The collective, world-wide effort to combat doping in sport has come a long way since the idea was first conceived by the International Olympic Committee at meetings in Lausanne in 1999 with the creation of the World Anti-Doping Agency.
Four years later, in Copenhagen in 2003, the World Anti-Doping Code (Code) became the core document adopted by the sport movement and governments of the world as the framework for the global harmonised fight against doping in sport.
A revised rewrite of the code was completed in November 2007 in Madrid, which included a commitment to full compliance with the code by all international sports and governments. Acceptance of this revised 2007 Code commits sport worldwide to do all in its power, individually and collectively, to combat the scourge of doping, and to protect athletes’ rights to safe and fair competition.
World Anti-Doping Code
The International Ice Hockey Federation is a signatory to the Code and follows the Code's mandate in all areas of its Anti-Doping work.
The World Anti-Doping Code (PDF, 233 kB)
The International Ice Hockey Federation follows the Prohibited List (List) as a signatory to the Code. The List was first published in 1963 under the leadership of the International Olympic Committee. Since 2004, as mandated by the Code, WADA is responsible for the preparation and publication of the List.
The List is a cornerstone of the Code and a key component of harmonisation.
It is an International Standard identifying Substances and Methods prohibited in-competition, out-of-competition, and in particular sports.
2008 Prohibited List (PDF, 150 kB)
Therapeutic Use Exemptions
Athletes, like all others, may have illnesses or conditions that require them to take particular medications. If the medication an athlete is required to take to treat an illness or condition happens to fall under the List, a Therapeutic Use Exemption (TUE) may give that athlete the authorisation to take the needed medicine. The criteria for granting a TUE are: 1) the athlete would experience significant health problems without taking the prohibited substance or method, 2) the therapeutic use of the substance would not produce significant enhancement of performance and 3) there is no reasonable therapeutic alternative to the use of the otherwise prohibited substance or method. The IIHF has its own TUE Committee that grants TUEs for international level athletes in ice hockey.
Therapeutic Use Exemption (TUE) - Abbreviated Form (PDF, 100 kB)
Therapeutic Use Exemption (TUE) - Standard Form (PDF, 182 kB)
IIHF Registered Testing Pool
The term Registered Testing Pool refers to the pool of top level athletes or teams established by the International Ice Hockey Federation and National Anti-Doping Organisation who are subject to both In-Competition and Out-of-Competition testing as part of the International Ice Hockey Federation or National-Anti-Doping Organisation's test distribution plan.
National Anti-Doping Organisations have identified a pool of athletes who will register in their testing pool. The International Ice Hockey Federation will also identify a pool of athletes and teams who will be identified in their Registered Testing Pool. The players who are in the Registered Testing Pool for their National Anti-Doping Organisation must provide their whereabouts on a regular basis. The players and teams who are part of the Registered Testing Pool of the International Ice Hockey Federation must provide their whereabouts on a regular basis, including all training camps and schedules for the individual players with the team on a 24-hour basis. All players who belong to the International Ice Hockey Federation are subject to both In-Competition and Out-of-Competition testing on a year-round basis.
Adverse Analytical Finding (AAF)
The term Adverse Analytical Finding (AAF) refers to a report from a World Anti-Doping Agency approved laboratory that indicates the presence of a Prohibited Substance or its metabolites or markers (including elevated quantities of endogenous substances) or evidence of the use of a Prohibited Method.
The term Adverse Analytical Finding does not necessarily imply a positive test as the athlete may have a TUE (Therapeutic Use Exemption), an aTUE (Abbreviated Therapeutic Use Exemption) or may have elevated endogenous substances which are normal for his own system and do not necessarily reflect a positive doping infraction.
It is important to note that the percentage of adverse analytical findings does not identify the potential risk of doping in a sport, but rather reflects adverse findings which need further investigation. These investigations may include a justification of the use of a Prohibited Substance (TUE or aTUE) or the identification of an endogenous substance which need further testing (i.e. IRMS) or repeat testing on a monthly basis.
An AAF becomes a positive doping infraction only after a thorough investigation following due process, such as a hearing and a determination from the Disciplinary Committee that a doping infraction has occurred.
Please take note that the World Anti-Doping Agency releases early statistics on the number of AAF's in each sport on its website, and lists the percentage of tests which have shown or identified an AAF. This percentage therefore is not an accurate indication of true positive tests, but only of AAF's.
In-Competition Testing in ice hockey is testing that is conducted in connection with an International Ice Hockey Federation World Championship Tournament. The period of In-Competition as defined by the International Ice Hockey Federation is 24 hours before the first face-off of the event.
Number of Tests
% of AAFs
% of Positives
Out-of-Competition testing can occur at any time of the year (excluding the In-Competition Testing periods) and at any location, such as an athlete's home, place of training, or even while they are abroad for personal or training reasons. Out-of-Competition testing takes place with no-advance notice to the athlete. The International Ice Hockey Federation works closely together with the World Anti-Doping Agency and the National Anti-Doping Agencies in planning and conducting Out-Of-Competition Testing on ice hockey players worldwide.
Number of Tests
% of AAFs
% of Positives
* IIHF has in its archives the positives commencing from 1.7.2004. The "% of positives" is therefore misleading as it doesn’t include the period of 1.1.2004-1.7.2004.
The International Ice Hockey Federation follows the World Anti-Doping Code in its sanctions to athletes that have committed an anti-doping rule violation.
Current anti-doping rule violation sanctions are:
End of Sanction
THC Metabolite and Testosterone
World Anti-Doping Agency
Berlinger Special AG