Ergonomics For Farm Workers
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2001-111 (February 2001)
This booklet describes how to make or order inexpensive new tools or to
modify existing ones to reduce the risk of backaches and pains in the
arms, shoulders, and hands of farm workers.
Musculoskeletal Disorders Topic page
A large amount of credible epidemiologic research exists that shows a
consistent relationship between MSDs and certain physical factors,
especially at higher exposure levels.
Preventing Entrapment and
Suffocation Caused by the Unstable Surfaces of Stored Grain and Other
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 88-102 (December 1987)
Entrapment and suffocation are hazards associated with storage bins and
hoppers where loose materials such as grain, sand, or gravel are
stored, handled, or transferred.
Safe Grain and Silage
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 95-109 (1995)
This booklet summarizes the work practices that apply to grain- and
Study of the Prevalence of
Chronic, Non-Specific Lung Disease and Related Health Problems in the
Grain Handling Industry
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 86-117 (October 1986)
During exposure to grain dust up to 70% of grain workers frequently
experienced symptoms of cough, expectoration, wheezing, chest
tightness, and eye and nasal irritation.
Preventing Grain Auger
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 86-119 (July 1986)
This Alert describes two separate incidents that resulted in five
fatalities, and occurred within the same week (150 miles apart)
Injuries and Deaths
Injuries Among Farm
Workers in the United States, 1993
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-115 (April 1997)
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), the
National Safety Council (NSC) Agricultural Division, and the U.S.
Department of Agriculture (USDA) develop a Traumatic Injury
Surveillance of Farmers (TISF) survey to address the lack of non-fatal
injury data of agricultural workers.
Preventing Deaths of Farm
Workers in Manure Pits—NIOSH Alert
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 90-103 (May 1990)
This Alert describes seven deaths from asphyxiation (suffocation) that
occurred during two incidents involving entry into manure pits.
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 96-108 (April 1996)
Full Publication in PDF only
6.8 MB (89 pages)
A community-based program for reducing injuries and deaths due to
Preventing Injuries and
Deaths From Skid Steer Loaders
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 98-117 (February 1998)
This Alert describes six deaths involving skid steer loaders and
recommends methods for preventing similar incidents.
NIOSH Warns: Improper
Hitching to Tractors Can Be Fatal—Update
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-108 (January 1997)
Farmers and others who use tractors are at risk for severe injury or
death if proper hitching methods are not used when towing or pulling
objects with tractors.
Monoxide Poisoning from Small Gasoline-Powered Engines and Tools—NIOSH
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 96-118 (1996)
Hundreds of people performing many different tasks have been poisoned
because small gasoline-powered engines and tools produced hazardous
concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) even in relatively open
NIOSH Warns Farmers of Forage Wagon
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 95-118 (September 1995)
Farmers who use forage wagons are at risk for severe injury, amputation, or death.
Preventing Scalping and Other Severe
Injuries from Farm Machinery—NIOSH Alert
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 94-105 (June 1994)
This Alert describes five cases of persons who were scalped when their
hair became entangled around the inadequately guarded rotating
drivelines or shafts of farm machinery driven by power take-offs (PTOs).
Danger of Hair Entanglement in Hat Baler Drive Shafts—Update
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 93-126 (May 1993)
Recounts the details of four incidents and explores probable causes of five women in New York that have been scalped and/or suffered severe facial disfigurement due to their hair becoming entangled in hay balers
Training resource pack on the elimination of hazardous child labour in agriculture
International Labour Organization
International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour: IPEC
External link: http://www.ilo.org/iloroot/public/english/standards/ipec/doc-view.cfm?id=1759
Tackling hazardous child labour in agriculture: Guidance on policy and practice (toolkit)
International Labour Organization
International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour: IPEC
External link: http://www.ilo.org/iloroot/public/english/standards/ipec/doc-view.cfm?id=2799
Injury and Asthma Among Youth Less Than 20 Years of Age on Minority Farm Operations in the United States, 2000
Volume II: Hispanic National Data
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2006-109 (October 2005)
This document presents national data for non-fatal youth injuries on Hispanic farms for 2000.
Asthma Among Household Youth on Hispanic Farm Operations
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2004-158 (June 2004)
About 9 children out of 100 have asthma. In 2000, 1,300 household youth had been diagnosed with asthma (72 asthmatics per 1,000 youth living on Hispanic farm operations).
Injuries to Youth on Hispanic Farm Operations
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2004-157 (June 2004)
Youth who reside and work on farms are exposed to potentially dangerous farm hazards more frequently than other youth. Understanding how to create a safe farm environment is important for farm operators and their families.
Among Household Youth on Minority Farm Operations
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2004-118 (2003)
In 2000, approximately 28,600 youth lived on minority farm operations.
10-15 year olds had the highest prevalence rate of asthma. Youth less
than 10 years of age had the highest prevalence rate for having an
asthma attack while doing farm work.
Health and Safety for Kids
on the Farm—FACTS
Congress provides funding for a National Institute for Occupational
Safety and Health (NIOSH) initiative to prevent agricultural injury and
death among children.
to Youth on Minority Farm Operations
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2004-117 (2003)
Between 1995 and 2000, the injury fatality rate for youth on minority
farm operations was 34 fatalities per 100,000 youth In 2000, the
non-fatal injury rate for all youth who reside on, work on, or visit
minority farm operations was 130 injuries per 100,000 youth on the
Agricultural Injury Prevention Initiative—Progress and Proposed Future
Activities (July 1999)
The most recent data suggest about 100 youths under the age of 20 die
on farms each year and greater than 100,000 farm-related injuries occur
to the same age group.
Are You A Working Teen?
What You Should Know About Safety and Health On the Job—FACTS
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-132 (1997)
Every year about 70 teens die from work injuries in the United States.
Another 70,000 get hurt badly enough that they go to a hospital
Preventing Deaths and
Injuries of Adolescent Workers—NIOSH Alert
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 95-125 (May 1995)
This Alert can help employers and parents of adolescents, school
counselors and teachers make informed decisions about safe work for
adolescents and prepare adolescent workers to recognize hazards on the
National Agriculture Safety
a national central repository of agricultural health, safety, and
injury prevention materials for the agricultural community and
especially for agricultural safety specialists. NASD is maintained by
the Southern Coastal Agromedicine Center under a grant from the
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). NASD is
made available through the NIOSH Web site to enhance public access to
workplace safety and health information.
Other Related NIOSH
National Ag Safety Data Base (NASD): Farm Machinery and Equipment Safety Part I: Recognizing and Understanding the Hazards
Statistics show that the majority of machinery related accidents occur as the result of human negligence. Errors include taking shortcuts to save time, failure to read the operators manual, ignoring a warning, improper or lack of instruction and failure to follow safety rules.
Agriculture Safety and
Farmers are at high risk for fatal and nonfatal injuries, work-related
lung diseases, noise-induced hearing loss, skin diseases, and certain
cancers associated with chemical use and prolonged sun exposure.
Research Agenda (NORA)
NIOSH and its partners in the public and private sectors developed the
National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA) to provide a framework to
guide occupational safety and health research in the next decade for
NIOSH and the entire occupational safety and health community.
NIOSH Research Projects: Agriculture, April 1997
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-124 (April 1997)
PDF only 85 KB (19 pages)
Extramural and intramural research projects.
NIOSH Warns of Hazards of
Flood Cleanup Work—Update
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 94-123 (1997)
If you are involved in cleanup efforts on or near farms, you may face
hazards such as Confined spaces, respiratory hazards or stored wet hay.
Papers and Proceedings of
the Surgeon Generals Conference on Agricultural Safety and Health
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 92-105 (April 1991)
The NIOSH initiative is intended to provide a balanced approach to
substantially reduce the incidence of fatal and nonfatal traumatic
injury, chronic injury, and occupational diseases among the 3.4 million
agricultural workers in the U.S.
Preventing Fatalities Due to
Fires and Explosions in Oxygen-Limiting Silos—NIOSH Alert
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 86-118 (July 1986)
Fire departments responding to incidents involving oxygen-limiting
silos are cautioned that directing water or foam onto the fire through
the top openings of an oxygen-limiting silo may result in the silo
Report To Congress On
Workers' Home Contamination Study Conducted Under The Workers' Family
Protection Act (29 U.S.C. 671A) ;
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 95-123 (September 1995)
The Workers' Family Protection Act, [29 U.S.C. 671a]) conducted this
study of contamination of workers' homes by substances carried home on
workers' clothing or bodies was enacted on October 26, 1992.
A Review and Recommendations
Regarding Batch Kier Washed Cotton—NIOSH CIB #56
Current Intelligence Bulletin 56 (August 1995)
This publication summarizes more recent research on batch kier washing
of cotton, and provides recommendations regarding prevention strategies
involving washed cotton.
Other Related Resources
American Guidelines for Children's Agricultural Tasks
The North American Guidelines for Children's Agricultural Tasks
(NAGCAT) are a resource developed to assist parents in assigning farm
jobs to their children 7–16 years of age, living or working on farms
Influenza Protecting Poultry Workers at Risk
This 8-page OSHA Safety and Health Information Bulletin is a product of
the OSHA-NIOSH Issues Exchange Group. The guidance document describes
measures for protecting poultry workers when an avian influenza
outbreak occurs. This document complements avian population disease
control and eradication strategies of state governments, industry, and
the U.S. Department of Agriculture and will aid in the development of
biosecurity guidelines and standard operating procedures for the
various sectors of the poultry industry.
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