alexander reached Babylon in the spring of b. c. 324, about a year before his death, notwithstand­ing the warnings of the Chaldeans, who predicted evil to him if he entered the city at that time. He intended to make Babylon the capital of his empire, as the best point of communication between his eastern and western dominions. His schemes were numerous and gigantic. His first object was the conquest of Arabia, which was to be followed, it was said, by the subjugation of Italy, Carthage, and the west. But his views were not confined merely to conquest. He sent Heracleides to build a fleet on the Caspian, and to explore that sea, which was said to be connected with the northern ocean. He also intended to improve the distribu­tion of waters in the Babylonian plain, and for that purpose sailed down the Euphrates to inspect the canal called Pallacopas. On his return to Babylon, he found the preparations for the Arabian expedition nearly complete; but almost immedi­ately afterwards he was attacked by a fever, pro­bably brought on by his recent exertions in the marshy districts around Babylon, and aggra­vated by the quantity of Avine he had drunk at a banquet given to his principal officers. He died after an illness of eleven days, in the month of May or June, b. c. 328. He died at the age of thirty-two, after a reign of twelve years and eight months. He appointed no one as his successor, but just before his death he gave his ring to Per-diccas. Roxana was with child at the time of his death, and afterwards bore a son, who is known by the name of Alexander Aegus.

The history of Alexander forms an important epoch in the history of mankind. Unlike other Asiatic conquerors, his progress was marked by something more than devastation and ruin ; at every step of his course the Greek language and civilization took root and nourished; and after his death Greek kingdoms were formed in all parts of Asia, which continued to exist for centuries. By his conquests the knowledge of mankind was in-. creased ; the sciences of geography, natural history and others, received vast additions; and it was through him that a road was opened to India, and that Europeans became acquainted with the pro­ducts of the remote East.

No contemporary author of the campaigns of Alexander survives. Our best account comes from Arrian, who lived in the second century of the Christian aera, but who drew up his history from the accounts of Ptolemy, the son of Lagus, and Aristobulus of Cassandria. The historj- of Quintus Curtius, Plutarch's life of Alexander, and the


epitomes of Justin and Diodorus Siculus, were also compiled from earlier writers. The best modern writers on the subject are : St. Croix, Eixamen critique des anciens Historiens cT A lexandre le Grand, Droysen, Gesckichte Alexanders des Grossen; Wil­liams, Life of Alexander; Thirl wall, History of Greece^ vols. vi. and vii.

ALEXANDER IV. ('AAe'£ai/8pos), king of macedonia, the son of Alexander the Great and Roxana, was born shortly after the death of his father, in b. c. 323. He was acknowledged as the partner of Philip Arrhidaeus in the empire, and was under the guardianship of Perdiccas, the regent, till the death of the latter in b. c. 321. He was then for a short time placed under the guardianship of Pithon and the general Arrhidaeus, and subse­quently under that of Antipater, who conveyed him with his mother Roxana, and the king Philip Arrhidaeus and his wife to Macedonia in 320. (Diod. xviii. 36, 39.) On the death of Antipater in 319, the government fell into the hands of Polysperchon ; but Eurydice, the wife of Philip Arrhidaeus, began to form a powerful party in Macedonia in opposition to Polysperchon; and Roxana, dreading her influence, fled with her son Alexander into Epeirus, where Olympias had lived for a long time. At the instigation of Olympias, Aeacides, king of Epeirus, made common cause with Polysperchon, and restored the young Alex­ander to Macedonia in 317. [aeacides.] Eury­dice and her husband were put to death, and the supreme power fell into the hands of Olympias, (xix. 11 ; Justin, xiv. 5.) But in the following year Cassander obtained possession of Macedonia, put Olympias to death, and imprisoned Alexandei and his mother. They remained in prison till the • general peace made in 311, when Alexander's title to the crown was recognized. Many of his par tizans demanded that he should be immediateh


released from prison and placed upon the throne Cassander therefore resolved to get rid of so dan gerous a rival, and caused him and his mothe: Roxana to be murdered secretly in prison. (b. c 311. Diod. xix. 51, 52, 61, 105; Justin, xv. 2 Paus. ix. 7. § 2.)

ALEXANDER ('AA^-ai/Spos), a megalopo litan. He was originally a Macedonian, but hai received the franchise and was settled at Megalc polis about B. c. 190. He pretended to be a de scendant of Alexander the Great, and according! called his two sons Philip and Alexander. Hi daughter Apama was married to Amynande; king of the Athamanians. Her eldest brothe: Philip, followed her to her court, and being of vain character, he allowed himself to be temptc with the prospect of gaining possession of tb throne of Macedonia. (Liv. xxxv. 47; Appian, Si/: 13 ; comp. philip, son of alexander.) [L. S,

ALEXANDER ('AAe^avSpos),brother of mol. On the accession of Antiochus III., after ware called the Great, in b. c. 224, he entrusted Ale; ander with the government of the satrapy of Persi and Molo received Media. Antiochus was the only fifteen years of age, and this circumstanc together with the fact that Hermeias, a base fla terer and crafty intriguer, whom every one had fear, was all-powerful at his court, induced the tv brothers to form the plan of causing the upp satrapies of the kingdom to revolt. It was tl secret wish of Hermeias to see the king involved as many difficulties as possible, and it was on li

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