Elch Northeast Prussia 2000 Elk Antler





Pobethen (Samland): 14th c. Church. Click for Historic Picture.

CHRONOLOGY
Prussian Eagle

 

±1000 BC    

Pruzzian (Baltic) tribes between the lower Vistula and Memel rivers.

 

± 0 AD

Germanic tribes in the Vistula region.

± 960 AD

The name “Pruzzi” (Bruzi, Prusai) is first recorded. Vikings on the southern Baltic coast.

± 375

Amber Road from the Baltic to the Mediterranean; amber first mentioned by Pliny and Tacitus.

997

Saint Adalbert of Prague killed during a missionary journey to the Pruzzi.

1138

Poland disintegrates into separate principalities.

1190-91

3rd Crusade (Barbarossa). At Akkon (Palestine), merchants from Lübeck and Bremen donate a German hospital. Papal confirmation of the “Ordo domus Sanctae Mariae Teutonicorum”.

1198

The pope transforms the “Teutonic Order of St. Mary” into the spiritual “Order of German Knights”. Seat in Akkon.

1199

The pope gives the Order of German knights the Templars costume, but with a black cross on a white coat.

1202

Foundation of the “Brothers of the Knights in Service of Christ” (Order of the Brothers of the Sword) by Bishop Albert.

1217

Pope Honorius III calls for a crusade to the land of the Pruzzi.

1226

Konrad of Masowia asks the Order for help against the heathen Pruzzi. Beginning of the conquest of the land of the Pruzzi (until 1283).

1234

Pope Gregory IV hands the Kulmerland and parts of the land of the Pruzzi over to the Order, in eternal possession as “property of Saint Peter”.

1249

In the Treaty of Christburg the Pomesan, Ermland and Natangian Pruzzi recognise the dominance of the Order and pledge to convert to Christianity. The Order confirms the individual freedom of those christened.

1250

Foundation of the Ordensburg Balga.

1255

Foundation of the Königsberg castle, named in honour of the Bohemian King Ottokar II.

1260-1273

Large-scale revolts by the Pruzzi, ending with their final submission: the Pruzzi get a diminished right, which sets them off from the Germans.

1283

Sudauen falls, as last Pruzzian district.

1286

Königsberg gets city rights.

1289

Foundation of the castle Landeshut on the Memel (Ragnit).

1295

Final Pruzzian revolts.

1325

The Order chronicler Peter von Dusburg writes his “Chronicon terrae Pruzziae”, the first historical work about the land of the Pruzzi.

1327

Establishment of the königsberger Kneiphof. Fights between Poland and the Order.

1330-80

Building of the Königsberg cathedral.

1339

Königsberg-Altstadt joins the Hanse.

1351-82

Economic and political blossoming of the Order under Grand Master Winrich von Kniprode.

1370

Order Marshal Henning Schindekopp defeats the Lithuanians at Rudau. The Hanse is at its zenith.

1386

Marriage of Lithuanian Grand Duke Yagiello with Hedwig (Yadwiga) of Poland. Yagiello converts to Christianity.

1400

Couronians immigrate to northern Samland and on the Couronian Spit.

1402

The Order buys the Neumark from Brandenburg, major expansion of the Order State.

1407-11

Grand Master Ulrich von Jungingen. Decline in foreign policy of the Order state.

1409

Declaration of War with Poland.

1410

Devastating defeat of the Order by a Polish-Lithuanian army in the battle of Tannenberg and Grünfelde.

1411

1st Peace of Thorn. The Order keeps its whole territory with the exception of Schamaiten.

1414-1422

Battles between the Order and Poland.

1422

Peace of Meldensee. Border demarcation between the Prussian and Polish-Lithuanian territories. In future, the Order of German Knights will only hold those areas which once belonged to the Pruzzi.

1440

Union of the Aristocracy and the Cities in the “Prussian Union”, submission to Poland.

1441

Prussian cities rebel against the Order.

1450 –

Immigration of Lithuanians into the Memelland.

1453-66

“13-Year-War” between the Order and the “Prussian Union”, which had subordinated itself to Poland.

1455

The Neumark returns to Brandenburg.

1457

The Marienburg is lost by the Order and from 1466 becomes residence of the Polish Kings. The residence of the Grand Master is moved to the Königsberg castle.

1466

Kazimir IV of Poland defeats the Order; 2nd Peace of Thorn.

1511

Markgraf Albrecht von Brandenburg-Ansbach becomes Grand Master.

1519

Final war of the Order with Poland, vain attempt of Albrecht to shake off Polish sovereignty.

1523

First Evangelic sermons in Königsberg cathedral.

1525

Peace of Krakau: the Order State is transformed into a worldly Hohenzollern Duchy, with Königsberg as its capital. Prussian peasants’ revolt.

1545

Weinreich prints his Pruzzian-language catechism.

1601/02

Plague epidemic in Königsberg claims 12.000 dead.

1618

Personal union of Prussia with Brandenburg, after the extinction of the Prussian line of the Hohenzollerns.

1621-35

Swedish-Polish wars. Lithuanians move into the Memelland.

1656

Tatar incursions into East Prussia.

1657

The Elector of Brandenburg defects from the Swedish over to the Polish-Danish side. Polish sovereignty over Prussia expires with the Treaty of Wehlau.

1660

The Peace of Oliva ends the war between Poland and Sweden. Poland keeps West Prussia. Confirmation of the sovereignty of Prussia.

1677

Last speaker of the Prussian language dies.

1678-79

Sweden invades East Prussia and threatens Königsberg. Peace of Saint-Germain.

1685

Around 20.000 Huguenots immigrate to Prussia.

1700-1721

Nordic war.

1701

In Königsberg, Elector Frederick III of Brandenburg is crowned as Frederick I, King in Prussia, against objections of the Pope. The province gives her name to the whole Brandenburg-Prussian state.

1708-11

The plague rages in East Prussia, taking about one half million human lives.

1714

Settlements of French, Swiss and Lithuanians.

1715

Prussia enters into the Nordic war against Sweden.

1724-1804

Immanuel Kant, philosopher in Königsberg.

1732

Immigration of Religious refugees from Salzburg (Austria). Establishment of the stud Trakehnen.

1756-63

Seven-Year-War, East Prussia 1758-62 under Russian occupation.

1772

1st Division of Poland: East and West Prussia are united, bridging the gap between Brandenburg and East Prussia.

1806

Napoleon defeats Prussia near Jena and Auerstedt. Poland occupies “Southern Prussia”. Flight of the Royal Family from Königsberg to Memel.

1807 –

Battle of Preussisch-Eylau, followed by the Battle of Friedland. Fall of Königsberg. Peace of Tilsit. Napoleon creates the Duchy of Warsaw. Abolition of hereditary bondage of the farmers and of aristocratic privileges. Cities are given autonomy.

1809

Napoleon dissolves the German Order.

1812

Prussia participates in Napoleon’s Russian campaign. General Yorck concludes armistice with the Russians (convention of Tauroggen).

1813

German War of Liberation, Königsberg starting point of the Prussian uprising. Battle of Nations near Leipzig.

1816

“German Union” under Austrian leadership. East Prussia has 886.000 inhabitants.

1824-78

East Prussia and West Prussia are combined as the Province of Prussia.

1848

German National Assembly in the Pauluskirche. East Prussia joins the German Union.

1864

Prussian-Danish war.

1866

Prussian-Austrian war.

1871

Prussia becomes part of the new German Empire.

1875 –

East Prussia and West Prussia lose about 1,3 million people through migration to western parts of the German Empire.

1910

East Prussia has now about 2 million inhabitants.

1914-15 –

As only German province East Prussia is a war zone.

1919 –

Treaty of Versailles: East Prussia is separated from the empire by the “Polish Corridor”.

1923

Lithuania annexes the Memelland.

1926-38

State of War in the Memelland.

1934

Conclusion of the German-Polish non-aggression treaty.

1938

The names of many East Prussian towns and villages are “Germanised”, ranging from simple modification (Tolkemingken-Tolkehmen) to translation (Pillkallen-Schlossberg) or even something completely unrelated (Stallupönen-Ebenrode).

1939

The Memelland returns to East Prussia, Lithuania gets preferential rights in the Memel harbour.

After the beginning of the Second World War recovery of West Prussia. Danzig proclaims union with the Empire; the land-road to East Prussia is opened by German troops. In East Prussia live about 2,5 million Germans.

1944

Attack of the Soviet air force on Tilsit, invasion of the Red army into East Prussia. Complete destruction of Königsberg city centre by the British air force. Beginning of evacuation of the population.

1945

Flight of the East Prussian population. Breakdown of the Vistula front. Surrender of the “Fortress” Königsberg, taken by the Red army. In the Potsdam agreement the USA and Great Britain divide East Prussia into two administrative districts, awaiting a final regulation by peace treaty.

The south comes under Polish administration; the northern part comes under Soviet rule. The border runs south of the 54th latitude. Start of the eviction of the German population from the Prussian territories (1,2 million people altogether).

1946

The Memelland is given to the Lithuanian Soviet Republic, the at first named Kënigsbergskaya Oblast, then Kaliningradskaya Oblast, is officially annexed to the Russian Soviet Republic.

All towns and villages are re-named, most new names completely unrelated to the old ones, with very few exceptions (such as Schillen-Zhilino, Taplacken-Talpaki or Domnau-Domnovo).

1947

The Prussian state is dissolved by declaration of the USA, Great Britain, France and the Soviet Union.

1948

Expulsion of the last Königsbergers.

1967-69

Demolition of the remains of Königsberg Castle.

1991

After the breakdown of the Soviet Union and the formation of new independent states, northern East Prussia has no direct connection to Russia anymore. President Boris Yeltsin agrees to the plan to convert the Territory of Kaliningrad (Königsberg) into the foreign trade zone “Yantar” (Amber).