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SAIN Invasive Plant Pests Resource Collection for Verbascum thapsus

Common name: Common mullein

Title: The advantage of being tall: Higher flowers receive more pollen in Verbascum thapsus L. (Scrophulariaceae).
Author: Lortie,-C.J.; Aarssen,-L.W.
Source: Ecoscience 1999 vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 68-71.
Source Type: Journal
Publication Date: 1999
Abstract: The effective pollination hypothesis predicts that the primary fitness advantage of tall height affected by apical dominance is the ability to attract pollinators away from other plants and hence promote outcrossing. In this study, we tested whether taller plants of Verbascum thapsus are better competitors for pollinator service than shorter plants. Pollinator preference was estimated by pollen deposition on stigmas. Within each of six populations, the ten tallest and ten shortest plants were selected, and from each plant the stigma was collected from the highest open flower and from the lowest open flower on the inflorescence spike. In all six populations, pollen deposition was significantly greater on stigmas from taller plants and from flowers at the top of inflorescences. Taller plants also had more open flowers. These data indicate that pollinators are attracted to taller plants, or plants with more open flowers. Field observations did not suggest that the greater pollen deposition on higher flowers within a spike was a consequence of directional pollinator foraging. These results provide preliminary support for the effective pollination hypothesis and provide a strong basis for further studies regarding the selective advantage of apical dominance in plants.

Title: Effects of Shoot Apex Removal and Fruit Herbivory on Branching, Biomass and Reproduction in Verbascum thapsus (Scrophulariaceae).
Author: Naber, Allanah C. Aarssen, Lonnie W.
Source: The american midland naturalist. JUL 01 1998 v 140 n 1 42.
Source Type: Journal
Publication Date: 1998
Abstract: NA

Title: Pollination in Verbascum thapsus (Scrophulariaceae): the advantage of being tall.
Author: Donnelly, S.E., Lortie, C.J., and Aarssen, L.W.
Source: American journal of botany. Nov 1998. v. 85 (11) p. 1618-1625.
Source Type: Journal
Publication Date: 1998
Abstract: According to the "effective pollination" hypothesis, tall stature resulting from strong apical dominance attracts greater pollinator visitation, thus allowing larger pollen loads and/or greater outcrossing rates, which in turn produces more vigorous offspring with greater genotypic variability and/or less inbreeding depression. Components of this hypothesis were tested in Verbascum thapsus, which commonly grows unbranched to over 2 m tall with strong apical dominance suppressing all axillary meristems. A natural population survey indicated that plants with visiting pollinators were significantly taller than their nearest neighboring individuals not possessing a visiting pollinator. Plants in natural populations with excluded pollinators produced seeds via a delayed selfing mechanism. However, delayed selfing under pollinator exclusion resulted in only 75% of the seed set obtained with natural pollinators. Under natural pollination, emasculated flowers experienced a 50% reduction in pollen deposition by the time of flower closure but only a 5% reduction in seed set relative to intact flowers. Hence, taller plants attracted more pollinators and maximum seed set could not be achieved without pollinators. Comparison of seed set and seed mass in plants that were artificially selfed and artificially crossed (in both the greenhouse and in natural populations) indicated that plants were fully self-compatible with no evidence of early-acting inbreeding depression. However, this does not exclude the possibility that inbreeding depression is manifested in later life stages. The results suggest that V. thapsus has a mixed mating system with potential for reproductive assurance and various levels

Title: Soil seed bank dynamics in relation to topographic position of a mixed-deciduous forest in southern New England, USA.
Author: Ashton-P-M-S {a}; Harris-P-G; Thadani-R.
Source: Forest-Ecology-and-Management. Nov. 2, 1998; 111 (1) 15-22.
Source Type: Journal
Publication Date: 1998
Abstract: We examined the floristic significance of soil seed banks in relation to valley, midslope and ridge sites in a 70-90-year old forest in northeastern Connecticut. A-horizon mineral soils were collected to 5 cm depth in the early spring from forest understory sites across the topography. Samples from each of the sites were exposed to full sun within a greenhouse. Records of germination were made at regular intervals over a 60-day period. These showed significant differences among sites in number of species and total number of germinants. Greatest numbers of species and germinants were recorded from valley sites and these progressively declined from midslope to ridgetop. Twenty-five different species were identified. Species were grouped into growth habits - graminoids, herbs, shrubs, trees, and vines. Over 61% of all germinants across all sites were graminoids. Seventy-four percent of all germinants in the valley sites were graminoids, with over 93% of them represented by two sedge species, Carex glaucodea and C. lupulina. On the ridgetop sites graminoids were more evenly distributed among six different species. The percentage in each growth habit changed rank across topographic position with germinants of graminoids and trees most abundant on valley sites; herbs, on midslopes, and shrubs, on ridgetops. All germinants, except for those of the trees, Carex spp., and two herb species were weedy species that were not characteristic of the existing vegetation. Germinants of the trees, Carex spp., and herbs that were characteristic of the existing vegetation were mostly confined to soils from the valley sites. Two weedy herbs, Plantago major and Verbascum thapsus, are exotic introductions that originally came from Europe. Only one vine, Vitis aestivalis, from a midslope site germinated. Species diversity is higher on midslope sites than valleys and ridgetops. The significance of these findings in relation to site productivity and disturbance history is disucssed.

Title: The effect of enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation on germination and seedling development of plant species occurring in a dune ecosystem.
Author: Tosserams, M., Bolink, E., and Rozema, J.
Source: Plant ecology. Jan/Feb 1997. v. 128 (1/2) p. 138-147.
Source Type: Journal
Publication Date: 1997
Abstract: Paper presented at the international workshop on "UV-B and Biosphere", held December 15-18, 1995 in Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Title: Apical dominance as an adaptation in Verbascum thapsus: effects of water and nutrients on branching.
Author: Lortie, C.J., and Aarssen, L.W.
Source: International journal of plant sciences. July 1997. v. 158 (4) p. 461-464.
Source Type: Journal
Publication Date: 1997
Abstract: NA

Title: Seed longevity of 41 weed species buried 17 years in eastern and western Nebraska.
Author: Burnside-Orvin-C {a}; Wilson-Robert-G; Weisberg-Sanford; Hubbard-Kenneth-G.
Source: Weed-Science. 1996; 44 (1) 74-86.
Source Type: Journal
Publication Date: 1996
Abstract: Seed of 41 economically important weed species of the Great Plains region of the United States were buried 20 cm deep in soil in eastern and western Nebraska in 1976. The 41 species consisted of 11 annual grass, 14 annual broadleaf, 4 biennial broadleaf, and 12 perennial broadleaf species. Weed seeds were exhumed annually for germination tests the first 9 yr, then after 12 and 17 yr. Germination percentages at the two burial locations averaged over 0, 1 to 4, 5 to 8, and 9 to 17 yr of burial were 57, 28, 9, and 4% for annual grass; 47,26, 16, and 11% for annual broadleaf; 52, 49, 44, and 30% for biennial broadleaf; 36, 18, 13, and 8% for perennial broadleaf; and 47, 26, 16, and 10% for all 41 weed species, respectively. Biennial broadleaf weeds showed the greatest seed germination over years. Annual grass weeds showed less seed germinability over 17 yr of burial than annual broadleaf weeds and perennial broadleaf weed species were intermediate. Weed seed germinability in soil was greater in the reduced rainfall and more moderate soil temperatures of western Nebraska than in the greater rainfall and more fluctuating soil temperatures of eastern Nebraska. The greatest seed survival among the 41 weed species was shown by common mullein, which had 95% germination after 17 yr of burial in western Nebraska. Decay rates of individual weed species in soil will be of most value to weed scientists, agriculturalists, and modelers evaluating past or designing future weed management systems.

Title: Some interesting plant records after a gap of more than one century from the district of Lucknow, U.P.
Author: Singh-S-C.
Source: Journal-of-Economic-and-Taxonomic-Botany. 1995; 19 (2) 419-424.
Source Type: Journal
Publication Date: 1995
Abstract: NA

Title: Two new combinations in Verbascum subsect. fasciculata Murbeck (Scrophulariaceae) of southwestern Iberian Peninsula: Verbascum thapsus subsp. litigiosum (Samp.), comb. and stat. nov., and Verbascum thapsus subsp. martinezii (Valdes), comb. nov.
Author: Galan-De-Mera-Antonio; Orellana-Jose-Alfredo-Vicentre.
Source: Anales-del-Jardin-Botanico-de-Madrid. 1995; 53 (2) 261-262. 1995 Spanish; Non-English
Source Type: Journal
Publication Date: 1995
Abstract: NA

Title: Comparative study of life histories, laboratory rearing, and immature stages of Euschistus servus and Euschistus variolarius (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).
Author: Munyaneza-Joseph; McPherson-J-E.
Source: Great-Lakes-Entomologist. 1994; 26 (4) 263-274.
Source Type: Journal
Publication Date: 1994
Abstract: A comparative study was conducted of the field life histories of Euschistus servus and E. variolarius in southern Illinois, their life cycles under controlled laboratory conditions, and their immature stages. The results indicate that E. servus is bivoltine and E. variolarius is univoltine. Adults of both species emerged from overwintering sites during early April, began feeding and copulating on leaves of common mullein (Verbascum thapsus) and surrounding vegetation, and reproduced shortly thereafter. Neither eggs and first instars of either species, nor second instars of E. variolarius, were collected in the field. Seasonal occurrences of the adults and subsequent immature stages are discussed for each species. No individuals were found after the first week of November. Both species were reared on green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) under a 16L:8D photoperiod and constant temperature of 23 +- 0.06 degree C. The incubation period averaged 5.8 days for E. servus and 5.4 days for E. variolarius. Durations of the 5 subsequent stadia averaged, respectively, 5, 6, 6.7, 9.3, and 11. 5 days for E. servus, and 4.9, 5.7, 7.8, 9.7, and 13.3 days for E. variolarius. Comparisons of incubation period and stadia between the two species showed that only the stadia for the first instars were not statistically different. Total developmental period was longer for E. variolarius than for E. servus. The external anatomy of the egg and each of the five nymphal instars is described for each species.

Title: Vegetation must obey the predetermined plan of nature (as exemplified by Verbascum in the "Puna" Hawaii Islands).
Author: Kloetzli-F.
Source: Phytocoenologia-. 1994; 24 (0) 667-675.
Source Type: Journal
Publication Date: 1994
Abstract: Occurring under Puna-like living conditions on the saddle of Big Island (Hawai'i) a modified form of Verbascum thapsus L. is quite frequent. In a convergent way it is then rather similar physiognomically to the Silverswords (Argyroxipbium). This fact is significant for the rule that appropriate construction plans of life forms may serve as an example for adaptive neophytes.

Title: Estimating the composition of a forest seed bank: A comparison of the seed extraction and seedling emergence methods.
Author: Brown-Doug.
Source: Canadian-Journal-of-Botany. 1992; 70 (8) 1603-1612.
Source Type: Journal
Publication Date: 1992
Abstract: The composition of a forest seed bank was estimated using two methods: (i) seed extraction, i.e., the physical separation of the seeds from the soil via flotation in a salt solution, and (ii) seedling emergence, i.e., the germination of seedlings from soil samples incubated under greenhouse conditions for 5 months. The extraction method predicted a density of 12 500 seeds cntdot m-2, while the emergence method detected 3800 emergents cntdot m-2. There was considerable disparity in species composition derived from the two methods. The extraction method identified 102 different taxa, with 22 species making up 99% of the seeds and 5.6 +- 0.2 species per sample. In contrast, the emergence technique identified fewer species (60) but had more species per sample (7.6 +- 0.2). Eleven species made up 99% of the emergents. Verbascum thapsus represented 34% of the seedlings in the emergence study but only 1% of the extracted seeds. Members of the Polygonaceae represented 19% of the extracted seeds but less than 1% of the seedling emergents. No tree or shrub species were found with the emergence method, although they represented 8% of the extracted seeds. There was a poor correlation between the estimates of species number, seed density, and diversity obtained from the two methods. The seed extraction method had considerably higher variability for these parameters. It is apparent from this study that the seedling emergence and seed extraction methodologies do not produce similar estimates of the seed bank composition. The differences are such that comparisons should not be drawn between studies using the different methods. Careful considerations should be given to both the objectives of the seed bank study and the relevant literature prior to the selection of an appropriate method.

Title: The role of light and water in the establishment of mullein (Verbascum sinaiticum and V. fruticulosum) in a gravel wadi bed.
Author: Porath, D.
Source: Journal of arid environments. Apr 1992. v. 22 (3)
Source Type: Journal
Publication Date: 1992
Abstract: NA

Title: Differential mechanical defense: Herbivory, evapotranspiration, and leaf-hairs.
Author: Woodman,-R.L.; Fernandes,-G.W.
Source: OIKOS. 1991. vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 11-19.
Source Type: Journal
Publication Date: 1991
Abstract: NA

Title: Common mullein--the roadside torch parade.
Author: Mitich, L.W.
Source: Weed technology : a journal of the Weed Science Society of America. Oct/Dec 1989. v. 3 (4) p. 704-705. ill.
Source Type: Journal
Publication Date: 1989
Abstract: NA

Title: Weeds of Kentucky and Adjacent States.
Author: Haragan, Patricia D.
Source: Lexington, KY: The Univ. Press of Kentucky; 1991: 136-7. Martin, Alexander C. 1987. A Golden Guide: Weeds. Golden Press, New York, p. 106.
Source Type: Book
Publication Date: 1987
Abstract: NA

Title: Dormancy phases in seeds of Verbascum thapsus L.
Author: Vanlerberghe, K.A., and Van Assche, J.A.
Source: Oecologia. 1986. v. 68 (3) p. 479-480.
Source Type: Journal
Publication Date: 1986
Abstract: NA

Title: The responses of Cynoglossum officinale L. and Verbascum thapsus L. to defoliation in relation to nitrogen supply.
Author: Verkaar, H.J. and Breebaart, L.
Source: The New phytologist. Sept 1986. v. 104 (1) p. 121-129.
Source Type: Journal
Publication Date: 1986
Abstract: NA

Title: The Bradley Method of eliminating exotic plants from natural reserves.
Author: Cappelletti, E.M. Caniato, R. Fuller, T.C. and G.D. Barbe.
Source: Fremontia 13(2):24-26.
Source Type: Journal
Publication Date: 1985
Abstract: NA

Title: Effects of seed size and growth form on seedling establishment of six monocarpic perennial plants.
Author: Gross, K.L.
Source: J. Ecology 72:369-387.
Source Type: Journal
Publication Date: 1984
Abstract: NA

Title: Life history variation of common mullein (Verbascum thapsus). I. Latitudinal differences in population dynamics and timing of reproduction [Northern (southern Canada) and southern (southern Texas and Georgia) limits of its range].
Author: Reinartz, J.A.
Source: Journal of ecology. Nov 1984. v. 72 (3) p. 897-912. ill., maps.
Source Type: Journal
Publication Date: 1984
Abstract: NA

Title: Pesticide Background statements. Vol. I.
Author: USDA.
Source: Herbicides. Agricultural handbook #633. U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
Source Type: Book
Publication Date: 1984
Abstract: NA

Title: Life history variation of common mullein (Verbascum thapsus). II. Plant size, biomass partitioning and morphology [from southern Canada to southern Texas].
Author: Reinartz, J.A.
Source: Journal of ecology. Nov 1984. v. 72 (3) p. 913-925
Source Type: Journal
Publication Date: 1984
Abstract: J

Title: Using goats for brush control.
Author: Daar, S.
Source: The IPM Practitioner 5(4):4-6.
Source Type: Journal
Publication Date: 1983
Abstract: NA

Title: On the comparative allocation of biomass, energy, and nutrients in plants _Solidago; Verbascum thapsus_..
Author: Abrahamson, W.G., and Caswell, H.
Source: Ecology : a publication of the Ecological Society of America. Aug 1982. v. 63 (4) p. 982-991. 2 p. ref.
Source Type: Journal
Publication Date: 1982
Abstract: NA

Title: Colonizing abilities of "biennial" plant species in relation to ground cover: implications for their distributions in a successional sere.
Author: Gross, K.L. and P.A. Werner.
Source: Ecology 63(4):921-931.
Source Type: Journal
Publication Date: 1982
Abstract: NA

Title: Predictions of fate from rosette size in four "biennial" plant species: Verbascum thapsus, Oenothera biennis, Daucus carota, and Tragopogon dubius.
Author: Gross, K.L.
Source: Oecologia (Berlin) 48:209-213.
Source Type: Journal
Publication Date: 1981
Abstract: NA

Title: The one hundred-year period for Dr. Beal's seed viability experiment.
Author: Kivilaan, A. and R.S. Bandurski.
Source: Amer. J. Botany 68(9):1290-1292.
Source Type: Journal
Publication Date: 1981
Abstract: NA

Title: Seasonal changes in germination responses of buried seeds of Verbascum thapsus and V. blattaria and ecological implications.
Author: Baskin, J.M. and C.C. Baskin.
Source: Can. J. Bot. 59:
Source Type: Journal
Publication Date: 1981
Abstract: NA

Title: Cucullia verbasci an Agent for the Biological Control of Common Mullein (Verbascum thapsus).
Author: Maw, M.G.
Source: Weed Sci. 28(1): 27-30; 1980.
Source Type: Journal
Publication Date: 1980
Abstract: NA

Title: Colonization by Verbascum thapsus (mullein) of an old-field in Michigan: experiments on the effects of vegetation.
Author: Gross, K.L.
Source: J. Ecology 68:919-927.
Source Type: Journal
Publication Date: 1980
Abstract: NA

Title: Untitled. Unpublished manuscript.
Author: Andres, L.
Source: Copy on file with the Western Regional Office of The Nature Conservancy, 785 Market Street, 3rd Floor, San Francisco, CA 94103.
Source Type: Report
Publication Date: 1979
Abstract: NA

Title: Influence of Light and Temperature on the Germination and Seedbed Ecology of Common Mullein (Verbascum thapsus).
Author: Semenza, R. J., J. A. Young, and R. A. Evans.
Source: Weed Sci. 26(6): 577-81; 1978.
Source Type: Journal
Publication Date: 1978
Abstract: NA

Title: The biology of Canadian weeds: Verbascum thapsus and V. BLATTERIA.
Author: Gross, K.L. and P.A. Werner.
Source: Can. J. Plant Science 58:401-413.
Source Type: Journal
Publication Date: 1978
Abstract: NA

Title: Temperature relations of photosynthetic response in populations of Verbascum thapsus.
Author: Williams, G.J. and P.R. Kemp.
Source: Oecologia (Berlin) 25:47-54.
Source Type: Journal
Publication Date: 1976
Abstract: NA

Title: Tebuthiuron, a new herbicide for total vegetation control.
Author: Lade, D.H., J.L. Barrentine, L.D. Dohner, C.D. Hobbs, J.A. Keaton, J.L. Pafford, J.C. Walker, and J.H. Watson.
Source: Pp. 266-269 in Proc. 27th Annual Meeting Southern Weed Science Society.
Source Type: Paper
Publication Date: 1974
Abstract: NA

Title: Weed biology and control.
Author: Muzik, T.J.
Source: McGraw-Hill, NY.
Source Type: Book
Publication Date: 1970
Abstract: NA

Title: Index of plant diseases.
Author: USDA.
Source: Agricultural handbook #165. U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
Source Type: Book
Publication Date: 1960
Abstract: NA

Title: Plant disease handbook.
Author: Westcott, C.L.
Source: P. Van Nostrand Co., Inc., Princeton, NJ.
Source Type: Book
Publication Date: 1960
Abstract: NA

Title: Just weeds.
Author: Spencer, E.R.
Source: Scribners Sons, NY.
Source Type: Book
Publication Date: 1957
Abstract: NA

Title: Plant diseases.
Author: USDA.
Source: Yearbook of agriculture. Washington, D.C.
Source Type: Report
Publication Date: 1953
Abstract: NA

Title: Illustrated flora of the Pacific states Vol. III.
Author: Abrams, L.
Source: Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA.
Source Type: Book
Publication Date: 1951
Abstract: NA

Title: The reproductive capacity of plants.
Author: Salisbury, E.J.
Source: G. Bell and Sons, Ltd., London.
Source Type: Book
Publication Date: 1942
Abstract: NA

Title: Botany of California.
Author: Brewer, W.H., S. Watson, and A. Gray.
Source: Welch Bigelow and Co. Univ. Press, Cambridge.
Source Type: Book
Publication Date: 1876
Abstract: NA


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