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Citing References:
APA Style (5th ed.)

Writing on Paper
Table of Contents:
Parenthetical Citations References Cited

This guide provides common examples of the APA (American Psychological Association) style for citing source materials based on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.), shelved at the Reference Desk (Ref BF76.7 P83 2001). More examples may be found in the Manual and on the World Wide Web at APA Style, http://www.apastyle.org/faqs.html and http://www.apastyle.org/elecref.html.

APA style requires that PARENTHETICAL CITATIONS in the text refer to entries on the list of REFERENCES CITED at the end of the paper. The format rules for a bibliography or suggested reading list of materials not referred to in the text of the paper may be found in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.).

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Examples of Parenthetical Citations

Include the author's surname in the parenthetical citation, if it is not included in the text, and the date. When citing a particular part of a source, include the page, chapter, figure, table, or equation (section 3.101). Always give page numbers for quotations (section 3.34).

Specific parts of a source
The specific part should be included whenever known

(Cheek & Buss, 1981, p. 332)
(Shimamura, 1989, chap. 3)

1 author 3.94

Walker (2000) compared reaction times...
In a recent study of reaction times (Walker, 2000) found...

2 authors 3.95

...as has been shown (Jöreskog & Sörbom, 1989)
...as Nightlinger and Littlewood (1993) demonstrated

Three to five authors
All should be listed the first time mentioned

First entry: Wasserstein, Zappulla, Rosen, Gerstman, and Rock (1994) found...
Subsequent entries: Wasserstein et al. (1994) found...

Groups as authors
List author name in full. Some long names may later be abbreviated.

(National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 1999)...
(NIMH, 1999)

No author (including legal materials) 3.97

Punctuate the first few words from the REFERENCES CITED entry and add the year.
... on free care ("Study finds," 1982)
... the book College Bound Seniors (1979)

Multiple works 3.99

Several studies (Balda, 1980; Kamil, 1988; Pepperberg & Funk, 1990)...

Multiple works by an author in one year 3.99

Several studies (Johnson, 1991a, 1991b, 1991c)...

Personal communications 3.102

Include initials and provide as exact a date as possible.
Cite personal communications in text only; do NOT include them in the REFERENCES CITED
According to T. K. Lutes (personal communication, April 18, 2001)...
...(V.-G. Nguyen, personal communication, September 28, 1998)

Secondary source citing primary 4.16 #22

Seidenberg and McClelland's study (as cited in Coltheart, Curtis, Atkins, & Haller, 1993)...
Include both sources in text. Include Coltheart, not Seidenberg in REFERENCES CITED.

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List citations in alphabetical order. List works by the same author in chronological order. List multiple works by the same author in one year alphabetically by title and append letters to the years as in the PARENTHETICAL CITATIONS: Multiple works example above. Always double-space REFERENCES CITED.

Some professors may require underlining where italics appear in these examples.

Examples of References Cited



Two to six authors

4.16 #23

Mitchell, T. R., & Larson, J. R., Jr. (1987). People in organizations: An introduction to organizational behavior (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. 

Group author as publisher

4.16 #24

Australian Bureau of Statistics. (1991). Estimated resident population by age and sex in statistical local areas, New South Wales, June 1990 (No. 3209.1). Canberra, Australian Capital Territory: Author.

Edited book

4.16 #25

Gibbs, J. T., & Huang, L. N. (Eds.). (1991). Children of color: Psychological interventions with minority youth. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

No author or editor

4.16 #26

Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.

Article or chapter in an edited book, two editors

4.16 #34

Bjork, R. A. (1989). Retrieval inhibition as an adaptive mechanism in human memory. In H. L. Roediger III & F. I. M. Craik (Eds.). Varieties of memory & consciousness (pp. 309-330). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Chapter in a volume in a series

4.16 #36

Maccoby, E. E., & Martin, J. (1983). Socialization in the context of the family: Parent-child interaction. In P. H. Mussen (Series Ed.) & E.  M. Hetherington (Vol. Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 4. Socialization, personality, and social development (4th ed., pp. 1-101). New York: Wiley.

Encyclopedia articles If article has no byline, place the title in the author position

4.16 #38

Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In The new encyclopaedia Britannica (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508). Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica.

Government document

4.16 #41

National Institute of Mental Health. (1990). Clinical training in serious mental illness (DHHS Publication No. ADM 90-1679). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

NOTE: Legal documents such as hearings may be listed in the style shown in The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation shelved at the Reference Desk (Ref KF245. U53), for example:

Protection from Personal Intrusion Act and Privacy Protection Act of 1998: Hearing on H.R. 2448 and H.R. 3224 Before the House Comm. on the Judiciary, 105th Cong. 56-57 (1998) (statement of Richard Masur, President, Screen Actors Guild).

Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) microfiche

4.16 #43

Mead, J. V. (1992). Looking at old photographs: Investigating the teacher tales that novice teachers bring with them (Report No. NCRTL-RR-92-4). East Lansing, MI: National Center for Research on Teacher Learning. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED346082)

Thesis or dissertation

4.16 #54 & 57

Almeida, D. M. (1990). Fathers' participation in family work: Consequences for fathers' stress and father-child relations. Unpublished masters thesis, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.

Bower, D. L. (1993). Employee assistant programs supervisory referrals: Characteristics of referring and nonreferring supervisors. Dissertation Abstracts International, 54 (01), 534B. (UMI No. 9315947)

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One author; journal paginated through year

4.16 #1

Mellers, B. A. (2000). Choice and the relative pleasure of consequences. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 910-924.

Two to six authors; journal paginated by issue

4.16 #2

Klimoski, R., & Palmer, S. (1993). The ADA and the hiring process in organizations. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 45(2), 10-36.

Magazine article (as opposed to a scholarly journal)

4.16 #6

Kandel, E. R., & Squire, L. R. (2000, November 10). Neuroscience: Breaking down scientific barriers to the study of brain and mind. Science, 290, 1113-1120.

Newspaper article

4.16 #9

New drug appears to sharply cut risk of death from heart failure. (1993, July 15). The Washington Post, p. A12.

Entire issue of a journal

4.16 #12

Barlow, D. H. (Ed.). (1991). Diagnoses, dimensions, and DSM-IV: The science of classification [Special issue]. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100(3).

Book review

4.16 #63

Schatz, B. R. (2000). Learning by text or context? [Review of the book The social life of information]. Science, 290, 1304.

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Motion Picture or videotape

4.16 #65

Scorsese, M. (Producer), & Lonergan, K. (Writer/Director). (2000). You can count on me [Videotape]. United States: Paramount Pictures

Audio recording

4.16 #70

Costa, P. T., Jr. (Speaker). (1988). Personality, continuity, and changes of adult life (Cassette Recording No. 207-433-88A-B). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Internet article based on print source

4.16 #71

Fandangos, G., Knapp, S., & Doe, J. (2001). Role of reference elements in the selection of resources by psychology undergraduates [Electronic version]. Journal of Bibliographic Research, 5, 117-123.

Internet-only journal article

4.16 #72

Fredrickson, B. L. (2000, March 7). Cultivating positive emotions to optimize health and well-being. Prevention & Treatment, 3, Article 0001a. Retrieved November 20, 2000, from

Multipage Internet document (use (n.d.) when there is no known date)

4.16 #75

Henry, E. (2005, January 25). Rice confirmed as secretary of state: Ex-national security adviser first black female to hold office. Retrieved January 26, 2005, from http://www.cnn.com/2005/ALLPOLITICS/01/26/rice.confirmation/index.html

Electronic copy of a journal article, from database

4.16 #88

Borman, W. C., Hanson, M. A., Oppler, S. H., Pulakos, E. D., & White, L. A. (1993). Role of early supervisory experience in supervisor performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 443-449. Retrieved October 23, 2000, from PsycARTICLES database.

Abstract from a secondary database

4.16 #90

Fournier, M., de Ridder, D., & Bensing, J. (1999). Optimism and adaptation to multiple sclerosis: What does optimism mean? Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 22, 303-326. Abstract retrieved October 23, 2000, from PsycINFO database.

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