Pruzzian (Baltic) tribes between the lower Vistula and Memel rivers.
± 0 AD
Germanic tribes in the Vistula region.
± 960 AD
The name “Pruzzi” (Bruzi, Prusai) is first recorded. Vikings on the southern Baltic coast.
Amber Road from the Baltic to the Mediterranean; amber first mentioned by Pliny and Tacitus.
Saint Adalbert of Prague killed during a missionary journey to the Pruzzi.
Poland disintegrates into separate principalities.
3rd Crusade (Barbarossa). At Akkon (Palestine), merchants from Lübeck and Bremen donate a German hospital. Papal confirmation of the “Ordo domus Sanctae Mariae Teutonicorum”.
The pope transforms the “Teutonic Order of St. Mary” into the spiritual “Order of German Knights”. Seat in Akkon.
The pope gives the Order of German knights the Templars costume, but with a black cross on a white coat.
Foundation of the “Brothers of the Knights in Service of Christ” (Order of the Brothers of the Sword) by Bishop Albert.
Pope Honorius III calls for a crusade to the land of the Pruzzi.
Konrad of Masowia asks the Order for help against the heathen Pruzzi. Beginning of the conquest of the land of the Pruzzi (until 1283).
Pope Gregory IV hands the Kulmerland and parts of the land of the Pruzzi over to the Order, in eternal possession as “property of Saint Peter”.
In the Treaty of Christburg the Pomesan, Ermland and Natangian Pruzzi recognise the dominance of the Order and pledge to convert to Christianity. The Order confirms the individual freedom of those christened.
Foundation of the Ordensburg Balga.
Foundation of the Königsberg castle, named in honour of the Bohemian King Ottokar II.
Large-scale revolts by the Pruzzi, ending with their final submission: the Pruzzi get a diminished right, which sets them off from the Germans.
Sudauen falls, as last Pruzzian district.
Königsberg gets city rights.
Foundation of the castle Landeshut on the Memel (Ragnit).
Final Pruzzian revolts.
The Order chronicler Peter von Dusburg writes his “Chronicon terrae Pruzziae”, the first historical work about the land of the Pruzzi.
Establishment of the königsberger Kneiphof. Fights between Poland and the Order.
Building of the Königsberg cathedral.
Königsberg-Altstadt joins the Hanse.
Economic and political blossoming of the Order under Grand Master Winrich von Kniprode.
Order Marshal Henning Schindekopp defeats the Lithuanians at Rudau. The Hanse is at its zenith.
Marriage of Lithuanian Grand Duke Yagiello with Hedwig (Yadwiga) of Poland. Yagiello converts to Christianity.
The Order buys the Neumark from Brandenburg, major expansion of the Order State.
Grand Master Ulrich von Jungingen. Decline in foreign policy of the Order state.
Declaration of War with Poland.
Devastating defeat of the Order by a Polish-Lithuanian army in the battle of Tannenberg and Grünfelde.
1st Peace of Thorn. The Order keeps its whole territory with the exception of Schamaiten.
Battles between the Order and Poland.
Peace of Meldensee. Border demarcation between the Prussian and Polish-Lithuanian territories. In future, the Order of German Knights will only hold those areas which once belonged to the Pruzzi.
Union of the Aristocracy and the Cities in the “Prussian Union”, submission to Poland.
Prussian cities rebel against the Order.
Immigration of Lithuanians into the Memelland.
“13-Year-War” between the Order and the “Prussian Union”, which had subordinated itself to Poland.
The Neumark returns to Brandenburg.
The Marienburg is lost by the Order and from 1466 becomes residence of the Polish Kings. The residence of the Grand Master is moved to the Königsberg castle.
Kazimir IV of Poland defeats the Order; 2nd Peace of Thorn.
Markgraf Albrecht von Brandenburg-Ansbach becomes Grand Master.
Final war of the Order with Poland, vain attempt of Albrecht to shake off Polish sovereignty.
First Evangelic sermons in Königsberg cathedral.
Peace of Krakau: the Order State is transformed into a worldly Hohenzollern Duchy, with Königsberg as its capital. Prussian peasants’ revolt.
Weinreich prints his Pruzzian-language catechism.
Plague epidemic in Königsberg claims 12.000 dead.
Personal union of Prussia with Brandenburg, after the extinction of the Prussian line of the Hohenzollerns.
Swedish-Polish wars. Lithuanians move into the Memelland.
Tatar incursions into East Prussia.
The Elector of Brandenburg defects from the Swedish over to the Polish-Danish side. Polish sovereignty over Prussia expires with the Treaty of Wehlau.
The Peace of Oliva ends the war between Poland and Sweden. Poland keeps West Prussia. Confirmation of the sovereignty of Prussia.
Last speaker of the Prussian language dies.
Sweden invades East Prussia and threatens Königsberg. Peace of Saint-Germain.
Around 20.000 Huguenots immigrate to Prussia.
In Königsberg, Elector Frederick III of Brandenburg is crowned as Frederick I, King in Prussia, against objections of the Pope. The province gives her name to the whole Brandenburg-Prussian state.
The plague rages in East Prussia, taking about one half million human lives.
Settlements of French, Swiss and Lithuanians.
Prussia enters into the Nordic war against Sweden.
Immanuel Kant, philosopher in Königsberg.
Immigration of Religious refugees from Salzburg (Austria). Establishment of the stud Trakehnen.
Seven-Year-War, East Prussia 1758-62 under Russian occupation.
1st Division of Poland: East and West Prussia are united, bridging the gap between Brandenburg and East Prussia.
Napoleon defeats Prussia near Jena and Auerstedt. Poland occupies “Southern Prussia”. Flight of the Royal Family from Königsberg to Memel.
Battle of Preussisch-Eylau, followed by the Battle of Friedland. Fall of Königsberg. Peace of Tilsit. Napoleon creates the Duchy of Warsaw. Abolition of hereditary bondage of the farmers and of aristocratic privileges. Cities are given autonomy.
Napoleon dissolves the German Order.
Prussia participates in Napoleon’s Russian campaign. General Yorck concludes armistice with the Russians (convention of Tauroggen).
German War of Liberation, Königsberg starting point of the Prussian uprising. Battle of Nations near Leipzig.
“German Union” under Austrian leadership. East Prussia has 886.000 inhabitants.
East Prussia and West Prussia are combined as the Province of Prussia.
German National Assembly in the Pauluskirche. East Prussia joins the German Union.
Prussia becomes part of the new German Empire.
East Prussia and West Prussia lose about 1,3 million people through migration to western parts of the German Empire.
East Prussia has now about 2 million inhabitants.
As only German province East Prussia is a war zone.
Treaty of Versailles: East Prussia is separated from the empire by the “Polish Corridor”.
Lithuania annexes the Memelland.
State of War in the Memelland.
Conclusion of the German-Polish non-aggression treaty.
The names of many East Prussian towns and villages are “Germanised”, ranging from simple modification (Tolkemingken-Tolkehmen) to translation (Pillkallen-Schlossberg) or even something completely unrelated (Stallupönen-Ebenrode).
The Memelland returns to East Prussia, Lithuania gets preferential rights in the Memel harbour.
After the beginning of the Second World War recovery of West Prussia. Danzig proclaims union with the Empire; the land-road to East Prussia is opened by German troops. In East Prussia live about 2,5 million Germans.
Attack of the Soviet air force on Tilsit, invasion of the Red army into East Prussia. Complete destruction of Königsberg city centre by the British air force. Beginning of evacuation of the population.
Flight of the East Prussian population. Breakdown of the Vistula front. Surrender of the “Fortress” Königsberg, taken by the Red army. In the Potsdam agreement the USA and Great Britain divide East Prussia into two administrative districts, awaiting a final regulation by peace treaty.
The south comes under Polish administration; the northern part comes under Soviet rule. The border runs south of the 54th latitude. Start of the eviction of the German population from the Prussian territories (1,2 million people altogether).
|1946||The Memelland is given to the Lithuanian Soviet Republic, the at first named Kënigsbergskaya Oblast, then Kaliningradskaya Oblast, is officially annexed to the Russian Soviet Republic. |
All towns and villages are re-named, most new names completely unrelated to the old ones, with very few exceptions (such as Schillen-Zhilino, Taplacken-Talpaki or Domnau-Domnovo).
The Prussian state is dissolved by declaration of the USA, Great Britain, France and the Soviet Union.
Expulsion of the last Königsbergers.
Demolition of the remains of Königsberg Castle.
After the breakdown of the Soviet Union and the formation of new independent states, northern East Prussia has no direct connection to Russia anymore. President Boris Yeltsin agrees to the plan to convert the Territory of Kaliningrad (Königsberg) into the foreign trade zone “Yantar” (Amber).