Angels and burning martyrs blowing trumpets John Foxe's Book of Martyrs  








 

Person Glossary

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Mr Rackestraw

Schoolmaster. Of Lynne.

Rackestraw was forced to flee the realm for fear of persecution during Mary's reign. 1563, p. 1679.


Henry Radcliffe

(1506? - 1557)

2nd earl of Sussex [DNB, sub 'Radcliffe, Robert']

Henry Radcliffe accompanied Queen Mary to Westminster Abbey for her coronation on 1 October 1553 (1570, p. 1635; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1466).

Henry Radcliffe visited Elizabeth when she was imprisoned in the Tower 1563, p. 1712, 1570, p. 2289, 1576, p. 1982, 1583, p. 2092.


Thomas Radcliffe

(1525? - 1583)

Lord Fitzwalter ['Fitzwaters'] and, from 1557, earl of Sussex. Diplomat, Courtier, and Lord Deputy of Ireland (DNB).

Thomas Radcliffe was present at Gardiner's sermon, 30 September 1554. Called 'Lord Fitzwaters' by Foxe (1570, p. 1644; 1576, p. 1402; 1583, p. 1473).

During John Careless' first examination, Martin pretended, according to Foxe, to desire to help Careless survive. He asked Careless if he would like to go to Ireland with Lord Fitzwalter to do the queen's service, to which Careless replied that he was willing to do the queen service as long as he was alive. 1563, p. 1534, 1570, pp. 2101-02, 1576, pp. 1813-14, 1583, pp. 1919-20.

Thomas Rose had a talk with the earl of Sussex, Sir William Woodhouse and other chaplains. 1570, p. 1979, 1576, pp. 1979-80, 1583, p. 2085.

Thomas Rose's last appearance was before Woodhouse and Hopton, with the earl of Sussex in attendance. 1570, p. 1979, 1576, pp. 1980-81, 1583, pp. 2085-86.


Radley

Vicar of St Lawrence by 1583.

John Moyer wrote Master Perry a letter which referred to John Bolton, Downer, Gately, Radley (now vicar of St Lawrence), Bowyer (a tanner) and Julins Palmer (who was indicted by Thackham). 1583, p. 2140.


Sir William Rainsford

JP Oxfordshire (1555) [SP11/5, no. 6]

Julins Palmer's second examination on 10 July 1556 (15 July in 1583) at Newbury was before Dr Geffre, John Winchcomb, esquire, Sir Richard Abridges, Sir William Rainsford [in 1576 and 1583], and the parson of Englefield. 1570, pp. 2121-23, 1576, pp. 1844-46,1583, pp. 1938-40.


Walter Ralegh

Gentleman. [Father of Sir Walter Raleigh. (DNB)] [See E. Duffy, The Stripping of the Altars (London, 1992), pp. 467, 488-89.]

Walter Raleigh's wife visited Mrs Prest in prison in Exeter in 1558. 1563, p. 1737, 1570, p. 2252, 1576, p. 1945, 1583, p. 2052.


Pierre de la Ramée (Ramus)

(1515 - 1572)

Philosopher, university reformer and French protestant.

Ramus' death at the St Bartholomew's Day massacre in Paris (August 1572) is mentioned by Foxe, following his source (La Place) (1583, p. 2152). In reality, Ramus died on the third day of the massacre (26 August), being sought out by a band of assassins encouraged (it was alleged) by a university rival, Pierre Charpentier, in his university rooms in the Collège de Presles, from where he was thrown out of the window, still alive, and dragged by his feet to be dumped in the river Seine (Louis-Charles Dezobry, and Jean Louis Thodore Bachelet, Dictionnaire général de biographie et d'histoire (...). 2 vols. (Paris, 1869); Haag, 6, pp. 329-39.


Henry Ramsey

(d. 1557)

Martyr. Of unknown occupation. Of London.

Henry Ramsey was accused of heresy and apprehended for not attending church. 1563, p. 1567, 1570, p. 2159, 1576, p. 1865, 1583, p. 1974.

He was examined by Darbyshire, Bonner's chancellor. Articles were brought against him and he answered. 1563, pp. 1567-70, 1570, pp. 2159-61, 1576, pp. 1865-67, 1583, pp. 1974-76.

He was burned at Smithfield on 12 April 1557. 1563, p. 1570, 1570, p. 2161, 1576, p. 1867, 1583, p. 1976.


John Ramsey

Of unknown occupation. Of Ipswich.

John Ramsey was imprisoned under Mary. 1576, p. 1981, 1583, p. 2089.

He was said by Philip Williams, John Steward and Matthew Butler not to have taken the sacrament. 1576, p. 1981, 1583, p. 2089.

[Not related to Henry Ramsey.]


Mrs Ramsey

Wife of John Ramsey. Of Ipswich.

The wife of John Ramsey was imprisoned under Mary. 1576, p. 1981, 1583, p. 2089.

She was said by Philip Williams, John Steward and Matthew Butler not to have taken the sacrament. 1576, p. 1981, 1583, p. 2089.

[Not related to Henry Ramsey.]


Ramsy

Arrested at Bocking conventical. [BL Harley 421, fo.133v.]

Ramsy was carried to Canterbury with John Bland. He is described as a former clerk during Bland's trial. 1563, p. 1220, 1570, p. 1845, 1576, p. 1579, 1583, p. 1666.

John Gray went to the defence of Ramsy on 3 December 1555 at Adisham, and was nearly overwhelmed by the mob. 1563, p. 1220, 1570, p. 1845, 1576, p. 1579, 1583, p. 1666.

Ramsy was transported with Bland to Canterbury to speak with Masters Hardes (Justice), Drenden, Spilman, and Tutsam. 1563, p. 1220, 1570, p. 1845, 1576, p. 1579, 1583, p. 1666.

Ramsy was bound over to keep the peace. Ramsy's sureties were Thomas Hodgkins and Simon Barrat. 1563, p. 1220, 1570, p. 1845, 1576, p. 1579, 1583, p. 1666.


Richard Randall

Richard Randall was a witness to Bland's altercation with John Austen on Sunday 3 December (1555) when Thomas Austen accused him of heresy. The witnesses to Bland's altercation with John Austen that day included: Edmond Mores, Richard Randall, John Hils, William Forstall, and Thomas Gooding. 1563, p. 1219, 1570, p. 1844, 1576, p. 1578, 1583, p. 1666.


Sir William Rastall

(1508? - 1565)

Judge and author. Exile at Louvain (1547 - 1553). Sergeant at Law (1555 - 1558). Commissioner of the inquisition into heresy (1556 - 1557). Puisne judge in the Queen's Bench (1558 - 1563). Exile at Louvain (1563 - 1565). Edited Sir Thomas More's complete works in English. (DNB)

William Rastal was one of the recipients of the proclamation from Philip and Mary authorising the persecution of protestants. 1563, p. 1561, 1570, p. 2155, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1974[incorrectly numbered 1970].

Rastall was a member of a commission set up by Philip and Mary to seek out heretics. 1563, pp. 1561 [recte 1573]-1563 [recte 1575].

[Son of John Rastell and nephew of Sir Thomas More.]


Ratramnus

Ninth century theologian. Of Corbie. [Diarmaid MacCulloch, Thomas Cranmer: A Life (Yale, 1996), pp. 181, 355, 382-83, 391.]

Ratramnus was known for, among other works, his De corpore et sanguine Domini, which emphasised the figurative nature of the elements of the sacrament (1563, p. 929; 1570, pl. 1590; 1576, p. 1357; 1583, p. 1427

Ridley was converted through the reading of Bertram's Book of the Sacrament, and confirmed in his beliefs through conference with Cranmer and Peter Martyr. 1570, p. 1895, 1576, p. 1623, 1583, p. 1717.

[Referred to by Foxe as 'Bertram'.]


Edward Raven

(d. 1558)

MA (1549), Fellow of St John's, Cambridge (1551), licensed to practice medicine (1557). (Venn)

Raven was one of those gathered together by the vice-chancellor of Cambridge University to bear witness against the dead Bucer and Phagius in order to have them declared heretics. 1563, pp. 1537 [recte 1549]-1558 [recte 1570]

When the commission found no witnesses to support Bucer and Phagius, they called aside Drs Young, Sedgwick, Bullock, Taylor, Maptide, Hunter, Parker, Redman, as well as Brown, Gogman, Rud, Johnson, Mitch, Raven and Carre. They were all commanded to give witness against Bucer and Phagius. 1563, p. 1538, 1570, p. 2147, 1576, p. 1867, 1583, p. 1956.

[Friend and confidante of Roger Ascham. (Venn)]


Thomas Ravensdale

(d. 1556)

Currier. Martyr. Of Rye.

Thomas Ravensdale was accused and examined by Christopherson, Richard Briesly (chancellor), Robert Tailor (deputy), Thomas Paccard (civilian), Anthony Clarke, and Alban Langdale (BD). He was condemned and martyred. 1563, p. 1634, 1570, p. 2220, 1576, p. 1815, 1583, p. 2023.

Thomas Ravensdale was burned with three others at Mayfield, Sussex, on 24 September 1556. 1563, p. 1546, 1570, p. 2039, 1576, p. 1859, 1583, p. 1953.


John Raw

Once servant to James Ashley. Of Ipswich.

John Raw fled Ipswich for fear of persecution. 1576, p. 1981, 1583, p. 2089.


Erkinwald Rawlins

Erkinwald Rawlins and his wife received a letter from John Bradford. 1570, pp. 1813-14, 1576, pp. 1549-50, 1583, p. 1632.


Hugh Rawlins

(d. 1533)

Preacher; Rawlins held numerous benefices in England and south Wales.

He was one of Robert Ferrar's chief opponents in the diocese of St David's. 1563, p. 1084; 1570, p. 1722; 1576, p. 1470; 1583, p. 1544.

Rawlins sent articles to the privy council denouncing Ferrar. 1563, pp. 1085-88; 1570, p. 1722; 1576, p. 1470; 1583, pp. 1544-46.

He was accused by Ferrar of improper procedure in gathering evidence against him. 1563, pp. 1093 and 1095; 1570, p. 1722; 1576, p. 1470; 1583, pp. 1550 and 1551-52.

Rawlins was denounced by Ferrar for holding an excessive number of benefices. 1563, pp. 1093-94; 1570, p. 1550.

[NB: The complex problems of identification connected with Rawlins are resolved in Andrew J. Brown, Robert Ferrar (London, 1997), pp. 262-65].


Mrs Rawlins

Wife of Erkinald Rawlins.

She and her husband received a letter from John Bradford. 1570, pp. 1813-14, 1576, pp. 1549-50, 1583, p. 1632.


Thomas Raynoldes

(1505? - 1559)

Dean of Exeter (1554 - 1559). Bishop-elect of Hereford when Mary died. He never obtained possession. (Foster)

According to Foxe, Rainolds was made dean of Bristol (1570, p. 1636; 1576, p. 1396; 1583, p. 1467). This is an error. Rainolds was made dean of Exeter and Henry Joliffe, dean of Bristol.

Raynoldes and Blackstone, chancellor of Exeter, persecuted Agnes Prest. 1583, p. 2148.

Thomas Raynoldes died in prison. 1570, p. 2301, 1576, p. 1992, 1583, p. 2101.


John Read

Of unknown occupation. Of Ipswich.

John Read was said by Philip Williams, John Steward and Matthew Butler not to have taken the sacrament. 1576, p. 1981, 1583, p. 2089.


Sir Richard Read

Officer of the Court of Chancery. Alderman of London; JP Essex and Middlesex (1555) [SP11/5, no. 6]

Sir Richard Read was ordered by the privy council to examine Sir Thomas Benger, Cary, John Dee and John Field on 5 and 7 May 1555. 1583, p. 1581.

A letter was sent by the commissioners to Bonner requesting examination of the accused members of the London sacramentaries. It was dated 2 July 1555 and signed by Nicholas Hare, William Roper, Richard Rede, and William Cooke. 1563, p. 1250, 1570, p. 1868, 1576, p. 1599, 1583, p. 1689.

George Ambrose was examined by Richard Read, the lord chancellor, on 21 March 1556. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1789, 1583, p. 1895.

Drakes was examined by Richard Read, the lord chancellor, on 22 March 1556. 1563, p. 1505 [1563 says 21 March], 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1789, 1583, p. 1895.

Richard Read was told during his examinations of 16 January 1555 that the Spurges, Ambrose and Cavel had been complained of by the parson of the church in Bocking. The priest had complained to Lord Rich who had taken the complaint further. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

Cavel was examined by Richard Read, the lord chancellor, on 22 March 1556. 1563, p. 1505 [1563 says 21 March], 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1789, 1583, p. 1895.

Richard and Thomas Spurge were examined by Richard Read, the lord chancellor, on 22 March 1556. 1563, p. 1505 [1563 says 21 March], 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1789, 1583, p. 1895.

Tyms was examined by Richard Read, the lord chancellor on 22 March 1556. 1563, p. 1505 [1563 says 21 March], 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1789, 1583, p. 1895.

Commemorations were given to Read at King's College shortly after the exhumation of Bucer, at the commission's command. 1576, p. 1866, 1583, p. 1960.

Read was one of the recipients of the proclamation from Philip and Mary authorising the persecution of protestants. 1563, p. 1561, 1570, p. 2155, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1974[incorrectly numbered 1970].


Thomas Read

(d. 1556)

Martyr. Freewiller. Of unknown occupation and origin.

Thomas Read was examined and condemned by Edmund Bonner. 1563, p. 1522., 1570, p. 2095, 1576, p. 1807, 1583, p. 1914.

Thomas Read had a vision the night before his martyrdom instructing him not to attend mass. 1570, p. 2197, 1576, p. 1896, 1583, p. 2004.

He was burned at Lewes about 6 June 1556. 1563, pp. 1522, 1602, 1570, pp. 2095, 2196, 1576, pp. 1807, 1895, 1583, p. 1914, 2003.

[Read signed John Trew's confession of 20 January 1555 (new style 1556). See Bodley Ms 53, fo.125r; printed in Richard Laurence, ed. Authentic Documents Relative to the Predestinarian Controversy (Oxford, 1819), p. 70, and L. J. Clement, Religious Radicalism in England, 1535-1565 (Carlisle, 1997), p. 370. Note that Read's signature on the document is 'Thomas Arede'.

Note that the privy council sent a letter on 3 May 1555 ordering that Thomas Rede, presently held in the King's Bench, be examined 'for being chief mover of a leude tumulte at Wallronde in Sussex' (APC V, p. 120). See also Thomas S. Freeman, 'Notes on a Source for John Foxe's Account of the Marian Persecution in Kent and Sussex', Historical Research 67 (1994), pp. 203-211.]


John Redman

(1499 - 1551)

DD (1537). Master of Trinity College, Cambridge (1546 - 1551). Relative of Cuthbert Tunstall. (DNB)

Dr Redman was an enemy of Latimer at Cambridge. 1570, p. 1905, 1576, p. 1632, 1583, pp. 1735-36.

Foxe includes a copy in English and Latin of the letter Latimer received from Dr Redman, who revoked him for the doctrine he taught. Latimer's brief response is also included. 1563, p. 1308, 1570, pp. 1905-06, 1576, p. 1632 [English only], 1583, p. 1736.

Foxe includes Redman's epitaph or funeral verses on the death of Martn Bucer. 1563, p. 1558, 1570, p. 2152 [cross reference to 1563 only], 1576, p. 1859 [cross reference to 1563 only], 1583, p. 1968.

Redman was present for the judgement against Bucer and Phagius on 17 January 1557. 1563, p. 1538, 1570, p. 2147, 1576, p. 1867, 1583, p. 1956.

When the commission found no witnesses to support Bucer and Phagius, they called aside Drs Young, Sedgwick, Bullock, Taylor, Maptide, Hunter, Parker, Redman, as well as Brown, Gogman, Rud, Johnson, Mitch, Raven and Carre. They were all commanded to give witness against Bucer and Phagius. 1563, p. 1538, 1570, p. 2147, 1576, p. 1867, 1583, p. 1956.


Noel Regnet

Protestant minister. Frenchman. Formerly of Lady's Castle parish, Guernsey. Fled Guernsey at Mary's accession and went to Geneva. Living in St Martin le Grand, London by 1570. [Ogier, Reformation and Society in Guernsey (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1996), p. 53.]

Noel Regnet performed a marriage ceremony between Perotine Massey and David Jones during Edward VI's reign. 1570, p. 2031, 1576, p. 1853, 1583, p. 1947.


Simon Renard

Imperial ambassador at Mary's court

Renard announced at Philip and Mary's marriage that the emperor had made Philip king of Naples. Foxe cites him by title, not name. (1563, p. 1004; 1570, p. 1642; 1576, p. 1401; 1583, p. 1471).


Michael Reniger

Of Manchester.

Joyce Lewes was accompanied through the town by a number of billmen, and led by her friends, Michael Reniger and Augustine Bernher, to the place of her execution. 1563, p. 1619, 1570, p. 2207, 1576, p. 1904, 1583, p. 2012.


William Repps

(d. 1550)

Bishop of Norwich. [DNB]

Henry VIII appointed Richard Stokesley (Bishop of London), Stephen Gardiner (Bishop of Winchester), Richard Sampson (Bishop of Chichester), William Repps (Bishop of Norwich), Thomas Goodrich (Bishop of Ely), Hugh Latimer (Bishop of Worcester), Nicholas Shaxton (Bishop of Salisbury) and William Barlow (Bishop of St David's) to compose a book of ecclesiastical institutions called the Bishops' Book. 1563, p. 1472.

[Also known as William 'Rugge'.]


George Revet

Constable of Mendlesham.

Adam Foster was taken from his house by the constable George Revet and Thomas Mouse, at the commandement of Sir John Tyrrel, because he would not go to church. Afterwards, both constables were stricken with sickness. Revet, although a great reader of scripture, allowed his son to help the priest say mass and subsequently suffered swelling in his legs and died miserably. 1563, p. 1529, 1570, p. 1098, 1576, p. 1810, 1583, p. 1917.

George Revet was stricken with illness late in Mary's or early in Elizabeth's reign and died. 1570, p. 2302, 1576, p. 1992, 1583, p. 2101.


John Reyner

John Reyner persecuted Joan Waste of Derby. 1576, p. 1858, 1583, p. 1951.


Reynold

Of unknown occupation. Of Chelmsford.

Rumours were raised in Chelmsford that Justice Brown had falsely accused diverse honest men who had kept George Eagles safe in their houses, in order to discredit Eagles. Reynold of Chelmsford witnessed this to be false report. 1563, 1615, 1570, p. 2003, 1576, p. 1901, 1583, p. 2010.


Stephen ap Rhys

(by 1522 - 1562)

JP, MP (1555), Sheriff of Radnorshire (1555 - 1556) (Bindoff, Commons)

Stephen ap Rhys was one of the JPs of Radnorshire who suppressed a riotous assembly opposing Stephen Green's collation to the prebend of Llanbister. 1563, p. 1086; 1583, p. 1545.

Foxe calls him 'Stephen ap Rice'.


Matthew Ricarby

(d. 1558)

Martyr. Of unknown occupation. Of London.

Matthew Ricarby was apprehended in Islington and appeared before Bonner on 14 June 1558. 1563, p. 1659, 1570, p. 2235, 1576, p. 1930, 1583, p. 2037.

Articles against him were administered and answers given. 1563, pp. 1559-61, 1570, pp. 2235-36, 1576, p. 2235, 1583, p. 2037.

He was condemned by Bonner. 1563, p. 1561, 1570, p. 2235, 1576, p. 1930, 1583, p. 2037.

He was burned at Smithfield on 27 June 1558. 1563, p. 1561, 1570, p. 2235, 1576, p. 1930, 1583, p. 2037.


Elinor Rice

Daughter of Sir Thomas Jones.

Robert Ferrar celebrated her marriage to Griffith Rice; there were charges that the ceremony was conducted improperly. 1563, pp. 1086, 1090 and 1095; 1583, pp. 1545, 1548 and 1551.

[Her name is not given by Foxe; it is taken from Hasler, Commons , sub 'Rice, Walter'].


Griffith Rice

His marriage to Elinor, the daughter of Sir Thomas Jones, was celebrated by Robert Ferrar; there were charges that the ceremony was conducted irregularly. 1563, pp. 1086, 1090 and 1095; 1583, pp. 1545, 1548 and 1551.

[NB: Biographical details on Griffith Rice are in Hasler, Commons, sub 'Rice, Walter'].


Richard Rich

(1496? - 1567)

1st Baron Rich (1547 - 1567). MP for Colchester (1529), Solicitor General (1533), Speaker of the House of Commons and MP for Essex (1536). Lord Chancellor (1548). Patron of protestants under Edward VI and Elizabeth; persecutor under Mary. [DNB, Hasler]

Richard Rich was one of the signatories to a letter, dated 9 July 1553, from the privy council to Princess Mary, declaring that she was illegitimate and that Lady Jane Grey was Edward VI's true heir (1570, p. 1658; 1576, p. 1337; 1583, pp. 1406-7).

He was present at Thomas Watson's Paul's Cross sermon, 20 August 1553 (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1465).

He accompanied Queen Mary to Westminster Abbey, 1 October 1553 (1570, p. 1635; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1466).

Rich was one of the signatories to a letter, dated 27 November 1554, sent from the privy council to Bonner, informing the bishop that Mary was pregnant and ordering him to have prayers and Te Deums said throughout the diocese (1563, pp. 1014-15; 1570, p. 1647; 1576, p. 1405; 1583, pp. 1475-76).

Lord Rich was in charge of the execution of Thomas Hawkes on 10 June 1555. He spoke with Hawkes for a period before his execution. 1563, p. 1162; 1570, pp. 1766-67; 1576, pp. 1508-09; 1583, p. 1592

He examined Thomas Wattes on 26 April 1555. He sent him to Bishop Bonner on 27 April to be tried for heresy. 1563, pp. 1162-63 and 1165-66; 1570, pp. 1769-70; 1576, p. 1511; 1583, pp. 1514-15

At the stake, Wattes told Rich that he was responsible for his death and declared that Rich was acting against his conscience. 1563, p. 1163; 1570, p. 1771; 1576, p. 1513; 1583, p. 1596

Philpot's sixth examination was before the lord chamberlain to Queen Mary, Viscount Hereford, Lord Rich, Lord St John, Lord Windsor, Sir John Bridges, Chadsey and Bonner. 1563, pp. 1405-12, 1570, pp. 1972-78, 1576, pp. 1698-1702, 1583, pp. 1805-10.

Lord Rich first sent William Andrew to prison. 1563, p. 1271, 1570, p. 1878, 1576, p. 1608, 1583, pp. 1702-03.

Robert Drakes was presented to the benefice of Thundersley by Lord Rich, at the suit of Master Causton and Master Treheron. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

Robert Drakes was sent up to London by Lord Rich, Tyrrell and others for examination. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

Richard Read was told during his examination of 16 January 1555 that the Spurges, Ambrose and Cavel had been complained of by the parson of the church in Bocking. The priest had complained to Lord Rich who had taken the complaint further. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

John Cavel was sent up to London by Lord Rich, Tyrrell and others for examination. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

Richard Spurge was sent up to London by Lord Rich, Tyrrell and others for examination. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

Richard Spurge was examined by Richard Read, the lord chancellor, on 22 March 1556. 1563, p. 1505 [1563 says 21 March], 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1789, 1583, p. 1895.

William Tyms was sent up to London by Lord Rich, Tyrrell and others for examination. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

John Derifall was called before Lord Rich and Master Mildmay of Chelmsford, who sent him to Bonner to be examined.1563, p. 1523, 1570, p. 2096, 1576, p. 1808, 1583, p. 1914.

John Routh was convented before the earl of Oxford. He was sent to Colchester castle by Lord Rich and then on to Bonner. 1563, p. 1526, 1570, p. 2096., 1576, p. 1808, 1583, p. 1916.


Richard

Priest. Former friar.

A priest called Sir Richard was standing at the top of some stairs in Downes' house. The priest jested at the execution of Robert Ferrar and then fell down the stairs and broke his neck. 1563, p. 1704 (only).


David ap Richard

Of Betws Ifan, Cardiganshire

David ap Richard was a witness against Robert Ferrar and was described by Ferrar as a perjured and adulterous person. 1563, p. 1093; 1583, p. 1550.


John Richard

Of Great Bentley.

John Richard was one of the cosignatories of a supplication against William Mount, his wife and their daughter, Rose, to Lord Darcy of Chiche, who then delivered the supplication to John Kingston. 1563, p. 1604, 1570, p. 2198, 1576, p. 1897, 1583, p. 2005.

Information against Ralph Allerton was provided by Thomas Tye, John Painter, William Harris, John Barker, John Carter, Thomas Candler, Jeffrey Bestwood, John Richard, and Richard Mere, all of Great Bentley. 1563, p. 1626, 1570, p. 2212, 1576, p. 1908, 1583, p. 2016.


Thomas ap Richard

(d. 1553)

Chaplain of Robert Ferrar; Ferrar's commissary at Cardigan

Thomas ap Richard was accused of celebrating a communion, at a wedding, with 'superstitious' ceremonies; Ferrar denied this. 1563, pp. 1086, 1090 and 1095; 1583, pp. 1545, 1548 and 1551.

He was denounced to the privy council by Hugh Rawlins and Thomas Lee for conducting a wedding without having the banns read. 1563, p. 1089; 1583, p. 1547.

[For ap Richard's death see Andrew J. Brown, Robert Ferrar (London, 1997), p. 227].

[Foxe calls him 'Thomas Prichard'.]


Richardson

In a letter Green asked Fleetwood to remember Wittrance and Cooke. He also stated: 'M Fernham and M Bell, with M Hussey (as I hope) will dispatch Palmer and Richardson with his companions'. 1563, p. 1466, 1570, p. 2028, 1576, p. 1747, 1583, p. 1855.


John Richardson

John Richardson was examined by Draycot and Bayne and later dismissed. 1563, p. 1548, 1570, p. 2141, 1576, p. 1861, 1583, p. 1955.


Mrs Thomas Richardson

Before surrendering himself, George Marsh visited Mrs Richardson, asking her to pray for him and take care of his family. 1570, p. 1732; 1576, p. 1479; 1583, p. 1562.


Oliver Richardyne

Martyr. Of the parish of Whitchurch, Wiltshire.

Oliver Richardyne was burned at Hartford West during the reign of Henry VIII. 1570, p. 1892, 1576, p. 1620, 1583, p. 1714.


Mrs Richman

Daughter of Mother Fenkel. Wife of Richard Richman. Of Ipswich.

The wife of Richard Richman fled Ipswich for fear of persecution. 1576, p. 1981, 1583, p. 2089.


Richard Richman

Servant to Stephen Green, shoemaker. Of Ipswich.

Richard Richman and his wife fled Ipswich for fear of persecution. 1576, p. 1981, 1583, p. 2089.


Master Rider

Of Reading.

Master Rider, described as 'a faithful witness of God's truth', having heard of Julins Palmer's treatment in prison, sent his servant to offer any necessities Palmer might need. 1570, p. 2121, 1576, p. 1844 [recte 1832], 1583, pp. 1938.


Elizabeth Ridley

Wife of John Ridley. Nicholas Ridley's sister-in-law.

Ridley's 'friendly farewell' sent greetings to his 'gentle and loving sister' Elizabeth. 1570, pp. 1939-43, 1576, pp. 1622-28, 1583, pp. 1770-76.


Widow Ridley

Widow of Hugh Ridley, brother of Nicholas Ridley. Of Unthank.

Hugh Ridley's widow received greetings in Ridley's 'friendly farewell'. 1570, pp. 1939-43, 1576, pp. 1622-28, 1583, pp. 1770-76.


John Ridley

Of Waltown. Nicholas Ridley's brother.

Ridley's 'friendly farewell' sent greetings to him. 1563, pp. 1379-81, 1570, pp. 1939-43, 1576, pp. 1622-28, 1583, pp. 1770-76.


Nicholas Ridley

(d. 1555) (DNB)

Bishop of London (1550 - 1553). Martyr. [DNB]

Nicholas Ridley gave John Rogers a prebend in St Paul's (1563, p. 1023; 1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1484).

He led the bishops who compelled John Hooper to wear vestments at his consecration. Ridley wrote a letter to Hooper apologising for this in Mary's reign (1563, pp. 1050-2; 1570, pp. 1676-7; 1576, p. 1404; 1583, pp. 1504-5).

He preached a sermon at Paul's Cross, at the behest of the privy council, supporting Jane Grey's claim to the throne. After Mary's accession Ridley visited the queen at Framlingham and was arrested (1563, p. 903; 1570, p. 1569; 1576, p. 1338; and 1583, p. 1408).

He was engaged, over dinner with John Feckenham and Sir John Bourne, in a debate on the nature of the eucharist. An account of the debate, 'penned with his own hand,' is first printed in 1563, (1563, pp. 928-31; 1570, pp. 1589-91; 1576, pp. 1356-58; and 1583, pp. 1426-28). There is no earlier printed version or manuscript of the exchange.

Ridley was examined by Weston and the other members of the catholic delegation to the Oxford disputations on Saturday 14 April 1554 (1563, p. 933 and 937-38; 1570, p. 1593; 1576, p. 1935 [recte 1359]; 1583, pp. 1429-30).

[NB: There is a summary of Ridley's disputation on Tuesday 17 April 1554 which was printed in its entirety only in 1563, pp 933-34].

Ridley disputed with Richard Smith and the other catholic doctors on 17 April 1554 (1563, p. 957-78; 1570, pp. 1606-22; 1576, pp. 1370-84; 1583, pp. 1441-54).

Ridley's preface to his account of the disputation is 1563, pp. 956-57 and (in a differently worded version) 1570, p. 1632; 1576, pp. 1392-93; 1583, p. 1463.

Ridley's conclusion to his account of the Oxford disputations is printed (only) in 1563, p. 978.

Ridley wrote to Weston protesting the conduct of the 1554 Oxford disputations and demanding that Ridley's written responses to the three propositions be shown to the higher house of convocation (1563, p. 977; 1570, p. 1633; 1576, pp. 1393-94; 1583, p. 1464).

The queen's letter ordering Ridley, together with Cranmer and Latimer, to be held in the custody of the mayor and bailiffs of Oxford during the disputation is printed in 1563, p. 999.

He was summoned, together with Cranmer and Latimer, before Weston and the commissioners on 20 April 1554. He refused to recant what he had said during the disputations. He was condemned and taken to the sheriff's house (1563, pp. 935-38; 1570, pp. 1632-33; 1576, p. 1393; 1583, pp. 1463-64).

On 21 April 1554, Ridley was compelled to observe, having been brought from the sheriff's house, a procession in which Weston carried the sacrament and four doctors carried a canopy over Weston (1563, p. 936; 1570, p. 1633; 1576, p. 1393; 1583, p. 1464).

Ridley wrote a letter to Cranmer, which was sent together with copies of his account of the disputation and news of recent developments (1570, pp. 1633-34; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, pp. 1464).

Foxe mentions Ridley's condemnation and disputation in passing in 1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1399; 1583, p. 1469.

In a letter of 10 October 1554, Heinrich Bullinger asked John Hooper to pass his commendations to Ridley, Hugh Latimer and Thomas Cranmer (1570, p. 1692; 1576, pp. 1444-45; 1583, p. 1518).

Ridley was one of the authors of a petition to Philip and Mary asking them for a chance to defend, in public debate, the Edwardian religious reforms (1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1483).

Laurence Saunders sent a letter to Ridley, Thomas Cranmer and Hugh Latimer from the Marshalsea (1563, pp. 1042-43; 1570, pp. 1667-68; 1576, pp. 1422-23; 1583, pp. 1496-97).

Foxe describes Ridley's character. 1563, p. 1283, 1570, p. 1895, 1576, p. 1623, 1583, p. 1717.

John Bradford was persuaded to enter the ministry by Ridley. Ridley called Bradford to take the position of deacon and, at Bradford's willing, ordered him deacon. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1623, 1583, pp. 1603-04.

He led the bishops who compelled John Hooper to wear vestments at his consecration. Ridley wrote a letter to Hooper apologising for this in Mary's reign. 1563, pp. 1050-2; 1570, pp. 1676-7; 1576, p. 1404; 1583, pp. 1504-5.

In a letter of 10 October 1554, Heinrich Bullinger asked John Hooper to pass his commendations to Ridley, Hugh Latimer and Thomas Cranmer. 1570, p. 1692; 1576, pp. 1444-45; 1583, p. 1518.

Ridley was one of the authors of a petition to Philip and Mary asking them for a chance to defend, in public debate, the Edwardian religious reforms. 1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1483.

Laurence Saunders sent a letter to Ridley, Thomas Cranmer and Hugh Latimer from the Marshalsea. 1563, pp. 1042-43; 1570, pp. 1667-68; 1576, pp. 1422-23; 1583, pp. 1496-97.

During Bradford's second examination, Doctor Seton described Ridley and Latimer as being unable to answer anything at all at their examinations. 1570, p. 1786, 1576, p. 1526, 1583, p. 1607.

John Bradford sent a letter to Cranmer, Latimer and Ridley. 1570, p. 1815 1576, p. 1551, 1583, p. 1634.

Rowland Taylor wrote a letter to Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley and Hugh Latimer when they were prisoners in Oxford. 1570, p. 2072; 1576, p. 1787; 1583, p. 1893.

Foxe recounts the life of Ridley. 1563, pp. 1283-96, 1570, pp. 1895-96, 1576, pp. 1623-24, 1583, pp. 1717-30.

Ridley was kind to Heath, archbishop of York during Edward VI's reign. 1563, p. 1285, 1570, p. 1896, 1576, p. 1623, 1583, p. 1717.

Ridley was kind to Edmund Bonner's mother. She would dine at Ridley's manor in Fulham with Ridley and Mistress Mungey, Bonner's sister. 1570, p. 1896, 1576, p. 1623, 1583, p. 1717.

Ridley's sister and her husband, George Shipside, were also kind to Bonner's mother and sister. 1570, p. 1896, 1576, p. 1623, 1583, pp. 1717-18.

Ridley was converted through the reading of Bertram's Book of the Sacrament, and confirmed in his beliefs through conference with Cranmer and Peter Martyr. 1563, p. 1285, 1570, p. 1895, 1576, p. 1623, 1583, p. 1717.

After Mary's accession, Ridley was kept first in the Tower, then in the Bocardo in Oxford, and then held in custody at Master Irish's house until his death. 1563, p. 1285, 1570, p. 1896, 1576, p. 1624, 1583, p. 1717.

Ridley was cast into Bocardo prison with Hugh Latimer. 1563, p. 1285, 1583, p. 1718.

A conference took place between Ridley and Latimer in prison on the objections of Antonian, in other words, those of a popish persecutor, such as Winchester. 1563, pp. 1285-94, 1583, pp. 1718-24.

Letters of Ridley. 1570, pp. 1896-1902, 1576, pp. 1624-30, 1583, pp. 1724-30.

A letter was sent by Ridley to West, in which Ridley asked West and also Dr Harvey to remember their promises to him. Foxe also includes West's letter and Ridley's response. 1570, pp. 1900-01, 1576, pp. 1627-28, 1583, pp. 1728-29.

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. He mentioned his imprisonment with Cranmer, Latimer and Bradford. He mentioned that he knew that Ferrar, Hooper, Rogers, Taylor of Hadleigh, Saunders and Tomkins, a weaver, had all been martyred, as had Cardmaker the day before he wrote this letter. He had heard that West had relented, and Grimald been cast into the Marshalsea. He had also heard that Thomas Ridley, of the Bull-head in Cheapside, had died. He had heard that his brother-in-law, Shipside, had spent much time in prison but was now released. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

The examination of Ridley and Latimer by White (Lincoln) and Brookes (Gloucester) took place on 30 September 1555. White and Brookes received their commission from Cardinal Poole. 1563, pp. 1297-98, 1570, pp. 1903-09, 1576, pp. 1631-39, 1583, pp. 1757-60.

A communication took place between Ridley and Brookes in Irish's house on 15 October, on which day he was degraded, and at which Edridge ('reader then of the Greek lecture') was present.. 1563, pp. 1374-76, 1570, pp. 1934-35, 1576, pp. 1659-60, 1583, pp. 1768-69.

Ridley had a discussion with Brookes on 16 October, on which day he was degraded. 1563, pp. 1374-76.

Foxe recounts the behaviour of Ridley at supper the night before he was martyred. 1563, pp. 1376-79, 1570, pp. 1936-37, 1576, p. 1661, 1583, p. 1769.

Foxe recounts the behaviour of Ridley and Latimer at their martyrdom. 1563, pp. 1376-1379, 1570, pp. 1937-39, 1576, pp. 1661-62, 1583, p. 1769.

Ridley gave his gown and tippet to Shipside. 1563, p. 1377, 1570, p. 1937, 1576, p. 1661, 1583, p. 1769.

Ridley gave a new groat to Henry Lea. 1563, p. 1377, 1570, p. 1937, 1576, p. 1661, 1583, p. 1769.

Ridley spoke with Lord Williams before his martyrdom. 1563, p. 1379, 1570, p. 1937, 1576, p. 1662, 1583, p. 1769.

Ridley's friendly farewell. 1563, pp. 1379-81, 1570, pp. 1939-43, 1576, pp. 1622-28, 1583, pp. 1770-76.

Ridley's lamentation for a change in religion, in which he makes reference to Latimer, Lever, Bradford and Knox, as well as Cranmer and their part in the duke of Somerset's cause. 1570, pp. 1945-50, 1576, pp. 1670-78, 1583, pp. 1778-84.

Cranmer was confirmed in his reformist beliefs after conference with Ridley. 1570, p. 2045, 1576, p. 1763, 1583, p. 1870.

Cranmer was examined by Bonner and Ely and condemned on 12 September 1556 (seven days before the condemnation of Ridley and Latimer). 1563, pp. 1491-92, 1570, p. 2046, 1576, p. 1765, 1583, p. 1871.

In the third year of Edward's reign, Cranmer and Nicholas Ridley admitted Robert Drakes to minister the sacraments. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

Letter to Augustine Bernher [BL, Harley 416, fo.16v. Printed in LM, p. 72 et seq. Also in 1570, p. 1902 et seq.].

Letter to Augustine Bernher [BL Harley 416, fos.17v and 32r. Not printed in Foxe or LM].

Letter to Bernher [BL Harley 416, fo.32r. Not printed in AM or LM.]

Letter to Bradford. [BL Harley 416, fo.32v. Printed in LM, pp. 62 et seq. and 1570, p. 1897 et seq.]

Foxe records Nicholas Ridley's writings against idolatry. 1583, pp. 2128-31.

Lord Dacre would have paid a ransom to Mary for his kinsman Nicholas Ridley's life if it were possible but she refused. 1563, p. 1733, 1583, p. 2131.


Nicholas Ridley

Of Willimountswick. Bishop Nicholas Ridley's cousin.

Ridley's 'friendly farewell' sent greetings to him. 1563, pp. 1379-81, 1570, pp. 1939-43, 1576, pp. 1622-28, 1583, pp. 1770-76.


Thomas Ridley

(d. 1555?)

Friend of Nicholas Ridley. Of the Bull-head in Cheapside.

Grindal wrote to Nicholas Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. Ridley mentioned that he knew that Thomas Ridley, of the Bull-head in Cheapside, had also died. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.


John Roberts

Justice of Cranbrook. MP for Steyning (1554) (Bindoff)

Alice Benden was brought before Roberts of Cranbrook on 14 October 1556 for not attending church. 1570, p. 2167, 1576, p. 1872, 1583, p. 1980.

Alice Potkins was imprisoned by Master Roberts. 1563, p. 1547, 1570, p. 2140, 1576, p. 1861, 1583, p. 1954.


Mrs Roberts

Gentlewoman. Of Hawkhurst, Sussex.

Richard Woodman, after his condemnation, wrote a letter to Mistress Roberts of Hawkhurst.1563, pp. 1571-72, 1570, pp. 2194-95, 1576, pp. 1893-95, 1583, pp. 2002-03.

Sir John Guilford tried to force Mrs Roberts to go to church. 1576, p. 1965, 1583, p. 2073.

Guildford sent his wife to persuade her to go to church. He later sent his servants and officers to hound her. 1576, p. 1965, 1583, p. 2073.

Mrs Roberts fell ill after the hounding of Guildford and his assistants. 1576, p. 1965, 1583, p. 2073.

When Guildford's servant climbed the stairs in Mrs Roberts' house to try to force her into church, his gout returned, making him unable to climb further and so pressure her. He did not return to persecute her. 1576, p. 1965, 1583, p. 2073.


Robinson

Scribe. Of Rochester.

William Wood was examined by Chedsey, Kenall and Robinson on 19 October 1554 in St Nicholas' church, Rochester. 1570, p. 2281, 1576, pp. 1969-70, 1583, p. 2077.


John Robinson

Of Lichfield.

John Robinson was examined by Draycot and Bayne and later dismissed. 1563, p. 1548, 1570, p. 2141, 1576, p. 1861, 1583, p. 1955.


Sir Robert Rochester

(1494? - 1557) [DNB]

Mary's Controller of the Household; privy councillor

Sir Robert Rochester was present at Gardiner's sermon, 30 September 1554 (1570, p. 1644; 1576, p. 1402; 1583, p. 1473).

He was present at the burning of John Rogers, 4 February 1555. 1570, p. 1664; 1576, p. 1420; 1583, p. 1493.

Rochester was one of the commissioners who interrogated Robert Ferrar on 4 February 1555. 1563, p. 1732; 1570, pp. 1722-23; 1576, p. 1471; 1583, pp. 1553-54.

On 28 March, Mary announced to Rochester and three other privy councillors that she was restoring the monastic lands in the crown's possession to the church. 1570, p. 1729; 1576, p. 1476; 1583, p. 1559.

Rochester stated that he did not know that Bradford had been in prison, but that he now knew that he was to be kept in prison 'without a cause'. 1563, p. 1186, 1570, p. 1783, 1576, p. 1523, 1583, p. 1605.

Bradford was brought to speak to Bonner by the under-marshal of the King's Bench. Talk took place between the lord chancellor, Bonner and John Bradford on 22 January 1555, during which the bishop of Durham, Sir Richard Southwell, Sir Robert Rochester, and Secretary Bourne questioned Bradford's eucharistic doctrine. 1563, pp. 1185-88, 1570, pp. 1782-84, 1576, pp. 1522-23, 1583, pp. 1605-06.


John Rockwood

John Rockwood died horribly, uttering the words 'All too late,' which were the same words he had uttered when persecuting people in Calais during Henry VIII's reign.


Roger

Roger's role as deliverer of Bradford's letter to his mother was acknowledged in Bradford's first farewell letter to his mother. 1570, pp. 1838-39, 1576, pp. 1573-74, 1583, pp. 1656-57.


Adriana Rogers

Wife of John Rogers

Adriana Rogers petitioned Stephen Gardiner for her husband's release. 1563, p. 1037; 1570, p. 1660; 1576, p. 1416; 1583, p. 1487.

She searched in her husband's cell for his writings. 1570, p. 1663; 1576, p. 1416; 1583, p. 1492.

Accompanied by her ten children, she met John Rogers on his way to the stake. 1570, p. 1664; 1576, p. 1416; 1583, p. 1487.


Daniel Rogers

(1538? - 1591)

Diplomat and son of John Rogers [DNB]

Daniel found his father's account of his examinations and other writings hidden in his father's cell. 1570, p. 1663; 1576, p. 1419; 1583, p. 1492.


Sir Edward Rogers

Foxe states that a Sir John Rogers was committed to the Tower on 24 February 1554 (1570, p. 1638; 1576, p. 1397; 1583, p. 1468).

[NB: According to the privy council register a Sir Edward Rogers was committed to the Tower of 24 February 1554. This name is confirmed in J. G. Nicholas, ed., The Chronicle of Queen Jane and of ... Queen Mary, Camden Society Original series 48 (London, 1850), p. 65].

Rogers was released from the Tower on 18 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1482).


John Rogers

(1500? - 1555) [DNB]

Martyr.

Foxe describes Rogers' life and career. 1563, pp. 1022-23; 1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1484.

John Rogers preached a sermon at Paul's Cross on 6 August 1553 denouncing 'popery', for which he was placed under arrest. 1563, p. 1023; 1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1484. [NB: This contradicts the next two entries].

On 13 August 1553 Gilbert Bourne (Marian bishop of Bath and Wells) preached a sermon at Paul's Cross, praising Bonner and criticising Edward VI. This sermon incited a fanatic to throw a dagger at him and enraged the mob. John Rogers and John Bradford escorted Bourne to safety (1563, p. 905; 1570, p. 1570; 1576, p. 1339; and 1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]. The story is in Rerum, pp. 464-65, but Rogers is not mentioned in that version).

On 16 August 1553, Rogers was placed under house arrest by the privy council (1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]).

He was committed to Newgate on 26 January 1554 (1570, p. 1637; 1576, p. 1396; 1583, p. 1467).

Ridley reported to Cranmer, in a letter written in the aftermath of the Oxford disputations in April 1554, that Crome, Rogers and Bradford would be taken to Cambridge for a disputation on similar lines to that held in Oxford (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1464).

It was rumoured in May 1554 that Rogers, together with Bradford and Saunders, would take part in a disputation to be held in Cambridge (1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1399; 1583, p. 1469).

Rogers was one of the signatories to a letter of 8 May 1554 protesting against the proposed disputation. The letter is printed in 1563, pp. 1001-3; 1570, pp. 1639-41; 1576, pp. 1399-1400; 1583, pp. 1469-71).

He was summoned before Stephen Gardiner at St Mary Overies on 28 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

Rogers' examination took place on 29 January 1555. [BL Harley 421, fos.40r-41r. Not printed in Acts and Monuments or Letters of the Martyrs but mentioned in 1563, p. 1029 et seq.]

Bradford's second examination took place on 29 January 1555, directly after the excommunication of John Rogers. 1563, pp. 1188-92, 1570, p. 1784, 1576, p. 1524, 1583, p. 1607.

He was excommunicated and condemned to death by Stephen Gardiner on 29 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

His examination and condemnation: 1563, pp. 1026-31; 1570, pp. 1656-62; 1576, pp. 1414-19; 1583, pp. 1484-89. He was examined and condemned with John Hooper on. 1563, p. 1056; 1570, p. 1680; 1576, pp. 1433-34; 1583, p. 1507.

Rogers was degraded, with John Hooper, on 4 February 1555. 1563, pp. 1057-58; 1570, p. 1681; 1576, pp. 1434-35; 1583, p. 1508.

Rogers' martyrdom is described. 1563, pp. 1036-37; 1570, pp. 1663-64; 1576, pp. 1419-20; 1583, pp. 1492-93.

When examined by Bonner, John Leafe (who was burned with John Bradford) denied transubstantiation and admitted to being a scholar of John Rogers, and that he believed in the doctrine of Rogers, Hooper and Cardmaker. 1563, p. 1214, 1570, p. 1804, 1576, p. 1540, 1583, p. 1623.

In a letter to his mother and others, John Bradford asked that Rogers be remembered. 1570, pp. 1805-06,1576, pp. 1541-42, 1583, p. 1624.

John Rogers' martyrdom was referred to in Bradford's letter to the university town of Cambridge. 1563, pp. 1178-80, 1570, pp. 1808-09., 1576, p. 1545, 1583, p. 1627.

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. Ridley mentioned that he knew that Ferrar, Hooper, Rogers, Taylor of Hadleigh, Saunders and Tomkins had all been martyred, as had Cardmaker the day before he wrote this letter. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

His other writings: (1563, pp. 1031-36; 1570, p. 1663; 1576, p. 1419; 1583, pp. 1489-92).

Rogers was involved in the debate over the clerical wearing of caps. 1563, p. 1732.


Rogerson

The day after the bones of Peter Martyr's wife had been reburied, Rogerson preached a sermon against those who had dug up her bones and buried them in a dunghill. 1563, p. 1559, 1570, p. 2153, 1576, p. 1859, 1583, p. 1968.


Robert Rolfe

When John Alcock did not remove his cap during the procession, Rolfe arrested him. 1563, p. 1563, 1570, p. 2245, 1576, p. 1939, 1583, p. 2046.

Robert Rolfe was an honest constable, and asked Newall why he was so enraged by Alcock. 1563, p. 1563, 1570, p. 2245, 1576, p. 1939, 1583, p. 2046.

Newall insisted that Rolfe place Alcock in the stocks. Rolfe said that he would bail him and so not put him in the stocks. 1563, p. 1563, 1570, p. 2245, 1576, p. 1939, 1583, p. 2046.

Rolfe later met with Alcock and told him that he was sorry for him. 1563, p. 1563, 1570, p. 2245, 1576, p. 1939, 1583, p. 2046.

Rolfe feared that Newall would be cruel to Alcock because of Newall's dislike of Rolfe. 1563, p. 1563, 1570, p. 2245, 1576, p. 1939, 1583, p. 2046.

Rolfe took Alcock to appear before Newall who committed him to ward. 1563, p. 1563, 1570, p. 2245, 1576, p. 1939, 1583, p. 2046.


Johannes de Roma

Inquisitor in Provence, noted for his zealous pursuit of the Waldensians (Vaudois) there and in Angrona.

Foxe describes Johannes de Roma as a 'hell-hound' and refers to his activities in all the editions from 1570 (1570, p. 2308-10, 1576, p. 1998-2000, 1583, p. 2108-09). Modern scholarship has largely substantiated the evidence of his dubious methods for eliciting evidence (see G. Audisio, Le barbe et l'inquisiteur (Aix-en-Provence: 1979).


George Roper

(d. 1555)

Martyr. Of unknown occupation and origin.

George Roper was condemned and burned at Canterbury with John Web and Gregory Parke. 1563, pp. 1386-87, 1570, pp. 1959-60, 1576, p. 1687, 1583, p. 1794.

Roper was younger than the other two, who were somewhat elderly. Roper jumped to the stake and put out his arms, crucifixion-style, throughout his burning and kept them there until they were burned off. All three wore white linen gowns that were removed at the stake. 1570, p. 1960, 1576, p. 1688.


Thomas Roper

Thomas Roper persecuted Joan Waste of Derby. 1576, p. 1858, 1583, p. 1951.


William Roper

(1495/96 - 1578)

Of Lynsted. JP, MP (1529, 1545, 1547, 1553, 1554, 1555, 1558), Sheriff of Kent (1554 - 1555). Son-in-law to Sir Thomas More and author of a celebrated biographical sketch of More [DNB; Bindoff, Commons].

William Roper was one of the recipients of the proclamation from Philip and Mary authorising the persecution of protestants. 1563, p. 1561, 1570, p. 2155, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1974[incorrectly numbered 1970].

Roper was originally included in the Commission of the Peace for Middlesex in 1555, but his name was deleted. [SP11/5, no. 6]

On 1 April 1555, the Privy Council ordered Roper to arrest Thomas Woodgate and William Maynarde for clandestine preaching. 1583, p. 1561.

On 7 April Roper was ordered to arrest a man from Harwich, who went about with a boy, preaching from place to place. 1583, p. 1561. [NB: Foxe is mistaken in saying that the order was to arrest one Harwich; see APC V, p. 110].

After Master Roper of Lynsted talked with the judges, it was decided that John Bland should be returned to Maidstone until the Greenwich sessions of 18-19 February. 1563, p. 1223, 1570, p. 1847, 1576, p. 1581, 1583, p. 1668.

A letter was sent by the commissioners to Bonner requesting examination of the accused members of the London sacramentaries. It was dated 2 July 1555 and signed by Nicholas Hare, William Roper, Richard Rede, and William Cooke. 1563, p. 1250, 1570, p. 1868, 1576, p. 1599, 1583, p. 1689.

Roper escorted John Wade to his burning in July 1555. 1576, p. 1600, 1583, pp. 1679-80.

Philpot's first examination was before Cholmley, Roper, Story, and one of the scribes of the Arches at Newgate Hall, 2 October 1555. 1563, pp. 1388-90, 1570, pp. 1961-62, 1576, pp. 1688-89, 1583, pp. 1795-96.

Philpot's second examination was before Cholmley, Roper, Story and Cook and the scribe on 24 October 1555. 1563, pp. 1390-92, 1570, pp. 1962-64, 1576, pp. 1689-91, 1583, pp. 1797-98.

[In a letter that was never delivered] Green told Philpot of his presentment on 17 November before Bonner and two bishops, Master Dean, Roper, Welch, John Harpsfield, and two or three others. Dr Dale, Master George Mordant and Master Dee [not listed here as Dr] were also there. 1563, p. 1460, 1570, p. 2023, 1576, p. 1744, 1583, p. 1852.

Roper took part in the examination of several prisoners in Colchester on 19 October 1557. 1563, p. 1610, 1570, p. 2202, 1576, p. 1900, 1583, p. 2008.

The sixth and last examination of Richard Woodman took place before Chichester, William Roper, Nicholas Harpsfield, the fat priest, Winchester and others. 1563, 1599-1601, 1570, p. 2192-94, 1576, p. 1892-93, 1583, pp. 2000-02.

Elizabeth Young's fourth examination was before Bonner, Roger Cholmley, Cooke, Dr Roper of Kent, and Dr Martin. 1570, pp. 2270-71, 1576, pp. 1959-60, 1583, pp. 2066-67.


Thomas Rose

Minister. Born in Exmouth, Devonshire.

Thomas Rose was removed to Polstead in Suffolk and later to Hadleigh by Master Fabian, parson. 1576, p. 1977, 1583, p. 2082.

John Bale preached against Thomas Rose. 1576, p. 1977, 1583, p. 2082.

Robert King, Robert Denham, Nicholas Marsh and Robert Gardner were enflamed by Rose's sermons and later tried to destroy the rood of Dover Court. 1576, p. 1978, 1583, p. 2083.

Three of them suffered and accused Rose. 1576, p. 1978, 1583, p. 2083.

Walter Clerk and John Clerk were enemies of Rose in Hadleigh and resorted to have him removed. 1576, p. 1978, 1583, p. 2083.

Walter Clerk and John Clerk complained to the council about Rose, and the sergeant-at-arms, Cartwright, subsequently arrested Rose. 1576, p. 1978, 1583, p. 2083.

Rose was imprisoned in the bishop of Lincoln's house in Holborn. 1576, p. 1978, 1583, p. 2083.

He was caused great pain in prison. 1576, p. 1978, 1583, p. 2083.

His mother came to see him but was sent home again. 1576, p. 1978, 1583, p. 2083.

He was removed to Lambeth in the first year of Cranmer's consecration and then set at liberty, on the condition that he did not come within a twenty-mile radius of Hadleigh. 1576, p. 1978, 1583, p. 2083.

Foxe recounts his preaching in London. 1576, p. 1978, 1583, p. 3082.

John Rainsford sought to have Rose in Hadleigh again. 1576, p. 1978, 1583, p. 2083.

Rose removed to Stratford to preach for around three years. 1576, p. 1978, 1583, p. 2083.

The bishop of Norwich and the archbishop were petitioned to have Rose silenced and he was eventually indicted to appear in Bury St Edmunds, so he fled to London. 1576, p. 1978, 1583, p. 2083.

He was set free by Lord Audley (lord chancellor) who sent him a license to preach via Cromwell. 1576, p. 1978, 1583, p. 2083.

Rose removed to Lincolnshire and then to York. 1576, p. 1978, 1583, p. 2083.

Petitions were made to the duke of Norfolk about Rose. 1576, p. 1978, 1583, p. 2083.

Rose fled to Germany, Zurich, and then Basle, where he was the guest of Grinaeus until he received letters from Dr Barnes that he should be bishop of Norwich. 1576, p. 1978, 1583, p. 2083.

He was captured in France. 1576, p. 1978, 1583, p. 2083.

Young, of the town of Rye, had heard Rose preach, paid a ransom and removed Rose to Rye. 1576, p. 1978, 1583, p. 2083.

Rose, his wife and child appeared before the earl of Sussex at Atteborough. 1576, p. 1978, 1583, p. 2083.

Rose took the benefice of West Ham early in Edward VI's reign. 1576, p. 1978, 1583, p. 2083.

He was deprived at the accession of Mary and moved among the secret congregations of London with Lady Fane. 1576, p. 1978, 1583, p. 2083.

He baptised the child of Elizabeth and Roger Holland. 1570, p. 2237, 1576, p. 1932, 1583, p. 2040.

He was taken in Bow churchyard on New Year's Eve and imprisoned in the Clink. 1576, p. 1978, 1583, p. 2083.

'M. Rose' was arrested, along with a congregation of 30 people for whom he was celebrating communion, in the churchyard of St Mary-le-Bow, on 1 January 1555 (1570, p. 1652; 1576, p. 1409; 1583, p. 1480; cf. 1563, p. 1020).

On 3 January 1554, Rose was brought before Stephen Gardiner, informally examined, and then sent to the Tower (1570, p. 1652; 1576, p. 1409; 1583, p. 1480).

Rose's secret conventicle was discussed in parliament in 1555. They had prayed that God turn Mary’s heart from idolatry or shorten her days. Parliament decreed that certain 'evill prayers' would be treason (1570, p. 1654; 1576, p. 1411; 1583, pp. 1481-82).

A letter was sent to Hooper describing the arrest of Rose and his congregation; the letter is dated 3 January 1555 (1563, p. 1020).

Hooper wrote an answer to this letter (1563, p. 1020; LM, p. 120; 1570, p. 1654; 1576, p. 1411; 1583, p. 1482).

Hooper also sent a letter of encouragement to the members of Rose's congregation imprisoned in the Counter in Bread Street (1563, pp. 1021-22; , pp. 121-23; 1570, pp. 1654-55; 1576, pp. 1411-12; 1583, pp. 1482-83).

On 12 May 1555, the privy council ordered that Rose, held in the Tower, be delivered to the bishop of Norwich. 1583, p. 1577

His first examination took place before Gardiner. 1576, p. 1978, 1583, pp. 2083-84.

Thomas Rose's second examination was before Hopton, W.Woodhouse, Dr Barret and others. 1570, p. 1978, 1576, pp. 1978-79, 1583, p. 2084.

His third examination took place before the chancellor. 1570, p. 1978, 1576, p. 1979, 1583, pp. 2084-85.

He had a talk with the earl of Sussex, Sir William Woodhouse and other chaplains. 1570, p. 1979, 1576, pp. 1979-80, 1583, p. 2085.

Thomas Rose's last appearance was before Woodhouse and Hopton, with the earl of Sussex in attendance. 1570, p. 1979, 1576, pp. 1980-81, 1583, pp. 2085-86.

He fled overseas and remained there until the death of Mary. 1570, p. 1980, 1576, p. 1981, 1583, p. 2086.


Rosewell

Bartlett Green wrote a letter to Master Goring, Master Farneham, Master Fletewood, Master Rosewel, Master Bell, Master Hussey, Master Calthorp, Master Boyer and others. 1563, pp. 1465-66, 1570, pp. 2027-28, 1576, p. 1747, 1583, p. 1855.


John Rote

Vicar of St Giles in Northampton.

At John Kurde's execution, John Rote told him that he was authorised to grant Kurde's pardon if he would recant. Kurde refused. 1570, p. 2217, 1576, p. 1913, 1583, p. 2021.


Richard Roth

(d. 1557)

Martyr. Of unknown occupation. Of Essex.

When charged with reading to the people in the woods John Allerton said that he had not done so, save once, when he was in the company of George Eagles and Richard Roth, when Roth desired him to read something he had upon him. 1570, p. 2212, 1576, p. 1909, 1583, p. 2016.

Richard Roth was examined by Bonner on 4 July 1557. 1570, pp. 2214-15, 1576, pp. 1911, 1583, p. 2019.

He was examined again on 9 September 1557. 1563, p. 1630, 1570, p. 2215, 1576, p. 1911, 1583, p. 2019.

Articles were brought against him on 10 September 1557. 1563, p. 1630, 1570, p. 2215, 1576, p. 1911, 1583, p. 2019.

He wrote a confession of faith and signed a submission agreeing to catholic teaching on the eucharist. 1570, p. 2159, 1576, p. 1865, 1583, p. 1974.

Roth was questioned by Bonner and answered. 1563, p. 1630, 1570, p. 2215, 1576, p. 1911, 1583, p. 2019.

Allerton stated that he left some of his writings in the prison for Roth to read. 1570, p. 2211, 1576, p. 1908, 1583, p. 2016.

John Allerton stated that Roth had made his nose bleed, so that he might have something to write with. 1570, p. 2211, 1576, p. 1908, 1583, p. 2016.

Roth was burned at Islington on 17 September 1557. 1570, p. 2013, 1576, p. 1910, 1583, p. 2018.

John Allerton wrote a letter to Richard Roth. 1563, p. 1628, 1570, p. 2213, 1576, p. 1909, 1583, p. 2017.

Roth wrote a letter to certain brethren condemned in Colchester. 1563, p. 1631, 1570, p. 2215, 1576, p. 1912, 1583, p. 2020.


John Rough

(d. 1557)

Minister. Martyr. Born in Scotland. Of Stirling. (DNB)

John Rough was originally a Black Friar in Stirling for sixteen years until the time when Lord Hamilton (earl of Arran) sued the archbishop of St Andrews. 1563, p. 1646, 1570, p. 2225, 1576, p. 1921, 1583, p. 2028 [incorrectly numbered as 2034].

Rough was in the service of Hamilton for just one year. 1563, p. 1646, 1570, p. 2225, 1576, p. 1921, 1583, p. 2028 [incorrectly numbered as 2034].

Rough was sent to preach in Ayr for four years. 1563, p. 1646, 1570, p. 2225, 1576, p. 1921, 1583, p. 2028 [incorrectly numbered as 2034].

After the death of the David Beaton, he went to St Andrews. 1563, p. 1646, 1570, p. 2225, 1576, p. 1921, 1583, p. 2028 [incorrectly numbered as 2034].

He was assigned a pension of £20 by Henry VIII. 1563, p. 1646, 1570, p. 2225, 1576, p. 1921, 1583, p. 2028 [incorrectly numbered as 2034].

After the battle of Musselborough he went to Carlisle, then on to the duke of Somerset. 1563, p. 1646, 1570, p. 2225, 1576, p. 1921, 1583, p. 2028 [incorrectly numbered as 2034].

He was sent as preacher to Carlisle, Berwick and Newcastle. 1563, p. 1646, 1570, p. 2225, 1576, p. 1921, 1583, p. 2028 [incorrectly numbered as 2034].

He married in Newcastle. 1563, p. 1646, 1570, p. 2225, 1576, p. 1921, 1583, p. 2028 [incorrectly numbered as 2034].

Rough was called by the archbishop of York to the benefice of Hull, where he remained until the death of Edward VI. 1563, p. 1646, 1570, p. 2225, 1576, p. 1921, 1583, p. 2028 [incorrectly numbered as 2034].

He fled to Norden in Friesland upon the accession of Mary. 1563, p. 1646, 1570, p. 2225, 1576, p. 1921, 1583, p. 2028 [incorrectly numbered as 2034].

He came to London on 10 November 1557. 1563, p. 1646, 1570, p. 2225, 1576, p. 1921, 1583, p. 2028 [incorrectly numbered as 2034].

Foxe relates John Rough's sermon about and conversation with Dr Watson in which Rough berated Watson for his doctrinal beliefs. 1563, p. 1734.

Rough was betrayed by Roger Sergeant, a tailor. 1563, p. 1646, 1570, p. 2226, 1576, p. 1921, 1583, p. 2028 [incorrectly numbered as 2034].

Rough was arrested by the vice-chamberlain of the queen's house at the Saracen's Head in Islington with Cuthbert Symson and Hugh Foxe on 12 December 1557. They had pretended to be there to hear a play but were actually reading their communion books. 1563, p. 1653, 1570, p. 2231, 1576, p. 1926, 1583, p. 2034.

On 15 December 1557 a letter was sent by the archbishop of York, the earl of Shrewsbury, Edward Hastings, Anthony Montague, John Bourne and Henry Jerningham (members of the privy council) to Bishop Bonner along with the examinations of John Rough. They sent Rough to Newgate. 1563, p. 1646, 1570, p. 2226, 1576, pp. 1921-22., 1583, p. 2028 [incorrectly numbered as 2034].

Articles were brought against him and he answered. 1563, pp. 1647-48, 1570, pp. 2226-27, 1576, pp. 1922-23, 1583, pp. 2029-30.

Rough attended the burning of Austoo at Smithfield. On his way home he met with Master Farrar, a merchant of Halifax, who asked him where he had been. 1563, p. 1648, 1570, p. 2227, 1576, p. 1923, 1583, p. 2034.

Rough was burned at London on 22 December 1557. 1563, p. 1735, 1570, p. 2227, 1576, p. 1923, 1583, p. 2030.

He wrote a letter to his godly friends. 1570, p. 2227, 1576, p. 1923, 1583, p. 2030.

He wrote a letter to the congregation two days before he burned. 1583, pp. 2030-31.


Rought

Of Winston.

Rought was persecuted by John Tyrrel and forced to flee Winston. 1563, p. 1522, 1570, p. 2093, 1576, p. 1806, 1583, p. 1912.


Mrs Rought

Wife of Rought. Of Winston.

Mrs Rought was persecuted by John Tyrrel and forced to flee Winston. 1563, p. 1522, 1570, p. 2093, 1576, p. 1806, 1583, p. 1912.


Robert Rouse

Kinsman of John Milles.

Robert Rouse witnessed Bonner's request that Milles be returned to Bonner's house after he and his wife had spent the night in lodgings in Fulham. 1570, p. 2243, 1576, p. 1938, 1583, p. 2045.


John Routh

(1530? - 1556)

Labourer. Martyr. Of Wickes, Essex.

John Routh was convented before the earl of Oxford. He was sent to Colchester castle by Lord Rich and then on to Bonner. 1563, p. 1526, 1570, p. 2096., 1576, p. 1808, 1583, p. 1916.

On 6 June 1556 Darbyshire, Bonner's chancellor, read articles against him (essentially the same as those against Thomas Whittle), which he answered. 1563, pp. 1523-24, 1570, p. 2095, 1576, p. 1808, 1583, pp. 1914-16.

Routh signed a letter written with his fellow sufferers that berated Feckenham for preaching against them on 14 June 1556. 1563, pp. 1526-27, 1570, p. 2097, 1576, pp. 1809-10, 1583, p. 1916.

He was imprisoned at Newgate and burned at Stratford-le-Bow on 27 June 1556. 1563, p. 1525, 1570, p. 2097, 1576, p. 1808, 1583, p. 1916.


Sir Rafe Rowlet

JP for Hertfordshire. (CSPD)

Elizabeth stayed at Sir Rafe Rowlet's house in St Alban's after leaving Ashbridge. 1563, p. 1712, 1570, p. 2289, 1576, p. 1982, 1583, p. 2091.


Royden

Bradford wrote a letter to his dear friends and brethren R. and E. and their wives and families. 1570, pp. 1824-25, 1576, pp. 1560-61, 1583, pp. 1642-43.

[He is referred to simply as 'R' in the letter.]


John Rudd

(d. 1578)

BD (1531). Chaplain to Edward VI. Prebend of Durham (1550 - 1553, deprived). Prebend of Windsor (1551 - 1553, deprived). Restored to Durham (1559 - 1578). (Venn)

Latimer's adversaries are listed: bishop of Ely (preached against him in King's College), Dr Watson (Master of Christ's College), Dr Norton (Master of Clare), Dr Philo (Master of Michael House), Dr Metcalfe (Master of St John), Dr Blith (of the King's Hall), Dr Bullock (Master of Queen's College), Dr Cliffe (of Clement House), Dr Donnes (of Jesus College), Dr Palmes (Master of St Nicholas hostel), Bayne, Rud and Greenwood of St John's, Brikenden of St John's also, and said to have been a scholar of Latimer's. 1570, p. 1904, 1576, p. 1631, 1583, p. 1735.

When the commission found no witnesses to support Bucer and Phagius, they called aside Drs Young, Sedgwick, Bullock, Taylor, Maptide, Hunter, Parker, Redman, as well as Brown, Gogman, Rud, Johnson, Mitch, Raven and Carre. They were all commanded to give witness against Bucer and Phagius. 1563, p. 1538, 1570, p. 2147, 1576, p. 1867, 1583, p. 1956.


ap Ruddz

Of Carmarthen

Ap Ruddz was one of the witnesses against Robert Ferrar. 1563, p. 1093; 1583, p. 1550.


Robert Rudstone

(d. 1589)

Of Boughton Monchelsea, Kent. JP (1547-89). Brother-in-law of Thomas Wotton.

Foxe states that 'Maister Rudston' was sent into Kent for execution on 27 February 1554 but was later pardoned (1570, p. 1638; 1576, p. 1397; 1583, p. 1468; cf. CSP Dom. Mary I, no. 83).

[Although Foxe does not say so, Rudstone was one of Wyatt's rebels and was fined for his role in the rebellion; see Loades, Two Tudor Conspiracies, pp. 74, 77, 81-82, 109, 125].


Runneger

Master of Arts of Magdalen College, Oxford

Runneger took communion with Bartlett Green during Edward VI's reign. John Polline officiated. 1563, p. 1463, 1570, p. 2025, 1576, p. 1746, 1583, p. 1853.


Francis Russell

(1527? - 1585)

Son of John Russell; earl of Bedford (1555 - 1585) (DNB)

Francis Russell was committed to the custody of the sheriff of London, 30 July 1553 (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1465).


John Russell

(1485? - 1555)

1st earl of Bedford. Lord Privy Seal (1542 - 1555). [DNB

John Russell attended Thomas Watson's Paul's Cross sermon of 20 August 1553 (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1465).

He accompanied Queen Mary to Westminster Abbey for her coronation on 1 October 1553 (1570, p. 1635; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1466).

Lord Russell received a letter from John Bradford. 1570, p. 1816, 1576, p. 1552, 1583, p. 1634.

When Cranmer appeared with the king's ring in council, the earl of Bedford said he had warned against the council's actions. 1570, p. 2041, 1576, p. 1760, 1583, p. 1866. [John Russell was not yet earl of Bedford, but this is the title by which Foxe knew him.]


John Rust

(by 1516 - 1569)

Of Cambridge. MP for Cambridge (1545, 1547,. 1554). Mayor of Cambridge (1548 - 1549), alderman (1556), JP (1555). Commr. for goods of churches and fraternities (1553), heresy (1555). (Bindoff)

John Rust acted as one of the queen's commissioners in the examination of certain scholars at Cambridge University on 8 January 1557. 1563, p. 1538, 1570, p. 2142, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1956.


William Rutter

William Rutter was committed by the privy council to the Marshalsea on 5 August 1553 for denouncing Gilbert Bourne's controversial Paul's Cross sermon of 13 August (1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]; APC IV, p. 320.

[Foxe mistakenly refers to Rutter as 'Rutler'.]


Thomas Rysley

Mayor of Coventry (1554 - 1555) [William Dugdale, Antiquities of Warwickshire, I, 1730, p. 149.]

Robert Glover wrote a letter to the mayor of Coventry in 1555. 1563, p. 1280, 1570, p. 1889, 1576, p. 1615, 1583, p. 1712.

The mayor of Coventry warned John Glover of his impending arrest. 1563, p. 1277, 1570, p. 1892, 1576, p. 1615, 1583, p. 1714.

 

 

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