Lebanon's Archeological Heritage

Helga Seeden*

Table of Contents

The Development of Cultural Heritage Protection in Lebanon
The Threat to Lebanon's Cultural Heritage
The Cases of Ba`albak and Tyre
Beirut: Past and Future



The World's resource base is made up of a natural and cultural heritage left temporarily in the hands of present generations. Its management ranges today from sustainable use, for the sake of conservation, to outright exploitation and destruction. Cultural heritage includes the environment built and shaped by man which records, for the future, surviving patterns of successive land use and settlement, whether agricultural, domestic, ceremonial, funerary, industrial, or defensive, and covering human development from prehistory to the present.[1] Examples of such integrated, man shaped cultural environments abound in Lebanon, and serve to illustrate the enormous diversity and complexity of its cultural heritage. However, the tasks involved in attempting to document, preserve, and restore the most informative elements of this heritage are formidable.

Human survival patterns are preserved in the prehistoric campsites of Paleolithic hunter-gatherer societies. The only evidence of these societies visible today is their stone-tool industry. Yet their environment, their dwellings (including caves, rock shelters, and open-air homes consisting of 'soft' architecture like shelters made of plants or skins), as well as their diet and life style, can be retrieved if their sites are properly investigated.

Later rural and urban communities built more permanent settlements. These include the many village and town sites now forming tells, or hills, in the Biqa` Valley and along the Lebanese coast. Most of these remain unexcavated. Excavated sites represent a particularly endangered part of the cultural heritage today since they need upkeep and protection; the neglected condition of the archaeological sites in Byblos, Beit Mery, Tyre, and Sidon vividly illustrate this problem.

Lebanon's cultural heritage also includes the monumental, sites and historic areas which are the country's major tourist attractions. The most well-known sites are the Roman-period sanctuary precinct at Ba`albak, the Umayyad site at Anjar, the hippodrome and necropolis in Tyre, the Mamluk buildings still standing in Tripoli, medieval castles in Tripoli, Byblos, Sidon, and elsewhere, sacred buildings of all religious denominations, and the urban and mountain mansions and palaces of Lebanon's Ottoman past. The much-damaged townscape, street pattern, and urban fabric of the historic town center of Beirut forms a unique case of its own.

Finally, Lebanon's cultural heritage is made up of a vast treasure of portable artifacts and works of art, all witnesses to human craftsmanship and ingenuity. More generally referred to as 'antiquities,' they are usually the legal and practical responsibility of national departments of antiquities and ought to be taken care of, administered, and preserved in national, regional, public, and private museums and collections.

Current research and management of Lebanon's archaeological heritage is limited by two main factors: first, the institution originally responsible for heritage management, the Department of Antiquities, established in 1937, is, as yet, not sufficiently funded or staffed to be able to deal the multitude of problems heritage management faces in Lebanon today. Moreover, it has still to be integrated within the newly created Ministry of Culture and Higher Education. The present Director of Antiquities, the Camille Asmar, has stated that he was in no position to open the National Museum to the public as long as he could not assure the safe closure of the building's damaged gates, windows, and roof.

Second, only a small number of qualified archaeologists still work in Lebanon, most of them teaching at universities. Results of their recent research have regularly been presented in the journal Berytus Archaeological Studies published by the Faculty of Arts and Sciences of the American University of Beirut. Founded in 1931, this is the oldest archaeological journal in Lebanon and the only one which continued to be published throughout the war. It regularly provides an overview of the particular problems Lebanon's cultural heritage faces at the end of the twentieth century, reviews the history of heritage sites, and examines the causes behind the tremendous loss of these sites, their material, and the information they provide.[2]

Training in archaeology is available at the Lebanese University, the St. Joseph University, and the American University of Beirut. Only the Lebanese University, which offers a degree based on an outdated French History of Art program, has instruction in Arabic. In the 1960s, the St. Joseph university offered a program centered on classical studies and the staff included several outstanding scholars in the Greco-Roman and prehistoric fields. Today, Archaeology at St. Joseph is taught in the Department of History and Geography. Archaeology at the American University of Beirut (AUB) is also taught in combination with history.

The first chair of Archaeology at AUB was held by the Danish scholar Harald Ingholt (1896-1986) from 1932 to 1937. Ingholt, who founded the journal Berytus, taught regular classes and substantially enlarged the University's Archaeology collections. In 1951, Dimitri C. Baramki (1909-1984), who was born and worked in Palestine until 1948, joined the AUB. His experience in his country of origin taught him that in order to protect cultural heritage, trained archaeologists were needed on site. Because higher education in Archaeology was available only at the AUB, the first of its kind in Lebanon. practical training was given priority. In 1956 he introduced field work into the curriculum by opening the university's first training excavation site at Tell al-Ghassil in the Biqa` Valley. Realizing the potential of the university's heterogeneous Archaeological collections, he transformed the AUB museum into a viable teaching collection for training local students in the study of artifacts. In 1966, at the AUB's centennial celebrations, he was able to open completely reorganized exhibits in a museum which had doubled in area since its establishment.

The museum's collection still serves to familiarize students with various types of artifacts common in the Levant. Nevertheless, the 1966 exhibits are themselves in need of modernization in light of recent advances in popular archaeology, and new concepts and techniques of presenting the wider context of Archaeological artifacts to the public for educational purposes. The average visitor finds the museum's holdings somewhat difficult to assimilate because of the large number of items exposed and crowded display methods. However, lectures, special exhibitions, and children's activities, launched by the present curator, Dr. Leila Badre, have enhanced the museum's popularity.

An activity center or ecomuseum creating public awareness of, and support for Lebanon's Archaeological heritage still has to be conceived for Lebanon. Such centers integrate a cultural heritage site in its environment, be it a town or landscape, and offer lively popular information in the form of models, games, animated reconstructions, or living re-enactments of historical contexts and activities. While Syria and Jordan have made progress by opening successful regional museums, and by sponsoring multi-disciplinary field and research projects, Lebanon has to begin from scratch. If appropriate modern concepts and expertise are applied, much lost time could be made up.

The Development of Cultural Heritage Protection in Lebanon

Up to late Ottoman times no institutions to officially protect heritage sites and movable archaeological material existed in Lebanon and the Near East. State collections in today's European and North American capitals exhibit spectacular works of art from many cultures of the world, acquired during the nineteenth century period of European expansion. They are expressions of a desire to bring home material evidence of the exotic oriental cultures visited by Westerners; and as prestige objects, the artifacts enhanced the reputation of their owners. Following Western demands, antiquities ranged high on the scale of gifts presented by Near Eastern rulers to their foreign visitors. The often unequal power relations between visitors representing the interests of Western nations and local Near Eastern potentates count for much in the tremendous acquisition of Near Eastern antiquities by the West.[3] Paris, London and, after 1871, Berlin competed for supremacy, not only in the rush for colonial possessions, but also for the valuable art work of the ancient lands of the Near East.

The Western powers set the example; but soon, Ottoman Turkish officials began sending to Turkey treasures acquired in "Syria and Lebanon. Since then, Sidon's famous Persian and Hellenistic-period marble sarcophagi have become the prize exhibits of the Archaeological Museum of Istanbul. Ba`albak's only preserved large statue representing Ashtarte, the principal goddess of the city. and tall enough to have stood in one of the city's great temples, was divided into several pieces. To this day the body of the statue is in Turkey and the head of one of the sphinxes of the statue's throne is in Paris. Even though they are recognized as fragments of one and the same art work, the pieces have yet to be joined together.

In this context, scholars, architects, and amateur archaeologists became concerned with documenting and reconstituting the history of the past. From the beginning of the century, Lebanon's prehistoric past was thoroughly surveyed and excavated. Nearly five hundred prehistoric sites have been surveyed in Lebanon as a whole,[4] and around fifty sites in Beirut itself; however many have since been totally obliterated. At a time when the sites were still intact, prehistorians, foremost among them Father Henry Fleisch and Father Francis Hours of the St. Joseph University, collected and recorded material which permitted them to research the survival technologies of local hunter-gatherer societies. Much of the material retrieved is kept in a valuable prehistoric collection at the St. Joseph University. Although it was closed down during the war, this collection is presently scheduled for reassessment, rehabilitation, and exhibition. Hopefully it will become an instrument for explaining the beginnings of humankind to the Lebanese public, and for training local students in pre-historic and environmental Archaeology. This will advance the work begun by earlier prehistorians who documented and saved evidence of Lebanon's prehistoric heritage.[5]

In 1929, during the French mandate, an exceptional man and scholar, Henry Seyrig, was appointed to head the newly-established Directorate of Antiquities of Syria and Lebanon. He had a vast and uncannily modern vision of heritage protection, preservation, and restoration in situ, as well as of the necessity for documentation of all types of heritage, from monumental buildings to antiquities on the market. A typical Seyrig act, for example, was the donation of his superb coin collection to the Lebanese Department of Antiquities. Foremost on Seyrig's mind was the concern for identifying Archaeological heritage within its context or place of origin. As he saw it, Archaeological work had to take place on site in Syria and Lebanon if the cultural resources of the region were to be understood and preserved for future generations.

Seyrig also saw the need for the establishment of scientific research institutes dealing with heritage questions. At the end of World War II he created the Institut Français d'Archéologie de Beyrouth, which he directed until 1967. He chose a superb nineteenth century mansion as the location for the institute, and established there one of the most complete research libraries on Near Eastern Archaeology and related subjects of its time. His gift for attracting talented and dedicated architects, philologists, and other specialists resulted in the documentation, publication, and restoration of a great deal of the vast architectural and Archaeological heritage of Syria and Lebanon. The institute's publications, the journal Syria and the monograph series Bibliothèque Archéologique et Historique, are important documentary achievements. The institute acted as an open house for scholars from East and West, and is remembered by many of them as a center for productive and imaginative cultural interaction. Today, the institute's original premises, the Beyhum mansion on Beirut's Georges Picot Street, stills stands windowless and dilapidated, a proud example of Lebanon's architectural heritage, and deserving of restoration.

Henri Seyrig's conception of the protection of antiquities and sites went into the formulation of the Law of Antiquities issued by the French High Commission in Syria and Lebanon in 1933.[6] This is the Law of Antiquities Lebanon has today. It does not allow the illicit export or import of antiquities, nor does it permit illegal excavations. Though it is perfectly adequate on paper and could, in fact, put a halt to clandestine digs and the illicit traffic of looted Archaeological materials, the law has not been adequately implemented, especially in recent years.

In 1937, the National Museum of Beirut was built as the chief depository of archaeological material excavated in Lebanon, and Emir Maurice Chehab was appointed the country's first director of Antiquities. Since its foundation, the Department of Antiquities has been in charge of the Country's archaeological heritage and has undertaken a large number of excavation and restoration projects at major and minor sites throughout Lebanon. Results have been published or at least summarized in the Bulletin du Musée de Beyoruth, the official journal of the department, which ceased appearing during the war.[7]

Two archaeologists at the national Museum and inspectors of the Department of Antiquities regularly prepared their excavations for scientific publication: the much regretted Roger Saidah (1930-1979), and Hassan Salamé-Sarkis.[8] Saidah published the results of an excavated Phoenician cemetery he had rescued in the Khaldeh area near Beirut (1966), and an excavated Chalcolithic settlement and Bronze Age tombs at Sidon-Dakerman.[9] The final publication of the rescue excavations at the important site of Khan Khaldeh[10] was interrupted by the archaeologist's untimely death in 1979. His colleagues insured that the excavated and recorded information explaining this coastal settlement in its economic, commercial, industrial, artisanal, and religious context appeared in print.[11]

Emir Maurice Chehab's most difficult experience in his long career as caretaker of Lebanon's archaeological heritage was certainly the war years. The National Museum was located on the dividing line between East and West Beirut, and despite the emir's efforts, he could not protect the building from occupation by militia forces. Until 1982, however, he did attempt to salvage the museum's antiquities collections. Today, even though the war has ended, the restoration of the National Museum and the Department of Antiquities buildings is barely underway. At the same time, many of the settlement sites in Lebanon have not been adequately surveyed. The preparation of an archaeological atlas of Lebanon is one of the tasks awaiting future teams of heritage managers in a reconstituted Department of Antiquities. This will form the site data base for Lebanon which, together with a data base for all antiquities, has to be established once the information and the technological means become available to the Department of Antiquities or the relevant ministry.

The Threat to Lebanon's Cultural Heritage

Given modern laws of antiquities and UNESCO charters for the preservation, protection, and management of the world's cultural heritage, one would assume that the era of treasure hunting is over. At the present this is far from being so as the experiences of Lebanon and other countries in the Near East prove. To this day, respected international museums acquire looted antiquities. A look at their storerooms, however, will quickly show their incapacity to properly study and publish information on the wealth of foreign antiques they have accumulated since the early days of Western archaeology.

Today's internationally-organized antiquities mafias are largely responsible for the breakup and destruction of the cultural heritage of entire countries, including Lebanon, Pakistan, Peru, and Mexico, to name but a few.[12] The demand for antiquities entails a disastrous perversion of the perception of sites and antiques in areas where the robbing takes place. In the minds of locals, archaeological sites are gold mines, meant to be bulldozed and exploited. Antiquities are seen as 'worthwhile; if they sell well and if they are 'museum pieces'. Yet a great deal of environment and context of an archaeological site has to be destroyed to unearth the rare object that qualifies as a museum piece. Any excavator or serious collector of antiquities knows what this entails in terms of loss of information.[13]

In the Lebanese countryside, entire settlements have fallen to the bulldozer. The story of Kamid al-Loz in the Biqa` is typical of the trend. Excavated between 1964 and 1981, ancient Kumidi, with its villages and agricultural potential, was revealed to be the second millennium B.C. capital of the Biqa'. It also controlled the main trade routes of the time, from Sidon to Damascus, and from Egypt to Mesopotamia and Anatolia. In 1978, a small collection of gold and ivory works was discovered there and was taken to Germany for restoration and conservation. It was kept there in safety for as long as the situation in Lebanon made a return of the objects to the National Museum impossible. In the late 1980s the entire site was ransacked by bulldozers in search of treasure. the local al-Safir newspaper could write in 1991 that, since foreigners had walked off with artifacts from the site, why couldn't local people do the same? The frantic destruction of the site by antiquity robbers produced much less 'treasure' than the looters themselves had expected. In the process, however, this important Bronze Age capital, the only one known in the region, was substantially damaged. Ironically, at the beginning of the excavations, villagers had asked for a small museum to be built for them, but their request had not been heeded. Neither the foreign excavators nor the Lebanese Department of Antiquities were then considering the need for local site museums. The result was an inestimable loss of heritage information.

The Sevso silver scandal ,by contrast ,involved a multi-million dollar treasure which was to be auctioned off in New York by Sotheby's in 1990. The objects 'magnificence seemed to fit the Roman-period temple complex at Ba'alback, and it was argued by the auction house that the treasure was found and exported from there. This story appeared in colorful sequels in Lebanese newspapers, magazines, and on television and fired everyone's imagination. Soon children were asking for tools to go out and dig for treasure. Emphasizing only the glamour of the artifacts and their high price, many reports ignored the initial robbery and subsequent fraud in the scandal. Experts suggested that the artifacts dated from Roman times, but had been manufactured in eastern Europe. After investigation, it was revealed that not only the manufacture but also the origin of the silver was probably eastern European, most likely Yugoslav. The artifacts had been illegally exported to Switzerland prior to the Lebanese involvement in the scandal. Two different sets of Lebanese export papers were produced but their Validity was questioned. The sale in New York is still suspended, and the Lebanese government has paid dearly for protracted lawyers fees. More than one regional museum could have been set up with these funds.

No Archaeological heritage sites can be protected without the cooperation of the people who live on or around them. Unless the public is informed about the meaning of their past and their connection with it, they cannot be expected to preserve and protect the archaeological or cultural vestiges which embody it. Since prestige and money tend to play a more significant role than the value of archaeological investigation when collecting antiquities, it is important for all those involved in heritage conservation to provide information to gain public support for their efforts. Lebanon's cultural heritage today navigates dangerously between the Scylla of post-war reconstruction and development, and the Charybdis of the illegal antique market.

The Cases of Ba`albak and Tyre

The Roman city of Ba`albak in the Biqa` Valley has been the primary tourist attraction in Lebanon for the past two centuries. It was first studied, documented, and excavated in Ottoman times, between 1898 and 1905. Although the architects and archaeologists who participated in the initial excavation did not survive World War I, their students and successors published a comprehensive three-volume work[14] on the classical Roman-period temples, Byzantine remains, and the Islamic castle village or qal`a. Reading these volumes one is amazed by the sensitive observations on the marriage of oriental planning, building, ornament, and cult traditions with Western architectural designs. More amazing still is the careful documentation of the Islamic heritage of the qal'a. Other than publishing very informative official Arabic inscriptions at the qal`a, there are descriptions and reconstruction proposals for the medieval fortress village with its houses, mosques, baths, and outstanding water system which provided each of the courtyard houses with running water and a drainage system.[15]

Later archaeological work, with different archaeological perspective, removed practically all post-Roman remains from the site to free the monumental buildings from later remnants considered comparatively unimportant. Thus today, there exist only bits and pieces from an important period in the town's history: the Ba`albak of the Middle Ages, often praised and described by travellers and historians, and particularly relevant to modern inhabitants of the region. Such hasty judgements by archaeologists on what is important or unimportant have often caused considerable damage to the record of the past.[16] Still, Ba`albak will remain the favorite tourist site of Lebanon. Enthusiastic Lebanese groups from all backgrounds and all regions visit it regularly. An appropriate site-information center there would provide better understanding of Lebanon's cultural heritage and hence of the need for its protection.

Tyre, another site of legendary fame, was excavated by the Lebanese Department of Antiquities between 1947 and 1975. However, comparatively little is known and published of these excavations.[17] Tyre today is a bustling, sprawling town. It was declared a 'World Heritage' site in 1979 by a UNECO decree (Resolution 459), but nothing has been done there since to rescue its archaeological heritage. A one-story museum was built but it remains empty and closed. The 1990-91 clandestine discovery nearby of material from a Phoenician cemetery led to the rescue of part of the finds from the local and foreign antique market. This collection was returned to the Department of Antiquities of Lebanon, its legal owner.[18] The rescue of the material was hampered by efforts possibly emanating from the antique market, and a number of inscribed stelae were mutilated as a result.

Beirut: Past and Future

Finally, we come to Beirut - or Bi-ru-ta in the 3,400-year old Amarna letters from Egypt, classical Berytus, or medieval and Ottoman Bayrout al-Qadimat. Sporadically excavated during this century,[19] the results of which were indifferently published, the heart of modern Beirut, which contains the city's archaeological core, is now facing the perils of reconstruction. The rapid schedule set for this project would worry even the most competent urban archaeologist; the major question, however, is whether urban archaeologists will get a chance to conduct a proper rescue operation in Lebanon's capital. Between reconstruction and the antique market, time is running out fast. Archaeology may soon not find enough to salvage for the future.

Awareness of cultural heritage promotes an understanding of the origins and development of modern societies. Lebanese vernacular architecture, whether self- or community-built, grew out of the environments, resources, technologies, economies, and cultures of the various regions and survives, here and there, within a mountain or plain ecosystem. Unfortunately since, the 1950s real estate speculation and new construction have taken a heavy toll on the architectural heritage of Beirut.[20] The recent war years destroyed traditional and more recent architecture indiscriminately. Now Beirut is facing reconstruction, and the Beirut of tomorrow is an everybody's mind.

Urban specialists and the public at large continue to participate in the debate[21] at the heart of which is Beirut's historic city center is at the very heart of it. The old city center is still remembered by many, and prewar color postcards of Beirut in the sixties are on sale everywhere. Photographs, prints, and paintings of the old Beirut are in great demand and appear in more and more homes and offices. Representations of medieval Beirut, which are much rarer, are treated like high-prized treasures of antiquity. The conspicuous classical-period archaeological remains continue to arouse curiosity. Earlier towns and villages, however, going back to the modest settlements of the first farmers and builders of houses, and the shelters of prehistoric hunter-gatherers before them, are lost. The story of Beirut's past, including some exquisite fragments of lost works of art found in the downtown section of the city, have been presented comprehensively in a popular book by Nina Jidejian.[22]

Once peace returned to Lebanon, people flocked to the derelict Burj Square, the premier downtown landmark existing in the memory of the Lebanese. When, in the spring of 1992, whole-scale demolition was ordered in the heart of the city, Beirutis, venturing there after the dust had settled, were startled: nothing remained of the historical buildings surrounding the square. Only the Mamluk mausoleum, which according to popular belief was saved from demolition by a miracle,[23] remains standing today in the area.

Professional archaeologists and a majority of the public in Lebanon are in agreement that the salvageable historic and archaeological heritage of downtowns Beirut must be rescued. There is disagreement, however, on how this is to be achieved. This is where professional urban archaeology is relevant. After the experience of the bombed-out towns and cities of Europe, and through trial and error, urban archaeology has developed of historic towns and cities. Indeed, the job of urban archaeologists is reconstruction. They reconstruct and revive the memory of a town or city by rescuing evidence from above and below ground. Urban archaeology helps reconstruction by retrieving vital information to clear the way for building in the future. It revives a dimension of the past in order to avoid creating alien spaces. Urban development and archaeology have the same task: to build a city for the people of today and tomorrow, which will not only function efficiently but which will also have identity and meaning for its inhabitants.

A number of international experts in urban archaeology have recently arrived in Beirut to develop an appropriate rescue strategy for the reconstruction work, in cooperation with archaeologists, architects, and restoration experts in Lebanon. Students are also receiving training to gain a first hand understanding of what needs to be done. For example, the Museum of London Archaeology Service, which has great expertise in urban archaeology, recently offered a crash course to a large number of Lebanese students, archaeologists, and architects. An urban archaeologist from Paris also visited Beirut to discuss the terms of the project with Lebanese authorities. The Institut Français d'Archéologie du Proche-Orient and the Museum of London Archaeology Service have also offered to sponsor foreign experts to cooperate with their Lebanese colleagues wherever necessary. The beginnings of a rational rescue plan for Beirut's past is gradually being put into place.

Modern technology and expertise in urban archaeology is expensive, and the Hariri Foundation and UNESCO have allotted funds for the first phase of the Beirut rescue project. If executed as planned, Beirut will be the first historic city in the Near East to benefit from such a salvage program, and the first city whose heritage information will be retrieved and reconstituted to be made available to present and future generations. The human and technical infrastructures needed to carry out the project are to be established in Beirut. These will include an infrastructure for handling surveys, excavations, and finds; data recording, conservation, and analysis; and relations with and dissemination of information among the public at all levels. the Lebanese Department of Antiquities plans to acquire a core service of trained heritage managers, as well as an archive of information and finds. These are basic prerequisites for future work countrywide.

In 1946, Michel Chiha wrote in Patrimoine et Lendemains, in reference to the architectural and cultural heritage of the newly independent Lebanon:

At the moment when construction takes such an important position in Lebanon, and furnishings must be produced in large quantities, it would be inexcusable if we did not intervene forcefully to prevent the nation from being content with the work of men without taste and skill, with ugly and poor products.

In 1993, developers, sponsors, urban archaeologists, and concerned Lebanese citizens can contribute to the reconstruction of Beirut as a model city in more than one sense, and, indeed, in more than one tense.

*Helga Seeden is a professor of archaeology in the department of History &Archaeology at the American University of Beirut. She is the editor of the archaeological journal Berytus and the author of numerous articles on excavations and heritage management in Lebanon and Syria.


  1. Saunders, A., "Heritage Management and Training in England," in Cleere, H.F., (ed.) Archaeological Heritage Management in the Modern World, One World Archaeology no.9, London: Routledge, 1989, pp.152-163.
  2. See Berytus, vols. XXXV, XXXVII and XXXIX: Lebanon I-III
  3. Bernbeck, R. and Lamprichs, R., "Museen, Besitz und Macht: Wohin mit den Altertumern?" Das Altertum 38/2, 1992, pp.109-124.
  4. Copeland, L. and Wescombe, P.J. "Inventory of Stone Age Sites in Lebanon," MUSJ( (Mélanges de l'Université Saint-Joseph) vol. XVI (1965), pp. 29-175; vol. XVII (1966), pp. 1-174.
  5. Since excavation is destructive by nature, only information from sites that is adequately published contributes to heritage preservation. The information retrieved remains available in recorded form for future research, public education, and site rehabilitation. See in the following reference list: the early French and later Lebanese Department of Antiquities excavations at Byblos (1921-1970) in Dumand et al. Fouilles de Byblos I-V and Saghieh (1983); the recent German excavations at Kamid al-Loz (1963-1981) in Berytus XXXVII (1989), for an overview of these excavations in English and full publication list; the Museum of Pennsylvania excavations at Sarafand (1969-1974) in Pritchard (1978), and Sarepta I-IV, (Lebanese University publications); the depth soundings on the island site of Tyre (1973-1974) in Bikai (1978), and the on-going excavations at Tell Arqa (1972-1981) in Thalmann (1992) and Hakimian and Salamé-Sarkis (1988).
  6. The decree number was 166 LR.7.11.1933; see Will, E., 1973. "Henri Seyrig," in Syria vol. L,pp.259-265, 1973.
  7. Several of its volumes were dedicated to material excavated in Tyre between 1947 and 1975. See BMB vols. 21 (1968), 27-28 (1975), 31-32 (1979), 33-36 (1983-86).
  8. Salamé Sarkis, H. Contribution à l'Histoire de Tripoli et de sa région à l'époque des Croisades, Institut Français d'Archéologie du Proche-Orient, Bibliothèque Archéologique et Historique, CVI. Paris: Geuthner, 1980.
  9. Saidah, R., "Fouilles de Khaldeh. Rapport préliminaire sur les première et deuxième campagnes (1961-1962)," BMB (Bulletin du Musée de Beyrouth), vol. 19: pp. 51-90, 1966, and by the same author (in preparation), Mobilier funéraire de la nécropole du Bronze Récent de Sidon-Dakerman (fouilles 1967-1973), (Ph.D. dissertation).
  10. Saidah, R., "Khan Khaldé," Dossiers de l'Archéologie 12: 50-59, 1975.
  11. See Duval, N., Caillet, J.-P., Rey Coquais, J.-P. Gebara, S., and Callot, O., Archéologie du Levant: Recueil Roger Saidah, pp. 311-428, (articles on Roger Saidah's excavations at Khan Khaldé), 1982. The publication contains accounts of what was to be the fate of this and other heritage material - whether on site or at the National Museum - during the Lebanese war years.
  12. Meyer, K.E., The Plundered Past: The Story of the Illegal International Traffic in Works of Art, New York: Atheneum, 1977.
  13. The economic reasons why so many village boys turned into clandestine diggers have been adequately described by Robert Fisk in "the Biggest Supermarket in Lebanon: A journalist Investigates the Plundering of Lebanon's Cultural Heritage, Berytus, vol. XXXIX, 1991, pp. 243-252.
  14. Wiegand, Th. (ed.) Baalbek. Ergebnisse der Ausgrabungen und Untersuchungen in den Jahren 1898 bis 1905 vols I-III, Berlin and Leipzig: Walter de Gruyter, 1921-1925.
  15. Seeden, H., Amhaz, M., Attar, and Al-Rifai, M., (forthcoming), Ba'albak Between Past and Future.
  16. Silberman, N.A. Digging for God and Country: Exploration, Archaeology, and the Secret Struggle for the Holy Land, 1799-1917, New York, London, Toronto, Sydney, Auckland: Doubleday, 1991.
  17. Chehab, M. "Tyr à l'époque romaine," Mélanges de l'Université Saint-Joseph, vol.38, pp. 13-40, 1962, also Sarcophages à reliefs de Tyr, BMB vol. 21, pp. 10-84, 1968; tyr à des Croisades I-II, BMB vols. 27-28 and 31-32, 1975 and 1979; and Fouilles de Tyr; La nécropole I-IV, BMB vols. 33-36, 1983-86. See also Saidah, "Chroniques," BMB vol. 18 (1965), pp. 112-114; and vol. 20 (1967), pp. 159-161; Bikai, P.M. The Poetry of Tyre, Warminster: Aris & Phillips, 1978; and with Bikai, P., "Tyre at the End of the Twentieh Century," Berytus vol. XXXV (1987), pp. 67-83; see also Salamé-Sarkis, "La nécropole de Tyr: à propos de publications récentes," Berytus, vol. XXXIV (1986), pp. 193-205, 1989.
  18. Seeden, H., Ward, W.A., and Sader H., "Finds from a Tyrian Cemetery," Berytus, vol. XXXIX (1991), pp. 39-126, 1992, pp. 39-126; Sader H., "Phoenician Stelae from Tyre continued," Studi Epigrafici e Linguistici, vol 9, pp. 53-79, 1992.
  19. Will, E., "Nouvelles archéologiques: Vers de nouvelles fouilles à Beyrouth," Syria vol. LXIX, pp.221-225, 1992.
  20. Ghosn, R.S., "Beirut Architecture," in Beirut: Crossroads of Culture, Beirut College for Women, Cultural Resources in Lebanon Series, Beirut: Librairie du Liban, 1970.
  21. See for example, Beyhum N., "the Crisis of urban Culture: The Three Reconstruction Plans for Beirut," The Beirut Review, vol.4, 1992, pp. 43-62.
  22. Jidejian, N., Beirut Through the Ages. Beirut: Dar el-Machreq, 1973; the historical topography of Beirut has also been discussed by Davie, M., "Maps and the Historical Topography of Beirut," Berytus, vol. XXXV (1987), pp. 141-164, 1989.
  23. Beydoun, R., "La Légende du Mausolée d'Ibn Arrak," L'Orient-Le Jour, May 28, 1992.
  24. Quoted, in translation, from Ragette, F., Architecture in Lebanon: The Lebanese House During the 18th and 19th Centuries, Delmar, New York: Caravan, 1980, p. 197.

Additional References

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