Osh is one of the most ancient towns in Central Asia. The exact date of its foundation is unknown. The legends connect its basis with the name of Alexander Macedonian and even with prophet Solomon (Suleiman).
Arguing about etymology on the name of city, scientists have not reached the consent yet because it is rooted in remote ages. Ministers of religion try to connect an origin of city with legends, in particular, connected with biblical Sulaiman - who was king Solomon. One of them says, that he conducted his army, and in front of it he driven a pair of harnessed bullocks, and when bullocks reached a famous mountain (Sulaiman), Solomon said: "Hosh!" (Stop!) And the legends say that the city got a name this way. But legends does not explain neither fact of occurrence of city, nor etymology of its name, but testify very old agricultural occupations of the inhabitants of these places.
City Osh, undoubtedly, is the most ancient city in Kyrgyzstan and one of the most ancient one in Central Asia. The History totals it more than one thousand, but archeological finds trace its roots back to three thousandth prescription.
The occurrence of city Osh is connected with a settlement of the ancient farmers of the Bronze epoch found out on a southern mountainside of Suleiman considered as a sacred mountain since immemorial times and keeping the certificates of ancient cults of Islamic period.
The further development of city is directly connected with a geographical location of city, which is located in the valley of plenty at the bottom of Pamir, Pamir-Alai.
In the middle ages Osh was a point of intersection for commerce from India and China to Europe. One of the branches of a Great Silk Way- the Major Trade of an old age passed through the city connecting East with West.
The trade city Îsh was glorified by its bazaars and caravans - sheds. And the Main Bazaar located on the left coast of the river Àê-Buura represented a classical sample of east covered market -tima. More than two thousandth, Main Bazaar, lives with its noisy and bright life changing its construction and expanding borders, but remaining on the same place chosen in old time.
Other important page of a history of city Îsh is connected with a name of the representative of Timurid's dynasty Zaheriddin Muhammad Babur (1483-1530.).
Babur knew the city Osh well and had left many flatter lines about it. He was born in Andijan. (the neighboring city)
Omar sheikh - Timur's (Tamerlan- iron lame man) great-grandson - was the governor of the Fergana possession. When the father had died, twelve-yearly Babur had replaced his father's throne and inherited Fergana. In his old age he had written the memoirs - " Babur name ",it had became remarkable literary - art monument and valuable source on a history of the peoples of Central Asia at the end of XV and at the beginning of the XVI centuries. As it is visible from the memoirs Babur had been in Osh for many times and knew the city well that is why he described it skillfully, in detail and for sure.
The city Îsh was one of the religious Moslem center in Central Asia. All this is connected with the Suleiman mountain which can heal any illnesses of pilgrims ( from the legends and the national traditions)
The legends and the national traditions of the Suleiman mountain reveal the very first formation in developing of Îsh as the religious Moslem center of the Fergana valley. Before the Mongolian period i.e X-XI century up to the XX- century there were erected cult structures at the bottom of the Suleiman mountain and on its mountainsides and even at the top of it: mosques, mausoleums etc.