Canon 50 items

1Megalithic tombs circa 3000 BC
Early farmers

2The Roman Limes 47 A.D.-circa 400 A.D.
On the frontiers of the Roman world

3Willibrord 658 A.D.-739 A.D.
The spread of Christianity

4Charlemagne 742 A.D. – 814 A.D.
Emperor of the Land of the Setting Sun

5Hebban olla vogala circa 1100
The Dutch language in writing

6Floris V 1254-1296
A Dutch count and disgruntled nobles

7The Hanseatic League 1356-circa 1450
Trading towns in the Low Countries

9Erasmus 1469?-1536
An international humanist

10Charles V 1500-1558
The Low Countries as an administrative unity

11The “Beeldenstorm” (iconoclastic outbreak) 1566
Religious conflict

12William of Orange 1533-1584
From rebel nobleman to “father of the country”

13The Republic 1588-1795
A unique political phenomenon

14The Dutch East India Company (VOC) 1602-1799
Overseas expansion

15The Beemster Polder 1612
The Netherlands and water

16The canal ring 1613-1662
Urban development in the seventeenth century

17Hugo Grotius 1583-1645
Pioneer of modern international law

18The Statenbijbel (authorised version of the Bible) 1637
The Book of Books

19Rembrandt 1606?-1669
The great painters

20Blaeu’s Atlas Major 1662
Mapping the world

21Michiel de Ruyter 1607-1676
Heroes of the sea and the wide reach of the Republic

51Christiaan Huygens 1629-1695
Science in the Golden Age

22Spinoza 1632-1677
In search of truth

23Slavery circa 1637-1863
Human trafficking and forced labour in the New World

24Country mansions 17th and 18th centuries
Prosperous living

25Eise Eisinga 1744-1828
The Enlightenment in the Netherlands

26The patriots 1780-1795
Political conflict about modernising the Republic

27Napoleon Bonaparte 1769-1821
The French period

28King William I 1772-1843
The kingdom of the Netherlands and Belgium

29The first railway 1839

30The Constitution 1848
Fundamental rules and principles of government

31Max Havelaar 1860
Scandal in the East Indies

32Opposition to child labour 19th century
Out of the workplace and back to school

33Vincent van Gogh 1853-1890
The modern artist

34Aletta Jacobs 1854-1929
The emancipation of women

35The First World War 1914-1918
War and neutrality

36De Stijl 1917-1931
Revolution in design

37The crisis years 1929-1940
Society in the depression

38World War II 1940-1945
Occupation and liberation

39Anne Frank 1929-1945
The persecution of the Jews

40Indonesia 1945-1949
A colony fights for freedom

41Willem Drees 1886-1988
The welfare state

42The great flood 1 February 1953
The danger of water

43Television since 1948
The rise of mass media

44The port of Rotterdam since circa 1880
Gateway to the world

45Annie M.G. Schmidt 1911-1995
Going against the grain of a bourgeois country

46Surinam and the Netherlands Antilles since 1945
Decolonisation in the West

47Srebrenica 1995
The dilemmas of peacekeeping

48Diversity in the Netherlands since 1945
The multicultural society

49The natural gas deposit 1959-2030?
A finite treasure

50Europe since 1945
The Dutch and Europeans