Start   DAI   Research   Research Databases   Contact   Infos   News 

Saudi Arabia, Tayma

"The Archaeology of the Oasis Tayma: Continuity and Change of Subsistence in the arid north-western region of the Arabian Peninsula from the Neolithic to Islamic periods" is a joint-project of the Deputy Ministry of Education, Riyadh, and the German Archaeological Institute, Berlin. Regular seasons of excavation have been conducted since 2004.



The city and oasis of Tayma (27°37'30" N, 38°32'30" E, ca 830 m above sea level, Tabuk province) is located in the north-west of the Arabian Peninsula, an area which is characterised by its arid climate. Tayma is situated in a flat basin and is surrounded by several mountainous heights, such as the Jabal Ghunaym. North of the settlement is a large seasonal salt lake (sebkha) which receives its waters from several seasonal wadis. The characteristic environment of the oasis is best represented by the Bir Hadaj well of some 18 m diameter in the city centre and extended palm gardens. The rapidly growing modern settlement presently covers about one third of ancient Tayma, which has an estimated area of some 500 ha. The most visible remains of the ancient occupation are the high surrounding walls.

Orient Department

Further Information on the Section in Charge


druckerfreundliche Version


  View on the site  
  City wall of Tayma  

There are three main factors which impact on the historical interpretation of Tayma: the existence of an oasis as a precondition for the settlement of humans, its function as a trade-station on the incense route, and the residence of the Babylonian king Nabonidus in the mid-6th century BC.
The earliest remains of settlement consist of the remains of a silex-industry for the production of beads (probably of the 4th millennium BC). Archaeological excavations have encountered phases of occupation which may last from the Late Bronze Age (late 2nd millennium BC) to the Islamic periods. Some recently discovered metal finds can be dated to the late 3rd / early 2nd millennium BC. The rich record of written sources from the site and its surroundings have provided mainly Taymanitic ('Thamudic') and Aramaic inscriptions of the 1st millennium BC. Additionally, external sources inform us about contacts between Assyria and the Arab tribes (from the 9th century BC). After the mention of a caravan from Tayma in a source of the mid-8th century BC from the Middle Euphrates, Tayma enters Assyrian written history only when it has to pay tribute to Tiglath-pileser III. Further Assyrian (and biblical) sources recognise the role of Tayma as a trading post, and in the following centuries relations between the neighbouring cities Tayma and Dedan (presentday Khuraybah/al-Ula) were characterised by rivalry. Further information about the nature of the connections between Tayma and superimposed political entities during the Neo-Babylonian and Achaemenid periods is known only in very general terms. The same goes for the relationship to regional powers, such as the Lihyanite kingdom. During the Minaean period (ca 400 BC) Tayma ceded pre-eminence to Dedan. Later on it formed a part of the Nabataean and Romano-Byzantine realm. Although the poet Imru' al-Qays (d. 540 AD) says that the rain-storm "does not leave a palm-tree in Tayma nor a house unless it is built of stone", the city played an important role in the expansion of Islam towards the Levant. As late as the 11th century, according to the historian al-Bakri, Tayma was known as a wealthy place with a large city wall.  


  Tayma Stone  

The project has the following main aims:
- The acquisition, recording and study of archaeological data: topography, natural environment (specifically hydrology and geology), chronology and material culture.
- Social relations and patterns of subsistence: political organisation, organisation of family / kinship groups, techniques of subsistence and production, cultic life.
- Cultural, political and economic foreign relations: settlement patterns, regional and supra-regional relations (Mesopotamia, South Arabia, Gulf region, Levant, Egypt).

In order to achieve the aims of research expeditionsly effective digital recording and processing of the data is necessary by means of the project's Geographic Information System (GISTa) which is adapted continuously to the working programme of the archaeological project, and, at the same time, contributes to the definition of the research programme. Outreach work is concerned with measures taken on the site itself (presentation of the site and selected contexts, consolidation and restoration measures, co-operation with the local museum) and at communicating and presenting the results via Internet, by lectures and through publications. 

History of Research

  General site plan (1980)  

In 1877 C. Doughty delivered the first detailed description of the site of Tayma, including its architecture and pottery, and a sketch map. Subsequently, the investigations of C. Huber in 1883 (later together with J. Euting) led to the discovery of the Tayma Stele, now exhibited in the Musée du Louvre. Decades later, H.St J. Philby started archaeological and environmental observations at the site (1951). The publication by Winnett and Read (1970) of their survey in NW Arabia provided not only a wealth of textual evidence from the site (mainly dated to the 6th century BC) but also presented the characteristic painted potsherds. After that, P. Parr conducted excavations at a nearby watch-tower. The systematic investigation and record of archaeological sites by the Directorate of Antiquities of the Kingdom which started in the mid-1970s and saw the foundation of the journal ATLAL led to further research at the site. In 1979, G. Bawden, C. Edens and R. Miller commenced large-scale research at Tayma (such as at Qasr al-Hamra and Qasr al-Radm) and published plan of the site. The Directorate of Antiquities continued excavations at Tayma, in the cemeteries, irrigation systems and remains of Islamic buildings (see Bibliography). On the epigraphic side, attention has been given to the discovery of Taymanitic inscriptions, though not at the site itself but in the vicinity, mentioning king Nabonidus of Babylon (Müller and Said 2002). 

Current Work

   Höhenmodell von Tayma und Umgebung  
  Elevation model of Tayma and its surroundings  
  Topographic map of the site  
  Geomagnetic prospection  

Since 2004 there have been two seasons of field work every year. Before the start of archaeological excavation the following activities were carried out:
- Topographical survey of the central part of the site (Qraya) and construction of a grid.
- Collection and integration of various geodetic data (remote sensing data from different sensors, aerial photographs, regional maps, ordinance survey maps) into the GIS of the project.
- Surface survey of the inner settlement area and the sebkha.
- Geophysical prospection (13 ha geomagnetic survey, 3 ha geo-radar [GPR])
- elaboration of a fabric-type reference chart for the pottery

Up until now the excavations cover in all some 3,000 sq.m. A total of nine building levels have so far been traced, deposited on top of the natural sandstone bedrock. Archaeological excavations are focussing on the following contexts:
- Sequence, distribution and chronology of public buildings and of residential quarters of the 1st millennium BC at the central elevation by means of stratigraphic excavations in soundings and open-area trenches. A representative building (temple) is located in the north-east of the central elevation (Area E); probable remains of further public buildings are located at the opposite south-western side (Area D); between the two are residential quarters (Area F).
- Stratigraphic research north-west of the central area of the settlement (mid 1st millennium BC) - defining the relationship between the attested building structures: External and internal walls, associated settlement remains, the ditch identified by the geomagnetic prospection (Areas C and G). These excavations will be continued towards the central area of the settlement.
- Settlement remains of the late 2nd/early 1st millennia BC between the inner and outer wall (Area O) and contemporary remains at the outer wall (Area A).
- Selected soundings as result of observed peculiarities at the surface or anomalies detected by the geophysical prospections (Areas H, L and M).
- At the invitation by the Antiquities Department, salvage excavations were carried out in 2004 in the burial ground of Talah (Area S), located south-east of Tayma.
- Studies on the construction and organisation of the fortification system (sub-project of the Brandenburg Technical University at Cottbus (BTU), funded by the Fritz Thyssen Stiftung

- From stratified contexts samples were collected for scientific analyses, such as, e.g., radiocarbon (C14) dating, palaeobotanical and palaeozoological studies.
- Geological and geo-archaeological studies (University of Marburg) and research on hydrology and water management (University of applied sciences [FH] at Lübeck) are part of the programme of palae-environmental studies of the project.

Parallel to the fieldwork, the systematic recording of the objects in the Tayma Museum is proceeding. 


  Excavations in Area E  

The archaeological project integrates a number of disciplines from historical studies (Semitic philology, Assyriology, architectural history and restoration) and geo-sciences (palaeozoology, palaeobotany, hydrology, geology and geophysics, minaralogy and petrology), thereby involving a variety of methods. The interdisciplinary co-operation is continuously being extended and intensified. This is also valid for networking activities between individual departments of the German Archaeological Insitute and co-operating universities on a national and international level.

Examples of applied methods:
- As regards information technology, the GIS and its related databases serve as the backbone of the project. Geographical information and all archaeological data on contexts and objects are collected and processed.
- Architectural remains are recorded digitally (tachymetre, photogrammetry) and by hand-drawings. The complete data are digitally processed.
- Systematic survey data are supported by GPS.
- At the end of excavations, free-standing building remains are stabilised by supporting constructions; larger areas are covered by a stabile plastic cover. Stones, both from walls and from the debris, are systematically collected (more than 200 cbm at present).
- Two collecting areas for stones (lapidaria) have been constructed, one as a storage place for well-preserved building elements, while the other is for stone-tools.
- The fabric-type reference chart for pottery contains seven main petrographic groups, which have been determined by thin-section analysis carried out by the University of Padua. The statistical analysis of survey ceramics has been completed. Pottery from current excavations is being processed and analysed.
- Before C14-analysis is carried out the species of the samples are defined. 


  Large building (temple) in Area E  
  Head of a Lihyanite statue  
  Body fragments of Lihyanite statues  
  Late Babylonian stele  
  Nabataean incense burners  
  At the inner city wall (Area C)  
  Sandstone stele (Area C)  
  Painted pottery from Area O  
  Wooden fragments with incised decoration (Area O)  
  Area S: Stone tombs at Talah  
  Palm-tree gardens in the oasis  
  Geological drillings in the sebkha  

Geophysical prospection

A total of 13 ha has been investigated by geomagnetic prospection. Most characterisitic is a 500 m long and 12 m wide anomaly running parallel to the inner city wall at its outer side. Georadar (GPR) measurements contributed to the understanding of the construction details of the city wall, of settlement remains in the central area and of hydrological installations.

Excavations in the central area: Qraya

On top of Qraya (also known as Qasr al-Ablaq), the central elevation of Tayma, close by some trenches of former excavations, five building levels have been identified above the bedrock. The middle building level is characterised by remains of a large representative building, most probably a temple, which underwent several renovations (Area E). The building covers an area of more than 500 sq.m. The construction of the best-preserved (middle) building level can tentatively be dated to the Nabataean period. Under its foundation level there are remains of earlier buildings of a different orientation, thus indicating a long-lasting occupation at this place. A columned hall forms the core-area of the penultimate building phase of the edifice. At this time, the building was reached by stairs through the south-western façade, probably flanked by two sphinxes, one of them discovered in the debris. During or after the 3rd century BC (C14) the space between the columns was filled. Here, an originally painted fragment of a more than life-size statue was discovered (it is the second one from Tayma; an identical one is stored in the Museum). The fragment can be compared with similar statues discovered by Jaussen and Savignac in Khuraybah/al-Ula and other statues which recently have been found by the Saudi-Arabian expedition at Khuraybah. They have been identified as Lihyanite (ca. 4th century BC and later). Nearby to the statue fragment, the head and parts of the arms and legs have been found. Fragments of sculptures and stelae found close-by show Egyptianising iconographic elements. The last substantial disturbance of the deposits in Area E can be dated to the 8th century AD.
Whether the stones bearing Thamudic inscriptions have been re-used for the construction of the eastern external wall of the building is presently under study. The same goes for stratigraphic issues concerning the preceding building levels.

Stele of King Nabonidus

In the debris outside the temple, a stele with a semi-circular field of representation has been discovered. From the iconographic representation (standing royal figure, three astral symbols of gods) and an engraved cuneiform inscription it can be identified as a product of the Babylonian king Nabonidus, who stayed for 10 years in Tayma during the mid-6th century BC. Whereas this newly found fragment conforms to established Babylonian iconography (see Eichmann, Schaudig and Hausleiter 2006), a different chronological attribution has to be adopted for the representation of a royal figure on the so-called Tayma stone found some 120 years ago. Its Aramaic inscription has be dated to the 5th/4th centuries BC. In the meantime, additional stone fragments of cuneiform inscriptions have also been discovered.

Building remains south-west of the temple

Several units of a residential area (ca. 2nd century AD) have been excavated, most of them with small rooms. From the debris, several incense burners have been recovered, one of them bearing a Nabataean inscription. An adjacent residential quarter is located further south-west (Area F). It was occupied during the 3rd/4th centuries AD, parallel to the last occupation of the temple. According to the dichromatic painted pottery there are also traces of an earlier occupation, to be dated to the mid 1st millennium BC. To this period may belong those architectonic remains (Area D) which, from their dimensions and construction, seem to represent further public buildings in the central part of the site.

City wall

Remains of the wall-system of Tayma are preserved up to a length of 15 km. At some places the walls are preserved up to 8 m in height. Earlier studies have evidenced various construction techniques. Also a number of rectangular towers belong to the city wall. On the interior side of the wall there are staircases and corridors. On both sides of the wall there are massive accumulations of sand.
Since 2006 the city walls have been studied in the framework of a research project of the Brandenburg Technical University at Cottbus (BTU) in co-operation with the department of architecture of the German Archaeological Institute. For the first time, a systematic recording of the entire city wall of the settlement by means of DGPS has been carried out. At the same time archaeological soundings are conducted in order to verify hypotheses on construction techniques and organisation.

Occupation of the 2nd/1st millennium BC at the outer wall

Painted surface pottery and terracotta figurines suggest the presence of 1st millennium BC contexts at the western outer city wall. Attached to the probably latest stone phase of the wall - sitting upon the mud-brick construction - there was a small building (Area A). The pottery record and the 14C-dates from the stratigraphic sequence point to the late 2nd / early 1st millennium BC. These results support on the one hand the general dating of the outer city wall which is indicated by a C14-date to the 19th century BC. On the other hand it became clear that the immense sand deposits must have accumulated before the building was erected.

Between the outer and inner walls

Due to the identification of the geophysical anomaly outside the inner wall as a ditch (Area G), and in view of the results in Area A, several other stratigraphic soundings were laid out (Area C) with the aim of detecting the sequence of construction of the two walls and the occupation between them. It is planned to continue soundings towards the centre of the site. The external wall is built on sediments laying upon the natural bedrock. Mud-bricks and stones occur also at the lowest levels. Between the outer and inner walls there is a large enclosure with rooms at its corners, probably dating to the early Islamic period. The material resulting from excavation in antiquity of the ditch (next to the inner wall) may have been used as filling material of the inner wall, which has been constructed of quarry-stones. At latest during the 8th century AD, several small compounds were built inside the inner wall, probably in the period of the large enclosure.

Aramaic Inscriptions

At the edge of the ditch, in a secondary position, a four-line Aramaic stone-inscription was found. The text mentions a small outlet in the city wall and the Lihyanite ruler Lawdhan (4th century BC). The governor of Tayma at that time was a certain Natir-El. A further Lihyanite royal inscription found outside the temple (Area E) mentions king TLYMY, of slightly earlier date than Lawdhan.
On the interior side of the inner wall, a stele of sandstone has been reused. Its obverse shows a male figure with rich hair and a short dress, carrying weapons. The three remaining sides of the stone show standing figures. On the original obverse there was a seated figure in a frame. These images had been removed deliberately, most probably before the male figure with the weapons was carved. An Aramaic inscription (5th/4th centuries BC), carved in relief, belongs to the earlier images and gives the only clue to the dating of the object and its context.

Tombs between the outer and inner wall

Between outer and inner wall there are remains of probable tombs constructed as rectangular stone chambers. One of these constructions contained objects of wood and ivory as well as carbonised remains of grapes and barley. In addition, numerous sherds of polychrome painted pottery and also unpainted items were found, similar in shape and decoration to the pottery from the building attached to the outer wall in Area A. Also for this complex, therefore, a date from the late 2nd millennium BC to the early first millennium BC can be envisaged. A C14-date indicates a 10th century BC date for this context. East of the chambers an extended complex with rooms plastered with stone slabs has been discovered together with a corridor which once may have served as access to the structures.
Further graves, probably of the Nabatean period, have been discovered in the debris of the outer wall.

Salvage excavations at Talah(Area S)

Numerous graves have been discovered on rock formations south-east of Tayma. A group of ten stone-chambers was excavated in 2004. The grave chambers are between 3.5 and 5 sq.m. in size. Each of these chambers is closed by a large door stone and several other large stones. In spite of robbery and heavy damage it was possible to identify the burials as collective internments (up to five individuals per grave). At the rear side, there were two small stone cists with individual child burials. The excavated grave complex belongs to the Iron Age, as attested by painted pottery sherds of the so-called Sana'iya-type from the excavation area known as "Industrial site", some 1 km to the north, and by the architecture and layout of the graves.

Stone tools and the production of beads

The high frequency of stone drills and carnelian beads had earlier been observed. Whereas the stone tool industries had been tentatively dated to the Iron Age, an earlier date may be possible as suggested by comparative material from northern Saudi Arabia and South-Eastern Turkey (Chalcolithic). The question of whether the silex industries were once located at the edge of the sebkha is a matter for future study.


Apart from the expanding modern occupation the environmental conditions considerably increase to the destruction of ancient remains. Archaeological knowledge and the experience of restorers must be used for the development of strategies for consolidation and conservation of the architectural remains of Tayma.

Palaeo-environmental research

Palaeobotany and palaeozoology

The first results of palaeobotanic research suggests a vegetation typical for an oasis (date palm, artemisia, tamarisk and also grape-vine). Attested animal species are sheep, goat and a number of birds of prey which may not have been located at Tayma itself.

Geology and hydrology

Geoarchaeological research is being carried out by team from Marburg University. Several transects have been laid out through the sebkha by means of core drillings. Based on the profiles it was possible to reconstruct the processes of deposition. The drillings together with the analysis of aerial photographs and a sounding through the narrow mud wall at the northern border of the settlement (Area SE) allow the following hypothetical reconstruction: The mud wall served as draining wall dividing saltless sediments on a terrace (2.3 m below surface) used for agriculture and saline sediments of a lower level (4.3 m below surface) in the sebkha. A fortificatory significance of this mud wall does not seem probable at this point.
A sounding at the northern edge of the sebkha indicates the existence of a palaeo-lake, since gastropods and algae have been identified attached to the Ordovician bedrock. The level of this palaeo-lake was ca. 13 m above the present-day level of the sebkha.

A hydrological survey in 2005 resulted in the recording and mapping of installations used for the water management of the ancient settlement. This research will be systematically continued from 2007 onwards by a sub-project (DFG) of the University of applied sciences (FH) at Lübeck. A large number of installations for water management and water protection has been observed. 


Archaeological research at Tayma is based on a written cooperative agreement between the Deputy Ministry of Archaeology, Riyadh (then Deputy Minister Professor Dr Sa'ad al-Rashid), and the German Archaeological Institute, Oriental Department, Berlin (Professor Dr Ricardo Eichmann). Its inception is due to the initiative and constant support of Professor Dr Said F. al-Said, King Saud University, Riyadh. The permission and support of the Deputy Ministry of Archaeology (Director General for research and survey, Dr Daifallah al-Talhi) and the Supreme Commission for Tourism (Director Professor Dr Ali Ghabban) create the framework for the project.
Archaeological fieldwork is carried out jointly by the Oriental Department of the German Archaeological Institute in Berlin (Director Professor Dr Ricardo Eichmann, Field Director Dr Arnulf Hausleiter [DFG], GIS and documentation Dr Thomas Götzelt [DFG]), and the King Saud University (Professor Dr Said al-Said). Specific research issues are studied by several individual sub-projects (see below). The Museum of Archaeology and Ethnography in Tayma, as part of the Directorate of Antiquities, is the physical base of the project (Director: Mohammed al-Najem). The interest in the Saudi-Arabian-German cooperative project shown by the Emir of Tabuk, Prince Fahd bin Sultan bin Abdulaziz resulted in his visit in spring 2006. The understanding for the archaeological work from the Muhafadh of Tayma and the Head of the Municipality of Tayma is appreciated. The German Embassy at Riyadh provided assistance in administrative and logistical matters and public outreach.

Scientific Co-operation

- Professor Dr Norbert Benecke, Michael Hochmuth, Deutsches Archäologisches Institut, Berlin, Zentrale: Palaeozoology.
- Professor Dr Helmut Brückner, Jan Bosch, Max Engel, Universität Marburg: Geology and Geo-archaeology.
- Dr Joachim Görsdorf, Deutsches Archäologisches Institut, Berlin, Zentrale: C14-analysis.
- Professor Dr Matthias Grottker, Benjamin Heemeier, University of Applied Science, Lübeck: Sub-project (DFG) Hydrology and water management.
- Professor Dr Claudio Mazzoli, Mirko Giannetta, Unversity of Padua, Department of Mineralogy and Petrology: Sub-project scientific pottery analysis.
- Professor Dr Norbert Nebes, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena: History and inscriptions.
- Drs Reinder Neef, Deutsches Archäologisches Institut, Berlin, Zentrale: Palaeobotany.
- Professor Dr Klaus Rheidt (Brandenburgische Technische Universität Cottbus), Dr Peter I. Schneider (Deutsches Archäologisches Institut, Architekturreferat): Sub-project city wall (Fritz Thyssen Stiftung).
- Professor Dr Said F. al-Said, King Saud University, Riyadh: Inscriptions, languages, history of research.
- Dr Hanspeter Schaudig, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität, Heidelberg, Seminar f. Sprachen und Kulturen des Alten Orients: Cuneiform inscriptions.

Scientific services

- Leibniz-Labor für Altersbestimmungen, Christian-Albrechts-Universität, Kiel: C14-analysis.
- Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik, Wien: Geophysical prospection 2005.
- GGH GbR, Freiburg: Geophysical prospection 2004.
- University of Applied Sciences, Chair for Geomatic Engineering, Karlsruhe: Topographic Grit
- ars restauro: Conservation and consolidation of architectural remains. 


Prof. Dr. phil. Ricardo Eichmann

Vorderasiatische Archäologie
Telefon: 01888-7711-0
Telefax: 01888-7711-189

Dr. phil. Thomas Götzelt (DFG)

Vorderasiatische Archäologie
Telefon: 01888-7711-202
Telefax: 01888-7711-189
Further Email Addresses:

Dr. phil. Arnulf Hausleiter (DFG)

Vorderasiatische Archäologie
Telefon: 01888-7711-121
Telefax: 01888-7711-189
Further Email Addresses:

Further Contact Partners

Ministry of Education
Deputy Ministry of Archaeology and Museums
Riad - Saudi-Arabien
Tel.: +966-1-4042888
Fax: +966-1-4037229


The project is funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Bonn, (DFG) and supported by the Orient Department of the German Archaeological Institute. The Museum of Archaeology and Ethnography of Tayma offers logistic and technical support as does the Antiquities department at Tabuk.

The sub-project on hydrology and water management of the University of applied sciences (FH) Lübeck is funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Bonn, (DFG).

The sub-project on the city wall of the Brandenburgische Technische Universität Cottbus (BTU) and the Architectural Department of the German Archaeological Institute is funded by the Fritz Thyssen Stiftung.

Scientific analysis of the pottery is supported by the Università degli Studi Padova.

The company Hansa Luftbild, Riyadh, offers logistical assistance and equipment.  


General informationen on Tayma

al-Ansary, A., Abu al-Hasan, H.
2002. Tayma. Crossroads of Civilizations. Riyadh.
Buhl, F., Bosworth, C.E.
1999: s.v. Tayma'. Encyclopedia of Islam (2nd edition), 430-431. Leiden.
Eichmann, R., Hausleiter, A., Götzelt, T.
2006: Einstmals an der Weihrauchstraße, Forschung - Das Magazin der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft 4/2006, 3-9.
Parr, P.J.
1997: s.v. Tayma'. In: E.M. Meyers ed., The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East 5. 160-161. New York/Oxford.

History and archaeology of the region

al-Ansary, A.R., Abu al-Hassan, H.
2004: Die alten Kulturen von al-'Ula und Mada'in Salih. Bedeutende Städte an der Weihrauchstraße, Bd. 1, Riyadh.
Euting, J.
1896-1914. Tagebuch einer Reise in Inner-Arabien. Leiden.
Jaussen, J.A., Savignac, R.
1909-22. Mission archéologique en Arabie. Paris (Reprint 1997).
Parr, P.J., Harding, G.L., Dayton, J.E.
1972: Preliminary survey in Northwest Arabia. BIA 10: 23-62.
Philby, H.St.J.
1957. The Land of Midian, London.
Winnett, F.V., Reed, W.L.
1970. Ancient Records from North Arabia. Toronto/Buffalo.

Reports on the archaeological survey in NW Arabia have been published in the journal ATLAL.

Specific studies

Bawden, G.
1981. Recent Radiocarbon Dates from Tayma. ATLAL 5: 149-153.
Bawden, G., Edens, C.
1989. History of Tayma' and Hejazi trade during the first millennium B.C. JESHO 32: 48-103.
Briquel-Chatonnet, F., Robin, C.
1997. Objets d'Arabie Nord-Ouest (autres objets d'Arabie), no. 199-204. In: Calvet, Y., Robin, C. eds., Arabie heureuse - arabie deserte. Les antiquités arabiques du Musée du Louvre. Paris: 260-264.
Farès-Dappeau, S.
2005. Dédan et Lihyan, Histoire des Arabes aux confins des pouvoirs perse et hellénistique (IV-II avant l'ère chrétienne), Lyon.
al-Ghazzi, A.
2000. Dating and ascertaining the origin of the painted al-Ula pottery. ATLAL 15: 179-190.
Hayajneh, H.
2001. First evidence of Nabonidus in the Ancient North Arabian inscriptions from the region of Tayma'. PSAS 31: 81-95.
Macdonald, M.A.
1997. Trade routes and trade goods at the northern end of the 'Incense Road' in the first millennium B.C. In: Avanzini, A. ed., Profumi d'Arabia. Atti del Convegno. Rom: 333-349.
Müller, W.W. und al-Said, S.
2002. Der babylonische König Nabonid in taymanitischen Inschriften. In: Nebes, N. ed., Neue Beiträge zur Semitistik. Wiesbaden: 105-121.
Parr, P.J.
1988. Pottery of the late second millennium B.C. from North West Arabia and its historical implications. In: Potts, D.T. ed., Araby the blest. Studies in Arabian archaeology. Copenhagen: 73-90.
Schaudig, H.
2001. Inschriften Nabonids von Babylon und Kyros' des Großen samt den in ihrem Umfeld entstandenen Tendenzschriften. Textausgabe und Grammatik. Münster (=AOAT 256).

Previous research at Tayma

Abu Duruk, H.I.
1986. Introduction to the Archaeology of Tayma. Riyadh.
Bawden, G., Edens, C., Miller, R.
1980. Preliminary archaeological investigations at Tayma. ATLAL 4: 69-106.
al-Najam, M.H.
2000. Irrigation system and ancient water resources in Tayma area. ATLAL 15: 191-200.
at-Taima'i, M.H. (al-Najem, M.H.)
2006. Mintaqa rujum sa's'a bi-Tayma. Riyadh.

Further preliminary reports have been published in the journal ATLAL.

Preliminary reports

Eichmann, R.
In press: Tayma - Oasis and trade center on the frankincense caravan route. Adumatu.
Eichmann, R., Hausleiter, A., al-Najem, M., al-Said, S.
In press: Tayma - Spring 2004. ATLAL 19.
Eichmann, R., Schaudig, H., Hausleiter, A.
2006: Archaeology and Epigraphy at Tayma (Saudi-Arabia), Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy 17, 163-176.
Hausleiter, A.
2006: Tayma, North-West Arabia. The context of archaeological research. Special Issue of Oriental Studies. Collection of papers on Ancient Civilizations of Western Asia, Asia Minor and North Africa, Beijing, 160-182.

Last modified: February 2007  



updated: 10/18/07

Copyright 2002-2006 German Archaeological Institute | Impressum & Disclaimer  Sitemap