Amarna Letters Containing References to the Sea Peoples

From: William L. Moran, 1992. The Amarna Letters. London: The Johns Hopkins Press, Ltd.







The following texts are taken directly from Moran's (1992) text, and employ an adapted form of his editorial apparatus (appearing on page xli):

{    }     restored text
{. . .}     missing text
  . . .     obscure or greatly damaged text
<    >     omission by scribe
<<    >>     sign(s) repeated by error
[    ]     sign(s) partially illegible
(    )     word(s) supplied by editor to clarify text

Numbers in bold refer to line numbers. Italics indicate a doubtful translation. A centered colon indicates a gloss in the original text.

Letters referring to the Shardana:

Three letters from Rib-Hadda, Mayor of Gubla, to Pharaoh Akhenaten.

EA 81

{Rib-Hadda say}s to {his} lord, {king of all countries, Great King, K}ing of Battle: May the Lady of Gubla grant power {to the kin}g, {my lord}. I fa{l}l {at the feet} of my lord, my {Sun}, 7 times and 7 times. 6-13 {May} the king, my lord, know that the war of 'Abdi-Ashirta is {se}vere, {and} he has taken all my cities {for} himself. Gubla and Batru{na re}main to me, and he strives to take the two towns. He said to the men {of Gubl}a, "{Ki}ll your lord and be join{ed} to the 'Apiru like Amm{iya}." 14-24 {And so} they became trait<ors> to me. A man with a bronze dagger : pat-{r}a {at}tacked m{e}, but I ki{ll}ed him. A Shirdanu {wh}om I know g{ot away t}o 'Abdi-Ashirta. At his order was this {de}ed done! I have stayed {like th}is in my city and done nothing. I am unable to go out {into the countryside, and} I have written to the palace, {but you do not re}ply {to me}. I was struck {9 ti}mes. 25-33 {According}ly, I f{ear for} my life. {And I have writt}en re{peatedly to the palace}, "Do not {be negligent. Why are you ne}gligent o{f the distress afflictingme? I}f within these two months there are no archers, then {. . .} May he not fall {upon} my {city} and take me. I h{avewritten to the pal}ace. What <am I to say> to my pea{santry}? 34-41 Like a bird in a trap : ki-lu-bi (cage), so are they in {Gubl}a. "{Fo}r l{ac}k of a cultivator their {field} is {li}ke a woman without a husband." {Their sons, their} dau{gh}ters, {the fur}nishings of their houses are gone, {since they have been s}old {i}n the land of {Ya}rimuta {for} provisions to keep them alive. 41-47 {I} was the one that said to them, "My god {is send}ing archers." Since they (now) kno{w that} there are none, they have tu{rned against} <u>s. If within two months archers do not come ou{t}, then {'Ab}di-Ashirta will certainly come up and take the two t{owns. 48-51 Pre}viously Sumur and {its} men were {st}rong, and there wa a {gar}ison with us. Wh{at} can I {d}o by my{sel}f? 52-59 . . .

EA 122

Rib-Hadda writ{es t}o his lord, king of all countries, {Great} King, King of Battle: May the Lady of Gubla grant power to the king, my lord. I fall at the feet of my lord 7 times and 7 times. 9-19 As to the king's saying, "Guard yourself," consider that previously, in the days of my ancestors, there was a garrison of the king with them and property of the king was at their disposal, but as far as I am concerned, there are no provisions from the king at my dis{pos}al, and there is no garrison of the king with me. 19-31 I must guar{d mys}elf by myself. . . . There is a garri{son} . . . of the king with him, and there are pro{visi}ons from the king at his disposal, but for me there is neither garrison nor provisions from the king. 31-39 Pahura has committed an enormity against me. He sent Suteans and they killed Shirdanu-people. And he brought 3 men into Egypt. How long has the city been enraged at me! 40-49 And indeed the city keep saying, "A deed that has not been done since time immemorial has been done to us!" So may the king heed the words of his servant and send (back) the men, lest the city revolt. What am I to do? 50-55 Listen to m<e>. For <my> sake, do not refuse! {But whether} the men are at court o{r n}ot, listen to me. I keep writing like tis to the palace, but <my> w<ords> are <not> heeded.

EA 123

Rib-Hadda writes to his lord, Great King, king of all countries, King of Battle: May the Lady of Gubla grant power to the king, my lord. I fa<ll> at the feet of my lord, <my> Sun, 7 times and 7 times. 9-15 A deed that has not been done from time immemorial has been done to Gubla. Pihura {s}ent Suteans; they kill{ed} Shirdanu-people, 16-21 {t}ook 3 meen, and brought them in{to} Egypt. 22-28 {If} the king, {my} lord, does not se{nd} them (back), there is {su}rely going to be a revolt against m{e. I}f the ki{ng}, my {lor}d, loves {his} loya{l} servant. {then} send (back) the {3} men that I may live and guard the city for the king. 29-37 And as to the king's writing, "Guard yourself," with what am I to guard? Send the 3 men whom Pihura brought in and then I will survive: 'Abdi-Ashirta, Yattin-Hadda, 'Abd<i>-Milki. 38-43 {Wh}at are the sons of 'Abdi-Ashirta that they have taken the land of the king for themselves? May the king send archers to {take} them.
 

Letter referring to the Danuna:

A letter from Abi-Milku, mayor of Tyre, to Akhenaten.

EA 151

To the king, my Sun, my god, my gods: Message of Abi-Milku, your servant. I fall at the feet of the king, my lord, 7 times and 7 times. 4-11 I am the dirt under the sandals of the king, my lord. I am indeed guarding carefully the city of the king that he put in my charge. My intention has been to go to see the face of the king, my lord, but I have not been able, due to Zimredda of Sidon. 12-24 He heard that I was going to Egypt, and so he has waged war against me. May the king, my lord, give me 20 men to guard the city of the king, my lord, so I can enter before the king, my lord, to behold his gracious face. I have devoted myself to the service : u-bu-di of the ki{ing}, my lord. May the ki{ng}, my lord, ask his commissioner whether I have devoted myself to the king, my lord. 25-34 I herewith send my messenger t{o the kin}g, my lord, and may {the king}, my lord, send {his messenger and} his ta{bl}et t{o me}, so I may enter before the king, my lord. 35-48 May {the king, my lord}, not abandon his servant. May the king, my lord, give {his} attention and gi{ve} water for o{ur} drink and wood to his servant. The king, my lord, knows that we are situa{te}d on the sea; we have neither water nor wood. I herewith send Ilumilku as mesenger to the king, my lord, and I give 5 talents of bronze, ma<ll>ets, (and) 1 whip. 49-58 The king, my lord, wrote to me, "Write to me what you have heard in Canaan." The king of Danuna died; his brother became king after his death, and his land is at peace. Fire destroyed the palace at Ugarit; (rather), it destroyed half of it and so hal<f> of it has disappeared. 59-70 There are no Hittite troops about. Etakkama, the prince of Qidshu, and Aziru are at war; the war is with Biryawaza. I have experienced the injustices of Zimredda, for he assembled troops and ships from the cities of Aziru against me. Is it good that a palace attendant of my lord should become frigh{tened}? All have become frightened. May the king give his attention to his servant and return : yu-sa (come forth).
 

Letter referring to the Lukka:


A letter from the king of Alashiya, probably to Akhenaten.

EA 38

Say to the king of Egypt, my brother: Message of the king of Alashiya, your brother. For me all goes well, and for you may all go well. For your household, your chief wives, your sons, your horses, your chariots, among your numerous troops, in your country, among your magnates, may all go very well.
    7-12 Why, my brother, do you say such a thing to me, "Does my brother not know this?" As far as I am concerned, I have done nothing of the sort. Indeed, men of Lukki, year by year, seize villages in my own country.
    13-18 My brother, you say to me, "Men from your country were with them." My brother, I myself do not know that they were with them. If men from my country were (with them), send (them back) and I will act as I see fit.
    19-22 You yourself do not know men from my country. They would not do such a thing. But if men from m country did do this, then you yourself do as you see fit.
    23-26 Now, my brother, since you have not sent back my messenger, for this tablet it is the king's brother (as messenger). L{et} him write. Your messengers must tell me what I am to do.
    27-30 Furthermore, which ancestors of yours did such a thin<g> to my ancestors? So no, my brother, do not be concerned.

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