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Day 3:
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Journal Home Page Day 4: Lunar Orbits
4, 5 and 6

Apollo 8

Day 4: Lunar Orbits 1, 2 and 3

Corrected Transcript and Commentary Copyright © 2003 by W. David Woods and Frank O'Brien. All rights reserved.
Last updated 2006-04-22
[Apollo 8 has reached another historic milestone in its voyage as its crew of Frank Borman, Jim Lovell and Bill Anders become the first humans to be captured by an gravitational field other than the Earth's. Having passed behind the Moon, they fired the spacecraft's large engine for a little over four minutes, slowing them down enough to stay in lunar orbit. The maneuver complete, they have just reappeared to the antennae of Earth and a highly relieved Mission Control are talking to them and looking at the telemetry that the spacecraft is sending down.]

[In 2004, Mike Dinn, who helped run the Earth station at Honeysuckle in Australia donated a set of tapes recorded at the time by his colleague Bernie Scrivener. These tapes included eight extra lines of air/ground communication.]

069:32:08 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. Over.

069:32:39 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. Over.

069:32:54 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. Over.

069:33:12 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. Over.

069:33:25 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. Over.

069:33:47 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. Over.

069:33:56 Lovell: Go ahead, Houston. This is Apollo 8. Burn complete. Our orbit is 160.9 by 60.5 - 169.1 by 60.5.

069:34:09 Carr: Apollo 8, this is Houston. Roger. 169.1 by 60.5. [Garble.]

[This is the end of additional communication made available by the Honeysuckle tapes.]
Public Affairs Officer - "This is Apollo Control, Houston. We have a crew report of an orbit of 60.5 nautical miles by 169 nautical miles [112 by 313 kilometres]. Standing by, continuing to monitor. This is Apollo Control."

069:34:14 Borman (onboard): Are we on the High Gain, Jim? Bill?

069:34:18 Anders (onboard): Give me a Verb 64, Frank.

[Verb 64 is called up on the DSKY (Display and Keyboard) which brings up a routine to operate their High Gain Antenna and properly acquire a link with Earth.]
069:34:20 Borman (onboard): What are you doing here? Let's get rid of that.

069:34:26 Lovell (onboard): Houston, Apollo 8.

069:34:28 Borman (onboard): Verb 64.

069:34:30 Borman (onboard): I don't think we...

069:34:32 Lovell (onboard): Roger. You are coming in very weak. Our orbit is 169 by 60.5.

069:34:38 Borman (onboard): Give them the whole [burn] report there, Jim.

069:34:42 Lovell (onboard): I think I'm talking to myself.

[Jim doesn’t think that Houston is reading them yet.]
069:34:44 Borman (onboard): Why don't you get a Roger for the [DSE] dump we sent then?

069:34:49 Anders (onboard): Okay, that's - Let me go into High Gain.

069:35:24 Carr: Apollo 8, this is Houston. Verify your evaporator water control [is] in Automatic. Over. [Long pause.]

[Environmental Control System experts in the back room at Mission Control are noticing that the cooling radiator temperatures are higher than normal. Normally, this would cause a water evaporator system to come online, and provide additional cooling by the sublimation of water. Houston suspects that the system has either “dried out”, or is manual mode. Normally, the system is in Automatic mode, and support crews need to confirm this.]
069:35:31 Borman (onboard): Can you get them, Bill?

069:35:32 Anders (onboard): We got them.

069:35:35 Borman (onboard): Houston, Apollo 8. How do you read? How do you read Apollo 8, Houston?

069:35:37 Anders (onboard): They've got a ground problem.

069:35:43 Lovell (onboard): You taking that at one frame per second?

[A 16-mm movie camera is aimed, we believe, out the left-hand rendezvous window. The Flight Plan calls for a frame rate of one frame per second. When replayed on Earth usually at the standard 24 frames-per-second, the effect will be to apparently speed up the motion across the lunar surface. One reason for the slow rate is to maximise the capture of photographic data with the minimum expenditure of scarce film.]
069:35:46 Anders (onboard): Yes, that's what it says to.

069:35:49 Borman (onboard): Houston, Apollo 8.

069:35:51 Borman (onboard): I hear - They're reading us now.

069:35:56 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. Over. [No answer.]

069:35:57 Lovell (onboard): There we go. Houston, Apollo 8. Over.

069:36:08 Borman (onboard): Are we hooked on with the High Gain?

069:36:10 Lovell (onboard): Yes, sir.

069:36:09 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. Over. [No answer.]

069:36:14 Lovell (onboard): They came through at one time, didn't they?

069:36:16 Borman (onboard): Yes.

069:36:24 Carr: Apollo 8. Apollo 8. This is Houston, Houston. Over.

069:36:30 Lovell (onboard): Okay.

069:36:32 Borman: Roger, Houston. We read you loud and clear. How do you read us?

069:36:35 Carr: Apollo 8, This is Houston. Reading you loud and clear now. And verify your evaporator water control panel switch to the Auto position. Over. [Long pause.]

069:36:48 Lovell (onboard): Is it?

069:36:49 Borman (onboard): It is in Auto.

069:36:50 Lovell (onboard): Roger...

069:36:51 Borman: Roger. I am sure it is in Auto.

069:36:53 Borman (onboard): Go ahead, Jim, with it.

069:36:54 Carr: Roger.

069:36:58 Borman (onboard): Well, look here - this DSKY is way up.

[Though the transcript mentions the DSKY, this may be a reference to one of the meters on panel 2 that monitors the spacecraft's cooling systems.

Close-up photo of dual gauges from Panel 2 of the Main Display Console.

As will become apparent, the evaporator is prone to drying out. At this time of high activity in the spacecraft, many systems have been powered up for the LOI burn and the evaporator ought to be helping to remove the extra heat generated. If it has dried out, we would expect the temperatures at its outlet to rise. Bill will have to service the evaporator to restore its function.]

069:37:00 Lovell: Burn status report as follows: Burn on time. Burn time 4 minutes, 6½ seconds; VGX, minus 1.4; attitude's nominal, no trim, VGY was zero, VGZ was plus 0.2, Delta-VC was minus 20.2, orbit 169.1 by 60.5.

069:37:45 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. Roger. The burn on time. Burn time of 4:06.5. VGX is minus 1.4. [Long pause.]

069:38:05 Borman (onboard): Bill, how come this is so high here now?

069:38:08 Anders (onboard): [Garble.]

069:38:10 Borman (onboard): Huh?

069:38:12 Anders (onboard): I'm checking the fan out.

069:38:13 Borman (onboard): Is it alright?

069:38:14 Anders (onboard): I'll let you know.

069:38:19 Carr: Apollo 8. Houston. Verify your Evap. water control on panel 382 is Auto. Your Evap. Out temperature is high. Over.

[On the left-hand side of the spacecraft is a blank panel that covers panel 382. Behind that are controls for the ECS (Environmental Control System).

Schematic of Panel 382 of the Environmental Control System.

The two controls near the bottom are those for the evaporators.]

069:38:33 Anders: Roger. Standing by. [Pause.]

068:38:40 Anders: Houston. Apollo 8. Roger. Primary Evap. is Auto. H2 flow Auto. Do you recommend activating the secondary water boiler?

069:38:51 Carr: Roger. Copy. Stand by. [Long pause.]

Public Affairs Officer - "This is Apollo Control Houston. The conversation taking place is with Bill Anders aboard the spacecraft."

069:38:57 Borman (onboard): Now, Jim, let's get this problem squared away here, or we won't be going anywhere.

069:39:03 Borman (onboard): We're not boiling, Ji - Bill?

[The crew tend to refer to the evaporators as 'boilers' because that is essentially what they do. Readers should be aware that this does not mean they operate at 100°C. The vacuum in which they operate means that the water boils at a low temperature, cold enough to form ice. This was a worry in the Command Module evaporators because if the water supply were to ice up, it could crack the pipes within the ECS unit and breach the spacecraft's pressure integrity.]
069:39:04 Anders (onboard): No.

069:39:10 Carr: Apollo 8, this is Houston. Re-verify manual valve on panel 382, Evaporator water control, Automatic. Over.

069:39:22 Anders: Roger. Verified. [Long pause.]

069:39:25 Lovell (onboard): Any help down here?

069:39:26 Anders (onboard): Well, you might reverify it again. It's the one next to the secondary one that you had turned on.

069:39:32 Lovell (onboard): Okay.

069:39:36 Carr: Apollo 8, this is Houston. Recommend you activate your secondary water evaporator. [Long pause.]

069:39:54 Anders: Secondary Evap. coming online.

[Since the primary water evaporator isn’t working, Houston is recommending that the secondary cooling system be turned on. This will certainly take care of their immediate cooling problems, but the long term solution is to get the primary evaporator working again. The secondary system has it's own evaporator which is entirely automatic.]
069:39:56 Carr: Roger. [Long pause.]

Public Affairs Officer - "Apollo Control, Houston. Ground data closely coincides with that aboard the spacecraft."

069:40:01 Lovell (onboard): Secondary evaporator is in Auto.

069:40:03 Anders (onboard): Primary is the main one.

069:40:05 Lovell (onboard): In Auto.

069:40:07 Borman (onboard): It [the primary evaporator] dried up.

069:40:09 Lovell (onboard): Can you get water to it?

069:40:21 Borman (onboard): How's the secondary one - primary one doing - secondary one doing, Bill?

069:40:25 Anders (onboard): Secondary one is doing great.

069:40:27 Borman (onboard): It's operating?

069:40:40 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. Turn off your DSE and we'll go to high bit rate. Over.

069:40:49 Anders: Roger.

069:40:52 Carr: Apollo 8. This is Houston. I'll continue my readback of the burn status report. Copied VGX, zero; VGY, zero; VGZ, 1.2; Delta-V Charlie, minus 20.2. Over. [Pause.]

069:41:15 Anders: Stand by; he's getting the chart out again.

069:41:21 Lovell: Delta-VGZ was 0.2.

069:41:26 Carr: Roger. Understand; 0.2 on VGZ. [Long pause.]

069:41:53 Anders: Houston. This is Apollo 8. We're on malfunction 1 of 6, going through step 1 to step 2. Over.

069:42:02 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. Roger. Copy.

069:42:08 Anders: Correction. That's to step 4.

069:42:10 Carr: Roger. Copy. To step 4. [Long pause.]

069:42:41 Anders: Now to step 13.

069:42:44 Carr: Roger. Step 13. [Long pause.]

Public Affairs Officer - "Apollo Control, Houston. What you are hearing here is checkout procedure of the Environmental Control System. The voice principally from the spacecraft, that of Bill Anders, the systems engineer member of the team aboard."

069:43:14 Anders: Now to step 14.

069:43:18 Carr: Houston, Roger. [Pause.]

069:43:25 Anders: Looks like the boiler dried out somewhere along the line.

[Ground crews had noticed the tendency of this evaporator to dry out. Their conclusion, stated during the Flight Readiness Review of 19 November 1968 was that it wasn't a problem because the crew could always reservice the unit.]
069:43:28 Carr: Roger, Bill. [Long pause.]

Public Affairs Officer - "Apollo Control, Houston. Our ground readings on this orbit; 168 nautical miles apolune, perilune of 60.4 nautical miles [311.1 by 111.9 km]."

[This determination of their orbit made by analysis of their range and Doppler effect as measured by the Earth stations agrees very closely with the on-board solution.]
069:44:01 Borman: Houston, this is Apollo 8. I'd like to confirm that burn status report. VGX was minus 1.4. VGY, zero. VGZ, 0.2, minus .2 that is. Delta-VC was minus 20.2.

069:44:26 Carr: Apollo 8.

069:44:27 Borman: Apogee, 169.1; perigee, 60.5.

069:44:36 Carr: Apollo 8. This is Houston. Roger. I'll read back again. The burn was on time, 4 minutes and 6½ seconds; VGX, minus 1.4; trim nominal; VGY, 0; VGZ, minus 0.2; Delta-V Charlie, minus 20.2. Over.

069:45:05 Borman: That's Roger.

069:45:06 Carr: Roger. We copy your apogee and perigee. [Long pause.]

069:45:24 Anders: Steam pressure's coming up.

[Bill is looking at the pressure generated by the water evaporation process. Technically, it is correct to say that the water vapor created is "steam", but this is not the hot, 100 degree C we think of when we say steam. Rather, it is cold water vapor, under very slight pressure (under 0.2 psi).]
069:45:27 Carr: Roger, Bill. [Long pause.]

Public Affairs Officer - "This is Apollo Control, Houston. So you've had the first status report from an Apollo crew in lunar orbit. The unmanned Lunar Orbiter spacecraft traversed the Moon, perhaps 10,000 times but this is the first man aboard, in this case Frank Borman, reported to his compatriots here on Earth."

069:46:37 Anders: Step 15.

069:46:39 Carr: Roger. Concur.

069:46:41 Anders: Very good. [Long pause.]

[At times when the crew are not talking directly to Earth, their onboard conversation can be heard breaking through onto the comm circuit. Though highly distorted, occasional words can sometimes be discerned, Bill's reply here being an example.]
069:46:58 Anders: Evap. Temps coming down.

069:47:04 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. Roger. We concur. [Long pause.]

069:47:20 Anders: Okay. Houston, keep a good eye on it.

069:47:23 Carr: Roger, we're watching.

069:47:28 Anders: Okay. Nice job on the malfunction procedures.

069:47:32 Carr: Roger, Bill. Thanks. [Pause.]

069:47:39 Anders: You, too.

[Comm break.]
069:49:02 Anders: Give us a call when you think we ought to stop the secondary boiler, Houston.

069:49:06 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. Wilco. [Long pause.]

069:49:40 Lovell: Houston, Apollo 8.

069:49:41 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. Go.

069:49:47 Lovell: Roger. For information, we're passing over just to the side of the crater Langrenus at this time, going into the Sea of Fertility.

069:49:57 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. Roger.

[Comm break.]
Public Affairs Officer - "As you heard, Apollo 8 approaching the Sea of Fertility."
[Langrenus is a striking, large crater on the southeastern shore of Mare Fecunditatis (Sea of Fertility).

Crater Langrenus, as imaged from Earth by David Woods.

Click to see larger image.

This photo, taken by the author (Woods), shows Langrenus with the Sun shining from the west to show the complex topography of the crater. Being sited near the eastern limb of the Moon, for Apollo 8, the Sun is already quite high over Langrenus, making its topography more difficult to distinguish. It is 132 kilometres in diameter, has a collection of central peaks and a complex system of terraces inside its rim, the result of large-scale slumping of its walls soon after its formation. The crater carries the latinised name of Michel Florent van Langren (circa 1600 - 1675), a Flemish mapmaker who pioneered the production of lunar maps.]

Public Affairs Officer - "Apollo Control, Houston. Our first batch of ground tracking data shows agreement in velocity within one foot per second with that of the spacecraft."

069:51:04 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. What does the ole Moon look like from 60 miles? Over. [Pause.]

069:51:16 Lovell: Okay, Houston. The Moon is essentially grey, no color; looks like plaster of Paris or sort of a grayish beach sand. We can see quite a bit of detail. The Sea of Fertility doesn't stand out as well here as it does back on Earth. There's not as much contrast between that and the surrounding craters. [Pause.] The craters are all rounded off. There's quite a few of them, some of them are newer. Many of them look like - especially the round ones - look like hit by meteorites or projectiles of some sort. [Pause.] Langrenus is quite a huge crater; it's got a central cone to it. [Long pause.] The walls of the crater are terraced, about six or seven different terraces on the way down. [Long pause.]

[Jim's impressions of what he sees have been replayed many times on documentary films of the Apollo program, especially his first sentence. Though his words are honest, they predate NASA's emphasis on science and geology that led to later commanders, Jim included, becoming accomplished field geologists themselves and enthusiasts of what the Moon's landscape has to offer. Perhaps as a consequence, his portrayal of the lunar surface as grey and colourless set a tone for the public's subsequent perception of the Moon as uninteresting.]
069:52:35 Carr: Roger. Understand.

069:52:40 Lovell: And coming up now (in) the Sea of Fertility are the old friends Messier and Pickering that I looked about so much on Earth.

[Crater Pickering has since been renamed Messier A. It and Messier are a distinctive pair of craters in the middle of Mare Fecunditatis. Both are elongated with their long axis roughly aligned. A striking pair of rays splay across the mare surface to the west while fainter rays are cast north and south at right angles to these. The curious geometry of this pair have led to a range of formation scenarios, the most popular of which invokes a bouncing impactor. This holds that an object hit at an extremely shallow angle, travelling east to west. It gouged out Messier, flew a further 25 kilometres before forming Messier A. The craters are named after Charles Messier (1730-1817) who was a prolific discoverer of comets. To aid his work, he compiled a catalogue of fuzzy celestial objects for which he is now far better known.]
069:52:49 Carr: Roger.

069:52:50 Lovell: And I can see the rays coming out of blaze [?] Pickering. We're coming up now near our P-1 initial site which I'm going to try and see. Be advised the round window, the hatch window, is completely iced over; we cannot use it. Bill and I are sharing the rendezvous window. [Long pause.]

[The hatch window is not literally iced over. Rather, an outgassing of fumes from the sealant materials around the large windows is fogging them up.]

[One of the tasks assigned to Apollo 8 is to take a close look at one of the favoured sites for a future Apollo landing. Apollo site selection was, by this time, constraining the number of suitable sites to just five, two of which were smooth areas to the east of the Moon's near side. The easternmost site, east of the crater Maskelyne and near the southern shore of Mare Tranquillitatis, is the prime target for Apollo 8 even to the extent that the time of launch from Earth was chosen so that the lighting at the site would be similar to that expected on a real landing mission.]

[The second site in Mare Tranquillitatis was originally selected to be 12° further west from P-1, this being the distance the Moon's terminator moves in an Earth-day. Then, if the launch of a landing mission had to be postponed for a day, the lighting conditions would be repeated further west. In seven months, Apollo 11 would land at this second, more westerly site.]

069:53:15 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. Roger. Got any more information on those rays? Over.

069:53:24 Lovell: Roger. The rays out of Pickering are quite faint from here; there are two different groups coming - going to the left, they don't appear to be - have any depth to them at all, just rays coming out.

069:53:42 Carr: Roger.

069:53:45 Lovell: They look like just changes in the color of the mare. [Long pause.]

[The rays coming from the Messier craters, like most rays on the Moon, are caused by shock-fractured rock being sprayed out over the mare. The fracturing exposes crystalline surfaces that catch the sunlight. Lovell seems to have been looking out for the rays adding a hummocky topography to the mare surface. Instead, he observes that they add only a thin veneer.]
069:54:08 Carr: Bill, if you can tear yourself away from that window, we'd like you to turn off the secondary evaporator. Over.
[Coolant temperatures have now lowered to a point where the backup radiators are no longer needed.]
069:54:16 Anders: Roger. Going Off. [Long pause.]

069:54:45 Carr: Apollo 8, this is Houston. You can leave that secondary pump on for just a few minutes. Over.

069:54:54 Borman: Stand...

069:54:54 Anders: Roger. Remind us. [Long pause.]

069:55:28 Lovell: Okay over to my right are the Pyrenees Mountains coming up and we're just about over Messier and Pickering [Messier A] right now. Our first initial point is easily seen from our altitude. We're getting quite a bit of contrast as we appear - as we approach the terminator. [Pause.] The view appears to be good, no reflection of the Sun back to our eyes; it appears that visibility at this particular spot is excellent. It's very easy to pick out our first initial point; and over this mountain chain we can see the second initial point, the Triangular Mountain. [Pause.]

[Jim is looking towards the southern side of their current ground track, and as they pass across the centre of Mare Fecunditatis, he can see the mountain range that borders the eastern shore of Mare Nectaris.]

[The approaches to the landing sites included a couple of recognisable points the crews could use to check the timings of a landing trajectory. Jim has just called the second one of these the Triangular Mountain but later in the mission, he will label it Mount Marilyn after his wife. Though not official, it is a name that is likely to stick, especially having been included in the storyline of the 1995 movie Apollo 13.]

069:56:33 Anders: Now we're coming upon the craters Colombo and Gutenberg. Very good detail visible. We can see the long parallel faults or grabens. [Pause.] And they run through the mare material right into the highland material. [Long pause.]

Public Affairs Officer - "The principal speaker that you've heard during most of this discourse has been Jim Lovell but that last voice was that of Bill Anders."

[The Mission Report includes a list of all the Target of Opportunity Bill has been tasked to photograph if possible.

SW Mare Fecunditatis, composited from AS08-13-2215 to AS08-13-2227

Click to see larger image.

Target of Opportunity 72 is a cluster of craters east of the crater Colombo, or to its left in this photograph composited from AS08-13-2215 to 2227 using low-resolution index scans. Colombo and Gutenberg are two large craters between Mare Fecunditatis and Montes Pyrenaeus. Also of note in this area is Goclenius. Gaudibert is beyond these three. Note that perspective effects mean that the top and bottom of this pan will have large geometric distortions. The target is the cluster of craters beyond and including Crozier. These craters all have a similar size yet have different floor morphologies. To the right of Crozier is one of only a handful of "doughnut craters" on the Moon. It is far from clear how these unusual crater-within-a-crater features formed. They all have a similar shape and size and both the outer and inner crater seem to have been formed together.

Crater Goclenius and the rille system in SW Mare Fecunditatis

Click to see larger image.

This image, AS08-13-2225, is part of the sequence in the earlier composite image. Note the impressive rille system can be seen within Goclenius. There are many of these large 'fractured floor' craters on the Moon but Goclenius stands out because it also straddles a set of graben-type rilles that border Mare Fecunditatis. By the fact that at least one of these rilles is superimposed on the crater floor, rim and surrounding mare shows how relative ages can be determined from this photograph. The crater itself is the earliest feature here followed by the smooth mare surface that surrounds it and laps against its exterior wall. The interior of Goclenius and the rilles that cross its surface probably also formed around this time. Finally, the immense weight of the dense basalts of Mare Fecunditatis caused the centre of the mare to sink. This stretched the landscape at the shore, forming the large arcuate grabens that now cut across Goclenius.]

[Goclenius is the latinised name of Rudolf Gockel (1572-1621), a German scientist. The crater, Colombo is named after the seafarer, Christopher Columbus (1451-1506) who discovered America in 1492. Johann Gutenburg (1398-1468) was the German inventor of movable type and the printing press, and Francis Crozier (1796-1848) was a polar explorer.]

069:57:41 Lovell: We're directly over our first initial point now for B-1. It's almost impossible to miss, very easy to pick out and we can look right over into the second initial point.

069:57:56 Carr: Roger, Jim. [Pause.]

069:58:04 Lovell: I can see very clearly the five crater star formation which we had on our lunar charts.

069:58:14 Carr: Roger.

069:58:18 Lovell: And right now, I'm trying to pick out visually B-1. [Pause.]

069:58:28 Carr: Roger Jim. Bill, you can turn off the secondary Evap. pump now. [Pause.]

069:58:40 Borman: Houston, this is Apollo 8.

069:58:43 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. Go.

069:58:47 Borman: Roger. How about giving us a system status, please?

069:58:51 Carr: Roger. [Long pause.]

069:59:19 Lovell: Okay. I've got B-1 in sight now, Houston.

Public Affairs Officer - "The reference to B-1 is a landmark, a landmark which relates to a projected landing site."

069:58:30 Carr: Roger, Jim.

069:59:32 Lovell: It's very easy to spot. You can see the entire rims of the craters from here with, of course, the white crescent on the far side were the Sun is shining on it. The shadows are quite lengthy now. Maskelyne B has quite a few shadows off of it, but could be recognized. Just to the west of Maskelyne B, we start going to the terminator. The terminator is actually quite sharp over the Pyrenees, and it's - I can't see anything in Earthshine at this present time. Bill says that he can see things out the side window since he's not looking down on sunshine on the Moon. [Long pause.]

[Maskelyne B is a 9.2-km crater about 20 km west of Maskelyne itself. At this time it is virtually on the terminator and since it is about 6° west of Apollo Landing Site 1 (P-1), the landing site is illuminated with a 6° Sun, close to what would be expected on a landing mission.]
Public Affairs Officer - "Apollo Control, Houston. As a matter of interest, spacecraft commander Frank Borman's heart rate has been ranging between 78 and 80 since we acquired.

070:00:50 Carr: Apollo 8, this is Houston. All systems are Go. We're evaluating the strip charts on your SPS burn and we'll give you a read-out on that shortly. Over.

[In today’s world of real-time computer displays, it is often surprising that data in Apollo was usually recorded with pens writing on long strips of paper. Rather than seeming archaic, this was considered a reasonable way of recording data, which allowed engineers to look at data in real-time, as well as making a permanent record of the data.]
070:01:03 Borman: Roger. Thank you. It's seemed smooth. Do you need high bit rate any more? [Pause.]

070:01:15 Carr: Roger. We'd like high bit rate. We have dumped your DSE, and we'd like to stick with high bit rate for a while.

[Ground controllers still want to take a look at the data in more detail.]
070:01:26 Borman: Roger. [Long pause.]

070:01:45 Lovell: Well, we're just about over Maskelyne B now, and our target is just directly below us. [Long pause.]

070:02:32 Carr: Apollo 8, this is Houston. If you want the recorder now, it's yours. [Pause.]

070:02:41 Anders: Roger. Thank you. [Long pause.]

Public Affairs Officer - "Apollo Control, Houston. Our tracking data from the ground still compares very well with the guidance and navigation computer on the spacecraft."

070:02:58 Anders (onboard): We completed target 72 strip and target 90 strip and the terminator photography to the south.

[Target of Opportunity 90 is a 49-km crater Capella within the Montes Pyrenaeum range for which Bill took frames AS08-13-2228 to AS08-13-2237.

Montes Pyrenaeus and Crater Capella, composited from AS08-13-2228 to AS08-13-2237

Click to see larger image.

Most of these frames have been composited together to produce the above montage. The view looks right across the terminator towards the Capella. The low lighting shows the topography of the area well, especially the raised rims of the craters and the lines of the various rilles that make up Rimae Gutenburg.The crater was named after a fifth century lawyer who postulated that Venus and Mercury orbited the Sun.]

[Bill finishes his photography with mag E on this rev with three frames, AS08-13-2241 to 2243, that look over Capella, across Mare Nectaris towards Fracastorius. The near wall of this large, 124-km walled plain is missing and the lavas within open out onto Nectaris. Being right on the terminator, only its rim is illuminated. The spacecraft is now flying over the night-time side of the Moon though they are still in sunlight.]

070:03:13 Lovell (onboard): Okay, we're going to get updates. And a P52.

070:03:17 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. MSFN [Manned Spaceflight Tracking Network] tracking is comparing very well with your onboard nav.

070:03:26 Borman: Roger. [Pause.]

070:03:29 Anders (onboard): Can I have the other lunar flight plan there, Jim?

070:03:31 Borman: Houston, for your information,...

070:03:33 Lovell (onboard): Yes.

070:03:34 Borman: ...we lost radio contact at the exact second you predicted.

070:03:40 Carr: Roger. We concur. [Pause.]

Public Affairs Officer - "The reference there was to Loss Of Signal as they went over the back side of the Moon."

070:03:47 Borman: Are you sure you didn't turn off the transmitters at that time?

[Frank had been amazed at the accuracy of the predictions by Mission Control, eliciting a joke from Bill that their boss had probably ordered the signal to be cut so as not to worry the crew if there was a slight error.]
070:03:52 Carr: Honest Injun, we didn't. [Pause.]

070:04:00 Borman: While these other guys are all looking at the Moon I want to make sure we got a good SPS. How about giving me that report when you can?

070:04:06 Carr: Sure will, Frank. [Pause.]

070:04:14 Borman: And we want a Go for every rev, please; or otherwise, we'll burn in TEI-1 at your direction.

[Writer Robert Zimmerman, in his book Genesis: The Story of Apollo 8, ascribes Frank's exhortation to a desire to ensure Mission Control are concentrating on the state of the spacecraft and the mission. Frank will return to Earth if there is any reason to doubt the integrity of CSM-103 and Mission Control must actively agree to allow each orbit to commence. There is no doubt who is in control of the spacecraft. TEI-1 is the next opportunity to return to Earth, and there is less than one hour to LOS. Frank is exercising is prerogative as commander of the mission to come home early if the spacecraft is not in perfect shape.]
070:04:21 Carr: Roger. I understand.
[Comm break.]
070:04:36 Borman (onboard): Are we on high gain, Bill?

070:04:38 Anders (onboard): Yes.

070:04:42 Borman (onboard): Well, this is [garble] see if I can [garble].

070:04:44 Anders (onboard): Yes.

070:05:04 Lovell (onboard): Here's the - I'll bet you that's what we're supposed to do.

070:05:09 Borman (onboard): I wouldn't know.

070:05:11 Lovell (onboard): [Garble.]

070:05:15 Borman (onboard): Have you got the Delta counter over there, please?

070:05:58 Anders (onboard): Those two strips and the terminator photography on camera I were taken on magazine E which is now reading 29 exposures.

[Bill is providing a running commentary of his photographic work on the voice recorder that was presumably meant to help researchers determine the context of the images. It certainly helps us in correlating the photographic index with the historic record.]
070:06:17 Borman (onboard): How are you doing, Bill?

070:06:18 Anders (onboard): Getting it done.

070:06:21 Lovell (onboard): [Garble.]

070:06:31 Lovell (onboard): I don't think so. Okay, I'm going out [garble].

070:06:36 Anders (onboard): What did you take a picture of, Frank? Do you remember?

070:06:43 Anders (onboard): And Frank took a took a picture on camera 2, magazine A, which is now reading 40.

070:07:04 Anders (onboard): Now we're going to change - take off magazine A.

[The photographic index shows the first 29 frames of magazine A were used taking pictures of the Earth during their outward coast. The next nine frames are marked as being dark with six images of Langrenus among them. These images are not currently available from the Apollo 8 index.]
070:07:10 Borman (onboard): Jim, didn't I hand you 4 magazine over there?

070:07:14 Lovell (onboard): Yes, I [garble].

070:07:18 Anders (onboard): Okay, what I meant for you to do [garble].

070:07:22 Carr: Apollo 8. This is Houston. Are you eating?

070:07:28 Borman: Negative. [Pause.]

070:07:35 Lovell (onboard): Okay, we have [garble].

070:07:39 Carr: Apollo 8, this is Houston. Are you eating dinner?

070:07:45 Borman Negative. We'll have breakfast in a little while here.

070:07:49 Carr: Roger. [Long pause.]

070:08:00 Carr: Apollo 8, this is Houston. When you go into the dark in about 7 or 8 minutes, I have some words for you on the filters for the wide-angle lens, for your TV camera. Over.

070:08:19 Borman: We're in the dark now.

070:08:23 Borman (onboard): Well, it looks - sure looks that way.

070:08:23 Carr: Roger. Let me know when you are ready to copy. [Long pause.]

070:08:33 Lovell (onboard): 13. Capella.

[Jim is carrying out another realignment of the spaceceaft's guidance platform, known as a P52 after the program used for the operation. Capella is one of two stars Jim is sighting on as part of the realignment, the other being Regulus, the dominant star in Leo.]

[It is planned to complete one of these realignments during the dark pass of every orbit in case the crew have to leave the Moon's vicinity in a hurry. That way they will have an accurately aligned platform ready for the subsequent burn of their SPS (Service Propulsion System) engine. During coasting flight to and from the Moon, realignments are carried out at about 8 hour intervals and it is interesting to note that the figures given for platform drift are roughly the same for 2-hour or 8-hour intervals.]

070:08:36 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. Any words on Earthshine? Over. [Long pause.]

070:08:48 Borman (onboard): What was it, Bill?

070:08:50 Anders (onboard): Capella.

070:08:53 Lovell (onboard): Okay.

070:09:01 Borman (onboard): Have you charged these batteries, Bill?

070:09:03 Anders (onboard): Never did [garble].

070:09:06 Lovell (onboard): Okay, I'll [garble] lights out [garble] I could just mark them without even...

070:09:13 Anders: Earthshine is about as expected, Houston. Not as much detail, of course, as in the sunlight, but you can see the light craters quite distinctly, and you can see the albedo contacts quite distinctly. And, also, the - there's a good three-dimensional view of the rims of the larger craters.

070:09:42 Lovell (onboard): [Garble]. Wait a minute.

070:09:43 Carr: Roger. Bill. [Pause.]

070:09:54 Anders: I think our high-speed film will be able to pick some of this stuff up quite well.

070:09:58 Carr: Roger.

[Comm break.]
070:10:03 Borman (onboard): Oh, right over [garble].

070:10:24 Anders (onboard): Have you got your camera [garble]?

070:10:33 Borman (onboard): All balls.

070:10:43 Lovell (onboard): Okay. Minus 0077, plus 0017, Plus 0065.

[Jim's sighting on the stars has been very accurate as the computer has displayed five zeros (five balls) as being the star angle difference. In other words, the angle Jim measured between the two selected stars is identical to the known angle between them.]

[Jim has also read out the torquing angles from the P52. The gimbals that support the platform must be moved through these angles to restore perfect alignment. They are -0.077°, +0.017° and +0.065°.]

070:11:07 Borman (onboard): Okay, the next thing we put up is my [garble].

070:11:13 Anders (onboard): Okay, Jim, go ahead and eat.

070:11:16 Lovell (onboard): Okay, let me see whether I have this [garble].

070:11:21 Anders (onboard): [Garble] are okay, Frank?

[Bill is making a check of the spacecraft's systems per the note in his column of the Flight Plan at 070:14.]
070:11:28 Anders (onboard): EPS [Electrical Power System] is alright?

070:11:38 Anders (onboard): [Garble] should expect my [garble] later.

070:11:49 Anders (onboard): This thing must be [garble]. Oh no, don't tell me the thing dried out.

070:11:55 Anders (onboard): No, the boiler isn't acting up; it just dried out.

070:12:30 Borman (onboard): Did you verify all the systems?

070:12:33 Anders (onboard): Yes. We have sunset at...

070:12:35 Borman (onboard): Not too long.

Public Affairs Officer - "Apollo Control, Houston. (As) Apollo 8 passes over the night portion of the Moon, the guidance and navigation - the platform is to be aligned. This during period of darkness, as the spacecraft remains in an inertially fixed attitude for this procedure. This leaves lunar daylight periods for maneuverability needed for photography and visual observations. At 70 hours, 12 minutes; continuing to monitor. This is Apollo Control, Houston."

070:12:44 Borman: Go ahead with your information on the filter, Houston.

070:12:49 Lovell (onboard): Boy, that...

070:12:47 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. Roger. We recommend you use a wide-angle lens on this particular TV run. You can use a telephoto lens with the same setup as yesterday's TV show. However, we recommend a wide-angle lens. Step number 1, tape the single red filter to the red filter on the red/blue filter holder; do it so that the filter slide still functions. Over. [Long pause.]

[Based on the bright results they had with an earlier TV transmission, it seems likely the red filter is being added simply to reduce the light levels going into the lens.]
070:13:38 Anders: Go ahead.

070:13:40 Carr: Roger. Step number 2, attach the filter holder to the lens with tape on the top and bottom. Do this with the slide forward. Over. [Long pause.]

070:14:04 Borman: Go ahead.

070:14:05 Carr: Roger. Then at the end of your second rev TV pass, or on request from here, we would like you to remove that red filter from the holder and transmit briefly with it that way, then slide it over the blue side for your final transmission. Over.

070:14:27 Borman: We got you.

070:14:28 Carr: Okay, Frank.

[Comm break.]

[About now, Apollo 8 moves into the Moon's shadow, to reappear at about 71 hours GET.]

070:14:28 Lovell (onboard): [Garble] wrong with the TV picture [garble].

070:14:40 Anders (onboard): Now don't - Let's not even screw with the telephoto, okay, Frank?

070:14:45 Borman (onboard): Right.

070:14:47 Lovell (onboard): Well, ought to use that wide angle. Then you could really...

[The telephoto lens has a narrow, 9° field of view. This makes it particularly difficult to aim accurately at an object that is also photographically significant. With the wide-angle lens, a large vista can be imaged for the audiences on Earth.]
070:14:49 Anders (onboard): Jim? Have you got time to get that red filter out of there or not?

070:14:53 Lovell (onboard): Out of where?

070:14:54 Anders (onboard): Out of that other - I'll get it; I'll get it.

070:14:58 Lovell (onboard): Did you see that other map around here someplace?

070:15:00 Borman (onboard): Yes, the - the flat, one?

070:15:02 Lovell (onboard): No, I've got the flat one; the other - folded one.

070:15:26 Lovell (onboard): Well, I'm not worried about these [garble], but I am about the other two.

070:15:35 Borman: Houston, Apollo 8. Standing by to record TEI-1 and TEI-2.

070:15:40 Carr: Apollo 8, this is Houston. Your TEI-1 and -2 PADs you received last pass are still good. Using these PADs, your next midcourse will be less than 20 feet per second. Over.

070:15:56 Borman: Roger. Understand. [Long pause.]

[At 067:35:29, before they entered lunar orbit, two PADs were read up that included the information that would allow the crew to return home after the first and second orbits have been completed. These are the TEI-1 and -2 PADs and would only be used in the event of an emergency. Their burn to enter lunar orbit is close enough to what was planned that the original TEI abort PADs are still valid.]
070:16:03 Lovell (onboard): Where is the Flight Plan?

070:16:12 Borman (onboard): You're getting that red filter?

070:16:15 Lovell (onboard): Yes, I got it.

070:16:14 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. We have all the SPS experts looking at your data now. The preliminary look is very good, and we'll give you some final words later.

070:16:28 Borman: Roger. We could feel the chug when we threw in bank B - not a chug, but we could feel additional thrust.

[The SPS engine has two independent systems for injecting propellants into the combustion chamber. The A bank was brought in first while the B bank was manually started a few seconds later. The engine does not achieve its full thrust until both banks are operating.]
070:16:36 Lovell (onboard): Here you go.

070:16:37 Carr: Roger. Copy. [Pause.]

070:16:44 Anders: Houston, be advised on this red/blue filter technique on the TV. You cannot slide the two filters out of the way with them taped onto the TV camera. So I suggest we do red, blue, and then take them off. [Pause.]

070:17:06 Carr: Roger. We concur, but make sure that the little red filter is taped over the big one. Over. [Pause.]

070:17:14 Lovell (onboard): Did you use 83?

070:17:16 Borman (onboard): Huh?

070:17:17 Lovell (onboard): Did you use Verb 83?

[Verb 83 brings up numbers on the DSKY relating to parameters used during rendezvous, something that will not be happening on this mission. In this context, one number in particular is of interest as it gives the crew their angle relative to the local horizontal, known as theta. This is required to give the ORDEAL an appropriate starting point for displaying their local attitude on the FDAI (Flight Director Attitude Indicator) or "8-ball".]
070:17:20 Anders: Rog. You don't want the red fil - you want the blue by itself. Is that correct?

070:17:25 Carr: That's affirmative, Bill. [Pause.]

070:17:33 Carr: Bill, we'd like you to use the double red filter for the first transmission. Over. [Pause.]

070:17:43 Anders: Roger. In work. [Long pause.]

070:17:45 Anders (onboard): Tape, Jim, please.

070:17:46 Lovell (onboard): Tape?

070:18:02 Lovell (onboard): You got enough there?

070:18:11 Anders (onboard): Now give me an [garble].

070:18:19 Lovell (onboard): Here - I got [garble].

070:18:28 Anders (onboard): Frank, what else have you got, [garble].

070:18:38 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston.

070:18:43 Anders: Go ahead, Houston. Apollo 8.

070:18:45 Carr: Apollo 8, this is Houston. If you should decide that you want to roll heads up on rev 2, one thing to remember, be sure you yaw 45 degrees right in order to maintain your High Gain Antenna comm. Over.

070:19:01 Borman: We will not do that; we're going to stick with the Flight Plan and make the best we can here.

070:19:06 Carr: Roger, Frank. [Pause.]

070:19:12 Borman: As usual, in the real world, the Flight Plan looks a lot fuller than it did in Florida.

070:19:18 Carr: Roger. Understand.

[Long comm break.]

[Out on the end of it's arm, the HGA (High Gain Antenna) has a limited range of articulation, and the Flight Plan was carefully designed to allow it to maintain a link with Earth during lunar maneuvers. In particular, if the crew are in a "heads-down" attitude, the windows will be facing the surface while the HGA, on the opposite side of the spacecraft, will have easy access to Earth. With the fogged windows affecting visibility, there is a possibility the crew might have wanted to adopt a "heads-up" attitude which would have brought the HGA around to the Moon's side of the spacecraft. Mission Control are reminding the crew that to keep the HGA pointing at Earth in this attitude, they would need to yaw to the right. However, Frank is for minimising changes to their packed schedule.]

Public Affairs Officer - "Apollo Control, Houston. A period of relative quiet; perhaps the crew has decided to start their first meal in lunar orbit."

070:19:26 Lovell (onboard): [Garble.]

070:19:29 Anders (onboard): Well, I know we may need it. I got some more for you. [Garble] remember...

070:19:36 Lovell (onboard): Huh?

070:19:37 Anders (onboard): Did you bring the temporary stowage bag?

070:19:39 Lovell (onboard): [Garble]. Here it is. Yes. (Laughter) [Garble].

070:19:46 Anders (onboard): What other crises by the board?

070:19:49 Anders (onboard): I don't need any if you want to know. After what I've got in my pocket, I (laughter) can go anyplace for a while.

070:19:56 Lovell (onboard): Well, how could they [garble]?

070:20:08 Anders (onboard): Well, that kind of makes [garble].

070:20:22 Anders (onboard): How about just holding that [garble] tape [garble]. The thing is, the damn thing has 16 moving parts.

070:20:39 Anders (onboard): Well, I got it, but [garble] I'll bet - You can just put a piece of tape on it so it stays [garble].

070:20:59 Lovell (onboard): Okay, what's this coming up [garble]? [Garble] coming up here.

070:21:03 Lovell (onboard): At 71 hours - exactly - it's 70:21 right now. The realignment has been completed already. It's an eat period for Bill, eat period for myself; prepare to do GDC align to the IMU [Inertial Measurement Unit]. Okay, at 70:55...

[The GDC (Gyro Display Coupler) provides a backup attitude reference with information coming from the Gyro Assemblies. By the nature of this system, it is more prone to drift than the gyro system in the IMU, so occasionally, it's knowledge of the spacecraft attitude is updated with that from the IMU by pressing the GDC Align button.]
070:21:23 Borman (onboard): [Garble].

070:21:25 Lovell (onboard): Okay, yes, let me [garble]. At 70:55, you're going to pitch up. Your ORDEAL, 180, 250, and 00.

[Having held an inertial attitude since they entered lunar orbit, they will begin an orb-rate rotation to keep one side of the spacecraft aimed at the Moon. An initial attitude for this rotation is given in the Flight Plan though the figures given by Jim differ in somewhat in pitch.]
070:21:37 Lovell (onboard): Okay. And we're going to have to share a window here, Bill at 71...

070:21:47 Anders (onboard): [Garble].

070:21:49 Lovell (onboard): Yes, because - I've got to get out the [garble].

070:22:01 Anders (onboard): Orbital photos.

070:22:21 Anders (onboard): Well, I was real worried about the evaporator.

070:22:44 Anders (onboard): Frank, that's the best I can do for you. If you can just hold it and - like that and take the picture.

070:22:52 Anders (onboard): Okay, now look, can you - could you stick that [garble] stick it in the holder behind your head. I'll take that film out of your way - ...get a chance, stow it, that'll be the best thing to do.

070:23:36 Anders (onboard): Okay.

070:23:46 Anders (onboard): Jim, did you get that Flight Plan?

070:23:48 Lovell (onboard): Yes, I got it right down here [garble].

070:23:56 Anders (onboard): Why don't we keep it right in here, I guess and...

070:23:59 Lovell (onboard): Well, listen, how about - now [garble]. Okay, [garble].

070:24:04 Anders (onboard): We could use Frank on the keypunch for the control point.

[After Apollo 8 reaches the sunlit side of the Moon, Jim is scheduled to carry out a series of sightings through the hatch window of various control points. Of course, the hatch window is fogged over to the point of being useless. We can assume that they are changing their attitude so that the rendezvous windows can be used. Here, Bill refers to the DSKY as a "keypunch". The phrase "keypunch" reflects the ubiquitous way data was entered into computers of the day. Personal computers certainly didn’t exist, nor did even the "dumb terminals" that characterized computers in the 1970’s. Cards had holes punched onto them that represented data, using machines like the IBM 029 keypunch machine. One of the editors (O’Brien) remembers fondly (yeah, right…) of the hours spent keypunching programs on the 029.]
070:24:07 Lovell (onboard): Yes, either way, it makes no difference because you have that...

070:24:10 Borman (onboard): I've got a keypunch here. I [garble].

070:24:14 Lovell (onboard): Yes, I think, Frank, [garble] the attitude.

070:24:22 Anders (onboard): Okay, Frank, you want to configure your 16-millimeter camera as follows: you've got two thirds of a magazine in there.

070:25:05 Anders (onboard): Okay, we're sticking - magazine J onto the 16-millimeter camera, and removing magazine H. We had magazine H running at one frame per second, and what was the f-stop - you remember? F/8 all the way through the pass; we didn't get around to changing the f-stop.

070:25:28 Borman (onboard): Alright, through the pass.

070:25:32 Anders (onboard): Okay, now it starts at f/2.8, 1/250th of a second. Sorry, but I got the wrong [garble].

070:25:44 Lovell (onboard): [Garble].

070:25:45 Anders (onboard): One - f/2.8, one frame per second.

070:25:49 Borman (onboard): 2.8?

070:25:50 Anders (onboard): Right.

070:25:55 Borman (onboard): Go ahead?

070:25:56 Lovell (onboard): Yes.

070:26:01 Anders (onboard): Well, Frank, I'm going to have to give you - Would you remind me to give you new exposures every now and then as on this map? I'll have - I'll have the map right in front of me so I can ... without any trouble. The only thing is you have to remind me.

070:26:22 Lovell (onboard): Okay. Tell them I've got the earth in the sextant.

070:26:48 Anders (onboard): Okay, Frank? Would you start the 16-millimeter camera when you're coming across the terminator with the pass. Okay?

070:26:57 Anders (onboard): I'll take the spotmeter readings and be able to tell you what the [garble] when we're all set for TV, and then [garble].

070:27:12 Anders (onboard): I'm ready for a map update.

070:27:18 Lovell (onboard): Man, this is really exciting.

Public Affairs Officer - "Apollo Control, Houston. We're now less than (break in recording) away from our LOS time on this the first revolution in lunar orbit. Continuing to monitor; this is Apollo Control, Houston."

070:27:19 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. We need an O2 purge now. [Pause.]

[Jerry Carr is referring to the O2 purge of the fuel cells, used to clear out impurities in the system.]
070:27:27 Anders: Roger. And we're standing by for a map update.

070:27:31 Carr: Roger. [Long pause.]

070:27:43 Lovell: Houston, Apollo 8. Just for your information, after we completed P52, I've acquired the Earth in the sextant. It's quite a sight from here.

070:27:57 Carr: Roger. Bet it is. [Long pause.]

070:27:56 Lovell (onboard): Okay, O2 purge set.

070:28:11 Borman: How are the systems experts on the SPS coming, Gerry?

[After emerging from the Moon's eastern limb, engineering data from the spacecraft, including the data from the LOI burn, was replayed to Earth. Once gathered at the Earth station, it has to be passed on to Houston before analysis of the engine's performance can begin. Frank is especially keen to know whether it performed well as they need it to get back home. It has been 15 minutes since Frank’s original request for a review of SPS data, and it is 30 minutes until LOS. Frank is likely getting a bit impatient about the time it is taking to get an answer about an update on the status of the engine.]
070:28:16 Carr: They are still working, Frank; another five or ten minutes.

070:28:24 Borman: Roger. [Long pause.]

070:28:32 Borman (onboard): Let's put that over there.

070:28:38 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. Your SPS data; looking real good. It is just a matter of getting it all in from the site and getting it looked at.

070:28:48 Borman: Thank you.

070:28:49 Carr: So far everything looks copacetic.

[Comm break.]
070:29:08 Borman (onboard): [Garble]. You've been living on emotions [garble].

070:29:11 Lovell (onboard): [Garble].

070:29:21 Borman (onboard): [Garble] those last two REV's [garble].

Public Affairs Officer - "Apollo Control, Houston. We've just received data from our Flight Surgeon that Frank Borman's peak heart rate at LOI-1 read 130. The same reading he had, as a matter of fact, that he had at lift off. We would pass that along, continuing to monitor. This is Apollo Control."

070:30:42 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. We would like to take about five minutes of high bit rate. Over.

070:30:50 Borman: Roger. Five minutes of high bit rate coming on.

070:30:52 Carr: Roger.

070:30:56 Borman: You got it.

[Comm break.]
070:32:14 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston, with a map update.

070:32:15 Borman: Stand by one. [Long pause.]

070:32:52 Borman: Go ahead with the map update.

070:32:55 Carr: Roger, Frank. Map update. Rev 1/2, no change; rev 2/3 follows: 73:04:57, 73:09:37, 73:19:01, 73:48:53, 74:24:23. Remarks: Bravo one, 74:16:24. Over.

[Pages 1-18 to 1-20 of the Flight Plan have forms for the crew to take note of these timings. They represent when the spacecraft passes significant points during its orbit and help the crew keep track of when events occur. Though the Flight Plan has many of these times marked, they are only approximate. These times are based on the spacecraft's measured orbit and are accurate. This map update is relevant to the second and third revolutions around the Moon. It is interpreted as follows:

Loss Of Signal (LOS) before start of rev 2: 73:04:57.

This is the time they lose contact with Earth as they go behind the Moon for the second time.

Spacecraft sunrise in orbit: 73:09:37.

After LOS, the spacecraft returns to sunlight, crossing the Moon's sunset terminator soon after.

Passing over Prime Meridian of 150°W: 73:19:01.

Acquisition Of Signal (AOS): 73:48:53.

Spacecraft sunset in orbit: 74:24:23.

At this time, Apollo 8 will pass from lunar daytime into the lunar night a short time after passing over the sunrise terminator.

Landmark Bravo-1: 74:16:24.

The orbital evaluation of Apollo Landing Site (ALS)-1, known as B-1, is a major goal of the mission. This is a timing for its acquisition.]

070:33:49 Borman: Roger. Copy.

070:33:52 Carr: Roger. We show you 23 minutes to LOS.

070:33:59 Anders: Roger. Are you going to dump the tape? [Long pause.]

070:34:41 Carr: Apollo 8, this is Houston. You are Go for Rev 2. All systems are Go. SPS evaluation is still underway and looking good. Over. [Pause.]

070:34:56 Borman: Understand; Go for Rev 2. Thank you.

070:35:00 Carr: Roger, Apollo 8. We're still using the tape recorder. We'll dump it in a little bit. [Long pause.]

Public Affairs Officer - "Apollo Control, Houston. You just heard that Go for Rev 2. Flight Director Glynn Lunney..."

070:35:35 Carr: Apollo 8, this is Houston. The recorder is yours. You can go to low bit rate.

070:35:43 Borman: Thank you.

[Comm break.]
Public Affairs Officer - "Flight Director Glynn Lunney crossed checked with EECOM and Flight and Guidance Control Officers, and told our Capsule Communicator, Jerry Carr, to pass along that Go for Rev 2."

070:37:55 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. Request Biomed switch, Center. Over. [Pause.]

070:38:04 Borman: 3, 2, 1...

070:38:08 Borman: Mark.

070:38:11 Carr: Roger, Mark.

[Long comm break.]
070:43:50 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. Put your Telemetry Input switch to Low. Over.

070:43:57 Borman: Roger. Go in Low. [Long pause.]

070:44:38 Borman: Houston, Apollo 8. We're in the process of preparing meal 4, day - correction - day 4, meal A.

070:44:47 Carr: Roger, Frank.

[Long comm break.]
070:45:29 Borman (onboard): [Garble] get me the hot water [garble].

070:45:44 Lovell (onboard): [Garble] the sextant [garble].

070:46:06 Lovell (onboard): How's that Flight Plan looking [garble]?

070:46:29 Borman (onboard): A little bit of - a little bit of - Left yaw - a little bit.

070:47:16 Anders (onboard): [Garble] we'll just have to get one. But you can't for 30 minutes [garble]. Well, you can [garble].

070:47:28 Lovell (onboard): Who wants hot water, quick?

070:47:29 Anders (onboard): I do. [Garble].

070:48:13 Anders: Houston, Apollo 8. Over.

070:48:15 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. Go.

070:48:20 Anders: Are you going to be able to dump that tape prior to LOS? [Pause.]

070:48:30 Carr: Roger. Bill, they say they have already dumped the tape, and it's almost totally clean.

070:48:42 Anders: What does that mean? [Pause.]

070:48:52 Carr: That means you have got about 2 minutes of low bit rate on there, but the rest is clean. Over.

070:48:59 Anders: The high bit rate of the burn wasn't on there?

070:49:03 Carr: Negative. We've already dumped and got that. [Long pause.]

070:49:18 Anders: Okay. Let me know when you're going to dump it next time, Gerry. I understand we are Go now for the DSE. Have you got any voice off of it?

070:49:26 Carr: That's affirmative. We did.

070:49:31 Anders: Okay. Thank you. [Long pause.]

070:50:10 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. The voice quality on your tape was just sort of middling. We were able to monitor your burn and hear most of that pretty well.

070:50:27 Anders: Roger. Did you get a report of the photography accomplished, or is that on the tape at present?

070:50:36 Carr: Negative. We haven't heard that.

070:50:42 Anders: Okay. We'll put it on the tape now.

070:50:46 Carr: Roger.

[Comm break.]

[Having learned that the DSE tape has been dumped to Earth, Bill then uses it to leave a note of the progress of his photography.]

070:50:48 Anders (onboard): This is a report of the photography accomplished on Rev 1. We got target 68 [Langrenus], target 72 [craters near Colombo], target 90 [Capella], and the terminator photography - near-side terminator, Rev 1, south. I had cameras 1 and 2 configured properly. Camera - camera 2 now reads - simply one exposure on Mag G. That's the high speed; we've had zero exposures on Mag G.

Public Affairs Officer - "This is Apollo Control, Houston. Now less than 5 minutes away from Loss Of Signal on our first revolution."

070:51:53 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. You are 4 minutes and 40 seconds from LOS. I would like a reconfirmation on your S-band Aux switch in the Downvoice Backup position. Over.

070:52:09 Borman: Negative; it is in Normal voice. We will go Downvoice Backup.

070:52:17 Carr: Roger. Request you leave it there forever. Over.

070:52:22 Borman: Roger. In Downvoice Backup now. [Long pause.]

070:52:44 Carr: Apollo 8, this is Houston. All systems are Go. You're still Go for rev 2. Over.

070:52:53 Borman: Thank you.

[Comm break.]
070:54:22 Anders (onboard): Okay, that's up to the right.

070:54:43 Lovell (onboard): Okay, at 70:55, we're going to pass over - [Garble].

070:54:51 Borman (onboard): We've got to get the TV going here now [garble].

070:54:54 Anders (onboard): Okay, Mag D - was on camera 2.

070:54:58 Lovell (onboard): What?

070:55:03 Anders (onboard): One exposure - two exposures at this time. We had one exposure on Mag A.

070:55:25 Anders (onboard): Mag E was used for the targets previously mentioned, and is now indicating 30 - 30 exposures; that's Mag Echo.

070:55:32 Carr: Apollo 8. Houston.

070:55:37 Borman: Go ahead, Houston. Apollo 8.

070:55:39 Carr: Roger. One minute until LOS

070:55:44 Borman: Thank you. [Long pause.]

070:55:55 Anders (onboard): Magazine - magazine J was on the 16-millimeter camera, run at one frame per second, starting about 10 minutes after LOI...

070:56:19 Lovell (onboard): Okay, this is [garble].

070:56:25 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. 10 seconds to LOS. All systems Go.

[Very long comm break.]
070:56:32 Anders (onboard): Thank you.

Public Affairs Officer - "Apollo Control, Houston. 70 hours, 56 minutes into the flight. We have had LOS with Apollo 8. At this time we would like to play back those historic first words of insertion into lunar orbit as we heard them here at Mission Control."

[The Public Affairs Officer is evidently elated at Apollo 8's achievement and shares the moment with the folk from the media once more.]
070:56:40 Anders (onboard): Mag H - When you're through taking Mag H, I'll [garble].

070:57:00 Anders (onboard): Mag H was on the 16-millimeter cam...

070:57:02 Lovell (onboard): [Garble].

070:57:03 Anders (onboard): ...16-millimeter camera, run at one frame per second, at - Look at that f-stop.

070:57:13 Borman (onboard): 8.

070:57:14 Anders (onboard): On f/8 through the entire Rev.

070:57:26 Anders (onboard): We now have Mag - What was that again, J? - Mag J installed for the second pass.

070:57:50 Borman (onboard): Are you all set with the TV, Bill?

070:57:52 Anders (onboard): Oh, we've got a long time.

070:57:54 Lovell (onboard): The TV doesn't come until at 30 minutes [garble].

070:57:58 Anders (onboard): Next - next AOS?

070:58:01 Lovell (onboard): [Garble] the Flight Plan.

070:58:11 Borman (onboard): Next AOS is 30.

070:58:16 Anders (onboard): 71:39,

070:58:17 Borman (onboard): Yes.

070:58:18 Lovell (onboard): 71:30 would be [garble].

070:58:20 Borman (onboard): [Garble] half an hour.

070:58:23 Lovell (onboard): Is that right?

070:58:24 Anders (onboard): Yes.

070:58:25 Lovell (onboard): Well, I guess we don't do [garble].

070:58:27 Anders (onboard): No, we can't do them all at once.

070:58:29 Borman (onboard): All at once?

070:58:45 Lovell (onboard): [Garble] the Earth [garble].

070:58:46 Anders (onboard): No.

070:59:02 Lovell (onboard): Are you going to [garble]?

070:59:05 Anders (onboard): I think you better yaw first [garble].

070:59:09 Lovell (onboard): What was that time again? 71:30?

070:59:15 Anders (onboard): You don't have AOS until 71:39 [garble].

071:00:12 Lovell (onboard): Well, 12.2 is [garble] 128.

071:00:19 Lovell (onboard): [Garble] TV pass is [garble].

071:00:39 Anders (onboard): Well, I guess we could got it; you know this S-band is actually just pointing a little - a little more underneath than ...

071:00:55 Lovell (onboard): Okay, Bill, while we're going around here...

071:01:13 Borman (onboard): How's your time? Sunrise is 71:00

071:01:20 Lovell (onboard): Holy cow! We're not too far away from [garble].

071:01:27 Anders (onboard): [Garble] right? Ask Jim.

071:01:36 Lovell (onboard): Okay. Did you see my [garble]?

071:01:39 Borman (onboard): [Garble] camera [garble].

071:01:46 Anders (onboard): What does - what does it say there in the Flight Plan, Frank?

071:01:52 Lovell (onboard): Hey, Frank, think I should share your [garble] the next [garble] because you're going to maintain the position, aren't you?

071:01:58 Borman (onboard): [Garble].

Public Affairs Officer - "This is Apollo Control, Houston. As Apollo 8 passed over the lunar hill, out of communication, we read an apolune of 168.2 nautical miles [311.5 km], a perilune of 60.3 nautical miles [111.7 km]. Velocity of the spacecraft at that time descending downward from its apogee was 5,224 feet per second [1,592 m/s]. Our current digital indications say that the present velocity is 5,297 feet per second [1,615 m/s]. So at 71 hours, 02 minutes, 35 seconds into this most historic flight; this is Apollo Control, Houston."

071:01:59 Lovell (onboard): I should get over there. - Could you fly it from over here?

071:02:01 Borman (onboard): Huh?

071:02:03 Lovell (onboard): Now you've got to maintain a position in the [garble].

071:02:06 Borman (onboard): Well, that's just to [garble] whenever we fly [garble] with the COAS [garble].

071:02:16 Borman (onboard): Trying to get up here.

071:02:18 Lovell (onboard): Well, look here. [Garble].

071:02:23 Borman (onboard): It doesn't say anything; about that.

071:02:34 Anders (onboard): One frame per second [garble] terminator.

071:02:37 Lovell (onboard): Let me see if I can get up here [garble]. Yes, I just [garble].

071:03:07 Lovell (onboard): What do you want me to do?

071:03:13 Anders (onboard): What do you want to do about this television?

071:03:15 Lovell (onboard): [Garble].

071:03:19 Anders (onboard): Well, you can go on and describe where we are.

071:03:20 Borman (onboard): Still got that [garble], Bill?

071:03:23 Anders (onboard): I don't see it.

071:03:24 Lovell (onboard): Bill, why don't you just worry about the television as far as [garble].

071:03:53 Anders (onboard): You see the terminator yet, Frank?

071:03:55 Borman (onboard): Yes.

071:03:58 Anders (onboard): Are you pitched down - to the horizon?

071:04:00 Borman (onboard): Yes, down.

071:04:02 Lovell (onboard): Okay, I've got the terminator.

071:04:06 Lovell (onboard): All right, the terminator is just coming over right now.

071:04:08 Borman (onboard): You want your camera going, Bill?

071:04:10 Anders (onboard): Start at - just start it a little past the, terminator.... Don't start a track until you get the terminator.

071:04:21 Lovell (onboard): Okay, let me [garble].

071:04:55 Lovell (onboard): Well, I thought we've better - Bill you've got - I guess you've got your instrument, right?

071:05:08 Lovell (onboard): What's the crater just before we get the terminator? The big one?

071:05:12 Anders (onboard): It's America.

071:05:14 Lovell (onboard): No, no, that's the real big one.

[We believe the "real big one" they are calling America is now known as Korolev. This massive 437-km walled plain is really a small multiring basin, having the vestiges of an inner ring visible within the main crater rim. This Lunar Orbiter photograph, I-038-M, shows the full crater well, at a similar Sun angle. Sergei P. Korolev (1906-1966) was the mastermind behind the early Soviet space program, being largely responsible for both the first unmanned and manned spacecraft.]
071:05:15 Anders/Lovell (onboard): It's...

071:05:16 Lovell (onboard): It's the one that's coming up right now.

071:05:18 Anders (onboard): Von Braun and America.

071:05:23 Lovell (onboard): This one right down here, Bill? Bill? Is that von Braun?

071:05:28 Anders (onboard): Yes [garble].

071:05:34 Lovell (onboard): I think this is Freeman coming up.

071:06:10 Borman (onboard): Have you got the terminator?

071:06:12 Lovell (onboard): Yes.

071:06:21 Lovell (onboard): It might be [garble]; no, I think it's Freeman.

071:06:44 Anders (onboard): Just run it whenever you are looking down there.

071:06:49 Lovell (onboard): [Garble] take a look at [garble] the Flight Plan.

071:06:53 Anders (onboard): Give me that Flight Plan there real quick, will you, Frank?

071:07:04 Anders (onboard): Okay, let's track along the ground and run the camera [garble] time.

071:07:20 Anders (onboard): Here - It'll - At the terminator, it will be - 2.8, and it'll stay that way for a good while.

[Bill is referring to a photography exposure chart that shows the recommended camera f-stop as a function of orbital longitude. (need link to page in flight plan) The crew uses this chart to ensure that the film is correctly exposed for a given sun angle.]
071:07:32 Lovell (onboard): [Garbled.]

071:07:49 Borman (onboard): [Garble], we're looking good.

071:08:14 Lovell (onboard): Okay, starting on the right now, [garble].

071:08:16 Anders (onboard): No, no, no, don't - don't write it down.

071:08:19 Lovell (onboard): Well, you're going to get...

071:08:20 Anders (onboard): No, it - it - Wait, wait'll it comes up...

071:08:22 Lovell (onboard): Well, why not? Why don't you get it tracking? That thing's just going into the terminator.

071:08:27 Anders (onboard): Well, I'd wait, or you're never going to make it through the pass. It's the other terminator that's more important. Just take a couple here, Frank.

071:08:32 Lovell (onboard): All right. We should be over America right now.

071:08:47 Anders (onboard): Now, we're passing over America.

071:08:50 Lovell (onboard): There she is.

071:08:51 Anders (onboard): And we're coming up on von Braun.

071:09:01 Lovell (onboard): Okay, we're to the north of our track...

071:09:03 Anders (onboard): Yes.

071:09:04 Lovell (onboard): ...aren't we? No, we're not! My gosh, we're just about on it!

071:09:12 Lovell (onboard): Now, can you turn up the lights a little bit because we need this thing because we're going to - turn the light [garble].

071:09:21 Lovell (onboard): We're coming [garble] right now [garble].

071:09:44 Borman (onboard): You want this thing going now, Bill?

071:09:45 Anders (onboard): Yes, good.

071:09:52 Borman (onboard): 3.5 still [the required F-stop on the lens]?

071:10:01 Borman (onboard): Huh?

071:10:02 Anders (onboard): Yes.

071:10:14 Anders (onboard): I don't think the angle is the best, though.

071:10:15 Lovell (onboard): [Garbled.)

071:10:20 Lovell (onboard): Oh, you can see out of this one. Bill, this is good lighting for one of those.

071:10:35 Lovell (onboard): Take those pictures [garble.]

[As they pass over the Moon's sunset terminator from darkness into light, Bill begins his stills photography using magazine G. Unfortunately, he has not realised that this magazine contains type 2485 film which is rated at a high sensitivity of 2000 ASA, about 6 stops higher than the 40 ASA he is likely assuming. The film was initially intended for taking images of astronomical phenomenon like the solar corona, which is to be imaged at about 85 hours GET. Bill will realise his mistake and inform the ground at 074:42:05. With prior knowledge of the problem, steps can be taken after the film is returned to Earth to compensate for the overexposure by altering the development process, eventually yielding good results.]
071:10:48 Anders (onboard): Okay, we got the six pictures of the terminator, south.
[Bill's six images of the terminator are frames AS08-18-2828 to 2833.

Terminator view looking south across crater Mechnikov.

Click to see larger image.

These photographs are brought together into this montage, looking south along the terminator with the 60-km crater, Mechnikov in the foreground, named after Élie Metchnikoff (1845-1916), a Russian Nobel prize-winning microbiologist.]

071:11:08 Anders (onboard): That's the north, Jim. Isn't this America sitting right out here - this big one? Or did you...

071:11:11 Lovell (onboard): No, no, we're over - still over America right now. See look at this big picture. I've got the - I've got the photograph on...

071:11:18 Anders (onboard): Is this von Braun right here, this big...

071:11:19 Lovell (onboard): No, we're right in the middle of America, right now.

071:11:25 Lovell (onboard): You've got two other craters sticking up [garble].

071:11:27 Anders (onboard): Right in the middle of it? Are they those...

071:11:39 Borman (onboard): You still want it 3.5, Bill? I think I...

071:11:43 Anders (onboard): I want you to keep it 2.8 until we've gone 7 minutes. [Garbled.)

071:11:51 Lovell (onboard): Yes, I know. It doesn't work; it goes out.

071:12:13 Lovell (onboard): There is the big [garble] down below us.

071:12:17 Anders (onboard): Is that it?

071:12:19 Lovell (onboard): Yes. [Garble] down south right now.

071:12:32 Anders (onboard): Why, the rim of America is very hard to see, isn't it?

071:12:36 Borman (onboard): Yes.

071:12:38 Lovell (onboard): Yes.

071:12:39 Anders (onboard): Okay, you're right, here's von Braun. This must be von Braun, here.

071:12:45 Anders (onboard): Yes, okay.

071:12:46 Lovell (onboard): Boy, it sure feels like you're running [garble]. Very pretty.

071:12:51 Anders (onboard): Okay, getting target 10.

071:13:20 Anders (onboard): Target 10 is mag D, frame...

[Bill is actually using magazine G. Mag D is not used until a long sequence is exposed on rev 4.]

[Target of Opportunity 10 is an area of the far side south of the crater Doppler, as seen in frame AS08-18-2834. The landscape is heavily beat up with a mix of old and newer landforms.]

071:13:37 Lovell (onboard): You should have a big crater on the side of you there.

071:13:57 Lovell (onboard): Okay.

071:14:09 Lovell (onboard): There it is. Now the target should be just straight ahead.

071:15:12 Anders (onboard): [Garble] target 12.

071:15:16 Lovell (onboard): I see it. Right there.

[The on board voice recording ends at this point.]

[As best as we can tell, Bill is still using magazine G on one camera but begins using magazine E on another.Frame AS08-18-2835 looks in a southeasterly direction across a landscape north of the crater Bok, while 2836 brings the viewpoint around to look over the 59-km crater De Vries, visible to the upper left.]

[Four frames are taken on magazine E towards target 12. Notes from the Mission Report describe target 12 as a "fresh crater with trails of birdfoot secondaries" which is the 49-km crater, Crookes. Earth-based studies of the near-side crater, Copernicus had shown that every large crater generated huge numbers of secondary craters as the material it threw out of the ground impacted the surface. These craters were often laid out in distinctive patterns. The crater to the right of frame AS08-13-2244 is Doppler, named after Christian Doppler (1803-1853), an Austrian physicist who described the change in frequency caused by an emitter's motion. The Doppler Effect is well known in physics and radio electronics, being one of the major techniques used to track the Apollo 8 spacecraft. This 110-kilometre crater sits directly abutting the southern rim of Korolev (America).]

[The next three frames looking towards target 12 are 2245, 2246 and 2247, all of which feature Crookes. Under high sunlight, Crookes displays an impressive ray system, one that has two major rays 120° apart that indicate the impactor came in from the east. The ray system also shows that the crater is relatively fresh, perhaps a few hundred million years old which is also born out by the crater's sharp outline as shown in the photographs. The landscape just beyond Crookes has a series of elongate dimples running left to right remeniscent of a bird's footprints. Sir William Crookes (1832-1919) was British physicist and chemist who pioneered studies of cathode rays.]

[With magazine G, Bill takes a series of shots looking towards what is shown in the photo index as Target of Opportunity 20. T/O 20 is listed in the Mission Report as "15-km young craters on rim of Mendeleev", the latter being a large crater to the north of their current track. In frame AS08-18-2837 we are looking south to a cluster of small craters and one larger one sited above a scarp. This scarp is the eastern rim of Aitken, a large (135-kilometre) flat-floored crater with a dark mare-type interior. Frame 2838 is Aitken A, a 13-km crater to the north of Aitken. Bill looks back towards Aitken's est rim in 2839 where we can see the dark floor of the crater.]

[The Moon is a world whose landscape, though stark and beautiful in its own way, can exhibit an unremitting lack of variety, especially over the far side. Vast reaches of terrain contain countless craters that display the various characteristics well understood by researchers. Yet every so often, a feature is noticed that confounds this predictable monotony. In the corner of frame AS08-18-2839, a cluster of craters is visible in Aitken's dark interior, some of which have very unusual floors, likely related to the volcanism that led to the deposition of the mare material in the crater's floor. This cluster can be seen better in this Lunar Orbiter II image.]

[The crater, Aitken, lends its name to a feature that, despite its size, was only discovered just prior to Apollo. The South Pole-Aitken Basin is the largest, deepest impact structure in the Solar System and Aitken sits astride its north rim. It is a feature that is difficult to discern from photographs but its existence was demonstrated by the Lunar Orbiter missions and spectacularly displayed in the mid-1990s, when the Clementine mission produced the first topographical map that dramatically showed its 2,500-kilometre extent and 8-kilometre depth.]

[Frame AS08-18-2840 is of Aitken Z, a relatively large satellite crater just inside the northern rim of Aitken, whose mare-type floor is visible beyond on the upper right. The viewpoint moves further west in frame 2841 wich looks across the terracing inside the northwest rim of Aitken. 2842 shows a 30-km crater, Zwicky N, that sits in the middle of its highly deformed parent, Zwicky. Tracing the location of the next photo, 2843, was a bit tricky but it is a view looking south east towards Zwicky R, a 28-km irregularly-shaped crater. Frame 2844 is the last imag on mag G taken in lunar orbit. It shows the 26-km Cyrano A.]

Public Affairs Officer - "Apollo Control, Houston. 71 hours, 22 minutes now into the flight of the Apollo 8. Apollo 8 continuing on its pass over the back side of the Moon. We're some 17 minutes away from time of reacquisition. At this time, Command Module Pilot Jim Lovell should be taking a look at three control points, which are evenly distributed across the back side of the Moon. These, repeated on later orbits with the optics, [are] designed primarily as a mapping tool. And increasing data in establishing a point in space. Each control point has two IPs, initial points associated with it. These serve the same homing end purpose to Jim Lovell as an IP does to a bombardier. He literally counts down to his CP [control point], 1 to 3 minutes, depending on which ID he has acquired, and all of the IDs, such things as craters, hills, rilles, and intersection of rilles, are in all cases within about a lunar degree of the ground track. Remember a lunar degree is 16 nautical miles versus 60 nautical miles on Earth. The same IP relationship exists on the front side with the landmark P-1 which is designated to the landing site. So at 71 hours, 23 minutes into the flight of Apollo 8, this is Apollo Control, Houston."
[As Apollo 8 continues towards the Moon's eastern limb and reacquisition with Earth, it passes north of Tsiolkovsky. A sequence of 9 images are taken on magazine E, AS08-13-2248 to 2256. Judging by the lower contrast of these images, it appears they are being taken through one of the fogged-up windows.]

[Tsiolkovsky is markedly different from much of the surrounding landscape by virtue of its dark, mare-like interior. The crater's floor is visible at the upper right of AS08-13-2248, which views the northwestern hinterland. In 2249, 2250 and 2251, the land to the north of the crater appears with little contrast, both because the Sun is high over a landscape with few albedo changes, and the scene is being viewed through a foggy window. The photographer changes his viewpoint to look south east and to Tsiolkovsky itself in frames 2252, 2253, 2254 and 2255. The wall of the 200-km crater lies beyond the shore of the dark mare material and can be difficult to see in these images.]

[Finally in this sequence, frame AS08-13-2256 sees the camera's aim moving to the southwest at a cluster of small, bright craters that lie between Fermi and Hilbert. The largest crater in the frame is about 12 kilometres in diameter.]

Public Affairs Officer - "Apollo Control, Houston. 71 hours, 32 minutes now into the flight of Apollo 8. We're within 8 minutes acquiring the Apollo 8 spacecraft now in its second revolution around the Moon which - the first revolution began at midpoint in the back side. Apollo 8 should be yawing about 45 degrees just about now to establish a proper attitude for TV sighting. We'll continue to monitor as we draw nearer to that point when we reacquire the spacecraft. So at 71 hours, 32 minutes; this is Apollo Control, Houston."

Public Affairs Officer - "This is Apollo Control, Houston. At 71 hours, 38 minutes now into the flight of Apollo 8, we are now within 2 minutes of our predicted time of acquisition of this second pass across the front side of the Moon. During this pass, we expect to acquire via television - our prime tracking site for the TV is the Madrid site. Meanwhile, Glynn Lunney, here in Mission Control, has gone around the room updating all his flight controllers on the requirements - Flight Plan requirements for this revolution. We will stand by and continue to monitor at 71 hours, 38 minutes. Mark, 1 minute to predicted time of acquisition. Stand by. Mark, 30 seconds and standing by. 5 seconds."

[As the spacecraft comes into communication with Earth, it is already transmitting a TV picture of a bland lunar surface. Stills from this 13-minute transmission are taken from the DVD set on Apollo 8 made available by Mark Gray through www.spacecraftfilms.com.]
071:39:46 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. Over. [No answer.]

Public Affairs Officer - "That's Jerry Carr making a call. No reply yet. Standing by. We're receiving telemetry data now. Standing by."

071:40:42 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. Over. [Pause.]

Public Affairs Officer - "The picture is coming in now."

071:40:52 Anders: Houston, this is Apollo 8 with the TV going. Over. [Pause.]

071:41:00 Carr: Apollo 8, this is Houston. Reading you loud and clear. We see your TV. It is a little bit - little bit clearer.

[The wide-angle camera lens is being masked to leave a circular field of view, probably by the filter holder that has been taped to the front of it.

Image from TV coverage

Once the image settles down, we see a part of the Moon that is lit by a high Sun. The image is moving right to left which means south is to the top. There are no shadows and hence, very little definition except for some vague light and dark markings. The quality of the image is not being helped by the camera peering through a foggy window, probably window 5, next to Bill's couch.]

071:41:15 Anders: Roger. The Moon is very bright and not too distinct in this area. I'll give you a shot of the horizon.
[Bill tilts the camera up to look towards the southern horizon.]
071:41:21 Carr: Roger.

071:41:25 Anders: How's that look? Is it on the top of your picture?

071:41:30 Carr: Apollo 8, this is Houston. It's a good picture - the horizon - we can't see many terrain features as yet. [Pause.]

071:41:41 Anders: Roger. [Pause.]

071:41:48 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. We are beginning to pick up a few craters very dimly. The whole thing is pretty bright.

071:41:58 Anders: Roger. There is not much definition up here either out on the horizon. We're now approaching the craters See [Alden] and Bassett [Scaliger].

071:42:06 Carr: Roger. [Pause.]

071:42:15 Anders: I'll shift to the rendezvous window.

071:42:18 Carr: Roger, Bill.

071:42:22 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. We want to take the DSE.

071:42:28 Anders: Roger. You've got it.

071:42:29 Carr: Roger. Looks like we've got a real good picture now.

[Once Bill moves the camera to window 4 the image improves markedly. The rendezvous windows were unaffected by the fogging that mars the other three.

Image from TV coverage

The distinct bright circle on the right is Pasteur D, a 36-km crater. To the upper left, a large, slightly dark, circular feature is the 87-km crater Meitner. The bright ring punctuating its lower left rim is Meitner C.]

071:42:35 Anders: Okay, that's the crater Brand [Danjon].
[If the guide we have to the Apollo era names is correct, Danjon is not currently in the camera's field of view.]
071:42:37 Carr: Roger. [Pause.]

071:42:42 Anders: Sorry, we missed Carr [Perepelkin].

071:42:43 Carr: Me too. [Pause.]

071:42:54 Carr: Apollo 8, this is Houston. We're going to need a cryo fan cycle sometime during this pass.

071:43:02 Anders: Roger. Can we wait 'til sunset?

071:43:06 Carr: Roger. We can wait.

["Cryo stirs" are used to mix the contents of the cryogenic tanks feeding the fuel cells. Over time, their contents tend to stratify, making accurate measurements difficult. This is not a time critical procedure, in that if it is delayed a few minutes it will not have major consequences. Bill certainly wants to finish the video transmission before dealing with the cryo tanks. Although it is not a difficult task - it involves only switching tank fans on and off - it is a timed procedure, which required setting up the "kitchen timer" and making sure the tanks are stirred for a specified amount of time. Such distractions are not wanted at this time.]
071:43:10 Anders: Okay. I think we are coming up on Mueller [Meitner] right now. [Long pause.]
[In fact Meitner is leaving the frame.]
071:43:53 Anders: There's a very new bright impact crater. Should be in the field of view now.
[Charts show there is a very bright crater above and to the left of centre. However its intrinic brightness under these conditions is not being displayed by this camera.

Image from TV coverage

Pasteur D is off to the left and the two craters to the bottom right are Pasteur B and Y. Most of the frame is actually showing the northern interior of Pasteur (known to the crew as Borman) though the high lighting and its huge size (224 kilometres) make it impossible to see in this coverage.]

071:44:01 Carr: Roger, Bill.

071:44:05 Anders: You see it in the upper part of your screen.

071:44:10 Lovell: Say, Bill. How would you describe the color of the Moon from here?

071:44:14 Anders: The color of the Moon looks, ah, a very whitish gray, like dirty beach sand, and with lots of footprints in it.

071:44:23 Lovell: Don't these new craters look like pick-axes striking concrete creating a lot of fine haze dust? [Pause.]

071:44:38 Anders: There's some interesting features out on the other window. Let me switch windows on you now.

071:44:41 Carr: Roger, Bill. [Pause.]

071:44:48 Anders: You should see the horizon now in the top of your picture.

[The view to the horizon is even more indistinct.

Image from TV coverage

Just exiting the frame to the left is a large crater Hilbert, with the bright spots of Hilbert Y and W visible within. The dark patch on the horizon is a small area of mare material, Lacus Solitudinis.]

071:44:51 Carr: Roger. We have the horizon, Bill. [Pause.]

071:45:01 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston.

071:45:02 Anders: I believe these are the craters now Bassett [Scaliger] and See [Alden].

[Both of these craters are actually out of the frame to the left, beyond Hilbert.]
071:45:07 Carr: Roger, Bill. If you have the polarizing filter handy, try flipping it in front, would you?

071:45:15 Anders: Roger.

071:45:18 Lovell: Gerry, as a matter of interest, there's a lot of what appears to be very small new craters that have these little white rays radiating from them.

071:45:29 Carr: Roger, Jim. [Long pause.]

071:45:50 Carr: Roger. We see the filter going over. [Pause.] Apollo 8, this is Houston. Looks like we have too much light. The polarizing filter doesn't help much. Go ahead and remove it again. [Pause.]

[This image from the TV coverage, shows the polarising filter in front of the lens.

Image from TV coverage

Any improvement in the picture has probably been caused by the darkening effect of the filter taking the detail away from saturating the imaging tube, rather than any polarising effect. The dark crater to the left is Pasteur Q, a 24-km crater on the southwestern rim of Pasteur.]

071:46:16 Anders: Roger. It's removed. [Pause.]
[The view widens out again as the filter is removed.

Image from TV coverage

Pasteur Q is still to the left of the image. The 127-km crater Sklodowska, known to the crew as Houston, is an indistinct dark patch to the right. The bright rays of a small, fresh crater on its right-hand rim are more visible.]

071:46:25 Carr: Looks like we just got...

071:46:26 Anders: Roger. We're just passing over the crater Borman [Pasteur], and there's Anders [Backlund] out there, Lovell [Hilbert] is right south of it.

[Though these are all large craters, the high Sun and their great age has rendered all these features virtually invisible.]
071:46:33 Carr: Roger. The TV is breaking up now. Okay. We are back with a good picture. Looks like we just have too much light. Our definition is rather weak.

071:46:49 Anders: Roger. [Long pause.]

071:47:01 Anders: Also, I'm fogging up the window here, Houston, among other problems.

071:47:06 Carr: Roger, Bill. The other window is better than this one.

071:47:12 Anders: Okay. [Pause.]

071:47:21 Carr: Yeah, much better picture, Bill. Much better.

[When the view returns to the rendezvous window, a well-defined cluster of craters become visible.

Image from TV coverage

The bright crater upper left is Hansky F at 9 kilometres diameter, and to its right is the reasonably distinct form of Hansky itself, a 43-km crater. Ludwig is visible as a dark patch to the lower left while Hirayama K is to the lower right.]

071:47:25 Anders: All right. The right side of the camera is pointing retrograde. [Pause.] We are now passing abeam of the crater Houston [Sklodowska]. And I'll show you the camera over there once for the folks in Texas.

071:47:47 Carr: Roger. [Pause.]

071:47:53 Anders: It's a big and sprawly one; It's got those two impact craters, one to the right and one to the left.

071:48:03 Carr: Roger, Bill. [Pause.]

071:48:13 Anders: How's your picture?

[The centre of the picture is over-exposed. This is the same place where there should be a bright ray crater on the western rim of Sklodowska.

Image from TV coverage

Sklodowska A is visible as the dark patch to the left with Sklodowska Y being the bright-rimmed crater below it.]

071:48:15 Carr: Still about the same, Bill. It's - The terrain's pretty bright. We are not getting much definition at all. [Pause.] Definition on this side is much, much better.

071:48:26 Anders: Okay, I think - Okay. We are leaving the window. That gives you an idea how bad our window is.

071:48:34 Carr: Roger. This picture now is much better. I guess the light levels are decreasing now.

[Returning the camera to the rendezvous window results in an improved picture. Also, as they come towards the terminator, the craters begin showing the first hints of oblique to help reveal their structure and shape.

Image from TV coverage

Hirayama K is to the left and Brunner, a 53-km crater known to the crew as Collins is on the right with the bright Brunner N above it.]

071:48:42 Anders: Okay, we are coming up on the crater Collins (Brunner).

071:48:45 Carr: Roger. What crater is that that's just going off (out of the frame).

071:48:52 Anders: That's some small impact crater.

[Carr is asking about Hirayama K.]
071:48:56 Carr: Roger.

071:48:57 Anders: We'll call it John Aaron's.

[John Aaron mans the EECOM console on the Green Team of flight controllers, responsible for keeping an eye on the spacecraft's electrical and environmental systems.]
071:48:59 Carr: Okay.

071:49:04 Anders: If he'll keep looking at the systems anyway.

071:49:06 Carr: He just quit looking. [Pause.]

[To try and improve the visibility of these images, I captured 27 consecutive frames and stacked them using Registax, an astronomy program for image processing, which reduced the noise and interference and sharpened the detail.

Image from TV coverage

Brunner is slightly right of centre.]

071:49:19 Lovell: Jerry, another of ID feature: these small impact craters have dark spots in the center, where it appears that they buried in it and hit some new material down below and scattered a lot of fine white dust around them. [Long pause.]

071:49:32 Carr:, Roger. Understand, Jim. [Pause.]

071:49:39 Carr: This - ah, Houston - Apollo 8, This is Houston. Looks like we could see Collins (Brunner) now.

071:49:48 Anders: Roger, there is Collins (Brunner) for you.

071:49:52 Lovell: And Collins (Brunner) is right on the edge of Smythe's Sea which we're about to pass over.

[Brunner has now moved to the upper left of the frame.

Image from TV coverage

The dark material of Mare Smythii is beginning to appear at the bottom of the frame. Particularly visible is a crater whose rim is incomplete with its interior having been filled with lava. This is Helmert, a 26-km flooded crater.]

071:49:57 Carr: Roger. [Long pause.]

071:50:24 Carr: Apollo 8. This is...

071:50:26 Anders: We are now going across the Smythe Sea. Go ahead.

071:50:31 Carr: Roger. We just saw a Stellenword (?) go by.

071:50:39 Anders: Rog. He was really in a hurry.

071:50:45 Carr: Roger. Picture is much improved now. Getting better all the time.

071:50:51 Anders: Roger. The terrain here is, as you can see, not well defined. [Pause.] We are going to start a roll to the left, in order to come across the target area, with the television...

071:51:15 Carr: Roger.

071:51:16 Anders: ...landing site area.

071:51:18 Carr: Roger Bill. [Long pause.]

[Helmert has moved to the top left of the image and the dark floor of the 63-km Kiess, another of the flooded craters within Mare Smythii, dominates the lower left corner.

Image from TV coverage

It seems that Kiess is referred to as O'Neill by the crew and Kiess S as Dennis.]

[The crater O’Neill was named after the godfather of one of the AFJ editors, Frank O'Brien. John O’Neill, who provided Frank with all the Apollo era documents that he treasures to this day, was the director of Flight Planning in Apollo days. John later replaced Gene Kranz as Director of Manned Space Operations. The following is from O'Neill's oral history interview, which, with many others, resides at the Johnson Space Center History website.] [Butler, from 2001 oral history interview: "Did you get a chance to hear the broadcast on Christmas Eve?"]

[O'Neill, from 2001 oral history interview: "Yes, yes. We not only heard that broadcast, but in order to be able to pass some information back and forth between mission control and the spacecraft, they took otherwise undesignated craters on the Moon that were prominent enough that they could use them for navigation, and, of course, the names don't stick. Only the astronomers and, you know, people who are really renowned in the field would ever really have a crater named after them, but it was kind of nice that on the Mission Control Center maps on the console and on the map in the spacecraft, they had given the craters the names of the people that had worked closely with the crew. So in the transcript somewhere it said, yes, 'O'Neill Crater.' At that, I think the people in O'Neill, Nebraska, no relatives of mine, all thought, 'Hey, this is really neat. They've named something after our town.'"]

[John O'Neill shared other stories from Apollo 8, this one related to the velcro pads used in the spacecraft to hold cue cards and other loose items.]

[O'Neill, from 2001 oral history interview: "By the time we got to Apollo 11, the Velcro business had really progressed, and there was sticky-back Velcro like everybody knows it today. That was not the case when we flew Apollo 8. The way that things worked in the launch preparation, the backup crew would go to the spacecraft and set all the switches, and they would put the checklists in right place to be available to the crew. They would put the launch cue cards in the place. So the Apollo 8, and you can imagine the first people to be leaving Earth orbit altogether, everyone was really taking that one seriously. But when the backup crew went out to put the cue cards up, they started into the process. As they were getting the last ones in place, the first ones were falling off. That was because at that time, the Velcro didn't come with sticky stuff already on it and you just peeled it off. They had to mix a compound called RTV. Apparently, the shelf life had been exceeded on the RTV they gave us, and it was just plain not holding the cue card to the Velcro. So they had to peel off all these cue cards and bring them back. There we are in the building where the crew quarters were located and where we had a flight data file area. Bill [William R.] Pogue, one of the astronauts, who was on the backup crew, and I are there in the middle of the night, trying to get all the old RTV scraped off and the new stuff applied. I remember that Bill Anders, who had a little trouble sleeping, I think, and I honestly believe, and I think they've said this themselves, that they only thought there was a 50-50 chance that this was all going to work. I mean the mission, not the cue cards. But anyhow, he couldn't sleep, and he saw us down there working. So he brought us a turkey sandwich in the middle of the night, and we took a break from trying to re-stick the Velcro on these cards and had a turkey sandwich with the guy that was going to go out of Earth orbit the next day and go to the Moon."]

[The following exchange is somewhat confusing as Bill and Jerry Carr seem to be discussing Kiess and and also Kiess S, bright crater left of centre.]

071:51:38 Anders: How is that crater in - right in the middle look now?

071:51:41 Carr: Roger. That's a very good one; that must be O'Neill.

071:51:49 Anders: Rog. [Long pause.]

071:52:09 Carr: Roger, Bill. We see O'Neill real well, also the smaller crater off to the side of it.

[The dark basalt of Mare Smythii is giving way again to light highland material.

Image from TV coverage

Kiess S and R dominate the lop left corner of this image, with Kästner B directly below.]

071:52:19 Anders: That's Dennis.

071:52:21 Carr: Roger. [Long pause.]

071:52:38 Borman: Houston. This is Apollo 8. We are going to terminate our program for this pass and get on with the preparations for LOI-2, if you say we're Go.

[LOI-2 is the second retrograde burn, intended to circularize their orbit around the Moon, at 110 km (60 nautical miles).]
071:52:49 Carr: Apollo 8. This is Houston. Roger.

071:52:55 Borman: Okay. Signing off until ninth rev. Apollo 8.

071:53:00 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. Roger. [Pause.]

[Shortly before the transmission ends, the camera is moved to the south-facing window.

Image from TV coverage

The small crater in the foreground is the 18-kilometre crater Black, while the larger (94-km) crater in the centre of the frame is Ansgarius.]

[The Flight Director prompts Carr to thank the crew for letting the ground see the view.]

071:53:07 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. Thank you for the look.

071:53:12 Borman: Roger.

[Comm break.]
Public Affairs Officer - "Apollo Control, Houston. Most of those craters identified in the conversation, largely over the east part of this front-side pass are actually unnamed. They have been coded for purposes of this flight. Perhaps you recognized some of the names, names like Bassett, See, and by the John Aaron, John is EECOM on the Green Shift. So at 71 hours, 54 minutes, we continue to monitor."

071:55:02 Carr: Apollo 8, this is Houston. You have the DSE.

071:55:08 Borman: Thank you, Houston.

071:55:10 Carr: Roger. Apollo 8, on your backside data, it's pretty much unintelligible. We suggest, Bill, that you recheck the position of your mike for your backside pass and try to speak a little bit louder and more distinctly. The last one we listened to was pretty much unintelligible. Over.

071:55:34 Anders: Roger. As soon as we get squared away, we will give you a real quick real-time summary.

071:55:39 Carr: Roger. [Long pause.]

071:55:56 Anders: And, Houston, you might let us know, can we do the red/blue filter exercise with both these filters - red filters on. Over.

071:56:06 Carr: Stand by. [Pause.]

071:56:10 Carr: Apollo 8, this is Houston. Apollo 8, Houston. Negative. [Long pause.]

071:56:33 Carr: Apollo 8, this is Houston with an LOI-2 maneuver PAD. Ready to copy?

071:56:41 Borman: Stand by.

071:56:42 Carr: Houston. Standing by. [Long pause.]

071:57:06 Borman: Okay, Houston. Go ahead.

071:57:07 Carr: Apollo 8, this is Houston. LOI-2, SPS/G&N; 46427; minus 0.53, plus 1.41; 073:35:05.70; minus 0135.0; plus all zeros, plus all zeros. Copy?

071:58:03 Anders: Roger.

071:58:06 Carr: Roger. 000, 175, 358; 0060.7, plus 0060.6; 0135.0, 0:09, 0126.5; 02, 311.2, 19.7. Copy?

071:59:00 Anders: Roger.

071:59:05 Carr: Roger. Taurus, Aida. I repeat; Taurus, Aida, Up 162, left 01; the remainder not applicable. GDC align, Sirius, Rigel; 129, 155, 010; negative ullage. Horizon window, ignition minus 3, 27 degrees, horizon left. At ignition 18 degrees, horizon left. Before readback, configure for receiving any update. Over.

072:00:16 Borman: Roger. Understand. Configure for receiving an update.

072:00:26 Borman: Okay. We're in P00 and Accept. Go ahead.

[The PAD is interpreted as follows:

Purpose: This PAD is gives the parameters for Lunar Orbit Insertion burn 2. Their first LOI burn brought them into lunar orbit but was deliberately made slightly short so that any errors would not risk causing the spacecraft to impact the Moon. LOI-2 is a relatively small burn that finally circularises their orbit for the remainder of their stay.

Systems: The burn will be made using the large SPS (Service Propulsion System) engine at the rear of the Service Module, under the control of the Guidance and Navigation system.

CSM Weight (Noun 47): 46,427 pounds (21,059 kg). The calculated weight of the spacecraft has dropped considerably due to the propellant used for the LOI-1 burn.

Pitch and yaw trim (Noun 48): -0.53° and +1.41°. These are the angles through which the SPS engine should be swivelled to ensure its thrust acts through the spacecraft's centre of gravity.

Time of ignition, Tig (Noun 33): 73 hours, 35 minutes, 5.7 seconds. The burn will occur about halfway around the far side as the spacecraft reaches its pericynthion, the lowest point in its orbit.

Change in velocity (Noun 81), fps (m/s): x, -135.0 (-41.1); y and z components are both zero. Since the change in velocity is expressed relative to the Local Vertical/Local Horizontal frame of reference, we can see that this burn is a pure retrograde burn and therefore meant to slow the spacecraft down with respect to the Moon.

Spacecraft attitude: Roll, 0°; Pitch, 175°; Yaw, 358°. The desired spacecraft attitude is measured relative to the alignment of the guidance platform. The current alignment of the platform was meant to match the spacecraft's prograde attitude for this burn when it was calculated such that the burn attitude would be 0°, 180°, 0°. This is to make it easier to monitor the attitude during what is an especially critical burn (one which, if erroneous, could cause impact. The fact that the pitch and yaw are slightly different to the ideal shows that small dispersions are being compensated for by this burn. Later, Frank will question Mission Control about this as he was evidently expecting the nominal numbers.

HA, expected apocynthion of resulting orbit (Noun 44): 60.7 nautical miles (112.4 km).

HP, expected pericynthion of resulting orbit (Noun 44): 60.6 nautical miles (112.2 km).

The apocynthion and pericynthion are essentially identical showing that a circular orbit is being aimed for.

Delta-Vt: 135.0 fps (41.1 m/s). This is the total change in velocity the spacecraft would experience. (It is a vector sum of the three components given above though since two of them are zero, it equals the minus-X component in magnitude.)

Burn duration or burn time: 9 seconds.

Delta-Vc: 126.5 fps (38.6 m/s). This value is entered into the Delta-V display of the EMS (Entry Monitor System) panel. This figure will descend to zero as the engine burns. If the Guidance and Control System fails to stop the burn, the EMS will do so but it has to be given a low Delta-V figure to take account of the engine's tail-off thrust after shutdown.

Sextant star: Star 02 (Diphda, in Cetus) visible in sextant when shaft and trunnion angles are 311.2° and 19.7° respectively. This is part of an attitude check.

Boresight star: Star Taurus, Aida is used for a second attitude check which is made by sighting through the COAS (Crew Optical Alignment Sight). Soon, Carr will inform the crew that Aida is really the Pleiades.

COAS Pitch Angle: Up 162°.

COAS X Position Angle: Left 1°.

Other parameters on the PAD sheet are not applicable to this maneuver.

GDC align stars: Stars to be used for GDC align purposes are Sirius and Rigel. The align angles are roll, 129°; pitch, 155°; yaw, 10°.

Though the SPS propellant tanks are partially depleted, Mission Control have determined that there is no need to perform an ullage burn to settle their contents.

The final comment refers to where in the rendezvous window the commander can expect to see the Moon's horizon, and when this occurs. At the edges of this window, lines have been painted to give the seated crewman a good idea of the angle an horizon makes with the spacecraft's X-axis, a helpful check that all is well with the spacecraft's control system. At three minutes to the burn, the Moon's horizon should be at about 27 degrees. By the time of ignition, it should be at 18 degrees.]

072:00:30 Carr: Roger. I'm ready for your readback.

072:00:35 Borman: LOI-2; SPS/G&N; 46427; minus 0.53, plus 1.41; 073:35:05.70; minus 0135.0, plus 0000, plus 0000; 000, 175, 358; 0060.7, plus 0060.6; 0135.0, 0:09, 0126.5; 02, 311.2, 19.7; Taurus, Aida, up 16.2, left 0.1; the remainder not applicable. Sirius, Rigel, 129, 155, 010; no ullage. Ignition minus 3, 27 degrees, ignition, 18 degrees.

072:01:51 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. Roger. Readback is correct. [Long pause.]

072:02:12 Carr: Apollo 8, this is Houston. Your map update for rev 2/3, no change. Over.

072:02:22 Borman: Understand. No change, rev 2/3.

[An update for the timings of landmarks for Jim's sighting exercise was given at 070:32:55. Those timings are still valid.]
072:02:25 Carr: Roger, Frank. You can expect Go/No Go for the next rev at 20 minutes before LOS Over.
[This is in response to Frank’s insistence at 070:04:15 that a Go/NoGo on the spacecraft be given before each LOS.]
072:02:37 Borman: Roger. [Pause.]

072:02:45 Carr: Apollo 8, this is Houston. We'll try to make that call 20 minutes before every LOS Over.

072:02:54 Borman: Fine. [Long pause.]

072:03:20 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. We have the CSM vector starting on the LV. Over. [Long pause.]

072:03:27 Borman: Thank you. [Pause.]

072:03:36 Lovell: Houston, this is Apollo 8.

072:03:40 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. Go.

072:03:44 Lovell: Roger. Just an interesting feature: on my center window, which has ice on it, it is now beginning to melt. I'm beginning to see through it.

072:03:53 Carr: Roger. That's good news.

072:03:59 Lovell: And again we're directly over our favorites, Messier and Pickering (Messier A). [Long pause.]

072:04:23 Lovell: The view at this altitude, Houston, is tremendous. There is no trouble picking out features that we learned on the map.

072:04:33 Carr: Roger, Jim, that's good news. What do you think of the lighting situation as far as the range of lighting for good visibility?

072:04:46 Lovell: The range from here is outstanding. I wish we had the TV still going because the brown area now is darker. We have just passed over the Sea of Fertility, and the mare is darker. The mountain range has got more contrast, has more contrast because of the Sun angle. Bill's got the 16-mm going for us.

[Bill also seems to be busy with a Hasselblad camera. Five frames are shot of the area west of Mare Fecunditatis right at the terminator. Two frames are nearly blank but a composite of AS08-13-2257, 2258 and 2259 shows the highland area south of Mare Tranquillitatis that includes Maskelyne A left of centre and a bay of Mare Tranquillitatis.]
072:05:10 Carr: Roger.

072:05:13 Lovell: There is a crater Taruntius, I believe, over there. [Long pause.]

072:05:27 Lovell: We will try to get TV on this at a later time, when we are not getting ready for a burn.

072:05:32 Carr: Roger, Jim.

072:05:40 Lovell: I can see the old second initial point right now, Mount Marilyn.

072:05:47 Carr: Roger. [Long pause.]

[One of the surface points Jim is going to mark on is a planned landing site in Mare Tranquillitatis designated B-1. To help coordinate his sighting, he has an "initial point" which, in this case, is an unnamed mountain on the southeastern corner of Mare Tranquillitatis. Jim has named it Mount Marilyn after his wife, continuing the practice these pioneers had of choosing names taken from their friends and associates. Though all these names are unofficial and have never been ratified by the IAU (International Astronomical Union), that of Mount Marilyn has been given a little extra life by being highlighted in the 1995 movie Apollo 13 when Tom Hanks played Jim Lovell.]
072:06:18 Lovell: Houston, at these Sun angles, everything is quite distinct; shadows are good; the ground doesn't have any sunlight returned. It appears very good visibility at these Sun angles. [Long pause.]

072:06:30 Carr: Roger. [Long pause.]

072:07:02 Lovell: As a matter of fact, Bill just mentioned that the visibility seems to be excellent just about up to the terminator. It's something which I didn't expect. I thought there would be a little bit more gradual shift to darkness, but it's very sharp and distinct.

072:07:15 Carr: Roger, Jim.

072:07:19 Anders: Of course, we are in a very high phase angle now.

072:07:24 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. All of your updates are in; the computer is yours. Over.

072:07:32 Borman: Thank you. [Pause.]

072:07:41 Carr: The update block.

072:07:44 Carr: Roger. Break. Apollo 8, Houston. Your TEI-2 PAD is good; stand by to copy your TEI-3. Over. [Long pause.]

072:08:05 Borman: Ready for TEI-3.

072:08:08 Carr: Roger, TEI-3; SPS/G&N; 46427; minus 0.53, plus 1.41; 075:31:29.95; plus 2896.0, minus 0045.6, plus 0072.0. Copy?

072:09:06 Borman: Roger.

072:09:09 Carr: Roger. 180, 021, 002, not applicable, plus 0018.8; 2897.2, 2:51, 2879.3; 40, 276.9, 39.6. Copy?

072:09:58 Borman: Roger.

072:10:00 Carr: Roger. 033, 0000, left 17; plus 08.83, minus 165.00; 1295.5, 36185, 146:35:07; Sirius, Rigel, 129, 155, 010; ullage, 2 jets, 20 seconds, quads Bravo and Delta. Horizon on the two degree line at ignition minus three minutes. Assume there's no LOI-2. Over. [Long pause.]

[Before they entered lunar orbit, CapCom read two "get-you-home" PADs to the crew. These could be used in an emergency to bring Apollo 8 home at the end of the first and second orbits. The latter of these, the TEI-2 PAD is still reckoned to be good enough to get the crew on a path to Earth if required, therefore they will read up a PAD for an abort at the end of the third orbit. The TEI-3 PAD will be sent twice, without and with the LOI-2 burn being assumed. The first of these is interpreted as follows:

Purpose: This PAD would be used for an abort at the TEI-3 opportunity.

Systems: The burn would be made using the SPS (Service Propulsion System) engine under the control of the Guidance and Navigation system.

CSM Weight (Noun 47): 46,427 pounds (21,059 kg).

Pitch and yaw trim (Noun 48): -0.53° and +1.41°.

Time of ignition, Tig (Noun 33): 75 hours, 31 minutes, 29.95 seconds.

Change in velocity (Noun 81), fps (m/s): x, +2,896.0 (+882.7); y, -45.6 (-13.9); z, +72.0 (+21.9). These velocities are expressed with respect to the Local Vertical/Local Horizontal of the Moon.

Spacecraft attitude: Roll, 180°; Pitch, 21°; Yaw, 2°. The desired spacecraft attitude is measured relative to the alignment of the guidance platform which itself has been aligned to the LOI-2 REFSMMAT.

HA, expected apogee of resulting orbit (Noun 44): Not applicable. If this abort burn were to be made, the spacecraft would be on a trajectory coming from the Moon so any apogee figure would be meaningless.

HP, expected perigee of resulting orbit (Noun 44): +18.8 nautical miles (+34.8 km). The perigee distance is so low, it intersects the Earth's atmosphere. In other words, the spacecraft will re-enter.

Delta-Vt: 2,897.2 fps (883.1 m/s). This is the total change in velocity the spacecraft would experience. (It is a vector sum of the three components given above.)

Burn duration or burn time: 2 minutes, 51 seconds.

Delta-Vc: 2,879.3 fps (877.6 m/s). The crew enter this Delta-V into their EMS display. The EMS can shut down the engine using this data if the G&N system fails to do so. Its value is lower to allow for the extra thrust imparted by the engine after shutdown, a quantity allowed for the the G&N software but not by the EMS.

Sextant star: Star 40 (Altair, or Alpha Aquilae) visible in sextant when shaft and trunnion angles are 276.9° and 39.6° respectively. This is part of an attitude check.

Boresight star: Star 33 (Antares, or Alpha Scorpio) visible in the COAS as a second attitude check.

COAS Pitch Angle: 0°.

COAS X Position Angle: Left 17°.

The next five parameters all relate to re-entry, during which an important milestone is "Entry Interface," defined as being 400,000 feet (121.92 km) altitude. Another important point is when atmospheric drag on the spacecraft imparts a deceleration of 0.05 Gs.

Expected splashdown point (Noun 61): 8.83° north, 165° west; in the mid-Pacific.

Range to go: 1,295.5 nautical miles (2,399.3 km). To set up their EMS (Entry Monitor System) before re-entry, the crew need to know the expected distance the CM would travel after Entry Interface.

Expected velocity at Entry Interface: 36,185 fps (11,029 m/s).

Time of Entry Interface: 146 hours, 35 minutes and 07 seconds GET. This is the predicted time at which the spacecraft would be at 400,000 feet (121.92 km) altitude.

GDC align stars: Stars to be used for GDC align purposes are Sirius and Rigel. The align angles are roll, 129°; pitch, 155°; yaw, 10°.

The ullage burn to settle the contents of the propellant tanks is to fire RCS (Reaction Control System) jets B and D for twenty seconds.

At the correct attitude for the abort burn at three minutes to ignition, they should expect the Moon's horizon to line up with the 2° marks on the left rendezvous window.

The PAD data assumes the crew will not have performed the LOI-2 maneuver.]

072:11:29 Borman: Roger. SPS G&N; this is for TEI-3; 46427; minus 0.53, plus 1.41; 075:31:29.95; plus 2896.0, minus 0045.6, plus 0072.0; 180, 021, 002; N/A, plus 0018.8; 2897.2, 2:51, 2879.3; 40, 276.9, 39.6; 033, 0000, left 17; plus 008.83, minus 165.00; 1295.5, 36185, 146:35:07. Sirius, Rigel, 129, 155, 010; two jet, 20 seconds, B and D; horizon, two degrees at ignition minus three minutes, assumes no LOI-2.

072:12:51 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. Readback is correct. [Long pause.]

072:13:13 Carr: Apollo 8, this is Houston with a TEI-3, with an (assumption of) LOI-2 (having occurred). Over. [Pause.]

072:13:31 Borman: Go ahead.

072:13:33 Carr: Roger, TEI-3; SPS/G&N; 45810; minus 0.53, plus 1.41; 075:21:28.46; plus 3012.8, minus 0054.0, plus 0191.1; 180, 019, 001. Copy?

072:14:46 Borman: Roger. Go ahead.

072:14:48 Carr: Roger. Not applicable, plus 0018.8; 3019.3, 2:55, 3000.8; 40, 274.2, 39.6; 033, down 021, left 18. Copy?

072:15:42 Borman: Roger.

072:15:44 Carr: Roger. Plus 08.88, minus 165.00; 1295.5, 36185, 146:34:50; GDC align, no change; ullage, no change; horizon, one degree at ignition minus three. Assume LOI-2. Over.

072:16:45 Borman: Go ahead - or Houston, this is Apollo 8. TEI-3 with LOI-2; SPS G&N; 45810; minus 0.53, plus 1.41; 075:21:28.46; plus 3013.8, minus 0054.0, plus 0191.1; 180, 019, 001; N/A, plus 0018.8; 3019.3, 2:55, 3000.8; 40, 274.2, 39.6; 033, down 021, left 18; plus 08.88, minus 165.00; 1295.5, 36185, 146:34:50. No change, no change, one degree in the rise of ignition minus three. Assumes LOI-2. [Long pause.]

072:18:04 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. Roger. I made one mistake; horizon window is minus one degree. Over.

072:18:16 Borman: Minus one degree.

072:18:18 Carr: Roger. Readback is correct. [Long pause.]

[The second TEI-3 PAD is interpreted as follows:

Purpose: This PAD would be used for an abort at the TEI-3 opportunity.

Systems: The burn would be made using the SPS (Service Propulsion System) engine under the control of the Guidance and Navigation system.

CSM Weight (Noun 47): 45,810 pounds (20,779 kg).

Pitch and yaw trim (Noun 48): -0.53° and +1.41°.

Time of ignition, Tig (Noun 33): 75 hours, 21 minutes, 28.46 seconds.

Change in velocity (Noun 81), fps (m/s): x, +3,012.8 (+918.3); y, -54.0 (-16.5); z, +191.1 (+58.2). These velocities are expressed with respect to the Local Vertical/Local Horizontal of the Moon.

Spacecraft attitude: Roll, 180°; Pitch, 19°; Yaw, 1°. The desired spacecraft attitude is measured relative to the alignment of the guidance platform which itself has been aligned to the LOI-2 REFSMMAT.

HA, expected apogee of resulting orbit (Noun 44): Not applicable. If this abort burn were to be made, the spacecraft would be on a trajectory coming from the Moon so any apogee figure would be meaningless.

HP, expected perigee of resulting orbit (Noun 44): +18.8 nautical miles (+34.8 km). The perigee distance is so low, it intersects the Earth's atmosphere. In other words, the spacecraft will re-enter.

Delta-Vt: 3,019.3 fps (920.3 m/s). This is the total change in velocity the spacecraft would experience. (It is a vector sum of the three components given above.)

Burn duration or burn time: 2 minutes, 55 seconds.

Delta-Vc: 3,000.8 fps (914.6 m/s). The crew enter this Delta-V into their EMS display. The EMS can shut down the engine using this data if the G&N system fails to do so. Its value is lower to allow for the extra thrust imparted by the engine after shutdown, a quantity allowed for the the G&N software but not by the EMS.

Sextant star: Star 40 (Altair, or Alpha Aquilae) visible in sextant when shaft and trunnion angles are 274.2° and 39.6° respectively. This is part of an attitude check.

Boresight star: Star 33 (Antares, or Alpha Scorpio) visible in the COAS as a second attitude check.

COAS Pitch Angle: Down 21°.

COAS X Position Angle: Left 18°.

The next five parameters all relate to re-entry, during which an important milestone is "Entry Interface," defined as being 400,000 feet (121.92 km) altitude. Another important point is when atmospheric drag on the spacecraft imparts a deceleration of 0.05 Gs.

Expected splashdown point (Noun 61): 8.88° north, 165° west; in the mid-Pacific.

Range to go: 1,295.5 nautical miles (2,399.3 km). To set up their EMS (Entry Monitor System) before re-entry, the crew need to know the expected distance the CM would travel after Entry Interface.

Expected velocity at Entry Interface: 36,185 fps (11,029 m/s).

Time of Entry Interface: 146 hours, 34 minutes and 50 seconds GET. This is the predicted time at which the spacecraft would be at 400,000 feet (121.92 km) altitude.

GDC align stars: GDC align is the same as for the previous PAD.

The ullage burn is also unchanged from the previous PAD.

At the correct attitude for the abort burn at three minutes to ignition, they should expect the Moon's horizon to line up with the minus 1° mark on the left rendezvous window.

The PAD data assumes the LOI-2 maneuver has been performed.]

072:18:36 Carr: Apollo 8, this is Houston. You are Go across the board for LOI-2. (We) would like to take the DSE for a dump. Over.
[Mission Control would like to retrieve the engineering data recorded on the DSE tape from the time they were behind the Moon. Before they do, Bill will ask to place some more comments on the voice track. However, these are missing from the record.]
072:18:47 Borman: Roger. You got it. I understand we are Go for LOI-2.

072:18:51 Carr: That's affirmative.

072:18:52 Anders: Before you take the DSE for a dump, let me give you a quick - let me give you a quick rundown on the DSE before you dump it, if you will.

072:19:01 Carr: Roger. Standing by.

072:19:06 Anders: Roger.

[Comm break.]
Public Affairs Officer - "This is Apollo Control, Houston. Our GET for ignition of L0I-2 is 73 hours, 35 minutes and 5 seconds. Aphelion [means apolune or apocynthion] resulting from this burn, 60.7 nautical miles [112.4 km]; perilune [or pericynthion], 60.6 nautical miles [112.2 km] - just about as close to circular as you can get. The burn duration expected, 9 seconds; Delta-V for this burn, 135 feet per second [41 m/s]. On this pass over the front of the Moon, our spacecraft was at 115 nautical miles [213 km] altitude at the time of acquisition, 115 nautical miles in altitude. Our aphelion [means apocynthion] which also occurs on this - over this side of the Moon, 168.5 nautical miles - 168.5 (312.1 km). Turning back, continuing to monitor now, this is Apollo Control, Houston."

072:21:02 Anders: Okay, Houston. You've got the tape.

072:21:06 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. Roger. [Long pause.]

072:21:52 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. Would you believe that Taurus, Aida is Pleiades? Over.

072:22:01 Lovell: Thank you.

[Long comm break.]
Public Affairs Officer - "This is Apollo Control, Houston. 72 hours, 24 minutes into this mission. In this lull, perhaps we can clarify some of the names you heard being given to craters during that television pass. Our geology groups here had to apply some names to certain key landmarks instead of using just number and code, they decided to give them real life names. These are in no way officially named craters. In some cases, I think in most cases, the names aren't even - have not even been submitted to the international body which must pass on those kinds of official names. But to clarify this, we thought we would run through some of them that are in use in an area that couldn't be too well observed by telescopes from Earth."

Public Affairs Officer - "We have some pictures to work from, and you distinctly heard Lovell - Anders and Lovell talk about craters named for themselves. Incidentally, this is perhaps a pardonable bit of geologist personality creeping into it. Historically they have been named for discovering geologists or observers. One was got a real time name of John Aaron because he is the electrical, environmental and communications console operator who spotted the need for cutting in the secondary water boiler as we started to circle the Moon, that is he noticed the water level was down and he suggested we go to the secondary loop, apparently when all the others were at the window. In future passes, you may hear names like Schmitt named for Jack Schmitt; Gilruth, the director of this center; Debus, the director of the Kennedy Space Center, Kurt Debus. There is an unofficial one, Joe Shea, the former manager of the Apollo Spacecraft program; Ted Freeman, first astronaut killed in an airplane crash in October of 1964. There is a crater bearing the name of George Low, Sam Phillips, Alan Shepard, Mercury, Washington, Apollo, and on either side the track there is one named for Jim Webb and for Tom Paine, past and present administrators of NASA."

Public Affairs Officer - "Moving along the line we see craters named for Grissom, Gus Grissom, Ed White, Roger Chaffee, clustered three craters fairly close together and just south of the ground track we just heard about. Coming along that same track we see one bearing the name of Chris Kraft, Don Slayton, Jerry Carr, and on along. I'm sure we'll here more of these. You did hear today about the crater Bassett, so named for Charlie Bassett, the late Charlie N. Bassett, and Elliot See, a crater right beside it. Two men killed in an airplane crash in St. Louis, in Feb. 1966. At 72 hours, 27 minutes into the flight, this is Apollo Control Houston standing by."

072:27:15 Anders: Have you got the tape dumped, Houston? We're about to lose the High Gainer.

072:27:32 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. We're dumping now - looks like we'll be five or ten more minutes.

072:27:42 Anders: Okay. Try to get it dumped, and I'll play it, rewind it if necessary.

072:27:47 Carr: Roger. Copy. [Long pause.]

[While Bill deals with the DSE, Jim is realigning the guidance platform using P52. The two stars used for this are star 20 (Dnoces) and star 21 (Alphard). Jim's sightings are accurate to one hundredth of a degree.]
072:28:55 Anders: We are about to lose it [the HGA], Houston. How far are you on the tape dump? [Long pause.]

072:29:01 Carr: Apollo 8, this is Houston. It looks like we have lost it, they weren't quite done. We are standing by for a countdown to Biomed switch left. Over.

072:29:12 Borman: Roger.

072:29:12 Lovell: Look, we would like to get it dumped if we could. Stand by a second.

072:29:18 Carr: Okay.

072:29:19 Borman: Did you get it stopped? [Pause.]

072:29:30 Carr: Bill, you can go ahead and cut if off. [Long pause.]

072:29:54 Anders: Okay. We are not going to have High Gain now until the next time around. Can you give me some idea of how much of that pass you got.

072:30:04 Carr: Apollo 8, this is Houston. We - negative. We can't tell. You can go ahead and turn it off.

072:30:12 Anders: Well, how long did you - did you dump it?

072:30:15 Carr: Roger. Stand by; they are checking. [Long pause.]

072:31:09 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. [Pause.]

072:31:21 Anders: Go ahead Houston.

072:31:23 Carr: Apollo 8, this is Houston reading you with a great deal of noise in the background. Go ahead and rewind your tape and start it in low bit rate, and we will try and catch that dump at the end of the next rev. [Long pause.]

072:31:46 Anders: Roger, I would like to have an idea on how much you dumped. So I know whether [garbled) all these things or whether we have better setting in.

072:31:56 Carr: Roger. Stand by. [Long pause.]

072:32:29 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. We are working on that time. We should be able to tell you before LOS Over.

072:32:47 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. Over.

072:32:53 Anders: Go ahead.

072:32:55 Carr: Roger. Did you read my last?

072:32:59 Anders: That is affirmative. You will give us rundown when you figure out how much tape you dumped.

072:33:03 Carr: Roger. They feel reasonably sure, however, that if you rewind and start low bit rate, we'll be able to get all of the burn and still not run into what needs to be downlinked yet.

[Comm break.]

[Tape consumption is much lower in low-bit-rate recording. They hope therefore that during the next pass, they will only record over that part of the tape that has already been dumped to Earth, leaving the untransmitted data for the next near-side pass.]

072:35:32 Borman: Houston, Apollo 8.

072:35:33 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. Go.

072:35:34 Borman: Roger. What REFSMMAT are we using for this LOI-2 burn? [Long pause.]

072:36:11 Carr: Stand by, Frank. We're talking.

072:36:17 Borman: Okay, I notice an LOI-2 REFSMMAT. If it is, I don't understand why the pitch is 175.

[Comm break.]
072:38:12 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston.

072:38:17 Borman: Go ahead.

072:38:18 Carr: Apollo 8, this is Houston. You are right; the REFSMMAT is LOI-2. The REFSMMAT was determined out there before the last midcourse correction, and since that time, there has been a slight change of trajectory, and the point at which you are burning LOI-2 now is just a shade different than where it was originally planned. Over.

[This exchange exemplifies the somewhat rushed nature of the Apollo 8 mission. Just 4 months before, NASA had not even intended sending Apollo 8 to the Moon. Now, with the flight in progress, the ad hoc planning that has gone into the details of the flight is still not fully embedded. Frank is being very careful that he has the subtleties of their spacecraft's attitude clear in his head before they commit to anything.]

[The original intention was for the guidance platform to be oriented to an attitude that matches the expected spacecraft attitude at LOI-2, though with the spacecraft's X-axis in the opposite direction to account for this being a retrograde burn. This platform orientation, the LOI-2 REFSMMAT, was calculated prior to the last midcourse correction. However, since being placed in that orientation, much has happened to the spacecraft's trajectory such that the desired attitude for the burn no longer precisely matches the platform's alignment and the figures given in the PAD do not correspond exactly with the cardinal points on the FDAI. In the future, REFSMMAT’s will be recalculated so that attitude differences will not occur, a lesson learned from this pioneering flight.]

072:38:42 Borman: Okay, thank you.
[Comm break.]
072:41:43 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. [No answer.]

072:41:51 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. Over. [No answer.]

072:42:12 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. Over. [No answer.]

072:43:27 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. Over. [No answer.]

072:43:45 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. Over. [No answer.]

072:44:10 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. Over. [No answer.]

072:44:35 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. Over. [No answer.]

072:45:12 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. Over. [No answer.]

072:45:26 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. Over.

072:45:33 Borman: Roger. Go ahead, Houston. Apollo 8.

072:45:35 Carr: Apollo 8, this is Houston. DSE is rewound, and it's yours - available for use is about one hour of low bit rate and two minutes of high bit rate for your burn without running over your good data. Over. [Long pause.]

[Mission Control have calculated that they can have the crew record data at low-bit-rate for and hour, with the important engine and burn data being recorded at the much faster high-bit-rate without recording over the data from the previous rev that has still to be transmitted to Earth.]
072:45:52 Borman: Roger. Do you read us now, Houston.

072:45:55 Carr: Roger. Reading you loud and clear now.

072:46:00 Borman: Okay. [Long pause.]

072:46:16 Carr: Apollo 8, this is Houston. You are Go for LOI-2 on the next rev. Over.

072:46:23 Borman: I can understand Go for LOI-2 on the next rev.

072:46:31 Borman: How do you read, Houston?

072:46:33 Carr: Apollo 8, this is Houston. Reading you loud and clear. How me?

072:46:40 Borman: Loud and clear.

072:46:41 Carr: Roger. Frank, did you get my message on the DSE?

072:46:47 Borman: Roger. Roger.

072:46:49 Carr: Okay.

[Long comm break.]
072:50:15 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. Verify the Telemetry Input switch, Low. Over.
[Apollo 8 will be disappearing behind the Moon again in about 14 minutes. Mission Control want the telemetry feed to Earth (and to the DSE recorder) to be set to low-bit-rate. The recorder will automatically change speed depending on the data rate it receives.]
072:50:23 Borman: Roger. Understand; Telemetry Input, Low.

072:50:26 Carr: Affirmative.

072:50:27 Borman: Going to Low; it was in High.

072:50:28 Carr: Roger.

[Long comm break.]

[Bill embarks on a check of the spacecraft's main systems, the Caution & Warning system, the Command Module's RCS, the SPS, EPS and ECS per the procedures on pages S-1, 3, 5 and 17 of the LMP checklist. Frank begins preparations for the LOI-2 burn by entering the detains from the PAD into the computer using P30, performing a check of the EMS and running P40, the program that prepares for a controlled burn.]

072:59:37 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. 5 minutes to LOS Over.

072:59:44 Borman: Thank you, Houston.

[Long comm break.]
073:03:30 Carr: Apollo 8, this Houston. One minute to LOS; all systems Go. Over.

073:03:40 Borman: Apollo 8. Roger. [Long pause.]

073:04:25 Carr: So long.

073:04:30 Borman: Adios. See you.

[Very long comm break.]
Public Affairs Officer - "This is Apollo Control, Houston; at 73 hours, 04 minutes into the flight of Apollo 8. We are at 8 seconds away from time of Loss Of Signal. Okay, they said goodbye to the ground as they passed over at - on the next pass over the back side of the Moon. This pass over the back side is where we will have our Lunar Orbit Insertion burn number 2. To quickly go over those numbers again; we have a Ground Elapsed Time of ignition at 73 hours, 35 minutes, 05 seconds. Apolune, 60.7 nautical miles [112.4 km]; perilune, 60.6 nautical miles [112.2 km] are expected to result from the burn. The burn, one of very short duration, 9 seconds; Delta-V, 135 feet per second [41 m/s]. We will be looking for them when we next acquire at 43 minutes, 30 seconds from this time. At 73 hours, 05 minutes into the flight of Apollo 8; this is Apollo Control, Houston."
[There is only a small amount of dialogue from this far-side pass that has reached us through the transcripts. When recording at low bit rate, the slow speed of the DSE tape is rendering the voice track reproduction unintelligible. We pick up the DSE recording of the crew when the data switch is placed in the High Bit-Rate position and there is less than a minute remaining to the DOI-2 burn.]
073:34:25 Lovell (onboard): 42 seconds. 42.

073:34:28 Anders (onboard): Give me a call when the DSKY blanks.

073:34:30 Borman (onboard): Blank!

073:34:31 Anders (onboard): Blank DSKY.

[The computer is now working on the calculations of "average-g", ready for the thrust produced by the burn.]
073:34:32 Anders (onboard): Okay. Average g is On; Flight Recorder to Record; EMS to Auto.

073:34:38 Borman (onboard): Auto.

073:34:41 Anders (onboard): Check PIPA bias.

073:34:43 Lovell (onboard): Okay.

073:34:44 Anders (onboard): Ullage as required.

073:34:46 Lovell (onboard): No ullage.

[The PAD for this burn stated that there was to be no ullage burn, even though the tanks are not completely full.]
073:34:47 Anders (onboard): Okay.

073:35:01 Lovell (onboard): Enabled.

[The DSKY is flashing "99" and is awaiting the Proceed button being pressed, which will allow it to continue with the burn.]
073:35:06 Anders (onboard): 1, 2...

073:35:08 Anders (onboard): 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11...

073:35:17 Borman (onboard): Okay?

073:35:18 Anders (onboard): Okay!

073:35:20 Borman (onboard): Cut-off.

073:35:21 Lovell (onboard): Okay, cut-off.

073:35:22 Anders (onboard): SPS light, Off; okay, Delta-V Thrust A, Off.

[With the eleven-second burn complete, the crew set about ensuring the SPS engine cannot fire inadvertently. Note that the burn was performed using a single bank of valves to the SPS engine. Because of the short duration of the burn, and the desire to minimize even small variations in thrust, the second set of propellant valves were not used.]
073:35:26 Borman (onboard): Off.

073:35:27 Anders (onboard): Helium valves are Closed.

073:35:28 Anders (onboard): Okay, barber pole; SPS Gimbal Motors, four, Off, slowly.

073:35:34 Borman (onboard): 1, Off.

073:35:35 Anders (onboard): Got it.

073:35:36 Borman (onboard): 2, Off.

073:35:37 Anders (onboard): Got it. Not quite so fast.

[The motors are switched off separately so as not to suddenly change the load on the power busses.]
073:35:40 Borman (onboard): Okay. 3, Off.

073:35:41 Anders (onboard): Got it.

073:35:42 Borman (onboard): 4, Off.

073:35:41 Anders (onboard): Got it. Okay, TVC Servo Power, 1 and 2, Off.

073:35:44 Borman (onboard): Off...

073:36:01 Anders (onboard): Proceed. Null residuals and record final residuals. Okay? You got it? [Garbled.]

[The DSKY is showing the amount of velocity yet to be gained in its three registers. Engine thrust tail-off is an inexact science, and so some small errors in velocity will remain. Frank will use the translational hand controller to add or subtract small amounts of velocity to fine tune the burn.]
073:36:25 Anders (onboard): Okay. EMS Function, Off.

073:36:29 Borman (onboard): Off.

073:36:31 Anders (onboard): EMS Mode, Standby.

[The EMS's task of monitoring the burn is complete and it can be placed in standby mode.]
073:36:33 Anders (onboard): BMAG [Body-Mounted Attitude Gyro] Mode, three, Rate 2.
[Gyro assembly 2 will provide rate-of-turn information for all three axes for the SCS (Stabilization and Control System).]
073:36:37 Anders (onboard): Deadband, Max.

073:36:40 Anders (onboard): Okay, NonEssential - is Off.

073:36:47 Anders (onboard): Trans Control Power, Off.

073:36:59 Anders (onboard): Rot Control Power Direct, Off.

073:36:03 Anders (onboard): SPS, Pitch and Yaw circuit breakers, Open.

073:37:08 Anders (onboard): Are they Open? Then Close them.

[We suspect a transcription error here. The checklist calls for these circuit breakers to be opened and with the burn over, there is no reason for them to be closed.]
073:37:09 Anders (onboard): Okay, proceed.

073:37:13 Anders (onboard): Turn to Verb 82 and Enter.

073:37:44 Anders (onboard): Verb 82. Proceed.

[Verb 82 displays the details of their new orbit so they can note it down.]
073:38:08 Anders (onboard): Got it? 00, Enter.

073:38:12 Anders (onboard): Proceed, and then line 37: 00, Enter.

[Having noted their orbital parameters, they change to program 00.]
073:38:24 Anders (onboard): Enter Verb 66.
[Verb 66 passes the spacecraft's state vector to spare slots in the computer's erasable memory.]

[As the spacecraft is being tidied up after the burn, Jim is scheduled to begin a two-hour rest period. His relative lack of presence on the transcript shows that he at least took a back seat for much of that time. Bill will perform the next platform realignment at 074:30 instead.]

073:39:14 Anders (onboard): Okay, SPS [garble].

Public Affairs Officer - "This is Apollo Control, Houston; at 73 hours, 40 minutes into the flight. Our present orbital data, at the last time I gave you, still carries a perigee (means perilune) of 60.8 nautical miles [112.6 km], that perigee occurring at 8 degrees north by 89 degrees west. An apogee (means apolune), an estimated apogee - this would be, of 60.4 [111.9 km], this would be after circularization. The Flight Plan at this point is very busy, all three pilots have considerable tasks to do, as opposed to the last several days when their columns were virtual blanks. For instance, at 73 hours, 40 minutes, right along about now, Frank Borman is busy doing a platform alignment to a specific number, then he is called upon to roll right 180 degrees into a 2-second [per] degree pitch down and so forth. At the same time, Jim Lovell is doing a number of vectors, he is working on the RCS monitors in sharing the values in the tank there and then shortly he is to start a rest period in about 10 minutes, a 2 hour rest period and at the same time Bill Anders is busy with a battery charger. He is doing a SPS monitor check and he is to put a program to acquire the High Gain Antenna via the Manned Space Flight Network at a specific time. During all this, he will be - the biomedical switch will be on him - so we will be following his heart action. All in all, a very busy period onboard. We are due to acquire the spacecraft in about 6 minutes. At 73 hours, 43 minutes into the flight, this is Houston."

[Note that Jim carried out a platform alignment over an hour ago. What the PAO announcer seems to have been confused by is the GDC Align operation in the Flight Plan directly after the LOI-2 burn. This is to align the spacecraft's secondary attitude reference to match that of the platform so that both systems have an identical notion of which way up the spacecraft is. The GDCs get their attitude information from the BMAGs and that system has a much larger rate of drift than the platform in the IMU.]

[Before they re-emerge from around the Moon, Bill uses the DSE to leave some voice notes to help the photo analysts keep track of what he has been doing so far with the cameras.]

073:46:36 Anders (onboard): Okay, let's do the - on this DSE again.

073:46:48 Anders (onboard): Now, I think we - I told you earlier what I thought I'd do [garble] and I discovered that [garble] I ended up with the high-speed film, in one of the cameras - I believe it was the second rev. And it's my feeling that the - target 12 was accomplished. And I believe that targets 10, 14, 16, and 19, and possibly 20 and 21 were taken with high-speed film. What is important is you should know between which craters I changed to the other camera. I believe that [garble] and possibly Taruntius were taken with the proper film. Also [garble] probably 31 and 40. Terminator photography was taken at the end of the first rev, properly configured, as indicated previously, [garble].

073:48:49 Lovell (onboard): One was at 26.

073:48:56 Anders (onboard): Okay, terminator photography was accomplished at the morning far-side terminator, [garble] and I believe we had the high-speed camera. We used the 16-millimeter camera [garble] with the proper f-stop. It's been rather difficult to - to keep [garble] on rev 2. [Garbled.]

[Bill has discovered that he has used the wrong film for some of his photography. Soon he will tell Mission Control of the problem directly.]
Public Affairs Officer - "This is Apollo Control, Houston. We expect to acquire momentarily. The first call has gone out. We have acquired; we are reading good tank pressures, and here goes the first call."

073:49:25 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. Over. [No answer.]

073:49:40 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. Over. [No answer.]

073:49:53 Anders (onboard): Magazine U, I have 47 exposures used, and high speed on 40 of them. We are now set up for magazine K for the - training photography, and magazine U, 70 millimeter, [garble].

073:50:17 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. Over.

073:50:27 Anders: Houston, Apollo 8. Over.

073:50:28 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. Loud and clear. How me?

073:50:40 Anders: Houston, Apollo 8. Over.

073:50:42 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. Loud and clear. How me?

073:50:49 Anders: Roger. Reading you loud and clear, and ready for the burn status report.

073:50:53 Carr: Roger. Ready to copy.

073:50:56 Borman: Roger. The burn was on time, 11 seconds, 0.2 with a VGX, 1.8; VGY - that's minus 1.8; minus 0.2, VGZ; Delta VC was minus 9.4. Verb 82 gave us an apogee [means apolune] 62 and a perigee [means perilune] of 60.8.

[To interpret, when the 11-second burn was over, the spacecraft was 0.2 foot per second (0.06 metres/second) short of the velocity it wanted in the X direction (parallel to its motion), it had overshot its required velocity in the Y direction (perpendicular to its motion) by 1.8 fps (0.55 m/s) and it was 0.2 fps (0.06 m/s) short in the Z direction, which is parallel to the local vertical. The display of their velocity change on the EMS overshot by 9.4 fps which would be expected as it does not account for the tail-off thrust that comes from the engine after shutdown. Finally, the onboard computer's determination of their orbit is that their apolune is 62 nautical miles (114.8 km) and their perilune is 60.8 nautical miles (112.6 km). With the spacecraft acquired by the stations on Earth, an independent determination of their orbit will be made.]
073:51:42 Carr: Apollo 8, this is Houston. Roger. Your burn was on time, 11 seconds; VGX was plus 0.2, VGY was minus 1.8, VGZ minus 0.2, Delta-VC minus 9.4, apogee 62, perigee, 60.8. Over.

073:52:16 Borman: Roger.

[Long comm break.]
073:52:21 Lovell (onboard): Hey, Bill.

073:52:22 Anders (onboard): Yes.

073:52:23 Lovell (onboard): Are you looking for one of those [garble]?

073:52:54 Lovell (onboard): [Garble] if that's where you put it.

Public Affairs Officer - "Apollo Control here. That circuit is noisier than we caught on the last two passes, but we have heard the crewmember, I think Borman, confirm an apogee of 62 miles, a perigee of 60.8, a virtually perfect second burn, giving us a circular orbit. We will continue to leave the line open."

Public Affairs Officer - "Apollo Control again. Apogee on this, the third revolution around the Moon will occur at 80 degrees west longitude, 9 degrees, 30 minutes north latitude. Those are lunar coordinates of course. The perigee on this rev will occur at 9 degrees, 29 minutes south latitude and 99 degrees, 28 minutes east longitude. That will be on the back side of the Moon. And our numbers now show an apogee of 60.9 [nautical miles, 112.8 km] versus of perigee of 60.5 [nautical miles, 112.0 km], compared to 62-[nautical] mile apogee and a 60.8-[nautical] mile apogee [means perilune] from the crew. Excellent agreement."

[Already, an Earth-based determination of their orbit has been made which is in good agreement with the figure computed aboard the spacecraft. The circularisation of their orbit has made the positions of apolune and perilune irrelevant but for what it is worth, these points have rotated nearly ninety degrees around the Moon, a sign that the burn was stopped when the orbit had become about as circular as it was going to get.]

[Photography continues on magazine E as Bill photographs Target of Opportunity 58. AS08-13-2262 shows the fresh, light-walled crater on the northwest rim of Sklodowska that is the subject of this target. The crater resulted from an oblique impact as shown by the characteristic excluded zone where the rays are missing. In the foreground of 2262 is Ritz B with the eastern rim of Ritz itself visible down the right-hand side of the image. The rest of the 51-km Ritz is visible in 2264 and 2265, the latter image showing another small, fresh crater that also appears in the top right-hand corner of 2263.]

073:57:30 Anders (onboard): [Garble] number 58, magazine - C.
[Bill is still recording notes on the DSE as well as continuing the photography.]

[A sequence of three frames, AS08-13-2266, 2267 and 2268, take the view across the 94-km crater Ansgarius. The slumped walls of this crater are well shown and it is interesting to note the relative puny size of the central peak. This is a very old feature and one interpretation for its flat floor and small central peak is that the interior was filled aeons ago by ejecta from the impact formation of the great near-side basins, partially burying the original peak. The two small craters just outside the rim of Ansgarius are unnamed.]

[A very different looking central peak stands within the 55-km Behaim, as seen in frame AS08-13-2269. This is Target of Opportunity 63. It's smooth contours may again be explained by a blanket of ejecta covering the original central mountain. The southwestern rim of Ansgarius is visible along the bottom edge of the frame.]

073:59:06 Anders: Houston, how do you read? This is Apollo 8.

073:59:09 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. Weak but clear.

073:59:15 Anders: You're loud and clear.

[Comm break.]
074:00:49 Borman: Houston, Apollo 8. We're on High Gain now if you want to get the high-speed data to look at that burn.

074:00:56 Carr: Apollo 8, this is Houston. Roger. [Pause.]

074:01:01 Borman (onboard, may be Anders): Okay, I think I've made a mistake, on the last DSE [garble] I've gotten confused here.

074:01:04 Carr: Apollo 8, this is Houston. We are taking the DSE.

074:01:11 Borman: Thank you. Can you hold it for about 5 seconds - or about one minute?

074:01:17 Carr: Roger. Holding.

074:01:30 Borman: Okay.

074:01:31 Lovell (onboard): Wait just a second; 58 is not around - starting on frame 61.

074:01:39 Borman: Okay. You can dump the data now.

074:01:42 Carr: Apollo 8, Houston. Roger. We are taking the DSE for dump.

074:01:51 Borman (onboard): Did you get it?

074:01:55 Borman: Thank you. We have - updated the LM state vector with the Verb 66, Houston.

074:02:01 Carr: Houston. Roger.

[Target of Opportunity 65 is Kapteyn, 49 kilometres in diameter, and is the subject of AS08-13-2270.]

[Around now, Bill and Frank are scheduled to begin a session of training photography. Seven minutes before flying over a landmark in Mare Tranquillitatis, Bill begins photographing it, even though it is nearly on the horizon. He is using the 16-mm camera and the Hasselblad using magazine E, taking a shot every 20 seconds.

Mare Tranquillitatis - First frame of photo training exercise.

Click for MPEG-1 movie - 1.16MB

The result of the Hasselblad photography is a remarkable series of images from AS08-13-2271 that, when looked at sequentially, form a movie of the passing landmark.]

Public Affairs Officer - "An exceptionally quiet pass across here. We are reading a pitch, 192 degrees; it's down, and yaw, 356 degrees; a 177-degree roll degree attitude - a very steady attitude and I believe they are in orbital rate; that is a rate calculated to hold their windows in a specific position and move them in - as they move across the face of the Moon. Lovell should be in a rest period, 2 hours duration now. Perhaps that is why they are keeping quiet. Bill Anders is extremely busy taking pictures. 70-millimeter and 16-millimeters - 70-millimeter stills - 16-millimeter movies."

074:06:43 Anders (onboard): Houston, Apollo 8. [Garble] meal 4, day - day 4, meal [garble].

Public Affairs Officer - "This is Apollo Control, Houston. We are 52 minutes from Loss Of Signal on this pass and let us look over our ECS, Environmental Control Summary Table. The cabin pressure, 4.9 [psi, 33.8 kPa] and holding very nicely. The cabin temperature, 77 degrees [Fahrenheit, 25°C]. I think that's up a few degrees from yesterday. I don't recall exactly. In general we can expect to see, we should be seeing a slight rise in temperature, this was predicted by the thermo[dynamics] people, a rise particularly, in the outside temperature, the outside skin temperature of the spacecraft, a rise of something like 10 to 12 degrees [Fahrenheit, 6 to 7°C]. This was based on an estimate from the [spacecraft number[ 102, the Apollo 7 flight and the experience to date in deep space. The point to be made is that it's - the spacecraft is slightly cooler as it traverses from Earth to Moon, than it is while in orbit about either body, slightly colder on the outside, inside remains relatively stable. A very quiet period and so we will just take the line down, if something occurs we will come back up immediately. At 74 hours, 10 minutes into the flight, this is Apollo Control, Houston."

Public Affairs Officer - "Apollo Control here, 74 hours, 12 minutes. After a long quiet period there, Mike Collins put in a call and he is getting some conversation from Frank Borman, be it ever so brief. Let's hear it now, and we will catch up and go into the live situation."

074:11:38 Collins: Apollo 8, this is Houston. Over.

074:11:42 Borman: Hello, Michael.

[The Green Team under the leadership of Flight Director Cliff Charlesworth has taken over the consoles at Mission Control.]
074:11:44 Collins: Hey, good morning, Frank. We've been tracking you for about 18 minutes now, and we show your orbit 61 by 61½. Over.

074:11:54 Borman: Thank you. [Pause.]

074:12:02 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston. Your SPS engine looked good on LOI number 2 burn.

074:12:11 Borman Thank you.

[Long comm break.]
074:16:24 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston.

074:16:29 Borman: Go ahead.

074:16:30 Collins: Bill has got the tape recorder now; we are evaluating the dump. The data is good, and we are evaluating the voice quality here shortly.

074:16:41 Borman: Thank you.

074:xx:xx Collins: Apollo 8, this is Houston. Over.

074:xx:xx Borman: Go ahead, Houston. Apollo 8.

074:xx:xx Collins: I've got a few jolly updates for you when you are ready to copy.

074:xx:xx Borman: Stand by.

Public Affairs Officer - "This is Apollo Control, Houston, over all of this noise. We will take the line down at this point, and try and figure out where the source of all of our noise is. Fortunately it is an extremely quiet pass; but if there is any further conversation, we will come back up and play it for you. It's 74 hours, 21 minutes into the flight, this is Apollo Control, Houston."

074:21:33 Borman: Go ahead, Houston, with your updates.

074:21:36 Collins: Roger. Apollo 8, Houston. I have a TEI-3, TEI-4 and map update for rev 3 and 4 to read to you. Actually, the TEI-3 update which you have onboard is still valid, but we will not update that one. Which do you want first, the TEI-4 or the map update?

074:22:03 Borman: TEI-4.

074:22:05 Collins: All right. This is the TEI-4 update: SPS/G&N; 45695; minus 0.53, plus 1.41. Are you with me so far? Over.

074:22:34 Borman: So far.

074:22:36 Collins: Very good. 077:21:27.58; plus 3062.7, minus 0062.5, plus 0057.7; 180, 018, 001; not applicable, plus 0018.8; 3063.9, 2:56, 3045.2. Are you with me so far? Over.

074:23:50 Borman: So far seems [garble]. Hold it a minute though, will you?

Public Affairs Officer - "Apollo Control here. ... One other pertinent comment ..., Frank Borman said - we had noted, that his - the voice quality of Bill Anders was not quite what it should be on the data record system and which is being dumped here each rev back to Houston. This was noted and Bill said they were all so busy right now he would do what he could, make notes on the Flight Plan and that sort of thing, but we just have to understand. ..."

074:24:11 Borman: Okay. Go ahead.

074:24:13 Collins: Okay, the last number I gave was Delta-VC, picking up at the sextant star; 40, 273.0, 39.6; 033, down 030, left 19. Are you with me? Over.

074:24:52 Borman: Roger.

074:24:53 Collins: Okay. Plus 08.58, minus 165.00; 1296.0, 36195, 146:37:21. Comment: north set of stars Sirius and Rigel; roll, 129; pitch, 155; yaw, 010; ullage, 2 quad, 20 seconds from quads Bravo and Delta. Horizon on 2-degree line at time of ignition minus 3 minutes. Over.

[The PAD is interpreted as follows:

Purpose: This PAD would be used for an abort at the TEI-4 opportunity.

Systems: The burn would be made using the SPS (Service Propulsion System) engine under the control of the Guidance and Navigation system.

CSM Weight (Noun 47): 45,695 pounds (20,727 kg).

Pitch and yaw trim (Noun 48): -0.53° and +1.41°.

Time of ignition, Tig (Noun 33): 77 hours, 21 minutes, 27.58 seconds.

Change in velocity (Noun 81), fps (m/s): x, +3,062.7 (+933.5); y, -62.5 (-19.1); z, +57.7 (+17.6). These velocities are expressed with respect to the Local Vertical/Local Horizontal of the Moon.

Spacecraft attitude: Roll, 180°; Pitch, 18°; Yaw, 1°. The desired spacecraft attitude is measured relative to the alignment of the guidance platform which itself has been aligned to the LOI-2 REFSMMAT.

HA, expected apogee of resulting orbit (Noun 44): Not applicable. If this abort burn were to be made, the spacecraft would be on a trajectory coming from the Moon so any apogee figure would be meaningless.

HP, expected perigee of resulting orbit (Noun 44): +18.8 nautical miles (+34.8 km). The perigee distance is so low, it intersects the Earth's atmosphere. In other words, the spacecraft will re-enter.

Delta-Vt: 3,063.9 fps (933.9 m/s). This is the total change in velocity the spacecraft would experience. (It is a vector sum of the three components given above.)

Burn duration or burn time: 2 minutes, 56 seconds.

Delta-Vc: 3,045.2 fps (928.2 m/s). This value is entered in the Delta-V display of the EMS to provide a backup method for shutting down the engine.

Sextant star: Star 40 (Altair, or Alpha Aquilae) visible in sextant when shaft and trunnion angles are 273.0° and 39.6° respectively. This is part of an attitude check.

Boresight star: Star 33 (Antares, or Alpha Scorpii) visible in the COAS as a second attitude check.

COAS Pitch Angle: Down 30°.

COAS X Position Angle: Left 19°.

The next five parameters all relate to re-entry, during which an important milestone is "Entry Interface," defined as being 400,000 feet (121.92 km) altitude. Another important point is when atmospheric drag on the spacecraft imparts a deceleration of 0.05 Gs.

Expected splashdown point (Noun 61): 8.58° north, 165° west; in the mid-Pacific.

Range to go: 1,296.0 nautical miles (2,400.2 km). To set up their EMS (Entry Monitor System) before re-entry, the crew need to know the expected distance the CM would travel after Entry Interface.

Expected velocity at Entry Interface: 36,195 fps (11,032 m/s).

Time of Entry Interface: 146 hours, 37 minutes and 21 seconds GET. This is the predicted time at which the spacecraft would be at 400,000 feet (121.92 km) altitude.

GDC align stars: Stars to be used for GDC align purposes are Sirius and Rigel. The align angles are roll, 129°; pitch, 155°; yaw, 10°.

The ullage burn to settle the contents of the propellant tanks is to fire RCS (Reaction Control System) jets B and D for twenty seconds.

At the correct attitude for the abort burn at three minutes to ignition, they should expect the Moon's horizon to line up with the 2° marks on the left rendezvous window.]

074:26:15 Borman: Roger, Houston. We got a TEI-4; SPS/G&N; 45695; minus 0.53, plus 1.41; 077:21:27.58; plus 3062.7, minus 0062.5, plus 0057.7; 180, 018, 001; N/A, plus 0018.8; 3063.9, 2:56, 3045.2; 40, 273.0, 39.6; 033, down 030, left 19; plus 08.58, minus 165.00; plus 1296.0, plus 36195, 146:37:21. Sirius, Rigel, 129, 155, 010; 2 quads, 20 seconds, B and D. Horizon 2 degrees at Tig minus 3 (minutes).

074:27:26 Collins: That's about the size of it, Frank, and a map update for revs 3/4 when you are ready.

074:27:38 Borman: Ready.

074:27:40 Collins: Revs 3/4, LOS, 75:01:23; Sunrise, 75:10:16; Prime meridian, 75:17:16; AOS, 75:47:18; Sunset, 76:23:11; Remarks: Subsolar point, 75:46:55; IP-1 acquisition, 76:11:17; IP-2 acquisition, 76:12:30. For IP-1 and 2 those ACQ(uisition) times are for the shaft and trunnion angles equals zero. Over.

[This map update refers to events and landmarks that will be encountered during the third and fourth revolutions around the Moon. It is interpreted as follows:

Loss Of Signal (LOS) before start of rev 4: 75:01:23.

Spacecraft sunrise in orbit: 75:10:16.

The time the spacecraft comes back into sunlight around the far side.

Passing over Prime Meridian of 150°W: 75:17:16.

At this time, they will be passing over the 150°W line of longitude.

Acquisition Of Signal (AOS): 75:47:18.

Spacecraft sunset in orbit: 76:23:11.

The time the spacecraft passes from lunar daytime into the lunar night over the near side.

Subsolar point: 75:46:55.

At this time, the spacecraft will be directly between the Sun and the Moon. In other words, this is when they pass the point where the Sun is highest over the lunar surface.

Acquisition Of Initial Point 1: 76:11:17.

Acquisition Of Initial Point 2: 76:12:30.

As they approach the pseudo landing site, they use two initial points to help them with spotting the landing site, one on the western shore of Mare Fecunditatis, the second being the mountain newly named by Jim, Mount Marilyn. Timings for both have been given based on when they become visible in the sextant when set to its zero position.]

074:27:53 Borman: Roger. Thank you. 75:01:23, 75:10:16, 75:17:16, 75:47:18, 76:23:11; Subsolar, 75:46:55; IP-1, 76:11:17; IP-2, 76:12:30; and at shaft and trunnion at zero.

074:29:16 Collins: That's affirmative, Frank.

[Long comm break.]
074:32:53 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston.

074:32:57 Borman: Go ahead, Houston.

074:32:58 Collins: Roger. When Bill gets a minute, we'd like to get battery B started charging. Over.

074:33:07 Borman: Roger. Thank you. He'll take a minute right now.

[Comm break.]
[While Jim has a scheduled rest period, Bill performs a P52 platform realignment. For this, he sights on star 16 (Procyon, Alpha Canis Minoris) and 23 (Denebola, Beta Leonis). The alignment is performed admirably with the star angle error (a comparison of the angle measured by Bill between the two stars and the actual angle between them) being only 0.01°. Frank has stopped the orb-rate rotation of the spacecraft and "gone inertial" which simply means that the spacecraft's attitude is now fixed with respect to the stars.]
Public Affairs Officer - "This is Apollo Control, Houston; 74 hours, 35 minutes into the flight. And in the last 10 or 15 minutes we've had a couple of brief exchanges with the crew, who still seem to be in a rather resting mode, but here are those exchanges, primarily numbers updates. We have the tapes."

074:36:01 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston.

074:36:07 Borman: Go.

074:36:08 Collins: Roger. For Bill - the voice quality on the backside DSE is extremely poor. We consider it unusable, and we recommend that all pertinent comments be hand recorded so we don't lose them. We should not count on using the tape at low bit rate for voice.

074:36:32 Anders: Okay, Houston. We're getting so busy that we are having a hard time trying to do a neat job of logging. I'll try to do it on the Flight Plan; and if I make any visual observations, we'll put them on the DSE and I'll try to scribble some notes here and there.

074:36:49 Collins: Roger. Understand. Now high bit-rate is working great.

[The only part of the last pass that has survived is the section that was recorded in high bit-rate.]
074:36:59 Anders: Roger.
[Comm break.]
074:38:27 Borman: Hey, Houston, Apollo 8.

074:38:30 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston. Over.

074:38:35 Borman: How about giving us the TV times for the ninth rev, will you please?

074:38:38 Collins: Yes, we sure will, Frank. Stand by.

[Comm break.]

[When it comes, this will be the fourth TV transmission of the flight and, as it will turn out, by far the most historic.]

074:40:36 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston.

074:40:40 Borman: Go ahead.

074:40:42 Collins: Roger. We were checking into precise start and stop time for TV, and you are Go for the next rev. Over.

074:40:51 Borman: I understand; Go for the next rev. Mike, we'd like to, if we could, time the TV to a passing over the terminator. We would like to track the terminator with the TV; think that's the most impressive thing we've seen, and that might be the best thing rather than trying to acquire the Earth.

074:41:07 Collins: Okay, Frank. That's one of the things we are looking at right now. We have you ending at about 86 hours and we're looking at extending that few minutes to include that terminator view. Over.

074:41:23 Borman: Okay, I don't want us to run into rev 10 very much at all, though.

074:41:28 Collins: Roger. Understand.

[Rev 10 will be their last full orbit around the Moon. In view of the lack of sleep his crew have had and the importance of alertness for the engine burn to return to Earth, Frank wants to keep the time after the TV transmission clear to give everyone a rest. However, he is very keen that the terminator be shown on the TV. The TV system has a poor signal to noise ratio and does not show the bland features of the noonday lunar surface well. The stark light and dark of the terminator scenery will be much more suitable, especially for the show Frank has planned.]
074:41:30 Anders: Houston, Apollo 8.

074:41:31 Collins: Go ahead, Apollo 8.

074:41:36 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston.

074:41:37 Anders: ...since the DSE qual[ity] is not so good. How do you read, Mike?

074:41:43 Collins: I read you loud and clear. You were cut out about the DSE Say again.

074:41:50 Anders: Roger. Since the qual[ity] isn't so good, let me give you a quick rundown of the status of photo targets. You ready to copy?

074:41:59 Collins: Ready to copy.

074:42:05 Okay. At rev 1, we got photo target 90 and terminator photography south for near-side terminator. Starting on rev 2, we've got target 12 and targets 10, 14, 16, 19, 20, 21 and 23. Unfortunately, we got into a high - I got into the high-speed film there somewhere, and I think those 250-mm targets were on high speed. We did change film, and starting out in Tex - Crater Texas, with target 28, 31, 40, 36, plus several targets of opportunity that were recorded on the DSE, but apparently lost. Have you been able to copy?

[Bill's admission that he has grossly overexposed the high speed type-2485 film by inadvertently having magazine G on the camera will lead to careful measures being taken at the photo laboratory, as explained in the post-flight mission report.]

[From the 1969 Mission Report - "The film was not used for the dim light astronomical experiments, as planned, but for general lunar surface photography, and a film speed of 80 was erroneously assumed, rather than the actual 2000. This difference is about a six-stop overexposure and far beyond the latitude of the film. A special chemistry and processing technique was formulated to preserve the recorded data, but it was discovered that the chemistry could not be changed fast enough to prevent the image from chemically destroying itself. A procedure was developed to use special film reels in a large tank. The process was accomplished at 68°F; [20°C;], including a bleach step to remove the effect of the vastly overexposed silver and produce a more normal negative. The technique proved highly successful and satisfactory images were obtained. The wide-latitude processing could significantly reduce workload on future flight crews by permitting more nearly constant exposure settings."]

[Only the first 17 images from magazine G are taken from lunar orbit, most likely at the start of the second revolution. The subsequent 64 frames will be taken after TEI as the Moon is receding.]

074:43:13 Collins: Yes, I'm with you, Bill. Keep going.

074:43:18 Anders: Okay. I might be calling up too fast. Okay. On the third rev, we got target 58 and 63 and 65. The training photography was accomplished, and it was done on magazine D, which now has - correction, that's magazine E - which now shows 95 exposures. Magazine D is fresh. Magazine K was also used for training photography, and it's showing 0.51. [25.1 is value in PAO, 0.51 is recorded in Tech transcript].

[Magazine K is a 16-mm film.]
074:44:22 Collins: Roger, we copy all that, Bill. [Long pause.]

074:44:36 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston.

074:44:37 Borman: ...Mike, this is Frank again.

074:44:38 Collins: Go ahead, Frank.

074:44:40 Borman: Go ahead.

074:44:41 Collins: Roger for Bill.

074:44:42 Borman: ...around.

074:44:46 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston standing by.

074:44:51 Borman: I said is Rod Rose around?

074:44:54 Collins: Stand by one, Frank; we'll look for him, and while we're doing that, for Bill the DSE voice quality on high bit rate is very good, so if he wants to use the DSE in high bit rate for a limited amount of time to record important things, we suggest that he do that. We would like him to wait 20 seconds after turning it on prior to talking. Over.

074:45:28 Anders: Roger. Copy.

074:45:30 Collins: Thank you, Bill. [Pause.]

074:45:38 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston.

074:45:43 Borman: Go ahead.

074:45:44 Collins: Rod Rose is sitting up in the viewing room; he can hear what you say.

074:45:50 Borman: I wonder if he is ready for experiment P-1?

074:45:56 Collins: He says thumbs up on P-1. [Pause.]

[Rod Rose is a fellow member with Frank at St. Christopher's Episcopal Church near Seabrook, Texas, as well as being an engineer at Mission Control. Of course, "Experiment P-1" is a codeword for a pre-arranged reading for Frank’s church.]
074:46:04 Anders: Houston, with reference to the DSE on high bit rate, what I would like to do then is - if you got the last pass - I'd like to play it - run it back and start at AOS on low bit rate and then go to high when we need it. How would that be?

074:46:27 Collins: John Aaron buys it.

074:46:32 Borman: Okay, Mike. This is Frank again.

074:46:36 Collins: Go.

074:46:40 Borman: Roger. Rod and I got together, and I was going to record a little - say a little prayer for the church service tonight. And I wonder - I guess that's what we are ready on?

074:46:56 Collins: Stand by one, Frank.

074:47:00 Borman: All right.

[Comm break.]

[Author, Bob Zimmerman expands on this episode in his book Genesis: The Story of Apollo 8. Frank had wanted to participate as a lay-reader in the Christmas service at his church but the flight of Apollo 8 precluded that. His fellow parishioner, Rod Rose, suggested that Frank read a prayer from the Moon which could be replayed during the service. Frank is about to make that reading.]

074:49:41 Borman: Houston, Apollo 8. Are you still there?

074:49:43 Collins: You're still loud and clear, Frank. [Long pause.]

074:50:01 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston. Go ahead, Frank, with your message.

074:50:07 Borman: Okay. This is to Rod Rose and the people at St. Christopher's, actually to people everywhere. Give us, O God, the vision which can see thy love in the world in spite of human failure. Give us the faith to trust the goodness in spite of our ignorance and weakness. Give us the knowledge that we may continue to pray with understanding hearts, and show us what each one of us can do to set forth the coming of the day of universal peace. Amen.

074:50:35 Collins: Amen.

074:50:36 Borman: I was supposed to lay-read tonight, and I couldn't quite make it.

074:50:42 Collins: Roger. I think they understand.

[Comm break.]
074:51:57 Borman: Houston, how do you read? Apollo 8.

074:52:02 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston. Over.

074:52:07 Borman: Roger. Go ahead.

074:52:09 Collins: Roger. Frank, we'd like to know about the water chlorination. Have you - when was the last time you chlorinated the water? Over.

074:52:16 Borman: About an hour and a half ago; we've already done it.

074:52:22 Collins: Roger. We copy you an hour and a half ago. Affirmative?

074:52:28 Borman: Roger. You know we wouldn't forget that.

074:52:36 Collins: Roger.

074:52:40 Borman: Jim spilled a little, and it smelled like a bucket of Clorox about an hour ago.

074:52:51 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston. Say again.

074:52:57 Borman: I said Jim inadvertently spilled some of that chlorine, and it smelled like a bucket of Clorox in here a little while.

074:53:06 Collins: Roger. Understand.

[Long comm break.]

[The spacecraft's water system has a small, rubber-membrane port through which an ampule of chlorine can be injected. This is intended to kill bacteria that may build up in the drinking water supply.]

074:58:40 Collins: Apollo 8, Houston. Over.

074:58:50 Borman: Go ahead, Houston. Over.

074:58:52 Collins: Roger. We have two and a half minutes to LOS, and all systems are looking good. Everything is looking just fine down here, Frank.

074:59:02 Borman: Thank you.

074:59:06 Collins: We'll have some more information on the TV on the next rev. We're not planning any big change in the time, just to extend them a little bit, I think, closer to the terminator.

074:59:21 Borman: Just give us the time, will you, because we just want to know when it is. I'd like to get the terminator if we could, and we've got a little message, and that's it.

074:59:29 Collins: Roger. We'll do that the next time you come around.

074:59:32 Borman: Thank you. Okay. And have the EECOM guys keep a sharp watch on our systems. Old Anders is so busy fooling around with these pictures that - not much else is getting done.

074:59:47 Collins: Roger. The EECOM is doing that.

[Very long comm break.]

[Bill Anders has two roles in this mission. He has been charged with keeping a close eye on the spacecraft's systems, essentially acting as an onboard EECOM. In lunar orbit, he takes care of the mission's photographic task. Frank, ever careful of ensuring a safe return to Earth, points out that what with Bill's two roles being somewhat incompatible, EECOM on Earth ought to keep an especially sharp eye on the systems.]

075:13:28 Borman (onboard): Man, that's a charm.

075:13:35 Anders (onboard): Magazine E, showing 95 exposures, will be used for far-side terminator south photography for rev 4 and target 10 and 20 series which we believe were shot by the high-speed film on rev 1. We're using magazine I and magazine D to do the vertical stereo. Both of those show zero.

[The Flight Plan indicates that Bill ought to be starting a 45-minute period of vertical stereo photography at 075:15 using a camera mounted in a bracket aimed through one of the rendezvous windows. The Photo Index shows that a total of 136 frames are taken with black and white magazine D on Rev 4. An intervalometer attachment for the Hasselblad takes the photographs automatically at preset intervals, freeing Bill to take occasional frames with a second Hasselblad of targets of opportunity as he finds them. These are also imaged on black and white film, in this case using magazine E, starting at around 075:20 with a series of shots of the far-side terminator.

Composite of seven lunar far-side images.

Click to see larger image.

This image is a montage of seven frames from magazine E, AS08-13-2310 to 2316, looking south along the eastern rim of Galois. The main features visible are the satellite craters of Galois and the heavily shadowed Mechnikov U.]

[Frame AS08-13-2317 is, we believe, of a satellite crater on the northwest rim of larger crater Doppler. This little crater seems to be the one Bill will refer to as having a ridge down the middle.]

075:22:18 Anders (onboard): Okay. Frame number 104 was taken into von Braun...

075:22:39 Anders (onboard): ...which showed an interesting little ridge down the middle of it in one of the turtleback stills in one - in the little side crat - in the crater to the east.

[Frame 104 on magazine E is AS08-13-2318. This image shows a crater, apparently called von Braun by the crew but currently named Crookes.]

[Two photos are taken looking towards the south or southeastern horizon. These are AS08-13-2319 and 2320. The precise location of the hills on the horizon are unknown to the authors but readers should note that these images are at the rim of the huge South-Pole/Aitken basin.]

[Frame AS08-13-2321 loks along the northern rim of the crater Aitken. The rim of Aitken A is just visible at the bottom of the frame.]

075:23:06 Anders (onboard): The next exposure was taken at 75:23:06.

075:23:32 Anders (onboard): Target 19.

075:23:39 Anders (onboard): Exposure 106.

[Three frames are taken of target 19. These are AS08-13-2322, 2323 and 2324 and they show the north rim of Aitken including Aitken Z. The specific subject of target 19 seem to be a series of bulbous hills within crater rims on Aitken's mare floor. Bill's sequence misses them but they are seen to the right of Aitken's interior in Lunar Orbiter II photo II-033-H3.]
075:23:51 Anders (onboard): And was taken at 1/60th of a second at 5.6 with the terminator. We'll do it at 250th - that's good enough.

075:24:13 Anders (onboard): Spotmeter readings vertically are recorded on the map for lumens...

075:24:27 Anders (onboard): And they're all reading between 160 and 320.

075:24:36 Anders (onboard): Oblique: about 4 in the - between 460 and 320.

075:25:39 Anders (onboard): What time have you got, Frank?

075:25:42 Borman (onboard): [Garbled.]

075:25:45 Anders (onboard): Okay, going for target number 14, magazine E, frame 116.

075:26:22 Anders (onboard): 116 will be a target-of-opportunity photo showing some mountains on the horizon.

[Judging from the photographic record, it is possible that Bill is referring to frame 106, which is AS08-13-2320, mentioned above.]

[Bill is about to change the aperture of the camera with which he is taking the vertical stereo images. Over the terminator, the Sun's light is not so strong so a large aperture is used to bring out the detail in the landforms betrayed by the low angle sunlight.]

075:27:08 Anders (onboard): Okay, camera number - vertical stereo camera was put to 5.6 from 2.8 at 75:27.
[Rather than presenting each individual image from the vertical stereo sequence, we have compiled strips from sections of the entire pass using index photographs.

Composite strip from 143 degrees W to 180 degrees. Korolev Crater.

This composite image was constructed from frames AS08-12-2044 to 2075. Immediately west of the terminator, the image covers a narrow strip that runs across the diameter of the walled plain, Korolev, and the terrain out to the west. Note the keyhole-shaped crater within Korolev. We believe this is a control point for Jim's landmark sighting exercises.]

075:28:02 Anders (onboard): Huh?

075:28:42 Anders (onboard): What time have you got, Frank?

075:28:46 Borman (onboard): 75:28.

075:29:33 Anders (onboard): Okay...

075:29:39 Anders (onboard): What's the time?

075:29:40 Borman (onboard): 12:23.

075:29:41 Anders (onboard): Starting at 12:23 on the event timer, we're going across what I think is - is Washington, though it's very hard to tell.

075:30:04 Anders (onboard): Target 19 was taken with mag E, about frame 107; series of three.

075:30:41 Anders (onboard): Make it a series of four.

075:31:04 Anders (onboard): Okay, we finished - target 19; four exposures on frame 111.

075:31:26 Anders (onboard): What's your time, Frank?

075:31:30 Borman (onboard): 14:05 [garble].

075:31:52 Anders (onboard): We should have put this over in your window. How about - Can you take this in your window?

075:32:01 Borman (onboard): Now, you want it while it's running?

075:32:03 Anders (onboard): Yes, go ahead. It's getting in the way of this other one.

075:32:07 Anders (onboard): I'll count out the exposures for you.

075:32:12 Anders (onboard): Yes.

075:32:20 Anders (onboard): Can you call out your time, Frank, please?

075:32:22 Borman (onboard): 15 minutes.

075:32:23 Anders (onboard): 14?

075:32:24 Borman (onboard): 15.

075:32:37 Anders (onboard): Okay, target number 23; 15 minutes; frame 112.

[By our count, Bill is talking about AS08-13-2325, showing Zwicky N, a polygonal crater that sits in the middle of the highly degraded Zwicky.]

Composite strip from 178 degrees W to 150 degrees E. Parts of craters Keeler and Heaviside.

This composite image is constructed from frames AS08-12-2076 to 2105. The image cuts through the craters Keeler and Heaviside between the lines of longitude 178°W and 150°E. Note how the shadows become virtually nonexistent as the spacecraft moves from right to left.]

075:33:06 Anders (onboard): [Cough.]

075:33:37 Borman (onboard): I've got to use that [yawn] - I've got to roll right.

075:34:08 Anders (onboard): Time, Frank?

075:34:11 Borman (onboard): 16:55.

075:34:16 Anders (onboard): Turn it to f/8 if you haven't got it there already.

075:34:20 Borman (onboard): That's where it was when you handed it to me.

075:34:21 Anders (onboard): Good.

075:35:10 Borman (onboard): 17:15.

075:35:11 Anders (onboard): Okay.

075:35:45 Anders (onboard): Fresh impact crater: Mag E, frame 113, about 18 minutes.

[We believe this is AS08-13-2326 which is of a fresh crater, Geiger R, with the rim of Geiger itself visible on the left hand side.]

Composite strip from 152 degrees E to 133 degrees E. The image runs through the southern half of crater Chauvenet.

Continuing Bill's vertical stereo sequence, this composite image is a composite of frames AS08-12-2106 to 2123 with crater Chauvenet being the main feature. The high-angle lighting, however, renders the crater almost invisible with the smaller, fresher craters dominating the landscape. The image centreline runs along the 12°S line of latitude between the lines of longitude 152°E on the right and 133°E on the left.]

Public Affairs Officer - "This is Apollo Control, Houston. 75 hours, 37 minutes into the flight. Before we lost signal with the spacecraft, some one-half hour ago, I suppose, 20 minutes ago, Frank Borman came up on the line and said he would like to dedicate a prayer to the people of St. Christopher's church, his church here in Seabrook and he added to of the world. ..."

075:38:14 Anders (onboard): Will you give me a Verb 64, Frank?

[Verb 64 provides the crew with S-band High Gain Antenna angles, necessary for pointing the antenna at the Earth.]
075:38:21 Anders (onboard): I've got a bunch of scarps here - they're to be shot - would you give me the end tape...

075:38:24 Borman (onboard): [Garbled.]

075:38:30 Anders (onboard): Okay.

075:38:34 Anders (onboard): Okay.

075:39:17 Anders (onboard): Okay, frame - hope I'm not losing count here.

075:39:27 Anders (onboard): Okay, definitely frame 114, target of opportunity, extremely fresh impact crater.

[We count this as frame 113 in magazine E. However, it is now catalogued as AS08-13-2327 and dramatically shows the ray pattern from a simple, near vertical impact. Close to the crater, the ejecta blanket is continuous. Two crater diameters out, the blanket becomes discontinuous.]
075:39:46 Anders (onboard): Time: 75:39:30.

075:40:51 Borman (onboard): You want to rotate in 6 minutes, Bill?

075:40:56 Anders (onboard): Not now, I'm checking here.

075:41:00 Anders (onboard): Frame 115, another extremely fresh impact crater taken at 75:41. If the window was a little more clear, I - Looks like it might be up on the top of the hill.

[Frame AS08-13-2328 shows the difference in the ray pattern when the impact comes from a meteorite strike at a low angle. In particular, there is an excluded zone around the crater about 120° wide in which there is little sign of ejecta. This indicates that the incoming projectile came in from the top left of the photograph. Within the excluded zone is Denning V, mainly distinguishable by its dark floor.]
075:41:32 Anders (onboard): What time do you have, Frank? Is it 20?

075:41:36 Borman (onboard): 25 almost. 24:19 now.

075:41:37 Anders (onboard): Okay, let's go.

075:41:42 Anders (onboard): Did they give you a time to rotate?

075:41:47 Borman (onboard): What?

075:41:48 Anders (onboard): Did they give you a time to rotate?

075:41:51 Borman (onboard): [Garble] wants me to rotate 75:46.

075:41:54 Anders (onboard): Yes, we've got a - ways to go yet.

075:41:57 Borman (onboard): 3 minutes - No, it's 5 minutes.

075:42:31 Anders (onboard): Okay, let's go - f/11.

[Bill is continuing the vertical stereo sequence.]

Composite strip from 134 degrees E to 120 degrees E. The image includes craters Shirakatsi and Danjon.

Frames AS08-12-2124 to 2135 make up this composite. There is essentially no visible relief and in our compositing work, we have had to dodge around the zero-phase bright spots that each individual image exhibited. Craters Danjon and Shirakatsi, though large and important in this region are difficult to spot. The composite runs between the lines of longitude 134°E on the right and 120°E on the left.]

075:46:06 Lovell (onboard): What time are you supposed to be pitching up?

075:46:09 Anders (onboard): I don't pitch up until [garble].

075:46:10 Lovell (onboard): Okay.

075:46:27 Borman (onboard): All right, we're going to roll.

075:46:33 Borman (onboard): Ready? Set.

075:46:47 Anders (onboard): The impact crater was at - just prior to subsolar point on the south side, and the floor of it, didn't really get to - There is one dark hole, and I couldn't get a quick enough look at it to see if it might be anything volcanic.

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