Objectives

Introduction

1. Fundamentals
1.1
1.2



1.3

Concepts and definitions
Nomenclature of complexes
Chemical formula of complexes
Chemical Bonding of complexes

2. Classification of ligands
2.1




2.2

Types of ligands
Denticity of Ligands
Chelatling ligands
Bridging ligands
Ambidentate ligands

List of ligands
Example of monodentate ligands
Example of bidentate ligands
Example of tridentate ligands
Example of quadridentate ligands
Example of hexadentate ligands

3. Isomerism
3.1
3.2

Structural isomerism
Stereoisomerism
Geometrical isomerism
Optical isomerism

4. The formation of metal complexes
4.1
4.2

4.3

4.4

4.5






4.6

General aspects
Stepwise complex formation
Metal complexe equilibria in solution
Properties of metal complexes
The stability of metal complexes
Thermodynamics
Kinetics
The chelate effect
The macrocycle effect
Complexometric Titration

Reactions competing with the formation of complexes
Competition between H3O+ and Mn+
Competition between L and OH-

5. Hard and soft cations and ligands
5.1

5.2

Characterization of cations
Characterization of ligands

6. Dissolving slightly soluble salts

6.1
6.2


6.3
6.4

The solubility product
Concentration of ions in equilibrium with the solid salt
Precipitation
Dissolution of slightly soluble salts

7. Standart redox potential of metal complexes
 

 

8. Biochemische bedeutung
8.1



8.2



8.3
8.4

Porphyrin
Heme
Chlorophyll
Corrin

Catalysis
Zinc containing enzymes
Substances containing Mg2+ and Ca2+.

Decontamination
Chemotherapy

2.1.3 Bridging ligands
 

      A bridging ligand acts as a bridge between two or more metal centers. In di--hydroxo-bis(tetraaquairon(III), (it may also be called octoaqua-di--hydroxo-diiron(III)) (see chemical formula below), two hydroxyls bridge the two irons. Bridging ligands are preceded by "µ" .

structural formula
Atomic model (Balls and Sticks)

Important bridging ligands are: OH-, S2-, CO32-, PO43-, NH2-.

In salts the anions very often are bridges between the cations. PC Mac