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The distribution of "Khoesan" languages
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Khoesan languages

There are some 20-30 so-called Khoesan (Khoisan) languages spoken in southern and eastern Africa. Even though they are usually grouped together under the label "Khoesan", by no means do they form any accepted linguistic-genetic unit.

  • Ju (North Khoesan) -- a chain of dialects or closely related languages (often referred to as !Kung), spoken in Angola, Namibia, and Botswana
  • Khwe (Central Khoesan) -- a group of languages consisting of Khoekhoe, spoken in Namibia, plus 5 or more San/Bushman languages spoken predominantly in Botswana
  • Kwi, !Ui-Taa, Tuu (South Khoesan) -- some 10 known languages in toto, all but two (!Xóõ and N/u) of which are now extinct
  • Kwadi -- one extinct language, once spoken in south-western Angola
  • East ≠Hùã -- one language, spoken in Botswana
  • Hadza -- one language, spoken in Tanzania
  • Sandawe -- one language, spoken in Tanzania

A SELECTION OF PRINTED SOURCES

Batibo, Herman M.; Tsonope, Joseph. (Eds.) 2000. The state of Khoesan languages in Botswana. Tasalls Publishing & Books for the Basarwa Languages Project, University of Botswana and University of Tromsø.;

Güldemann, Tom; Vossen, Rainer. 2000. Khoisan. In: African languages: an introduction (ed. by Bernd Heine & Derek Nurse), p. 99-122. Cambridge University Press.

Köhler, Oswin R.A. 1981. Les langues khoisan: presentation d'ensemble. In: Les langues dans le monde ancien et moderne (ed. by Jean Perrot), v. 1, p. 459-482. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS).

Köhler, Oswin R.A. 1987. Khoisan languages. Encyclopaedia britannica, 15th edition, 22, p. 775-778, 813.

Sands, Bonny. 1998. Eastern and Southern African Khoisan. Quellen zur Khoisan Forschung, Bd 14. Rüdiger Köppe Verlag.

Traill, Anthony. 2002. The Khoesan languages. In: Language in South Africa (ed. by Rajend Mesthrie), p. 27-49. Cambridge University Press.

Westphal, Ernst Oswald Johannes. 1971. The click languages of southern and eastern Africa. In: Current trends in linguistics, v. 7: linguistics in sub-Saharan Africa (ed. by Thomas Albert Sebeok), p. 367-420. Mouton & Co.

Winter, Jürgen Christoph. 1981. Khoisan. In: Die Sprachen Afrikas (ed. by Bernd Heine, Thilo C. Schadeberg & Ekkehard Wolff), p. 329-374. Helmut Buske Verlag.

General, comparative, miscellaneous back to top »

Khoisan languages, according to SIL's Ethnologue.
www.ethnologue.com/show_family.asp?subid=90321

Khoisan languages, according to Wikipedia.
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khoisan_languages

The Lloyd Bleek Collection. Michaelis School of Fine Arts, University of Cape Town.
www.lloydbleekcollection.uct.ac.za

The Khoisan Syntax Homepage at Cornell University.
instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/courses/ling700/khoisan.htm

Wilhelm H.I. Bleek, Lucy Lloyd, 1911
Specimens of Bushman folklore. Originally published by George Allen & Unwin in London. Webbaccess by the Internet Sacred Text Archive.
www.sacred-texts.com/afr/sbf/index.htm

Andy M. Chebanne, 2002
Shifting identities in eastern Khoe: ethnic and language endangerment (PDF). Pula: Botswana journal of African studies, v. 16, p. 147-157.
digital.lib.msu.edu/projects/africanjournals/html/browse.cfm?colid=12

Olle Engstrand, 1997
Why are clicks so exclusive? (PS). Phonum: reports in phonetics from Umeå University, n. 4, p. 191-194.
www.ling.umu.se/publications/articles/phonum04/phonum04.47.ps

Tom Güldemann
Greenberg's case for Khoisan: the morphological evidence (PDF). From: Problems of linguistic-historical reconstruction in Africa. Edited by Rainer Vossen and Dymitr Ibriszimow. Rüdiger Köppe Verlag.
email.eva.mpg.de/~gueldema/pdf/GreenbergKhoisan.pdf

Tom Güldemann
On external genealogical relationships of the Khoe family (PDF). From: Khoisan languages and linguistics. Edited by Matthias Brenzinger and Christa König. Rüdiger Köppe Verlag.
email.eva.mpg.de/~gueldema/pdf/Gueldemann_Elderkin.pdf

Robert K. Hitchcock, Megan Biesele
San, Khwe, Basarwa, or Bushmen? Terminology, identity, and empowerment in southern Africa. Webdocument at the website of the Kalahari Peoples Fund.
www.kalaharipeoples.org/documents/San-term.htm

O.R.A. Köhler, P. Ladefoged, J.W. Snyman, A. Traill, R. Vossen, 1989
The symbols for clicks (PDF). UCLA working papers in phonetics, v. 72, p. 164-166.
repositories.cdlib.org/uclaling/wpp/No72/

Berndt Lindfors, 1996
Hottentot, Bushman, Kaffir: taxonomic tendencies in nineteenth-century racial iconography (PDF). Nordic journal of African studies, v. 5 (2), p. 1-28.
www.njas.helsinki.fi

Jouni Filip Maho, 1997 (rev. 2003)
Khoesaan language and ethnic names. University of Göteborg.
goto.glocalnet.net/maho/uns/khsnms.html

Jouni Filip Maho, 2000
Comparative wordlist of Kwi (South Khoesan) languages - part 1 (PDF) and part 2 (PDF).
www.african.gu.se/maho/downloads/kwilexis1.pdf
www.african.gu.se/maho/downloads/kwilexis2.pdf

Jouni Filip Maho, Bonny Sands
Khoisan bibliography.
goto.glocalnet.net/maho/eballsamples/sample_w.html

Amanda Miller-Ockhuizen, Levi Namaseb, Khalil Iskarous, 2005
TB constriction differences in click types (PDF). To appear in: Proceedings of Labphon 9.
ling.cornell.edu/plab/amanda/millero_namaseb_iskarous_labphon_revised.pdf

George Starostin
Khoisan etymologies.
starling.rinet.ru/cgi-bin/main.cgi?root=config

Hartmut Traunmüller, 2003
Clicks and the idea of a human protolanguage (PDF). Phonum: reports in phonetics from Umeå University, n. 9, p. 1-4.
www.ling.umu.se/publications/articles/phonum09/phonum09.1.pdf

East ≠Hùã < unclassified "Khoesan" back to top »

Summary of =Hoan syntax. Khoisan Syntax Homepage, Cornell University.
instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/courses/ling700/khoisan.htm

G/ui < Khwe (Central Khoesan) back to top »

Hirosi Nakagawa, 1996
An outline of /Gui phonology (PDF). African study monographs, supplementary issue, v. 22, p. 101-124.
jambo.africa.kyoto-u.ac.jp/kiroku/asm_suppl/root.htm

Hitomi Ono, 1996
An ethnosemantic analysis of Gui relationship terminology (PDF). African study monographs, supplementary issue, v. 22, p. 125-144.
jambo.africa.kyoto-u.ac.jp/kiroku/asm_suppl/root.htm

Kazayoshi Sugawara, 1996
Some methodological issues for the analysis of everyday conversations among the /Gui (PDF). African study monographs, supplementary issue, v. 22, p. 145-164.
jambo.africa.kyoto-u.ac.jp/kiroku/asm_suppl/root.htm

Hadza < East African "Khoesan" back to top »

Hadza sound files at the UCLA Phonetics Lab Archive.
archive.phonetics.ucla.edu/main2.htm

Niklas Edenmyr, 2004
The semantics of Hadza gender assignment: a few notes from the field (PDF). Africa & Asia: Göteborg working papers on Asian and African languages and literatures, v. 4, p. 3-19.)
www.african.gu.se/aa/pdfs/aa04003.pdf

Bonny Sands, Ian Maddieson, Peter Ladefoged, 1993
The phonetic structures of Hadza (PDF). UCLA working papers in phonetics, v. 84, p. 67-87.
repositories.cdlib.org/uclaling/wpp/No84/

Ju, !Kung (cluster) < Ju (North Khoesan) back to top »

The Lloyd Bleek Collection. Michaelis School of Fine Arts, University of Cape Town.
www.lloydbleekcollection.uct.ac.za

Orthography of the Ju/'hoan language as developed by the Ju/'hoansi Peoples Organisation, the Nyae Nyae Farmers Cooperative (NNFC) in northeastern Namibia. Webdocument at the website of the Kalahari Peoples Fund.
www.kalaharipeoples.org/documents/language.htm

Peter Ladefoged
Vowels and consonants: Zhu/hõasi. Sound files hosted at the UCLA Phonetics Lab.
hctv.humnet.ucla.edu/departments/linguistics/VowelsandConsonants/index/language.html

Ian Maddieson, 1977
Tone loans: a question concerning tone spacing and a method of answering it (PDF). UCLA working papers in phonetics, v. 36, p. 49-83.
repositories.cdlib.org/uclaling/wpp/No36/

Amanda Miller-Ockhuizen, Bonny Sands, 2000
Contrastive lateral clicks and variation in click types (PDF).
ling.cornell.edu/plab/amanda/01637.pdf

Khoekhoegowab, Nama/Damara < Khwe (Central Khoesan) back to top »

Nama - summary of syntax. Khoisan Syntax Homepage, Cornell University.
instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/courses/ling700/khoisan.htm

Hyacinthe de Charency, 1862
Eléments de la grammaire hottentote, dialecte Nama (PDF). Revue orientale et américaine, v. 8, p. 244-263.
books.google.se/books?id=VmYFAAAAMAAJ

NEW /Awebahe //Hoeseb, Fritz Isak Dirkse
//Hoeseb thinks Damaras' origin theory absurd but Dirkse spoke about Namas not Damaras. New era (Windhoek), February 4 & 11, 2005.
www.newera.com.na/archives.php?id=5559

Tom Güldemann
Structural isoglosses between Khoekhoe and Tuu: the Cape as a linguistic area (PDF). From: Proceedings of the annual conference of the North-West Centre for Linguistics. Edited by Yaron Matras, April MacMahon and Nigel Vincent.
email.eva.mpg.de/~gueldema/pdf/CapeArea.pdf

Wilfrid H.G. Haacke, 2007
Syntactic focus marking in Khoekhoe ("Nama/Damara") (PDF). From: ZAS papers in linguistics, v. 46, p. 105-127.
www.zas.gwz-berlin.de/index.html?publications_zaspil

Peter Ladefoged
Vowels and consonants: clicks in Nama. Sound files hosted at the UCLA Phonetics Lab.
hctv.humnet.ucla.edu/departments/linguistics/VowelsandConsonants/index/language.html

Kxoe < Khwe (Central Khoesan) back to top »

Gertrud Boden
Book review: 'Folktales of the Kxoe in the West Caprivi' by Christa Kilian-Hatz, 1999. H-Net book review, December 2002.
www.h-net.org/reviews

Naro < Khwe (Central Khoesan) back to top »

Alan Barnard, 1978
The kin terminology system of the Nharo Bushmen. Cahiers d'études africaines, v. 18, p. 607-629.
www.persee.fr/showIssue.do?issueKey=cea_0008-0055_1978_num_18_72

N//ng < Kwi (South Khoesan) back to top »

Tom Güldemann
Structural isoglosses between Khoekhoe and Tuu: the Cape as a linguistic area (PDF). From: Proceedings of the annual conference of the North-West Centre for Linguistics. Edited by Yaron Matras, April MacMahon and Nigel Vincent.
email.eva.mpg.de/~gueldema/pdf/CapeArea.pdf

N/uu < Kwi (South Khoesan) back to top »

Bonny Sands, Amanda Miller, Johanna Brugman, 2007
The lexicon in language attrition: the case of N/uu (PDF). Selected proceedings of the 37th annual conference on African linguistics. Cascadilla Proceedings Project.
www.lingref.com/cpp/acal/37/index.html

!Ora, Korana < Khwe (Central Khoesan) back to top »

The syntax of !Korana. Khoisan Syntax Homepage, Cornell University.
instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/courses/ling700/khoisan.htm

Sandawe < East African "Khoesan" back to top »

Sandawe - summary of syntax. Khoisan Syntax Homepage, Cornell University.
instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/courses/ling700/khoisan.htm

Sandawe sound files at the UCLA Phonetics Lab Archive.
archive.phonetics.ucla.edu/main2.htm

Helen Catherine Eaton
Sandawe bibliography (PDF).
www.drhelenipresume.com/papers.htm

Helen Catherine Eaton, 2001
Word order and focus in the Sandawe irrealis (PDF). Reading working papers in linguistics, n. 5, p. 113-135.
www.rdg.ac.uk/app_ling/workingpapers/eaton.pdf

Helen Catherine Eaton, 2003
Focus as a key to the grammar of Sandawe (PDF). Paper presented at the 3rd LoT (Languages of Tanzania) workshop, University of Dar es Salaam, January 2003.
www.drhelenipresume.com/papers.htm

Helen Catherine Eaton, 2003
Are there serial verb constructions in Sandawe? (PDF). Paper presented at the 7th LASU conference, University of Dar es Salaam, August 2003.
www.drhelenipresume.com/papers.htm

Helen Catherine Eaton, Daniel Hunziker, Elisabeth Hunziker, 2007
A Sandawe dialect survey (PDF). SIL electronic survey reports (SILESR), n. 2007-014.
www.sil.org/silesr/abstract.asp?ref=2007-014

Roland Kiessling, 2002
Verbal plurality in Sandawe (PDF). Hamburger afrikanistische Arbeitspapiere, n. 1, p. 59-90.
www.uni-hamburg.de/Wiss/FB/10/AfrikaS/veroeffentlichungen.html

Richard Wright, Ian Maddieson, Peter Ladefoged, Bonny Sands, 1995
A phonetic study of Sandawe clicks (PDF). UCLA working papers in phonetics, v. 91, p. 1-24.
repositories.cdlib.org/uclaling/wpp/No91/

≠Unkwe < Kwi (South Khoesan) back to top »

Tom Güldemann
Structural isoglosses between Khoekhoe and Tuu: the Cape as a linguistic area (PDF). From: Proceedings of the annual conference of the North-West Centre for Linguistics. Edited by Yaron Matras, April MacMahon and Nigel Vincent.
email.eva.mpg.de/~gueldema/pdf/CapeArea.pdf

/Xam < Kwi (South Khoesan) back to top »

The Lloyd Bleek Collection. Michaelis School of Fine Arts, University of Cape Town.
www.lloydbleekcollection.uct.ac.za

The grammar of /Xam. Khoisan Syntax Homepage, Cornell University.
instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/courses/ling700/khoisan.htm

Tom Güldemann
The San languages of southern Namibia: a linguistic appraisal with special reference to Krönlein's N/uusaa manuscript (PDF).
email.eva.mpg.de/~gueldema/pdf/NuusaaKroenlein.pdf

Tom Güldemann
Structural isoglosses between Khoekhoe and Tuu: the Cape as a linguistic area (PDF). From: Proceedings of the annual conference of the North-West Centre for Linguistics. Edited by Yaron Matras, April MacMahon and Nigel Vincent.
email.eva.mpg.de/~gueldema/pdf/CapeArea.pdf

!Xóõ < Kwi (South Khoesan) back to top »

Peter Ladefoged
Vowels and consonants: !Xóõ phonation types and !Xóõ click places of articulation. Sound files hosted at the UCLA Phonetics Lab.
hctv.humnet.ucla.edu/departments/linguistics/VowelsandConsonants/index/language.html

Peter Ladefoged, Norma Antonanzas Barroso, 1985
Computer measures of breathy voice quality (PDF). UCLA working papers in phonetics, v. 61, p. 79-86.
repositories.cdlib.org/uclaling/wpp/No61/

Peter Ladefoged, Anthony Traill, 1980
The phonetic inadequacy of phonological feature specifications of clicks (PDF). UCLA working papers in phonetics, v. 49, p. 1-27.
repositories.cdlib.org/uclaling/wpp/No49/

Peter Ladefoged, Anthony Traill, 1980
Instrumental phonetic fieldwork (PDF). UCLA working papers in phonetics, v. 49, p. 28-41.
repositories.cdlib.org/uclaling/wpp/No49/

Ian Maddieson, 1993
The structure of segment sequences (PDF). UCLA working papers in phonetics, v. 83, p. 1-7.
repositories.cdlib.org/uclaling/wpp/No83/


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