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Carica - carrot

Carica (Car·i·ca) (kar´ĭ-kə)  a genus of trees of the family Caricaceae, native to tropical regions of the Americas. C. papa´ya L. is the papaya or papaw tree, source of the fruit called papaya and of the enzyme papain.

caricous (car·i·cous) (kar´ĭ-kəs) [L. carica fig]  shaped like or resembling a fig.

caries (car·ies) (kar´ēz, kar´e-ēz) [L. “rottenness”]  1. the molecular decay or death of a bone, in which it becomes softened, discolored, and porous. It produces a chronic inflammation of the periosteum and surrounding tissues, and forms a cold abscess filled with a cheesy, fetid, puslike liquid, which generally burrows through the soft parts until it opens externally by a sinus or fistula.  2. dental c.

backward c.  dental caries that progresses backward from the dentinoenamel junction into the enamel; called also internal c.

bottle mouth c.  early childhood caries.

cemental c.  dental caries that involves the cementum of a tooth.

central c.  a chronic abscess in the interior of a bone.

dental c.  localized destruction of calcified tissue initiated on the tooth surface by decalcification of the enamel of the teeth, followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures, leading to cavity formation that, if left unchecked, penetrates the enamel and dentin and may reach the pulp. There are several theories on etiology: see acidogenic theory, proteolytic theory, and proteolysis-chelation theory, under theory. Classified by Black into five groups on the basis of similarity of treatment required; a sixth group is sometimes added. (See table.) See also cavity. Called also tooth decay.

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dental c., primary  dental caries in which the lesion constitutes the initial attack on the tooth surface.

dental c., rampant  dental caries that involve several teeth, appear suddenly, and often progress rapidly.

dental c., secondary  dental caries occurring around the edges and under restorations.

dentinal c.  dental caries that spreads along the dentinoenamel junction and involves dentinal tubules, eventually reaching the pulp.

dry c.  a form of tuberculous caries of the joints and ends of bones; called also c. sicca.

early childhood c.  severe dental caries that are promoted by the sugars, acids, or sometimes Streptococcus mutans in a bottle of milk or juice left in contact with a child's primary teeth; this can also occur from contact with breast milk left in a sleeping child's mouth. Called also bottle mouth c.

enamel c.  dental caries that involves the enamel of a tooth.

internal c.  backward c.

lateral c.  dental caries that extends laterally at the dentinoenamel junction.

necrotic c.  a disease in which pieces of bone lie in a suppurating cavity.

pit c.  dental caries originating in pits or fissures, usually of the occlusal surfaces of molars and premolars or on the lingual surfaces of the maxillary incisors, typically occurring as a deep cavity with a narrow point of penetration.

rampant c.  rampant dental c.

c. sic´ca  dry c.

spinal c.  tuberculotic osteitis of the vertebrae and of the intervertebral cartilages.

carina (ca·ri·na) (kə-ri´nə)  pl. cari´nae [L. “keel”]  a ridge or ridgelike structure.

c. for´nicis  carina of fornix: a ridge on the under surface of the fornix.

c. tra´cheae  [TA]  carina of trachea: a projection of the lowest tracheal cartilage, forming a prominent semilunar ridge running anteroposteriorly between the orifices of the two bronchi.

c. urethra´lis vagi´nae  [TA]  urethral carina of vagina: the column of rugae in the lower part of the anterior wall of the vagina, immediately beneath the urethra.

carinae (ca·ri·nae) (kə-ri´ne) [L.]  genitive and plural of carina.

carinate (car·i·nate) (kar´ĭ-nāt) [L. carina a keel]  keel shaped; having a keel-like process.

carination (car·i·na·tion) (kar”ĭ-na´shən)  a ridged condition of a part.

carindacillin sodium (car·in·da·cil·lin so·di·um) (kar”in-də-sil´in)  carbenicillin indanyl sodium.

cariogenesis (car·io·gen·e·sis) (kar”e-o-jen´ə-sis)  development of caries.

cariogenic (car·io·gen·ic) (kar”e-o-jen´ik) [caries + -genic]  conducive to the production of caries.

cariogenicity (car·io·ge·nic·i·ty) (kar”e-o-jə-nis´ĭ-te)  the quality of being conducive to the production of caries.

cariology (car·i·ol·o·gy) (kar”e-ol´ə-je) [caries- + -logy]  the study of cariogenesis and its prevention.

cariosity (car·i·os·i·ty) (kar”e-os´ĭ-te)  the quality of being carious.

carious (ca·ri·ous) (kar´e-əs) [L. cariosus]  affected with or of the nature of caries.

carisoprodol (car·iso·pro·dol) (kar”i-so-pro´dol)  a centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxant, for the symptomatic management of acute, painful musculoskeletal disorders, administered orally. Called also isopropyl meprobamate.

Carlens' tube (Car·lens' tube) (kahr´lənz) [Eric Carlens, Swedish physician, born 1908]  see under tube.

Carleton's spots (Carle·ton's spots) (kahrl´tənz) [Bukk G. Carleton, American physician, 1856–1914]  see under spot.

Carlsson (Carls·son) (kahrl´sən)  Arvid, born 1923. Swedish pharmacologist; co-winner, with Paul Greengard and Eric R. Kandel, of the Nobel prize for medicine or physiology in 2000 for discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system.

carmalum (car·mal·um) (kahr-mal´əm)  a stain composed of carmine, alum, and water.

Carman's sign (Carman's sign) (kahr´mənz) [Russell Daniel Carman, American physician, 1875–1926]  meniscus sign; see under sign.

Carman-Kirklin sign (meniscus sign) (Car·man-Kirk·lin sign (meniscus sign)) (kahr´mən kərk´lin) [R.D. Carman; Byrl Raymond Kirklin, American radiologist, 1888–1957]  meniscus sign; see under sign.

carminative (car·min·a·tive) (kahr-min´ə-tiv) [L. carminare to card, to cleanse, from carmen, a card for wool]  1. relieving flatulence.  2. a medicine that relieves flatulence and assuages pain.

carmine (car·mine) (kahr´min)  a red coloring matter derived from cochineal by the addition of alum and used as a histologic stain; called also carminum and coccinellin.

alizarin c.  see under red.

indigo c.  indigotindisulfonate sodium.

lithium c.  a vital stain for macrophages.

Schneider's c.  a saturated solution of carmine in concentrated acetic acid.

carminic acid (car·min·ic acid) (kahr-min´ik)  an aromatic acid that is the essential constituent of the dye carmine.

carminophil (car·min·o·phil) (kahr-min´o-fil) [carmine + -phil]  1. easily stainable with carmine.  2. a cell or other element that readily takes a stain from carmine.  3. lactotroph.

carminum (car·mi·num) (kahr-mi´nəm)  carmine.

carmustine (car·mus·tine) (kahr-mus´tēn)  a cytotoxic alkylating agent of the nitrosourea (q.v.) group, used as an antineoplastic primarily against brain tumors, multiple myeloma, colorectal carcinoma, and Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas; administered intravenously. It is also implanted into the surgical resection cavity to prolong survival in patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme. Called also BCNU.

carnassial (car·nas·si·al) (kahr-nas´e-əl)  1. adapted for shearing and tearing.  2. carnassial tooth.

carnauba (car·nau·ba) (kahr-naw´bə)  Copernicia cerifera, the source of carnauba wax.

Carnegie stages (Car·ne·gie stages) (kahr´nə-ge) [Carnegie Institution in Washington, D.C., where the stages were developed from research done between 1913 and 1920]  see under stage.

carneous (car·ne·ous) (kahr´ne-əs) [L. carneus, from caro flesh]  fleshy.

Carnett's sign (Car·nett's sign) (kahr-nets´) [J.B. Carnett, American physician, 20th century]  see under sign.

Carney's complex (syndrome, triad) (Car·ney's complex (syndrome, triad)) (kahr´nēz) [J.A. Carney, American physician, 20th century]  see under complex.

carnification (car·ni·fi·ca·tion) (kahr”nĭ-fĭ-ka´shən) [L. caro, gen. carnis flesh + facere to make]  the change of tissue, such as that of the lungs, into a fleshy substance.

carnitine (car·ni·tine) (kahr´nĭ-tēn)  a betaine derivative found in skeletal muscle and liver; it is required for mitochondrial beta oxidation of fatty acids, carrying the acyl groups (fatty acids) across the mitochondrial membrane to the matrix, where they are transferred back to coenzyme A prior to oxidation. It has been used as an investigational antithyroid and antiangina agent.

carnitine acyltransferase (car·ni·tine ac·yl·trans·fer·ase) (kahr´nĭ-tēn a”səl-trans´fər-ās)  carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase.

carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase (car·ni·tine O-pal·mi·to·yl·trans·fer·ase) (kahr´nĭ-tēn pahl”mĭ-to”əl-trans´fər-ās)   [EC] an enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes the transfer between coenzyme A and carnitine of long chain fatty acids. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase I transfers the fatty acid to carnitine; the acyl carnitine can then traverse the inner mitochondrial membrane. Once in the matrix, the fatty acid is transferred from carnitine back to coenzyme A by carnitine palmitoyltransferase II; the resultant acyl coenzyme A is a substrate for oxidation. Deficiency of the enzyme is a cause of defective fatty acid oxidation. Written also carnitine palmityltransferase.

carnitine palmityltransferase deficiency (car·ni·tine pal·mi·tyl·trans·fer·ase de·fi·cien·cy) (kahr´nĭ-tēn pahl”mĭ-til-trans´fər-ās)  a disorder of lipid metabolism in which the altered enzyme is abnormally regulated, resulting in muscle aches, fatigability, and myoglobinuria, but without lipid accumulation, in the wake of prolonged exercise, particularly in the cold or after fasting. It is an autosomal recessive trait with reduced penetrance in women.

Carnitor (Car·ni·tor) (kahr´nĭ-tor)  trademark for preparations of levocarnitine.

Carnivora (Car·niv·o·ra) (kahr-niv´ə-rə) [L. caro flesh + vorare to devour]  an order of mammals that are primarily carnivorous, with teeth adapted for flesh eating, a simple stomach, and a short intestine. Included are the dog family, the cat family, bears, walruses, raccoons, and numerous others.

carnivore (car·ni·vore) (kahr´nĭ-vor)  an animal, especially members of the order Carnivora, that eats flesh.

carnivorous (car·niv·o·rous) (kahr-niv´ə-rəs)  eating or subsisting on flesh.

carnosinase (car·no·sin·ase) (kahr´no-sĭ-nās”)  X-His dipeptidase.

serum c. deficiency  an autosomal recessive aminoacidopathy of carnosine metabolism, due to deficiency of the serum isozyme of X-His dipeptidase; it is characterized by urinary excretion of carnosine and accumulation of homocarnosine in the cerebrospinal fluid and may cause myoclonic seizures, severe mental retardation, and spasticity. See also homocarnosinosis.

carnosine (car·no·sine) (kahr´no-sēn)  a dipeptide composed of β-alanine and histidine, in humans found in skeletal muscle and in the brain, particularly in the primary olfactory pathways. It may play a role as a neurotransmitter.

carnosinemia (car·no·si·ne·mia) (kahr”no-sĭ-ne´me-ə)  1. accumulation of carnosine in the blood.  2. former name for serum carnosinase deficiency.

carnosinuria (car·no·sin·u·ria) (kahr”no-sĭ-nu´re-ə)  urinary excretion of high levels of carnosine, such as occurs after ingestion of meat or fowl or in serum carnosinase deficiency.

carnosity (car·nos·i·ty) (kahr-nos´ĭ-te) [L. carnositas fleshiness]  any abnormal fleshy excrescence.

carob (car·ob) (kar´əb) [Ar. al kharrubah]  1. Ceratonia siliqua.  2. the finely pulverized meal of the dried ripe fruit of Ceratonia siliqua; it contains albuminous proteins, carbohydrates, and small amounts of fat and crude fiber, and is used in pharmaceutical formulations as an adsorbent and demulcent in treatment of diarrhea. Called also algaroba or algarroba, carob bean, and locust bean.

Caroli's disease (Ca·ro·li's disease) (kah-ro-lēz´) [Jacques Caroli, French physician, born 1902]  see under disease.

carotene (car·o·tene) (kar´ə-tēn) [L. carota carrot]  one of four isomeric pigments (α-, β-, γ-, and δ-carotene), having colors from violet to red-yellow to yellow, found in many dark green, leafy, and yellow vegetables (e.g., collards, turnips, carrots, sweet potatoes, and squash), and yellow fruit (e.g., apricots, oranges, peaches, and cantaloupes). They are fat-soluble, unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons that are converted to vitamin A in animals by an enzyme in the intestinal wall and the liver. β-Carotene is the major precursor (provitamin) of vitamin A in humans, although it is less well absorbed than is retinol. See also retinol equivalent, under equivalent.

beta c.  1. the β isomer of carotene (q.v.).  2.  [USP] a preparation of β-carotene, administered orally to prevent vitamin A deficiency and to reduce the severity of photosensitivity in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria. Written also β-carotene and betacarotene.

β-carotene 15,15´-dioxygenase (β-car·o·tene 15,15´-di·oxy·gen·ase) (kar´o-tēn di-ok´sĭ-jən-ās)   [EC] an enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of β-carotene in the intestinal mucosa, forming two molecules of all-trans retinal.

carotenemia (car·o·ten·emia) (kar”ə-tə-ne´me-ə)  hypercarotenemia.

carotenodermia (ca·rot·e·no·der·mia) (kə-rot”ə-no-dər´me-ə)  carotenosis.

carotenoid (ca·rot·e·noid) (kə-rot´ə-noid)  1. any group of pigments, yellow to deep red in color, chemically consisting of tetraterpene (polyisoprene) hydrocarbons. Carotenoids are synthesized by prokaryotes and higher plants, and they concentrate in animal fat when eaten (where they are called lipochromes). Examples are β-carotene, cryptoxanthin, lycopene, and xanthophyll.  2. marked by a yellow color.

provitamin A c.’s  carotenoids, particularly the carotenes and cryptoxanthin, that can be converted to vitamin A in the body; they are a major source of vitamin A in a normal diet.

carotenosis (car·o·te·no·sis) (kar”o-tə-no´sis)  the yellow discoloration of the skin occurring in hypercarotenemia. The palms, soles, and area behind the ears are most heavily pigmented, while the sclerae remain white.

caroticotympanic (ca·rot·i·co·tym·pan·ic) (kə-rot”ĭ-ko-tim-pan´ik)  pertaining to the carotid canal and the tympanum.

caroticovertebral (ca·rot·i·co·ver·te·bral) (kə-rot”ĭ-ko-vər´tə-brəl)  pertaining to or affecting the carotid and vertebral arteries.

carotid (ca·rot·id) (kə-rot´id) [Gr. karōtis, from karos deep sleep]  pertaining to the principal artery of the neck (arteria carotis communis).

carotidynia (ca·rot·i·dyn·ia) (kə-rot”ĭ-din´e-ə) [contracted form from carotid + -odynia]  episodic, usually unilateral neck pain with tenderness along the course of the common carotid artery.

carotodynia (ca·rot·o·dyn·ia) (kə-rot”o-din´e-ə)  carotidynia.

carp (carp) (kahrp) [Gr. karpos fruit]  a fruiting body of a fungus; see also ascocarp and basidiocarp.

carpal (car·pal) (kahr´pəl) [L. carpalis]  of or pertaining to the carpus, or wrist.

carpale (car·pa·le) (kahr-pa´le)  a carpal bone.

carpectomy (car·pec·to·my) (kahr-pek´tə-me) [carpus + Gr. ektomē excision]  excision of a carpal bone.

carpel (car·pel) (kahr´pəl)  a one-celled pistil, or one of the members composing a compound pistil or seed vessel.

Carpenter's syndrome (Car·pen·ter's syndrome) (kahr´pən-tərz) [George Carpenter, British physician, 1859–1910]  see under syndrome.

carphenazine maleate (car·phen·a·zine mal·e·ate) (kahr-fen´ə-zēn)  a phenothiazine antipsychotic agent used in the treatment of acute or chronic schizophrenic reactions in hospitalized patients, administered orally.

carphologia (car·pho·lo·gia) (kahr”fo-lo´jə)  floccillation.

carphology (car·phol·o·gy) (kahr-fol´ə-je) [Gr. karphologein to pick bits of wool off a person's coat]  floccillation.

carpitis (car·pi·tis) (kahr-pi´tis)  inflammation of the synovial membranes of the knee (carpal joint) of the horse, with swelling, pain, and lameness. Called also popped knee.

carpocarpal (car·po·car·pal) (kahr”po-kahr´pəl)  pertaining to two parts of the carpus, especially to the articulations between carpal bones.

Carpoglyphus (Car·po·gly·phus) (kahr”po-gli´fəs)  a genus of mites of the family Acaridae. Some species infest dried fruit and cause dermatitis in those who handle the fruit.

carpogonium (car·po·go·ni·um) (kahr”po-go´ne-əm)  1. the female sex organ (ascogonium) of members of the order Erysiphales.  2. the female sex organ of any of various algae.  3. ascogonium.

carpometacarpal (car·po·meta·car·pal) (kahr”po-met”ə-kahr´pəl)  pertaining to the carpus and metacarpus.

carpopedal (car·po·ped·al) (kahr”po-ped´əl) [carpus + pedal]  pertaining to or affecting the carpus and the foot, as carpopedal spasm.

carpophalangeal (car·po·pha·lan·ge·al) (kahr”po-fə-lan´je-əl)  pertaining to the carpus and the phalanges.

carpoptosis (car·pop·to·sis) (kahr”pop-to´sis) [carpus + ptosis]  wristdrop.

Carpue's operation, rhinoplasty (Car·pue's operation, rhinoplasty) (kahr´pūz) [Joseph Constantine Carpue, English surgeon, 1764–1846]  Indian rhinoplasty.

Carpule (Car·pule) (kahr´pūl)  trademark for a glass, rubber-stoppered cartridge containing local anesthetic solutions, fitted in a special syringe for hypodermic injection.

carpus (car·pus) (kahr´pəs) [L., from Gr. karpos]  1.  [TA] wrist: the joint between the forearm and hand, made up of eight bones (see ossa carpi, under os). See also articulatio radiocarpalis.  2. the region of the hand between the forearm and metacarpus.  3. the part of the forelimb of a quadruped that corresponds to this part in the human; called also knee and wrist.

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Carpus, viewed from the palmar aspect.

c. cur´vus  Madelung's deformity.

carrageen (car·ra·geen) (kar´ə-gēn)  1. Chondrus crispus.  2. chondrus (def. 2).

carrageenan (car·ra·gee·nan) (kar”ə-ge´nən) [Carragheen, village in southeastern Ireland]   [NF] a colloidal extractive derived from certain red marine algae, such as of the genera Chondrus, Eucheuma, and Gigartina, composed of a mixture of sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium salts of an acid sulfate of a galactose-containing polysaccharide. Used chiefly as a suspending agent in foods, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. Spelled also carrageenin, carragheenan, and carragheenin.

carrageenin (car·ra·gee·nin) (a kar”ə-gee´nən)  carrageenan.

carragheen (car·ra·gheen) (kar´ə-gēn)  1. Chondrus crispus.  2. chondrus (def. 2).

carragheenan (car·ra·ghee·nan) (kar”ə-gee´nən)  carrageenan.

carragheenin (car·ra·ghee·nin) (kar”ə-gee´nən)  carrageenan.

Carrel (Car·rel) (kah-rel´)  Alexis, 1873–1944. French surgeon in the United States; winner of the Nobel prize for medicine or physiology in 1912 for his work in suturing blood vessels, transfusion, and organ transplants.

Carrel's method, treatment (Car·rel's method, treatment) (kah-relz´) [A. Carrel]  see under method and treatment.

Carrel-Dakin fluid, treatment (Car·rel-Da·kin fluid, treatment) (kah-rel´ da´kin) [A. Carrel; Henry Drysdale Dakin, English chemist in United States, 1880–1952]  see Dakin's solution, under solution, and see under method .

carrier (car·ri·er) (kar´e-ər)  1. an instrument or apparatus for carrying something.  2. an individual who harbors the specific organisms of a disease without manifest symptoms and is capable of transmitting the infection; the condition of such an individual is referred to as the carrier state.  3. a chemical substance that can accept one or more electrons and then donate them to another substance (being reduced and then reoxidized). Called also electron carrier.  4. in genetics, an individual who is heterozygous for a recessive gene and thus does not express the recessive phenotype but can transmit it to offspring. Only females can be carriers of X-linked recessive traits.  5. a substance that carries a radioisotopic or other label, as in a tracer study. A second isotope mixed with a particular isotope is also referred to as a carrier; see carrier-free.  6. a transport protein that attaches to and carries a specific substance, particularly one that transports the substance across the cell membrane.  7. in immunology, a macromolecular substance to which a hapten is coupled in order to produce an immune response against the hapten, immune responses being usually produced only against large molecules capable of simultaneously binding both B cells and helper T cells. Called also Schlepper.

amalgam c.  an instrument for carrying freshly mixed amalgam to the prepared cavity.

electron c.  carrier (def. 3).

foil c.  see under passer.

gametocyte c.  in malaria, a person who has gametocytes in his blood stream and so can infect Anopheles mosquitoes that feed on him and thus transmit malaria.

lentulo paste c.  lentulo.

paste c.  lentulo.

carrier-free (car·ri·er-free) (kar´e-ər-fre)  a term denoting a radioisotope of an element in pure form, i.e., essentially undiluted with a stable isotope carrier.

Carrión's disease (Car·rión's disease) (kah-re-ōnz´) [Daniel A. Carrión, 1850–1885, Peruvian physician who inoculated himself and died of the disease]  bartonellosis.

carrot (car·rot) (kar´ət) [L. carota]  1. Daucus carota.  2. the orange or yellow root of D. carota, a food rich in vitamin A whose seed is diuretic and stimulant.

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