Scientific name : Bos grunniens (Linnaeus)
Order :
Family :

Status :

IWPA - Schedule I.  CITES - Appendix I.
Red Data Book (India) - Critical. Red Data Book (International) - Vulnerable .
IUCN - Endangered (Nationally),Data Deficient (Globally). U.S.ESA - Endangered.

Common Names :
English - Yak
                              Hindi  - Banchour
                              Ladakhi - Yak

Group : Oxen

Measurements :
Head and Body -2000 to 3250 mm.
                          Tail - 700 to 1000 mm.
                          Height at shoulder - 1500 to 2050 mm.
Body Weight : 325 to 600 kg.

Head : Drooping , elongated head ; forehead nearly flat. Muzzle and  ear small.No dewlap.Colour  black, with  a  little white  about  the  muzzle , and  a sprinking of grey at  top.Hairs curly on forehead .
Horns : Smooth, round, spreading horizontally outward, then  curving upward  and  forward, while tips slightly bent backward  and  inward. Length goes up to 950 mm.

Hands and feet : Short  and  thick. Hooves  large  and rounded. Upper part of  the limbs covered by long hairs growing from the sides of the  body. Colour  similar  to body.

Tail : Terminal half of tail thickly covered  with  long blackish hairs, forming an  enormous tuft,  not descending in general below the hocks.

Body : Back nearly  level, not  falling  away above the hips. Neck thick. Hairs nearly smooth and short on neck and back; very  long upto 600 mm. on lower part of each side, forming  a deep  fringe across the shoulder and thigh.A tuft of long hairs also on  breast. Colour  dark brown  to  almost black throughout; greyish tinge on the  neck  of old animals.

Range : India - Changchen-mo Valley  in  Ladakh ( Jammu and Kashmir ) sometimes strays into Sutlej Valley and Kangri Bingi Pass in  Kumaon  Hills( Uttar Pradesh) and Sikkim.
Elsewhere -  Tibet ,Nepal ,China

Habitat : Coldest,desolate and rugged mountain terrain, near the snow line (4000 to 6000 m.).

Threats : Disease;  Genetic problem;  Hybridization; Hunting.

Similar Species : Bos frontalis  of  India,  Nepal  and south-east Asian countries.