A Taxonomic Revision of tribe Ocimeae Dumort. (Labiatae) in continental South East Asia


TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY

CHAPTER 1 
GENERAL INTRODUCTION AND AIMS

CHAPTER 2 
GENERAL MORPHOLOGY

CHAPTER 3 
PALYNOLOGICAL STUDY

CHAPTER  4
PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS

CHAPTER  5  
TAXONOMIC TREATMENT

CHAPTER  6
PHYTOGEOGRAPHICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CONCLUSIONS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

REFERENCES

 

 

  


5. Plectranthus

L’Hér., Stirp. Nov. 84: t. 41, 42 (1788), nom. cons.; Benth. in Wall., Pl. Asiat. Rar. 2: 16 (1830); Labiat. Gen. & Spec.: 29 (1832); in DC., Prodr. 12: 55 (1848); Benth. in Benth. & Hook. f., Gen. Pl. 2: 1175 (1876); Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 4: 616 (1885); Briq. in Engl. & Prantl Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4 (3A): 352 (1897); Doan in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 4: 943 (1936); Mukerjee in Rec. Bot. Surv. India 14: 37 (1940); J. K. Morton in J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 58: 242 (1962); Back. & Bakh. f., Fl. Java 2: 635 (1965); Keng in Gard. Bull. Sing. 24: 141 (1969); in Steenis, Fl. Males. 8 (3): 382 (1978); L. H. Cramer in Dassan. & Fosberg, Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceylon 3: 126 (1981). All excl. syn. Rabdosia & Isodon. Lectotype species: Plectranthus fruticosus L’Hér., type cons.

Germanea Lam., Encycl. 2: 690 (1788). Type species: G. urticifolia Lam. (= Plectranthus fruticosus L’Hér.) (lectotype chosen here).

Coleus Lour., Fl. Cochinch.: 372 (1790); Benth. in Wall., Pl. Asiat. Rar. 2: 15 (1830); Labiat. Gen. & Spec.: 47 (1832); in DC., Prodr. 12: 70 (1848); Benth. in Benth. & Hook. f., Gen. Pl. 2: 1176 (1876); Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 4: 624 (1885); Briq. in Engl. & Prantl Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4 (3A): 359 (1897); Kudo in Mem. Fac. Sci. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 2 (2): 144 (1929); Doan in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 4: 956 (1936); Mukerjee in Rec. Bot. Surv. India 14: 51 (1940); Back. & Bakh. f., Fl. Java 2: 636 (1965); Keng in Gard. Bull. Sing. 24: 48 (1969); L. H. Cramer in Dassan. & Fosberg, Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceylon 3: 136 (1981); X. W. Li & Hedge in C. Y. Wu & P. H. Raven, Fl. China 17: 292 (1994). Type species: C. amboinicus Lour. [= Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng.].

Solenostemon Schumach. & Thonn., Beskr. Guin. Pl.: 271 (1827); Benth. in Benth. & Hook. f., Gen. Pl. 2: 1175 (1876); Briq. in Engl. & Prantl Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4 (3A): 359 (1897); J. K. Morton in J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 58: 251 (1962). Type species: Solenostemon monostachyus (P. Beauv.) Briq. (Ocimum monostachyum P. Beauv. = S. ocymoides Schumach. & Thonn.). The name under Plectranthus is P. monostachyus (P. Beauv.) B. Pollard, in press.

Neomuellera Briq., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 186. (1894). Type species: N. welwitschii Briq. [= Plectranthus welwitschii (Briq.) Codd].

Ascocarydion G. Taylor in J. Bot. 69, suppl. 2: 162 (1931). Type species: A. mirabile (Briq.) G. Taylor [Coleus mirabilis Briq. = Plectranthus miralbilis (Briq.) Launert].

Burnatastrum Briq. in Engler et Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4 (3A): 358 (1897). Lectotype species: B. spicatum (E. Mey. ex Benth.) Briq. (= Plectranthus spicatus E. Mey. ex Benth.).

                Erect or ascending, annual or perennial herbs or undershrubs. Stems quadrangular or round-quadrangular, often succulent, branched. Leaves petiolate, opposite, membranous to chartaceous, sometimes fleshy, serrate or crenate, sometimes irregularly lacinate. Inflorescence terminal, simple or branched; verticils varying from clearly interrupted to adjacent verticils arranged close together and forming a lax spike-like inflorescence; cymes sessile or peduculate, condensed and becoming fasciculate or glomerulate, or dichasially branched at first node and producing long or short lateral cincinni; bracts caducous or persistent, usually forming an apical coma; pedicels erect. Calyx campanulate or tubular in flower and fruit, straight or declinate, bilabiate; posterior lip 1-lobed, broad, decurrent or continue on tube; anterior lip 4-toothed, with teeth similar in shape and size or lateral teeth much wider and of various length, sometimes very short with rounded or truncate apex, median teeth free or connate to various degrees; tube constricted at throat or not, sometimes ventrally dilated, with 10-12 longitudinal veins, often gibbous at anterior base; throat glabrous or with a ring of hairs. Corolla long exserted from calyx tube; posterior lip 4-lobed, subequal or with 2 median lobes larger; anterior lip 1-lobed, concave or flattened, longer than posterior, usually pubescent outside, glabrous, pubescent or villous inside, margin entire or ciliate, sometimes frilled at apex; tube curved or conspicuously sigmoid below the middle, pubescent. Stamens 4, didynamous, declinate, included or exserted, inappendiculate, glabrous, anterior pair longer; posterior and anterior pairs attached close together at or just below the base of anterior corolla lip; filaments free or connate to various degrees, anthers reniform, synthecous, often confluent. Ovary glabrous. Style declinate, clearly or shortly bifid at apex with equal or subequal branches. Disc with anterior side well developed, sometimes very thick. Nutlets ovoid, ellipsoid, oblong or globose, smooth or minutely tuberculate, producing mucilage when wet or not.

Note: Plectranthus L’Hér. was based on two species: Plectranthus punctatus (L.f.) L’Hér. & Plectranthus fruticosus L’Hér.. The latter was conserved against the former because it fits the generic description best.

Germanea Lam. was also based on the same two species: G. urticifolia Lam. (= Plectranthus fruticosus L’Hér.) and G. masculosa Lam.[= Plectranthus punctatus (L.f.) L’Hér.]. The lectotype species chosen here is G. urticifolia.

Key to continental SE. Asian Species of Plectranthus

1.Calyx with a ring of hairs inside throat; inflorescence always simple

   2. Leaves obovate; posterior lip of fruiting calyx broadly obovate, subtruncate or apiculate at apex; lateral teeth of anterior lip wider than median teeth 1. P. caninus

   2. Leaves ovate-lanceolate; posterior lip of fruiting calyx ovate, acute at apex; lateral and median teeth of anterior lip with the same width 2. P. barbatus

1. Calyx without a ring of hairs inside throat; inflorescence simple or branched

   3. Anterior lip of calyx with all 4 teeth ± similar in shape and size or the 2 lateral teeth only slightly wider than the 2 median teeth

      4. Cymes unbranched, 1-3-flowered (Fig. 5.3A), if more than 3-flowered cymes becoming dense and glomerulate (Fig. 2.1E), without lateral cincinnate branches

         5. Cymes usually with more than 3-flowered, becoming dense and glumerulate; posterior lip of fruiting calyx oblong, protruding forward, twice as long as median teeth of anterior lip, margin not decurrent on tube; stamens united 3. P. amboinicus

         5. Cymes lax, 1-3-flowered; posterior lip of fruiting calyx ovate or obovate, bent backwards, equal or shorter than median teeth of anterior lip, margin decurrent on tube; stamens free

            6. Leaves early caducous, base cuneate, tomentose beneath; bracts caducous; median teeth of anterior fruiting calyx united to half way of their length 4. P. tomentifolius

            6. Leaves not early caducous, base cordate, puberulous beneath; bracts persistent; median teeth of anterior fruiting calyx free 5. P. mollis

      4. Cymes branched, usually with more than 3-flowered, never glomerulate (Fig. 5.4A, 5.5A), lateral cincinnate branches usually conspicuous

         7. Calyx ± equal-lobed with posterior slightly broader than anterior lobes 6. P. parishii

         7. Calyx unequally-lobed with posterior much broader than anterior lobes

            8. Corolla tube ± with the same length as anterior corolla lip, sigmoid just below the middle; stamens free, attached at the base of anterior corolla lip 7. P. glabratus

            8. Corolla tube much longer than anterior corolla lip, abruptly sigmoid just beyond calyx; stamens with anterior pair slightly united at base, attached below the base of anterior corolla lip 8. P. bracteatus

   3. Anterior lip of calyx with teeth much different in shape and size, the 2 lateral teeth much wider than the 2 median teeth

      9. Anterior lip of calyx with lateral teeth acute, apiculate or irregularly denticulate at apex, equal to or only slightly shorter than median teeth, median teeth free or united for less than half way of their length

         10. Leaves broadly ovate, base cordate or truncate but shortly cuneate at petiole

            11. Leaves large, usually more than 15 cm wide, base cordate; calyx tube glabrous; posterior corolla lobes minutely denticulate at margins 9. P. gigantifolius

            11. Leaves small, usually less than 5 cm wide, base truncate but shortly cuneate at petiole; calyx tube pubescent ; posterior corolla lobes entire 10. P. albicalyx

         10. Leaves ovate-oblong, lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, base conspicuously cuneate or attenuate

            12. Cymes 1-flowered; calyx with posterior lip and lateral teeth of anterior lip entire 11. P. chiangdaoensis

            12. Cymes 3-flowered; calyx with posterior lip and lateral teeth of anterior lip irregularly denticulate 12. P. helferi

      9. Anterior lip of calyx with lateral teeth rounded or truncate at apex, much shorter than median teeth, median teeth united for more than half way of their length

         13. Cymes ± sessile, lacking obvious lateral cincinni; leaves not variegated; root usually producing tuber 13. P. rotundifolius

         13. Cymes sessile or pedunculate, usually with obvious lateral cincinni; leaves often variegated; root not usually producing tuber 14. P. scutellarioides

 

1. Plectranthus caninus Roth, Nov. Pl. Sp.: 279 (1821); Keng in Steenis, Fl. Males. 8 (3): 392 (1978). Type: India, Heyne s.n. in Wallich Cat. 2729C (holotype B, destroyed; isotype K-W!).

Ocimum monadelphum Roth, Nov. Pl. Sp.: 267 (1821), as ‘Ocymum’. Type: India, Heyne s.n. (holotype B, destroyed); India, Herb. Ham. inWall. Cat. 2729B, with ‘Plectranthus monadelphus’ (K-W!, neotype chosen here; isoneotype K!). Roth based his species description on Heyne’s specimen and ‘Plectranthus monadelphus Heyne’ MSS. The type at B was destroyed, the neotype is chosen here from Herb. Ham., and is a cultivated plant from the Botanic Garden Calcutta, which corresponds well with ‘Plectranthus monadelphus’ MSS.. Heyne’s and Hamilton’s specimens were probably collected from the same cultivated plant but as there is no evidence to ensure that, a neotype is chosen.

Coleus spicatus Benth. in Wall., Pl. Asiat. Rar. 2: 15 (1830); Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 49 (1832); in DC., Prodr. 12: 71 (1848); Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 4: 624 (1885); Mukerjee in Rec. Bot. Surv. India 14: 52 (1940). Type: India, Herb. Wight in Wall. Cat. 2729A [syntypes BM!, G-DC!, K! (Herb. Benthamianum), K! (Herb. Hookerianum), K-W!, NY].

Coleus heynei Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 50 (1832); in DC., Prodr. 12: 71 (1848). Type: as for O. monadelphum (based on the same type of O. monadelphum).

Plectranthus monadelphus Roxb. [Hort. Beng.: 45 (1814), nom nud.], Fl. Ind. 3: 22 (1832). Type: Roxburgh’s illustration No. 1459 (K! illustration, lectotype chosen here). Plate based on a cultivated plant, a native of dry barren hills about Bangalore, India, raised from seeds sent by Mr. Heyne to the Botanic Garden Calcutta. Wall. Cat. 2729B in Herb. Ham, is also a cultivated plant from the Botanic Garden Calcutta but it is not known whether it was Heyne’s plant and the plant Roxburgh based his species decription on.

Coleus caninus (Roth) Vatke in Linnaea 37 (3): 318 (1872). Type: as for P. caninus.

Majana canina (Roth) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. 2: 524 (1891). Type: as for P. caninus.

                Erect or ascending annual herbs up to 50 cm tall. Stems succulent, sometimes rooting at nodes, round-quadrangular, softly pubescent with white patent hairs, branched. Leaves fleshy, obovate, 15-45 x 10-30 mm, apex rounded, base cuneate or attenuate and decurrent on petiole, margin crenate, puberulous to pubescent with scattered sessile glands both sides, veins obscure; petioles 3-10 mm long, pubescent. Inflorescence terminal, simple, spike-like; adjacent verticils touching, rarely separated below, 30-150 x 10-12 mm; cymes sessile, 3-flowered; bracts membranous, sessile, caducous, broadly ovate, 5-6 x 6-7 mm, acute, shortly ciliate, pubescent; pedicels 2-3 mm long at anthesis, 3-4 mm long in fruit, pubescent. Calyx campanulate, 3-4 mm long at anthesis, 4-5 mm long in fruit; posterior lip shortly and broadly obovate, apiculate or subtruncate at apex, margin shortly ciliate, slightly decurrent on tube, glabrous or glabrescent with conspicuous nerves inside, pubescent with scattered sessile glands outside; anterior lip ± equal in length to posterior, lateral teeth triangular-ovate, median teeth lanceolate, all teeth with margin shortly ciliate; tube 10-12 nerved, pubescent, with sessile glands outside, hairs denser at tube base, with a ring of dense white hairs inside throat, scarely saccate at anterior base. Corolla purple, 10-12 mm long; posterior lip sparsely pubescent on back, median lobes rounded at apex, much larger than the acute lateral lobes; anterior lip ovate-oblong, 4-5 mm long, concave, glabrous inside, sparsely pubescent with sessile glands outside; tube 4-5 mm long, sigmoid below the middle, slightly dilated at base, widely expanded at throat, glabrous outside. Stamens united for half of their length, exserted beyond anterior corolla lip. Style clavate at apex, shortly bifid with equal branches, subequal to anterior stamens. Disc with anterior side obtuse at apex, not exceeding ovary. Nutlets ovoid or ellipsoid, c 1 mm long, black, smooth and shinning, only slightly producing mucilage when wet. Map 5.9

Distribution: Tropical Africa, India and Burma, sometimes cultivated.

Ecology. In scrub forest, rocky places; alt. 50-700 m. Flowering & fruiting December-February.

Vernacular names. -

Specimens examined. Burma: Shan Hills, Nov. 1888, Collett 955 (K).

Also specimens from India: Madras, Periyakolam, 2 Jan. 1899, Bourne 1714 (K); Madras, Cuddapah, Feb. 1883, Gamble 11055 (K); Madras, Coimbatore, 1849, Gardner s.n. (K); South Arcot, Vridachalam, Ulundurpet, Pulloorkadu, 70 m, 1 Feb. 1980, Matthew RHT No. 26249 (K); Madras, Dindigul, Kadaikanal, 700 m, 5 Feb. 1986, Matthew & Rajendren RHT No. 44037 (K); Hassan, Mysore, 19 Dec. 1968, Saldanha 12007 (K); Madras, Coodalore near Coimbatore, Jan. 1848, Herb. Wight 2103 (K).

2. Plectranthus barbatus Andrews in Bot. Rep. 9: t. 594 (1809); R. H. Willemse in Blumea 25 (2): 509 (1979); R. A. Clement in D. G. Long, Fl. Bhutan 2 (2): 993 (1999). Type: Illustration in Bot. Rep. 9: t. 594 (1809), plate based on a plant cultivated in England, raised from seed sent from Abyssinia by Lord Valentia (lectotype illustration!); Epitype: Eritrea, Dekemhare, 5 Sept. 1954, Colville 47 (K!, epitype chosen by Ryding).

Ocimum asperum Roth, Nov. Pl. Sp.: 268 (1821), as ‘Ocymum’. Type: India, Mysore, Nundidroog, Heyne s.n. in Wall. Cat. 2728C (holotype B, destroyed; isotype K-W!).

Plectranthus comosus Sims in Bot. Mag. 49: t. 2318 (1822). Type: Illustration in Bot. Mag. 49: t. 2318 (1822), plate based on a plant cultivated in Fulham Nursery, England, raised from seeds supposed to be from Nepal (lectotype illustration!); Epitype: Nepal, Pokharachaur, 1500 m, 14 Oct. 1954, Stainton, Sykes & Williams 8938 (BM!, epitype chosen by Ryding).

Plectranthus asper (Roth) Spreng., Syst. Veg. 2: 690 (1825). Type: as for O. asperum.

Coleus barbatus (Andrews) Benth. in Wall., Pl. Asiat. Rar. 2: 15 (1830), excl. syn. Plectranthus forskohlii Willd., Ocymum hadiense & O. zatarhendi Forsk.; Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 49 (1832), 711 (1835), excl. syn. Plectranthus forskohlii Willd., Ocymum hadiense Forsk. & Germanea forskolaei Poir; in DC., Prodr. 12: 71 (1848), excl. syn. Plectranthus forskohlii Willd. & Germanea forskolaei Poir; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 4: 625 (1885), excl. syn. Plectranthus forskohlii Willd. & Germanea forskolaei Poir; L. H. Cramer in Kew Bull. 32 (3): 555 (1978); L. H. Cramer in Dassan. & Fosberg, Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceylon 3: 141 (1981); Press in H. Hara, Chater, & L. H. J. Williams, Enum. Fl. Nepal. 3: 151 (1982), excl. syn. C. forskahlii Briq.. Type: as for P. barbatus.

Coleus forskohlii sensu auctt. Briq. (non Plectranthus forskohlaei Willd. 1800) in Engler & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4 (3A): 359 (1897); Mukerjee in Rec. Bot. Surv. India 14: 53 (1940); Murata in SouthE Asian Stud. 14 (2): 181 (1976); Y. C. Huang in C. Y. Wu & H. W. Li, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 66: 538, f. 114, 7 (1977); X. W. Li & Hedge in C. Y. Wu & P. H. Raven, Fl. China 17: 292 (1994).

                Suberect or ascending annual or short-lived perennial herbs up to 50 cm tall. Stems sometimes rooting at nodes, quadrangular or round-quadrangular, sparsely to densely hirsute, with sessile glands, branched. Leaves subfleshy, ovate-lanceolate, 30-110 x 15-50 mm, apex acute, base cuneate or attenuate and decurrent on petiole, margin serrate-crenate, pilose with sessile glands both sides, veins prominent beneath; petioles 10-30 mm long, pilose. Inflorescence terminal, simple, up to 30 cm long; axis hirsute, with sessile glands; verticils clearly interrupted, 5-25 mm apart; cymes sessile, 3-4-flowered; bracts sessile, caducous, ovate-lanceolate, 5-8 x 7-12 mm, cuspidate, ciliate, pubescent; pedicels 3-4 mm long at anthesis, 4-5 mm long in fruit, pubescent. Calyx campanulate, 3-4 mm long at anthesis, 6-8 mm long in fruit; posterior lip ovate, acute or acuminate at apex, margin shortly ciliate, decurrent on tube, shortly pubescent on both sides, with sessile glands outside, nerves prominent inside; anterior lip with teeth subequal, lanceolate, ± equal in length to posterior; tube 10-nerved, pubescent, with sessile glands outside, hairs denser at tube base, with a ring of dense white hairs inside throat, not saccate at anterior base. Corolla purple, 10-20 mm long; posterior lip sparsely pubescent, with sessile glands on back, median lobes rounded at apex, much larger than the minute acute lateral lobes; anterior lip ovate-oblong, 5-12 mm long, concave, glabrous inside, sparsely pubescent with sessile glands outside; tube 5-8 mm long, sigmoid below the middle, gradually dilated towards base, widely expanded at throat, glabrous outside. Stamens united around half of their length, included in anterior corolla lip. Style bifid with equal branches, slightly longer than anterior stamens. Disc with anterior side obtuse at apex, exceeding ovary. Nutlets black, globose, c 1 mm in diameter, smooth, shinning, not producing mucilage when wet. Map 5.9

Note: The types of both Plectranthus comosus Sims and P. barbatus Andrews are colour illustrations. The type of the former is a smaller form with a longer petiole whereas the type of the latter is a larger form with a shorter petiole. Ryding (1999) epitypified both of the names and discussed the inconsistent differences between these two. He did not make any decision whether the two forms are conspicific or not. As it appears to be no clear delimitation between the two forms, only one species is recognised here under the oldest name P. barbatus Andrews.

                Plectranthus forskohlaei Willd., a basionym of Briquet’s name was a superfluous name for Ocimum hadiense Forssk. = Plectranthus hadiensis (Forssk.) Schweinf. ex Sprenger.

Distribution: Tropical East Africa, West Asia, Nepal, Bhutan, India, Sri Lanka, South China and Thailand.

Ecology. On rocks in open places in forest, in bamboo forest, alt. 500-2100m. Flowering & fruiting all year round.

Vernacular names. -

Specimens examined. Thailand: Tak, Keng Soi, Me Ping Rapids, c 550 m, 23 Nov. 1920, Kerr 4636 (ABD, BK, 2 sht. BM, L); Tak, along the Meh Ping River at Pa Khar, beyond Kan Bet, 10 Dec. 1920, Rock 616 (K).

Also specimens from India: Salem, Attur Periakalrayans, Nagalur forest, 920 m, 16 May 1977, Arockiasamy RHT No. 8203 (K); Pulneys, Poombarai old road, Jun. 1897, Bourne 577 (K); Pulneys, Kodaikanal, Ghats, 19 May 1901, Bourne 1358 (K); Ootacamund, Nilgiris, 25 Sept. 1908, Bourne 5230 (K); Madras, Ghats, Nilgiris, 900 m, Aug. 1886, Gamble 18081 (K); Poonah, 780 m, Jacquemont 441 (K); Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, Nilgiris, 2000 m, 3 Oct. 1982, Klackenberg & Lundin 209 (K); Madras, Dindigul, Kodaikanal, Vadakavunchi, 1750 m, 29 Nov. 1985, Matthew & Rajendren RHT No. 43460 (K); Orissa, Koraput Distr., Dev Mali Mt. near Pottangi, 1500 m, 15 Oct. 1950, Mooney 4178 (K); Ootacamund, Nilgiris, 1840, Perrottet 35 (K); Concan, Stock s.n. (K); Belgaum, Ritchie 549 & 1982 (K); Madras, Dindigul, Herb. Wight in Wall Cat. 2728D (K). Nepal: Khebang-Bharomdin, 1300 m, 24 Nov. 1963, Hara et al 6302777 (K); Between Mamamkhe and Kunjari, 1800 m, 30 Sept. 1989, KEKE 1128 (K); Pokhara, 14 Oct. 1954, Stainton, Sykes & Williams 8938 (BM, epitype of P. comosus).

3. Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng., Syst. Veg. 2: 690 (1825); Keng in Steenis, Fl. Males. 8 (3): 387 (1978); R. H. Willemse in Blumea 25 (2): 509 (1979); Phuong in J. Biol. 17 (4): 42 (1995); Phuong in N. T. Ban et al., Fl. Vietnam 2: 55 (2000). Type: Rumphius Ic. in Herb. Amb. 5: t. 102, f. 2 (1750) (lectotype illustration!).

Coleus amboinicus Lour., Fl. Cochinch.: 372 (1790); Mukerjee in Rec. Bot. Surv. India 14: 54 (1940); Back. & Bakh. f., Fl. Java 2: 637 (1965); Keng in Gard. Bull. Sing. 50: 141 (1969); L. H. Cramer in Kew Bull. 32 (3): 555 (1978); L. H. Cramer in Dassan. & Fosberg, Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceylon 3: 138 (1981); Phuong in Novit. Syst. Pl. Vasc. 19: 130 (1982). Type: as above.

Coleus aromaticus sensu auctt. Benth. (non Plectranthus aromaticus Roxburgh, 1814) in Wall., Pl. Asiat. Rar. 2: 15 (1830); Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 51 (1832), 711 (1835); in DC., Prodr. 12: 72 (1848); Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 4: 625 (1885); Doan in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 4: 959, f. 100, 7-9 (1936).

Coleus crassifolius Benth. in Wall., Pl. Asiat. Rar. 2: 15 (1830); Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 52 (1832), 711 (1835). Type: India, Dindygul, Herb. Wight s.n. in Wall. Cat. 2731 [syntypes BM!, K! (Herb. Benthamianum), K! (Herb. Hookerianum), K-W! (with Plectr. crassifolius Hb. Wight MSS.)].

Plectranthus aromaticus sensu Roxb. (non Roxb. 1814), Fl. Ind. ed. 2 (3): 22 (1832).

Coleus suganda Blanco, Fl. Filip.: 483 (1837); Benth. in DC., Prodr. 12: 71 (1848). Type: Philippines, Luzon, Maragondong, Cavite Province, July 1914, Merrill: Species Blancoanae No. 129 (K!, neotype chosen here). Blanco’s specimens cannot be tracked. Neotype is chosen from Merrill’s specimen.

Coleus carnosus Hassk. in Flora 25, II (Beil. Nr. 2): 25 (1842). Type: Indonesia, Zolling 1950 [holotype G-DC (microfiche!); isotypes 2 sht. P!].

Coleus suborbicularis Zoll. & Moritzi, Syst. Verz.: 54 (1846). Type: Indonesia, Zolling 1950 [holotype G-DC (microfiche!); isotypes A, 2 sht. P!].

Majana amboinica (Lour.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 2: 524 (1891). Type: as for C. amboinica.

Coleus amboinicus Lour. var. violaceus Gürke, Bot. Jahrb. 19: 210 (1894). Type: Tanzania, Lake Chala, Volkens 321 (syntypes BM!, K!); Pangani-Ubergang, 800 m, 2 Jul. 1893, Volkens 487 (syntypes BM!, K!).

                Erect or ascending perennial herbs up to 1 m tall, strongly aromatic. Stems round or round-quadrangular, hollow when old, glabrescent below, pubescent to villous above, with simple and gland-tipped hairs, branched. Leaves fleshy, orbicular or broadly ovate, 35-50 x 25-55 mm, apex rounded or obtuse, base round or truncate, margin crenate, hirsute above, pubescent to tomentose beneath, veins conspicuous beneath; petioles 5-25 mm long, pubescent to villous. Inflorescence terminal, simple, up to 30 cm long; axis pubescent to villous; verticils 5-20 mm apart; cymes sessile, dense, glomerulate, several-flowered; bracts sessile, caducous, ovate or lanceolate, up to 7 x 5 mm, acuminate, shortly ciliate, pubescent; pedicels 1-3 mm long at anthesis, 1.5-7 mm long in fruit, pubescent. Calyx campanulate, 2-3 mm long at anthesis, 4-6 mm long in fruit; posterior lip oblong, twice as long as anterior lip, acute at apex, margin ciliate, not decurrent on tube, hirsute on both sides; anterior lip with teeth minute, acuminate, subequal in length, hirsute; tube 10-nerved, densely hirsute outside, gibbous at anterior base. Corolla purple, 8-12 mm long; posterior lip densely pubescent on back, median lobes rounded at apex, much larger than the acute-obtuse lateral lobes; anterior lip ovate-oblong, 5-6 mm long, glabrous inside, subvillous outside; tube 4-5 mm long, sigmoid below the middle, slightly dilated at base, widely expanded at throat, densely pubescent with sessile glands outside. Stamens united to half of their length, long exserted from anterior corolla lip. Style bifid with equal slender branches, subequal to anterior stamens. Disc with anterior side obtuse or truncate at apex, not exceeding ovary. Nutlets brown, globose or ovoid, c 1 mm long, minutely tuberculate or smooth and shinning, producing mucilage when wet. Map 5.9

Note: This species is a commonly cultivated in South East Asia. For unknown reason, the plant rarely produces flowers within this region.

                Loureiro’s specimen at BM is a fragment but it is clearly P. amboinicus. The illustration in Herb. Amb. 5: t. 102, f. 2 (1750) which Loureiro cited is not excellent but it is identifiable (illustrations in those days were not always perfect). Launert (1968) mentioned that the illustration Loureiro cited in not conclusive and the BM specimen is unidentifiable. He chose Kerr s.n., 25 May 1921 from Thailand as a representative specimen (probably equal to the term ‘Epitype’ in the present code).

                A nomenclature problem concerning Coleus aromaticus sensu Benth. arose because the name was wrongly applied to a species different from its type. Bentham (1830), when publishing Coleus aromaticus, accidently cited Plectranthus aromaticus Roxb. (= Plectranthus scutellarioides), a name which therefore should be the basionym of his species, but he actually based his species on Buchanan-Hamilton specimens in Wall. Cat. 2730B, collected from Patna, India on 20 Apr. 1812 [K (Herb. Benthamianum), K-W, right hand specimen]. These specimens are all Plectranthus amboinicus. Roxburgh published Plectranthus aromaticus [Hort. Beng.: 45 (1814)] without any description but referred to the published description and illustration of Majana rubra in Rumphius Ic., Herb. Amb. 5: 291, t. 101 (1750) which is actually Plectranthus scutellarioides (L.) R. Br.. In Fl. Ind. ed. 2 (3): 21 (1832), his later work, Roxburgh retained the name Plectranthus aromaticus but applied it in the same sense as Bentham, i.e., to Plectranthus amboinicus. In this later work, Roxburgh considered Majana rubra as a synonym of Plectranthus scutellarioides.

Distribution: Widely cultivated in tropics.

Ecology. Cultivated, sometimes naturalised; alt. from sea level up to 1500 m. Flowering & fruiting May-December.

Vernacular names. Cambodian: Chi Tra, Sak Dam Ray. Thai: Hawm Duan Luang, Bai Hu Soea, Niam Hu Soea. Vietnamese: Rau Thom Lun, Rau Cang.

Specimens examined. Thailand: Chiang Mai, 300 m, 11 May. 1915, Kerr 3597 (BM, K); Mae Hong Son, Pai Distr., c 600 m, 25 May. 1921, Kerr s.n. (BM); Lamphun, Ban Hong Distr., Ban Hong Village, 300 m, 19 Sept. 1994, Okonogi 1 (CMU); Kanchanaburi, Salak Phra Wildlife Sanctuary, Khao Tab Tao Ranger Substation, 480 m, 29 Sept. 1998, Suddee et al 869 (BKF). Vietnam: Tu Chap, April 1888, Balansa 2901 (P); Sai Gon, 1877, Pierre s.n. (P).

Also specimens from India: Salem, Rayakotai Hill, 18 Jul. 1908, Bourne 5144 (K); Madras, Sigri Bail, 750 m, Jul. 1884, Gamble 15197 (K); Madras, Dindigul, Tandigudi Ghat Road, 400 m, 27 Dec. 1987, Matthew RHT No. 52225 (K); Peninsula Indiae Orientalis, Presented by the Council of King’s College, Feb. 1872, Herb. Rottlerianum (K); Madras, Herb. Wight 2117 (K).

Sri Lanka: North Western Province, Kurunegala Distr., Maraluwawa, ± 120 m, 7 Sept. 1972, Cramer 3850 (K).

4. Plectranthus tomentifolius S. Suddee sp. nov., P. kunstleri habitu valde affinis sed inflorescentia eramosa nec ramosissima cymis bifloris vel trifloris nec unifloris differt. Type: Thailand, Takua Thung, Nov. 1896, Curtis s.n. (holotype SING!).

                Ascending perennial herbs up to 20 cm tall. Stems stout and woody at base, with conspicuous kidney shaped leaf scars, quadrangular, puberulous. Leaves thick, early caducous, ovate or elliptic, 30-80 x 20-35 mm, apex acute, base cuneate, margin serrate-crenate, pubescent above, tomentose with sessile glands beneath; petioles 5-15 mm long, tomentose. Inflorescence terminal, simple, 9-12 cm long; axis densely pubescent with patent and antrose hairs; verticils 5-15 mm apart, clearly interrupted; cymes sessile, 2-3-flowered; bracts sessile, early caducous, ovate, 3-5 mm long, acuminate, pubescent; pedicels 1-2 mm long at anthesis, 2-3.5 mm long in fruit, pubescent. Calyx campanulate, 2-2.5 mm long at anthesis, 4-6 mm long in fruit; posterior lip broadly ovate, acute at apex, margin entire, bent backwards, decurrent on tube, glabrous with conspicuous veins on both sides; anterior lip with teeth lanceolate, median teeth united more than half of their length, subequal in length to posterior, lateral teeth shorter; tube 10-nerved, glabrescent to pubescent with sessile glands outside, saccate at anterior base. Corolla (colour unknown), 7-10 mm long; posterior lip pubescent with sessile glands on back, medians lobes rounded at apex, larger than the obtuse lateral lobes; anterior lip oblong, 3-4 mm long, concave, slightly pubescent along margin inside, pubescent with sessile glands outside; tube 5-7 mm long, sigmoid below the middle, gradually dilated towards throat, slender below, pubescent with sessile glands outside. Stamens free, posterior pair attached slightly below anterior, included in anterior corolla lip. Style slightly cleft at apex with pointed branches, slightly exceeding anterior stamens but not exceeding anterior corolla lip. Disc with anterior side largest, truncate at apex, equal to or exceeding ovary. Nutlets black, ovoid or ellipsoid, subtrigonous, 1-1.2 mm long, smooth, not producing mucilage when wet. Fig. 5.3 & Map 5.9

Note: The closest species is Plectranthus kunstleri Prain as they both have similar leaf shape and grow on limestone rocks, but Plectranthus tomentifolius differs in having an unbranched inflorescence with 2-3-flowerd cymes (branched with a single flower in P. kunstleri). The leaves of P. kunstleri are membranous and pubescent while they are rather thick and tomentose in P. tomentifolius.

Distribution: Endemic to Peninsular Thailand. Known only from type.

Ecology. On limestone rocks; alt. unknown. Flowering & fruiting November (ex type).

Vernacular names. -

Specimens examined. Thailand: Phangnga, Krasoom (กระโสม), Takua Thung, Nov. 1896, Curtis s.n. (holotype SING).

5. Plectranthus mollis (Aiton) Spreng., Syst. Veg. 2: 690 (1825); Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 35 (1832), 711 (1835); Press in H. Hara, Chater, & L. H. J. Williams, Enum. Fl. Nepal. 3: 161 (1982); R. A. Clement in D. G. Long, Fl. Bhutan 2 (2): 992 (1999). Type: Cultivated, Native of the East Indies. Introduced by Sir Joseph Banks in 1781 (holotype BM!).

Ocimum molle Aiton in Hort. Kew. 2: 322 (1789). Type: as above.

Ocimum mayporense Roth, Nov. Pl. Sp.: 271 (1821), as ‘Ocymum’. Type: India, Heyne s.n. in Wall. Cat. 2736C (holotype B, destroyed; isotypes K!, K-W!).

Plectranthus incanus Link, Enum. Hort. Berol. Alt. 2: 120 (1822); Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 4: 621 (1885); Mukerjee in Rec. Bot. Surv. India 14: 47 (1940). Type: unknown (no locality and specimen cited in original publication. Link’s herbarium is at B, probably destroyed).

Plectranthus divaricatus Weinm. in Syll. Pl. Soc. Ratisb 1: 68 (1824). Type: unknown.

Plectranthus cordifolius D. Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal.: 116 (1825); Benth. in Wall., Pl. Asiat. Rar. 2: 16 (1830); Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 35 (1832), 709 (1835); in DC., Prodr. 12: 66 (1848). Type: Nepal, Wall. Cat. 2736A (K! (Herb. Benthamianum), neotype chosen here; isoneotypes 2 sht. K! (Herb. Hookerianum), K-W!). There is no type of P. cordifolius D. Don at BM. At Kew, there are 4 sheets of Wall. Cat. 2736A from Nepal (3 sheets in K and 1 sheet in K-W). The neotype is chosen from the most complete specimen which has ‘Herb. Benthamianum’ on it.

Plectranthus mayporense (Roth) Spreng., Syst. Veg. 2: 691 (1825). Type: as for O. mayporense.

Plectranthus secundus Roxb. [Hort. Beng.: 45 (1814), nom. nud.], Fl. Ind. 3: 20 (1832), nom. illeg.. P. secundus was published as a new species (not a nom. nov.) by Roxburgh but it was a superfluous name for Ocimum molle (1789) which he cited as a synonym.

                Erect annual herbs up to 1 m tall. Stems succulent, quadrangular, softly and shortly pubescent, branched. Leaves membranous, broadly ovate, 40-140 x 30-100 mm, apex acute, base cordate, margin irregularly crenate-serrate, glabrous or puberulous above, puberulous and gland-dotted beneath, with 3-5 prominent veins from leaf base; petioles slender, (5) 15-100 mm long, shortly pubescent. Inflorescence terminal, up to 30 cm long, simple or sometimes branched at inflorescence base; axis slender, shortly pubescent; verticils 5-20 mm apart, clearly interrupted; cymes subsessile, lax, 2-3-flowered; bracts sessile or with short claw at base, persistent, obovate, 3-10 mm long, acute, shortly ciliate at margin, pubescent; pedicels slender, 4-5 mm long at anthesis, 5-7 mm long in fruit, pubescent. Calyx campanulate, 3-5 mm long at anthesis, 7-10 mm long in fruit; posterior lip ovate or obovate, apex rounded or apiculate, margin entire, decurrent on tube, glabrous or glabrescent with prominent nerves on both sides; anterior lip with teeth lanceolate, margin shortly scabrid, median teeth longest, lateral teeth equal or slightly longer than posterior; tube 10-nerved, shortly pubescent on nerves, otherwise glabrous or glabrescent, with or without sessile glands, often swollen at the middle because of the large nutlets, not saccate at anterior base. Corolla light blue, 6-9 mm long; posterior lip with lobes rounded at apex, pubescent with sessile glands on back, median lobes larger than lateral lobes; anterior lip ovate, 3-5 mm long, concave, glabrous inside, pubescent, with sessile glands outside; tube 4-5 mm long, sigmoid below the middle, gradually dilated towards base, widely expanded at throat, pubescent outside. Stamens with posterior pair attached just below anterior but not united, included in anterior corolla lip. Style bifid with equal branches, subequal to anterior stamens or slightly longer but not exceeding anterior corolla lip. Disc with anterior side thick, obtuse at apex, equal to or slightly exceeding ovary. Nutlets light brown, usually with scattered black spots, ellipsoid, 2 mm long, smooth, shining, not producing mucilage when wet. Map 5.9

Note: This species is easily recognised by the cordate leaves, , the persistent bracts, the swelling of the mature fruiting calyx tube caused by the large nutlets, and the black spots on the nutlets.

Distribution: India, Nepal & Burma.

Ecology. In shady areas along paths or riverbanks in forest; alt. 300-2100 m. Flowering July-November; fruiting September-December.

Vernacular names. -

Specimens examined. Burma: Upper Burma, on hills around Tzi-tzo-ti, 25° 58’N 98° 29’E, 2100 m, Jul. 1925, Forrest 27046 (E, K, P, US).

Also specimens from India: Assam, Wokha, Naga Hills, 1440 m, 25 Sept. 1935 Bor 6192 (K); Pulneys, Poombarai Valley, 20 Dec. 1898, Bourne (K); Pulneys, Vilpatti Valley, 8 Dec. 1898, Bourne 1713 (K); Salem, Shevaroys, Oct. 1897, Bourne s.n. (K); Chota Nagpur, 22 Oct. 1873, Clarke 21358B (K); Chicholi, Chandara, 25 Jan. 1891, Duthie 10527 (K); Bombay, 9 Nov. 1950, Fernandes 1745 (K); Madras, 1500 m, Sept. 1883, Gamble 12321 (K); Madras, Nilgiris, 1500 m, Sept. 1885, Gamble 16828 (K); Madras, Nilgiris, 1200 m, Aug. 1886, Gamble 18069 (K); Singbhum, Sept. 1899, Haines 219 (K); Pachmashi, 8 Oct. 1911, Haines 3485 (ABD, K); Madras, Nilagiri, Hohenacker 1228 (K); Khasia, 1200-1500 m, 30 Sept. 1850, Hooker & Thomson 2424 (K); Western Ghats, 1550-1750 m, 10 May 1982, Klackenberg & Lundin 260 (K); Salem, Yercad, 1500 m, 17 Dec. 1980, Matthew, Britto & Rani RHT No. 28098 (K); Madras, Dindigul, Kodaikanal, 950 m, 2 Nov. 1987, Matthew RHT 50978 (K); Orissa, Gargadbahal, 300 m, 2 Oct. 1939, Mooney, 1157 (K); Bastar, Bailadila Hill, 600 m, 5 Oct. 1940, Mooney 1406 (K); Jashpur, Dumarkona, 900 m, 27 Sept. 1941, Mooney 1864 (K); Belgaum, Ritchie 547 (K); Hassan, Mysore, 810 m, 24 Sept. 1971, Saldanha & Gandhi HFP 2168 (K); Kumaon, Almora, 1650 m, Strachey & Winterbottom 4 (K); Sirguja, 450-600 m, 16 Dec. 1890, Wood 206 (K). Nepal: Kathmandu Valley, 1560 m, 17 Aug. 1967, Williams & Stainton 8107 (K); Dharan, 600 m, 3 Sept. 1967, Williams & Stainton 8340 (K).

6. Plectranthus parishii Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 4: 622 (1885); Mukerjee in Rec. Bot. Surv. India 14: 50 (1940). Type: Burma, Tenasserim, Moulmein, Parish 444 (holotype K!).

Calamintha esquirolii H. Lév. in Fedde, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 8: 450 (1910). Type: China, Kweichow, Shin-gny-hien, chemin pierreux de Sy-Koua-Tong, Nov. 1906, Esquirol 1058 (holotype E!), syn. nov.

Coleus esquirolii (H. Lév.) Dunn in Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 8 (37): 158 (1913); Dunn in Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 6 (28): 144 (1915); Kudo in Mem. Fac. Sci Taihoku Imp. Univ. 2 (2): 144 (1929); Y. C. Huang in C. Y. Wu & H. W. Li, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 66: 540, f. 114, 10 (1977); McKean in Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 40 (1); 162 (1982); X. W. Li & Hedge in C. Y. Wu & P. H. Raven, Fl. China 17: 292 (1994). Type: as for Calamintha esquirolii, syn. nov.

                Erect or ascending annual herbs, up to 1 m tall. Stems succulent, sometimes purple, round-quadrangular, puberulous, branched. Leaves subfleshy, broadly ovate or orbicular, 20-50 x 20-40 mm, apex acute, base truncate, margin coarsely crenate-serrate, glabrous to puberulous on both sides, with minute sessile glands beneath; petioles slender, 1-7 mm long, slightly pubescent. Inflorescence terminal, up to 20 cm long; axis pubescent with gland-tipped hairs; verticils slightly or clearly interrupted; cymes pedunculate, 1.5-6 cm long, producing lax, many-flowered lateral cincinni; bracts sessile, caducous, ovate or lanceolate, up to 3 mm long, acute or acuminate, pubescent; pedicels 1-2 mm long in flower, 3-5 mm long in fruit, pubescent with gland-tipped hairs. Calyx ovoid or tubular-campanulate, c 2 mm long at anthesis, 3-5 mm long in fruit; posterior lip triangular-lanceolate, only slightly broader than teeth of anterior lip, acute at apex, margin slightly decurrent on tube, glabrous inside, pubescent with gland-tipped hairs outside; anterior lip with teeth lanceolate, subequal in length to posterior; tube 10-nerved, shortly pubescent with gland-tipped hairs and sessile glands outside, not saccate at anterior base. Corolla purple, 10-18 mm long; posterior lip with lobes acute at apex, pubescent on back, 2 median lobes slightly wider than lateral lobes but equal in length; anterior lip ovate-oblong, 4-6 mm long, concave, pubescent both sides at apex of lobe; tube 7-8 mm long, sigmoid below the middle and slender below, gradually dilated towards throat, slightly pubescent outside. Stamens with posterior pair attached below and close to anterior but not united, included in anterior corolla lip. Style clavate at apex, slightly cleft, subequal to anterior stamens. Disc with anterior side thick, obtuse at apex, twice as long as ovary. Nutlets black, smooth, shinning, rounded or ellipsoid, c 1 mm long, producing mucilage when wet. Fig. 5.4, Plate 5.2E, Map 5.9

Note: This species is characterised by its fruiting calyx which has the posterior lobe only slightly broader than the 4 anterior lobes.

                Within the region studied the species has long been known under the name Coleus esquirolii (Levl.) Dunn but it appears that this name is just a synonym of Plectranthus parishii Hook. f., an earlier little used name.

                Coleus mucosus Hayata in J. Coll. Sci. Univ. Tokyo 30: 225 (1911) was cited as a synonym of Coleus esquirolii in Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 66: 540 (1977) and Fl. China 17: 292 (1994). The original description mostly matches the latter species but the distributions are disjunct and as the type specimens have not been seen for this study, it is not possible to decide whether C. mucosus is really a correct synonym [Type: Kodensho, Oct. 1906, Kawakami & Mori 1755 (syntype TI); Kashito, Aug. 1905, Nakahara 302 (syntype TI); Banchoryo, Oct. 1905, Nakahara 582, Oct. 1905 (syntype TI); Kodensho, Oct. 1905, Nagasawa 764 (syntype TI)].

Distribution: South China, Burma & Thailand.

Ecology. On limestone rocks in open places; alt. 200-1400 m. Flowering & fruiting October-January.

Vernacular names. -

Specimens examined. Burma: Upper Burma, Shan Hills, 1200 m, Nov. 1887, Collett 44 (K); Tenasserim, Moulmein, Parish 444 (holotype K); Southern Shan States, Tauuggyi Crags, 1500 m, 1910, Robertson 18 (K). Thailand: Chiang Rai, limestone hill S of Mae Sai, Mae Sai Distr., c. 1330 m, 29 Oct. 1992, Banziger 1048 (CMU); Kanchanaburi, Huay Bankau, 800 m, 8 Nov. 1971, Beusekom et al 3539 (BKF, L, MO); Loei, Pha Nok Khao, S of Loei, Limestone mountain near Phu Kradung, 16ฐ 52’N 101ฐ 55’E, 250-350 m, 6 Nov. 1970, Charoenphol, Larsen & Warncke 4553 (AAU, BKF); Chiang Rai, Doi Tam Yup, c 390 m, 1 Nov. 1925, Garrett 246 (A, BKF, 2 sht. BM, K, L, NY); Tak, Keng Ap Nang, Mae Ping Rapids, 230 m, 19 Dec. 1913, Kerr 3054 (ABD, BM, K); Tak, Keng Um Kawng, Me Ping Rapids, c 250 m, 24 Nov. 1920, Kerr 4650 (ABD, 2 sht. BM); Kanchanaburi, Takanun, c 400 m, 17 Feb. 1926, Kerr 10526 (ABD, 2 sht. BM, L); Bangkok (came up in an orchid basket), 1 Nov. 1931, Kerr 20576 (BM); Kanchanaburi, Huay Lam Ton, Erawan National Park, Srisawat Distr., 580-600 m, 26 Nov. 1982, Koyama et al T-30361 (2 sht. KYO); Chiang Mai, Doi Inthanon National Park, around Mae Pan waterfall, 1400 m, 10 Dec. 1984, Koyama & Nantasan T-40112 (A, KYO, L); Chiang Mai, Sangampang, Doi Muang Awn (cave), Sahagohn Subdistr., 650-700 m, 29 Oct. 1992, Maxwell 92-653 (AAU, CMU, GH, P); Lampang, Wahng Nua Distr., Jae Sawn National Park, Wahng Die Subdistr., Nahn Kaht (Pah Ngahm) limestone area, S of Maw Cave Hill, 675-800 m, 4 Nov. 1996, Maxwell 96-1943 (CMU); Lampang, Pratu Pha, c 400 m, 11 Jan. 1970, Smitinand & Kowanit 10772 (L); Chiang Mai, Mae Rim-Sa Moeng border, 1170 m, 16 Dec. 1999, Suddee 1144 (BKF, K, TCD).

7. Plectranthus glabratus (Benth.) Alston in Trimen, Handb. Fl. Ceylon 6: 236 (1931); L. H. Cramer in Dassan. & Fosberg, Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceylon 3: 135 (1981); Murata in SouthE Asian Stud. 8 (4): 513 (1971). Type: India, Madras, Wight s.n. [(holotype K! (Herb. Benthamianum)].

Coleus glabratus Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 58 (1832), 711 (1835); in DC., Prodr. 12: 78 (1848). Type: as above.

Coleus paniculatus Benth. in Wall., Pl. Asiat. Rar. 2: 16 (1830); Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 59 (1832); in DC., Prodr. 12: 79 (1848). Type: India, Dindygul, Herb. Wight in Wall. Cat. 2734 [syntypes K! (Herb. Benthamianum), K-W!].

Coleus wightii Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 58 (1832); in DC., Prodr. 12: 78 (1848). Type: India, Nilgiris, Wight s.n. [holotype K! (Herb. Benthamianum)].

Plectranthus coleoides Benth. in DC., Prodr. 12: 64 (1848); Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 4: 622 (1885); Mukerjee in Rec. Bot. Surv. India 14: 48 (1940); Doan in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 4: 949 (1936); Phuong in Novit. Syst. Pl. Vasc. 19: 151 (1982); A. L. Budantzev in Komarovia 1: 27 (1999); Phuong in N. T. Ban et al., Fl. Vietnam 2: 61 (2000). Type: India, Nilgiris, Perrottet s.n. [isotypes 2 sht. G-DC (microfiche!); isosyntype K! (Herb. Benthamianum)](In the original publication, Bentham stated v. in h. DC., a sheet at K should be recognised as isosyntype).

Plectranthus bernardii Doan, Fl. Indo-Chine 4: 949 (1936); Phuong in Novit. Syst. Pl. Vasc. 19: 151 (1982); in J. Biol. 17 (4): 42 (1995); A. L. Budantzev in Komarovia 1: 27 (1999); Phuong in N. T. Ban et al., Fl. Vietnam 2: 59 (2000). Type: Vietnam, Lan Mat, 8 nov. 1883, Bon 2291 (syntypes 3 sht. P!); Vietnam, Thien Duong, 18 Oct. 1888, Bon 4004, (syntypes 3 sht. P!); Vietnam, Bue d’ Along, Nov. 1921, Petelot 274 (syntypes A!, 3 sht. P!), syn. nov.

                Erect or ascending annual herbs up to 50 cm tall. Stems sometimes rooting at nodes below, succulent, round-quadrangular, glabrous or puberulous, sometimes branched. Leaves fleshy, orbicular, ovate or oblong, (15) 50-120 x (10) 40-75 mm, apex acute, base truncate, cordate, or shortly cuneate, margin crenate, glabrous or puberulous on both sides, with sessile glands beneath; petioles slender, 1-10 cm long, puberulous. Inflorescence terminal, up to 30 cm long; axis puberulous or pubescent with or without sessile glands; verticils clearly interrupted; cymes 1.5-15 cm long, pedunculate, producing lax lateral cincinni, few to many-flowered; bracts sessile, early caducous, lanceolate, up to 7 mm long, acute or acuminate, pubescent; pedicels 2-4 mm long at anthesis, 3-7 mm long in fruit, puberulous with gland-tipped hairs. Calyx campanulate, 2-3.5 mm long at anthesis, 4-6 mm long in fruit; posterior lip ovate or ovate-oblong, acute or obtuse at apex, margin decurrent on tube, glabrous inside, pubescent with or without gland-tipped hairs with sessile glands outside; anterior lip with teeth lanceolate, subequal to posterior lip or median teeth slightly longer; tube 10-nerved, shortly pubescent with gland-tipped hairs and sessile glands outside, gibbous at anterior base. Corolla purple or whitish-purple, 7-16 mm long; posterior lip pubescent with sessile glands on back, median lobes orbicular, large, lateral lobes triangular-ovate, acute-obtuse at apex, slightly shorter than median lobes; anterior lip ovate-oblong, 5-8 mm long, concave, margin sometimes ciliate, pubescent inside and outside, sometimes frilled at apex; tube 6-9 mm long, sigmoid just below the middle, gradually dilated towards base, widely expanded at throat, pubescent with scattered sessile glands outside. Stamens attached close together but not united, included in anterior corolla lip. Style obscurely cleft at apex, subequal to anterior stamens. Disc with anterior side very conspicuous, obtuse or truncate at apex, twice as long as ovary. Nutlets black or brown, oblong or ellipsoid, 1-1.5 mm Ø, smooth, shinning, not or slightly producing mucilage when wet. Plate 5.3A, Map 5.10

Note: Coleus paniculatus Benth. appears to be the earliest name for this taxon but on transfer to Plectranthus, the epithet ‘paniculatus’ becomes unavailable due to the earlier Plectranthus paniculatus Jacq. (1800). Coleus glabratus Benth. and Coleus wightii Benth. had equal priority and were both available. The epithet ‘glabratus’was taken up first by Alston who recognised this species under Plectranthus.

                The Vietnamese Plectranthus bernardii differs from Plectranthus glabratus in the same region only in its smaller leaves and shorter cymes; comparison with Thai and Indian material shows that there is no clear delimitation. Plectranthus bernardii is recognised here as a new synonym of Plectranthus glabratus.

Distribution: India, Sri Lanka, Thailand (new record) & Vietnam.

Ecology. On limestone rocks; alt. 50-1200 m. Flowering & fruiting October-January.

Vernacular names. -

Specimens examined. Thailand: Phangnga, Kasoom, Nov. 1896, Curtis 3254 (SING); Krabi, Tam Soea (Tiger Cave), 10 km N of Krabi, 08° 10’N 98° 57’E, 50-250 m, 24 Oct. 1991, Larsen et al 42541 (AAU, P, PSU); Phangnga, Kasoom, Suwanakhuha temple, c 50 m, 8 Dec. 1999, Wongprasert, Suddee & Puudjaa s.n. (BKF, K, TCD). Vietnam: Prov. Quang Binh, Distr. Minh Hoa, 72 km to NWW from Dong Hoi, municipalite Thong Hoa, vicinities of Yen Son village, limestone massif Ke Bang, 17° 40’N 105° 57’E, 550-600 m, 16 May. 1997, Averyanov, Hiep & Loc s.n. (AAU); Tonkin, Nov. 1885, Balansa 995 (K, P); Hao Nho, 14 Feb. 1882, Bon 1406 (P); Lan-Mat, 8 Nov. 1883, Bon 2291 (3 sht. P, syntypes of P. bernardii); Thien Duong, 18 Oct. 1888, Bon 4004, (3 sht. P, syntypes of P. bernardii); Tonkin, Bue d’ Along, 1911, Lecomte & Finet 754 (P); Tonkin, Bue d’ Along, Nov. 1921, Petelot 274 (A, 3 sht. P, syntypes of P. bernardii); massif du Braian, Djiring, 1100-1200 m, 6 Feb. 1935, Poilane 24130 (A, HM, K, 2 sht. P).

Also specimens from India:Nilgiris, near Pykara, 15 Jul. 1904, Bourne 4612 (K); Nilgiris, Snowdon Path, Ootacamund, 17 Jul. 1904, Bourne 4633 (K); Nilagiri, Hohenacker 1221 & 1222 (BM, K); Nilgiris, 1800 m, Gamble 14883 (K); Nilgiris, Pygara Fall, 1800 m, Sept. 1884, Gamble 15333 (K); West Ghats, Nilgiris, 2300 m, 2 Oct. 1982, Klackenberg & Lundin 176 (K); Salem, Omallur, Servarayans, Yercad, 1650 m, Matthew RHT No. 25789 (K); Madras, Dindigul, Kodaikanal, Kathirikkai odai, 2300 m, 18 Apr. 1988, Matthew RHT No. 52758 (K); South India, Annamallay, Dec. 1851, Herb. Wight 2106 (K); South India, Herb. Wight 2120 (K). Sri Lanka: Hakgala, 1867, C.P. 3942 (K). Malaysia: Penang, 12 Dec. 1918, Haniff & Nur 4020 (BM, K).

8. Plectranthus bracteatus (Dunn) S. Suddee comb. nov.

Type: China, Yunnan, Puerh, 1350 m, Henry 13498 (K!, lectotype chosen here; isolectotype NY).

Coleus bracteatus Dunn in Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 8 (37): 158 (1913); Dunn in Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 6 (28): 145 (1915); Y. C. Huang in C. Y. Wu & H. W. Li, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 66: 541, f. 114 9 (1977); X. W. Li & Hedge in C. Y. Wu & P. H. Raven, Fl. China 17: 292 (1994). Type: as above.

Plectranthus saphinensis Phuong in Bot. Zhurn., 67 (8): 1131 (1982); in J. Biol. 17 (4): 42 (1995); A. L. Budantzev in Komarovia 1: 27 (1999); Phuong in N. T. Ban et al., Fl. Vietnam 2: 60 (2000). Type: Vietnam, Sa Phin, Prov. Ha Tuyen, 15 Sept. 1977, Phuong 294B (holotype HN!; isotype HN!), syn. nov.

                Erect or ascending annual herbs up to 1.5 m tall. Stems succulent, round-quadrangular, puberulous, branched. Leaves membranous, ovate, 30-120 x 20-70 mm, apex acute, base cordate or subtruncate, margin crenate, puberulous above, puberulous on nerves otherwise glabrous with or without sessile glands beneath; petioles slender, 10-50 mm long, puberulous. Inflorescence terminal, simple, up to 25 cm long; verticils 10-50 mm apart, clearly interrupted; cymes 1-3 cm long, pedunculate, producing lateral cincinni, few to many-flowered; bracts membranous, sessile, early caducous, broadly ovate-orbicular, up to 10 x 10 mm, acute, shortly ciliate at margin, pubescent; pedicels 1-2 mm long at anthesis, 3-4 mm long in fruit, shortly pubescent. Calyx tubular-campanulate, 2-3 mm long at anthesis, 6-7 mm long in fruit; posterior lip ovate, acute at apex, margin entire or shortly ciliate, decurrent on tube, glabrous with prominent veins inside, glabrescent with sessile glands outside; anterior lip with teeth subequal, lanceolate, subequal in length to posterior; tube 10-nerved, glabrescent or pubescent with sessile glands outside, slightly gibbous at anterior base. Corolla bluish-purple, 10-20 mm long; posterior lip with lobes rounded at apex, pubescent with sessile glands on back, median lobes larger than lateral lobes; anterior lip ovate-oblong, 5-6 mm long, concave, pubescent with sessile glands outside, villous inside; tube 6-15 mm long, abruptly recurved beyond calyx, gradually dilated towards throat, pubescent with sessile glands outside. Stamens very short, attached below the base of anterior corolla lip and included in it, anterior pair slightly united at base. Style shortly cleft and capitate at apex, subequal to posterior stamens. Disc with anterior side obtuse or truncate at apex, exceeding and up to twice as long as ovary. Nutlets black or brown, ovoid, c 1 mm long, smooth, shinning, not producing mucilage when wet. Fig. 5.5 & Map 5.10

Note: This species is characterised by the very long corolla tube and the short stamens which are attached below the base of the anterior corolla lip. The species can also be easily distinguished from other Plectranthus species by the large ovate-orbicular bracts but these can rarely be seen on herbarium specimens as they are early caducous. The stigma is unique, being capitate, similar to those of Orthosiphon.

                There are 2 syntypes at K collected by Henry from Southern China. The lectotype is chosen from the more complete specimen, Henry 13498. The lectoparatype is Henry 12537 from Yunnan, Szemao West Mountains, 1500 m.

Distribution: South China, Vietnam & Thailand.

Ecology. Open areas in hill evergreen forest, on limestone rocks in evergreen forest; alt. 700-2000 m. Flowering & fruiting August-December.

Vernacular names. -

Specimens examined. Thailand: Chiang Mai, Doi Chiang Dao, 19° 25’N 98° 55’E, c 1640 m, 6 Dec. 1965, Hennipman 3248 (BKF, C, K, L, P); Chiang Mai, Doi Chiang Dao, 20 Nov. 1990, 1570 m, Banziger 763 (PCMU); Chiang Mai, Doi Chiang Dao, 20 Nov. 1963, Bunchuai 72 (BKF); Loei, Phu Kradung, 16° 53’N 101° 53’E, 700-1100 m, 10 Nov. 1970, Charoenphol, Larsen & Warncke 4853 (AAU); Chiang Mai, Doi Chiang Dao, 1400-1600 m, 3 Nov. 1922, Kerr 6533 (ABD, 2 sht. BM, L); Chiang Mai, Doi Chiang Dao, 1625 m, 5 Nov. 1995, Maxwell 95-1076 (CMU); Chiang Mai, Doi Chiang Dao, 1950 m, 7 Nov. 1995, Maxwell 95-1095 (CMU); Chiang Mai, Doi Chiang Dao, 14 Oct. 1926, Put 323 (ABD, 2 sht. BM, L); Chiang Mai, Doi Chiang Dao, 18 Oct. 1926, Put 374 (ABD, 2 sht. BM, L); Chiang Mai, Doi Chiang Dao, 21 Oct. 1926, Put 421 (ABD, 2 sht. BM, L); Chiang Mai, Doi Chiang Dao, 1300-1600 m, 26 Oct. 1979, Shimizu et al T-20880 (KYO); Chiang Mai, Doi Chiang Dao, 1300-1500 m, 28 Oct. 1979, Shimizu et al T-20976 (KYO); Chiang Mai, Doi Chiang Dao, 1100 m, 1 Dec. 1961, Smitinand & Anderson 7223 (K); Chiang Mai, Doi Chiang Dao, Sept. 1971, Vidal s.n. (AAU, BKF, P); Chiang Rai, Doi Tung, c 1150 m, 16 Oct. 1993, Unknown collector 1139 (C). Vietnam: Sa Phin, Ha Tuyen, 11 Aug. 1977, Phuong 294 (HN); idem, 15 Sept. 1977, Phuong 294B (holotype of P. saphinensis HN; isotype HN); idem, no date, Phuong 14434 (HN).

9. Plectranthus gigantifolius S. Suddee sp nov., P. albicalyci forma et calycis et foliorumque valde affinis sed foliis maximis membraneisque, calyce glabro, dentibus calycis triangulari-ovatis nec oblongis et lobis posterioribus corollae ad marginem minute denticulatis nec integris differt. Type: Kanchanaburi, Thung Yai Naresuarn Wildlife Sanctuary, Ban Saneh Pawng, Lai Wo Subdistr., 225 m, 7 Oct. 1993, Maxwell 93-1156 [holotype CMU! (Herbarium, Chiang Mai University, Thailand); isotype L!].

                Erect annual herb ups to 1.5 m tall. Stems hollow, rooting at nodes below, quadrangular, glabrous, branched. Leaves membranous, broadly ovate, very large, 220-250 x 160-200 mm, apex acute, base cordate, margin crenate, puberulous above, glabrous with prominent veins beneath, sessile glands obscure. Inflorescence terminal, much branched, up to 30 cm long; axis shortly pubescent; verticils 5-15 mm apart, clearly interrupted; cymes sessile, 2-3-flowered; bracts sessile, caducous, broadly ovate, up to 6 x 6 mm, acute, glabrous; pedicels 1 mm long at anthesis, 2 mm long in fruit, shortly pubescent. Calyx tubular-campanulate, 3 mm long at anthesis, tubular, 6-8 mm long in fruit, entirely glabrous; posterior lip ovate, acute at apex, margin entire, decurrent on tube, with prominent nerves on both sides; anterior lip with median teeth lanceolate, subequal to posterior lip, lateral teeth triangular-ovate with prominent nerves, slightly shorter than median teeth; tube 10-nerved, slightly constricted at throat, obscurely gibbous at anterior base. Corolla whitish-violet, 9-10 mm long; posterior lip with margin of lobes minutely denticulate, glabrescent outside, median lobes rounded, lateral lobes obtuse at apex; anterior lip ovate-oblong, 4-4.5 mm long, concave, pubescent outside, pubescent at apex inside; tube 4-5 mm long, weakly sigmoid beyond calyx, gradually dilated towards throat, glabrescent outside. Stamens shortly united at base, included in anterior corolla lip. Style shortly bifid at apex with obtuse lobes, equal or longer than stamens but not exceeding anterior corolla lip. Disc with anterior side thick, truncate or shallowly emarginate at apex, exceeding ovary. Nutlets (immature) brown, narrowly oblong, 2 mm long. Fig. 5.6 & Map 5.10

Note: A very distinctive species with membranous, large broadly ovate leaves, posterior corolla lobes with minutely denticulate margins, and a glabrous fruiting calyx. Only found once in the western forest complex of Thailand.

Distribution: Endemic to Thailand.

Ecology. Open limestone area in deciduous forest with much bamboo; alt. 225 m. Flowering & fruiting October.

Vernacular names. -

Specimens examined. Thailand: Kanchanaburi, Thung Yai Naresuarn Wildlife Sanctuary, Ban Saneh Pawng, Lai Wo Subdistr., 225 m, 7 Oct. 1993, Maxwell 93-1156 [holotype CMU (Herbarium, Chiang Mai University, Thailand); isotype L].

10. Plectranthus albicalyx S. Suddee sp nov., P. helferi forma calycis valde affinis sed calyce in fructu eburneo nec viridi, labio posteriore atque dentibus lateralibus integris nec denticulatis, et tubo ad basin anteriorem calcar rotundum ferenti differt. P. gigantifolio forma et calycis et foliorum valde affinis sed foliis multo minoribus, calyce pubescenti dentibus lateralibus ovato-oblongis et lobis corollae ad marginem integris differt. Type: Kanchanaburi, Salak Phrae W.S., Khao Tab Tao, 480 m, 29 Sept. 1998, Suddee et al 868 (holotype BKF!; isotypes K!, TCD!).

                Erect annual herbs up to 0.5 m tall. Stems succulent, quadrangular, puberulous. Leaves subfleshy, broadly ovate, 25-60 x 15-35 mm, apex acute or acuminate, base truncate or shortly cuneate, margin serrate-crenate, puberulous on both sides, dotted with minute gland beneath, veins subprominent both sides; petioles slender, 5-25 mm long, puberulous. Inflorescence terminal, up to 15 cm long, simple or branched, lateral branches up to 7 cm long; axis pubescent with simple and gland-tipped patent hairs and with sessile glands; verticils 5-12 mm apart, clearly interrupted; cymes sessile, 3-flowered; bracts sessile, caducous, ovate, 4-7 mm long, acute, ciliate at margin, pubescent; pedicels 1-2 mm long at anthesis, 2-3 mm long in fruit, pubescent with short patent hairs. Calyx tubular, 2 mm long at anthesis, 8-9 mm long in fruit; posterior lip ovate, acute at apex, margin entire or sparsely ciliate, decurrent on tube, glabrous inside, glabrous or sparsely pubescent, with sessile glands outside; anterior lip with teeth sometimes ciliate at margin, median teeth lanceolate, subequal to posterior, lateral teeth obovate-oblong, with the same length as median teeth or slightly shorter; tube 10-nerved, pubescent with simple and gland-tipped patent hairs and with sessile glands, slightly constricted at throat, with a rounded spur at anterior base. Corolla blue, 7-10 mm long; posterior lip subequally lobed, lobes obtuse at apex, glabrous or glabrescent on back; anterior lip ovate-oblong, 3-4 mm long, slightly concave, pubescent on both sides at apex, with sessile glands outside; tube 4-6 mm long, sigmoid below the middle, gradually dilated towards base, widely expanded at throat, slightly pubescent outside. Stamens clearly united for 1/3 of their length, included in anterior corolla lip. Style shortly bifid with subequal branches, ± the same length as anterior stamens. Disc with anterior side thick, obtuse at apex, slightly exceeding ovary. Nutlets brown or black, ovoid or ellipsoid, c 1.5 mm long, smooth, producing mucilage when wet. Fig. 5.7, Plate 5.3C & D, Map 5.10

Note: The fruiting calyx which is creamy-white when dry is very distinctive. This species is closely related to P. helferi and P. gigantifolius in having a similar calyx shape but differs from the former in having the upper and lateral teeth of the calyx with entire margin rather than denticulate, and differs from the latter in having much smaller leaves, pubescent rather than glabrous calyx, and entire rather than denticulate posterior corolla lobes. The species is restricted to the limestone habitats in the Western, Central and North-Eastern parts of Thailand. In Thailand this species also occurs near the Thai-Burmese and Thai-Laos borders, but so far there has been no record either from Burma or Laos.

Distribution: Endemic to Thailand.

Ecology. Open limestone rocks in deciduous or evergreen forest; alt. 50-500 m. Flowering & fruiting September-December.

Vernacular names. -

Specimens examined. Thailand: Kanchanaburi, Salag Prah Wildlife Sanctuary, Sadong, 100 m, 30 Nov. 1971, Beusekom et al 4054 (K, KYO, P); Saraburi, Baw Re, 22 Nov. 1929, Put 225 (3 sht. ABD); Saraburi, Menam Pasak, Keng Koi, c. 50 m, 9 Dec. 1923, Kerr 7962 (BM, K); Saraburi, Muok Lek, 400 m, 11 Nov. 1924, Marcan 1888 (2 sht. BM, K); Nakhon Ratchasima, National Park, 18 Dec. 1962, Phengkhlai 588 (BKF); Kanchanaburi, Ban Kao, 70 m, 9 Nov. 1961, Larsen 8089 (C, K); Kanchanaburi, NW of Sai Yok, 250 m, 30 Dec. 1961, Larsen 9050 (C, K); Kanchanaburi, Sai Yok, 180 m, 31 Dec. 1961, Larsen 9062 (C); Saraburi, Kaeng Khoi, Tharn Pra Photisat, 100-200 m, 7 Oct. 1979, Shimizu et al T-19391 (KYO); Kanchanaburi, Salakphra W.S., Lard Ya Distr., 140-160 m, 1 Nov. 1979, Shimizu et al T- 21227 (2 sht. KYO); Kanchanaburi, Salak Phrae W.S., Lard Ya Distr., 140-160 m, 1 Nov. 1979, Shimizu et al T- 21257 (KYO); Khon Kaen, Chum Pae, Dong Lan, c. 450 m, 22 Nov. 1958, Sorensen, Larsen & Hansen 6110 (C); Kanchanaburi, Salak Phrae W.S., Khao Tab Tao, 480 m, 29 Sept. 1998, Suddee et al 868 (holotype BKF; isotypes K, TCD).

11. Plectranthus chiangdaoensis S. Suddee nom. & comb. nov.

Type: Thailand, Chiang Mai, Doi Chiang Dao, 1500 m, 15 Sept. 1967, Shimizu & Hutoh T-10153 (holotype KYO!; isotypes 2 sht. BKF!, 2 sht. TI!).

Coleus calcicola Murata in Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 14 (4-6): 105, f. 1, 1-5 & f. 2 (1970); in SouthE Asian Stud. 8 (4): 493 (1971); in SouthE Asian Stud. 14 (2): 181 (1976). Type: as above.

                Erect perennial herbs up to 50 cm tall. Stems stout and woody at base, internodes short, quadrangular, glabrous below, glabrescent above, branched. Leaves subpapery when dry, ovate-oblong, 30-80 x 15-30 mm, apex acute or acuminate, base cuneate, margin crenate, puberulous and densely dotted with minute gland on both sides, veins conspicuous beneath; petioles 5-15 mm long, puberulous, deciduous, leaving a large prominent scar. Inflorescence terminal, up to 20 cm long, much branched; axis pubescent with short dark brown simple and gland-tipped patent hairs, with sessile glands; verticils 3-8 mm apart, clearly interrupted; cymes 1-flowered; bracts sessile, early caducous, ovate, 2-3 mm long, acute, ciliate, pubescent; pedicels 1 mm long at anthesis, 1.5-2 mm long in fruit, pubescent with gland-tipped patent hairs. Calyx tubular-campanulate, 2 mm long at anthesis, 5-7 mm long in fruit; posterior lip ovate, acute at apex, constricted at base, margin entire, glabrous with prominent veins inside, pubescent with gland-tipped hairs and sessile glands outside; anterior lip with teeth equal in length, slightly shorter than posterior lip, median teeth lanceolate, lateral teeth ovate with upper margin greatly extended towards posterior lip; tube 10-nerved, densely pubescent with gland tipped hairs and with sessile glands, with short obtuse spur at anterior base. Corolla yellowish-white, 7-10 mm long; posterior lip subequal, lobes minute, rounded at apex, slightly pubescent on back; anterior lip ovate-oblong, 3-5 mm long, concave, shortly pubescent inside, densely pubescent with gland-tipped hairs and sessile glands outside; tube 3-5 mm long, sigmoid below the middle, slightly dilated at base, widely expanded at throat, pubescent with gland-tipped hairs and sessile glands outside. Stamens shortly but clearly united at base, included in anterior corolla lip. Style bifid with equal branches, subequal to anterior stamens or slightly shorter. Disc with anterior side thick, obtuse at apex, exceeding ovary. Nutlets brown, ovoid, 1.5 mm long, slightly rugose at apex, not producing mucilage when wet. Fig. 5.8 & Map 5.11

Note: On transfer to Plectranthus a name change (nom. & comb. nov.) is needed due to the prior use of the epithet ‘calcicola’ in Plectranthus calcicola Hand.-Mazz. (1936) [= Isodon calcicolus (Hand.-Mazz.) H. Hara].

                The single-flowered cymes, the stout stem base with large leaf scar and the very large lateral calyx teeth easily distinguish this species from the other Plectranthus.

Distribution: Endemic to higher elevation of Doi Chiang Dao, a limestone massif in Northern Thailand.

Ecology. Rocky areas in open limestone mountain; alt. 1300-2100 m. Flowering & fruiting September-November.

Vernacular names. Thai: Ta Pao Hin (ex Put).

Specimens examined. Thailand: Chiang Mai, below the summit of Doi Chiang Dao, 14 Sept. 1967, Shimizu T-10052 (paratypes 2 sht. KYO); Chiang Mai, Doi Chiang Dao, 1500 m, 15 Sept. 1967, Shimizu & Hutoh T-10153 (holotype KYO; isotypes 2 sht. BKF, 2 sht. TI); idem, 1800-2150 m, 27 Oct. 1979, Shimizu et al T-21051 (BKF, KYO); idem, 1300-1900 m, 26 Sept. 1971, Murata, Iwatsuki & Phengklai T-15070 (BKF, L); idem, 1900-2100 m, 26 Sept. 1971Murata, Iwatsuki & Phengklai T-15265 (AAU, BKF, 2 sht. KYO, TI, SING); idem, 19 Oct. 1926, Put 413 (2 sht. BM); idem, 26 Sept. 1971, Vidal 5199 (AAU, P); idem, 27 Sept. 1971, Vidal 5239 (AAU, P).

12. Plectranthus helferi Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 4: 623 (1885); Mukerjee in Rec. Bot. Surv. India 14: 51 (1940). Type: Burma, Tenasserim, Helfer 4061 (holotype K!).

Plectranthus fulvescens Prain in J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 66: 521 (1897); Mukerjee in Rec. Bot. Surv. India 14: 51 (1940). Type: Burma, Attran, Brandis 811 (holotype CAL, isotype K!), syn. nov.

                Erect annual or short-lived perennial herbs up to 1 m tall. Stems sometimes purple, quadrangular or round-quadrangular, glabrous below, pubescent above, branched. Leaves thin, lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, 30-100 x 15-30 mm, apex acute, base cuneate or attenuate and decurrent on petiole, margin serrate-crenate above, entire near base, puberulous on both sides, sessile glands prominent beneath, veins prominent beneath; petioles 5-15 mm long, puberulous. Inflorescence terminal, up to 20 cm long, often with several lateral long branches; axis densely hirsute with simple and gland-tipped patent hairs and with sessile glands; verticils 5-10 mm apart, slightly interrupted; cymes sessile, 2-3-flowered; bracts sessile or with short claw at base, caducous, ovate, 4-6 mm long, acute, ciliate, pubescent; pedicels 0.5-1 mm long at anthesis, 2-2.5 mm long in fruit, pubescent with short patent hairs. Calyx tubular, 2-3 mm long at anthesis, 6-7 mm long in fruit; posterior lip orbicular, margin irregularly denticulate, decurrent on tube, glabrous inside, sparsely pubescent with simple and gland-tipped hairs outside, nerves prominent both sides; anterior lip with median teeth laceolate, slightly shorter than posterior lip, lateral teeth obovate-oblong, irregularly denticulate at apex, ± the same length as median teeth; tube 10-nerved, slightly constricted at throat, densely hirsute with short and long simple and gland-tipped patent hairs, with pointed spur at anterior base. Corolla purple, 10-11 mm long; posterior lip with minute lobes, obtuse at apex, glabrous on back, lateral lobes slightly broader than median lobes but equal in length; anterior lip obovate, 3-4 mm long, flattened, apex pubescent outside, villous inside; tube 6-7 mm long, sigmoid below the middle, slender below, gradually dilated towards throat, slightly pubescent on anterior side outside, otherwise glabrous. Stamens long united for nearly half of their length, posterior pair subequal to anterior corolla lip, anterior pair slightly exceeding it. Style shortly bifid with subequal branches, ± the same length as posterior stamens. Disc with anterior side thick, obtuse at apex, twice as long as ovary. Nutlets black, ellipsoid, c 1 mm long, minutely tuberculate, producing mucilage when wet. Fig. 5.9, Plate 5.3B, Map 5.11

Note: Prain (1897) mentioned in his original publication of Plectranthus fulvescens that the filaments were free from each other from their point of insertion on the corolla tube; however Thai specimens have their staminal filaments united for a considerable distance above this point. There is no flower left on the isotype of Plectranthus fulvescens at Kew and the holotype of Plectranthus helferi is a fruiting specimen. Because of the lack of flowering material, Hooker (1885) published the name of the species as P? helferi as there was no flower available for his original description. However, the Thai specimens and the isotype of Plectranthus fulvescens are identical with the holotype of Plectranthus helferi in all other characters.

Distribution: Burma & Thailand.

Ecology. In wet areas, open places along trails by waterfalls on limestone; alt. 600 m. Flowering & fruiting October-December.

Vernacular names. -

Specimens examined. Burma: Tenasserim, Helfer 4061 (K, holotype); Attran, Distributed at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 1862-3, Brandis 811 (K, isotype of P. fulvescens). Thailand: Tak, Mae Sot, Mae Thu Subdistr., Tararak Waterfall, 16° 34’ 11N 98° 41’ 65E, 600 m, 4 Nov. 1998, Suddee & Puudjaa 1098 (BKF, K, TCD).

13. Plectranthus rotundifolius (Poir.) Spreng., Syst. Veg. 2: 690 (1825); Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 34 (1832), 711 (1835); in DC., Prodr. 12: 65 (1848); Keng in Steenis, Fl. Males. 8 (3): 388 (1978); R. H. Willemse in Blumea 25 (2): 509 (1979); Phuong in J. Biol. 17 (4): 42 (1995); Fl. Vietnam 2: 58 (2000). Type: Mauritius, Commerson s.n. [holotype P! (in Herb. Desfont.); isotype FI (photo K!)].

Germanea rotundifolia Poir. in Lam., Encycl. Suppl. 2: 763 (1812). Type: as above.

Plectranthus tuberosus Blume, Bijdr.: 838 (1826). Type: Java, Blume s.n. (holotype L!; isotypes NY!, P!).

Coleus rugosus Benth. in Wall., Pl. Asiat. Rar. 2: 15 (1830). Type: India, Madras, Palamcotta, Herb. Madras, with ‘Dracocephalum rugosum’ MSS., Wall. Cat. 2760 [syntypes K! (Herb. Benthamianum), K-W!].

Coleus tuberosus (Blume) Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 59 (1832); in DC., Prodr. 12: 79 (1848); Murata in SouthE Asian Stud. 8 (4): 493 (1971). Type: as for P. tuberosus.

Coleus parviflorus Benth. in DC., Prodr. 12: 72 (1848); Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 4: 625 (1885); Mukerjee in Rec. Bot. Surv. India 14: 54 (1940); Doan in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 4: 957 (1936); Back. & Bakh. f., Fl. Java 2: 637 (1965); Murata in SouthE Asian Stud. 14 (2): 181 (1976). Type: South India, Quilon and Panpanassum, Wight 2512 [holotype K! (Herb. Benthamianum); isotypes E!, K! (Ex Herb. Wight. Propr.)].

Coleus rotundifolius (Poir.) A. Chev. & E. Perrot. in Veg. Util. Afr. Trop. Franc. 1: 101, 119 (1905); L. H. Cramer in Kew Bull. 32 (3): 555 (1978); L. H. Cramer in Dassan. & Fosberg, Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceylon 3: 139 (1981); Phuong in Novit. Syst. Pl. Vasc. 19: 130 (1982). Type: as for G. rotundifolia.

Solenostemon rotundifolius (Poir.) J. K. Morton in J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 58: 272 (1962). Type: as for G. rotundifolia.

                Erect or ascending perennial herbs up to 30 cm tall, with tuberous roots. Stems annual sometimes rooting at nodes, succulent, round-quadrangular, pubescent, branched. Leaves fleshy, ovate or orbicular, 30-60 x 20-40 mm, apex acute, base cuneate or attenuate and decurrent on petiole, margin crenate, glabrous to puberulous on both sides, with sessile glands beneath, veins conspicuous beneath; petioles 5-40 mm, pubescent. Inflorescence terminal, simple, up to 20 cm long; axis pubescent, with sessile glands; verticils 5-12 mm apart, clearly interrupted; cymes ± sessile, lacking obvious lateral cincinni, lax or dense, 2-10-flowered, often glomerulate in appearance; bracts sessile, caducous, ovate, up to 5 mm long, acute, ciliate at margin, pubescent; pedicels 1-2 mm long in flower, 2-4 mm long in fruit, pubescent. Calyx campanulate, 2-3 mm long at anthesis, 3.5-5 mm long in fruit, usually purple when dry; posterior lip ovate or ovate-oblong, twice as long as lateral lobe of anterior lip, acute at apex, slightly puberulous inside, pubescent, with sessile glands outside, margin sometimes ciliate, only slightly decurrent on tube; anterior lip with median teeth united more than half of their length, shortly bifid with acute teeth at apex, subequal to posterior lip, lateral teeth obovate-oblong, short, rounded or subtruncate at apex; tube 10-nerved, pubescent, with sessile glands outside, not gibbous at anterior base. Corolla whitish-purple, 7-10 mm long; posterior lip pubescent with sessile glands at back, 2 median lobes broadly ovate, rounded at apex, larger than the acute-obtuse triangular-ovate lateral lobes; anterior lip ovate-oblong, 3-5 mm long, concave, glabrous inside, pubescent with sessile glands outside; tube 4-5 mm long, sigmoid at the middle, slightly dilated at base, widely expanded at throat, pubescent with sessile glands outside. Stamens subequal, united at base, included in anterior corolla lip. Style bifid with subequal flabellate branches, exceeding stamens but not exceeding anterior corolla lip. Disc with anterior side thick, obtuse or truncate at apex, twice as long as ovary. Nutlets brown, ovoid or globose, 1 mm long, smooth, not producing mucilage when wet. Map 5.11

Note: There is no fruiting specimen available from the Asian specimens at K, nor, indeed, from the whole collection at K. In order to produce a complete description, the fruiting calyx is here described from Simpson s.n. (TCD), collected from Nyabarsngo, Rwanda, a single fruiting specimen of this species that has been seen.

Distribution: Tropical Africa, India, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam, Philippines, Malaysia & Indonesia, widely cultivated in tropics.

Ecology. Cultivated. Flowering & fruiting October-December.

Vernacular names. Thai: Man Nuu (Nakhon Si Thammarat); Man Khee Nuu (Songkhla).

Specimens examined. Thailand: Nakhon Si Thammarat, 28 Nov. 1991, Damsri 52 (BCU); Narathiwat, sea level, 9 Oct. 1988, Larsen & S. Larsen 40322 (AAU); Songkla, Klong Hoy Kong, west of Toong Loong, Haad Yai, sea level, 21 Oct. 1985, Maxwell 85-993 (PSU); Bangkok, 1859, Schomburgk 297 [P (this number at K is P. scutellarioides)]; Peninsula Thailand, Winit 173 (BKF). Vietnam: Hanoi, Jardin Botanique, 21 Oct 1902, Bois 377 (P).

Also specimens from India: Peninsula Indiae Orientalis, Dec. 1835, Herb. Wight 2105 (K). Sri Lanka: Gardner 1204 (K); Central Province, Kandy Distr., Peradeniya, ± 530 m, Cramer 4368 (K).

14. Plectranthus scutellarioides (L.) R. Br., Prod.: 506 (1810); Y. C. Huang in C. Y. Wu & H. W. Li, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 66: 542 (1977); Keng in Steenis, Fl. Males. 8 (3): 389 (1978); R. H. Willemse in Blumea 25 (2): 509 (1979); X. W. Li & Hedge in C. Y. Wu & P. H. Raven, Fl. China 17: 293 (1994); Phuong in J. Biol. 17 (4): 42 (1995); Fl. Vietnam 2: 56 (2000). Type: India, Linnean Herbarium 749.18 [lectotype LINN (microfiche!)].

Ocimum scutellarioides L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (2): 834 (1763), as ‘Ocymum’. Type: as above.

Polypodium ovatum Burm. f., Fl. Ind.: 233 (1768). Type: Java, Unknown collector (holotype G, photo K!).

Plectranthus nudiflorus Willd., Sp. Pl. ed. 3: 168 (1800); Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 46 (1832). Type: Amboina, Willdenow Herbarium 11079.1 & 11079.2 [syntypes B-W (microfiche!), photos K!].

Germania nudiflora (Willd.) Poir. in Lam., Encycl. Suppl. 2: 763 (1812). Type: as for

P. nudiflorus.

Plectranthus aromaticus Roxb., Hort. Beng.: 45 (1814). Type: Rumphius Ic. in Herb. Amb. 5: t. 101 (1750) (holotype illustration!).

Plectranthus ingratus Blume, Bijdr.: 836 (1826). Type: Indonesia, Java, G. Parang, Blume 992 (lectotype L!).

Plectranthus scutellarioides Blume [non (L.) R. Br. 1810], Bijdr.: 837 (1826), nom illeg. [The specimens Blume based his species description on are just an unusual form of the variable P. scutellariodes (L.) R. Br.. From detaisl in the original publication, Blume believed it to be a new species, but by using the epithet ‘scutellarioides’, his name becomes a later homonym. See also under syn. C. blumei].

Plectranthus laciniatus Blume, Bijdr.: 838 (1826). Type: Indonesia, Java, Blume s.n. (lectotype L!).

Coleus scutellarioides (L.) Benth. in Wall., Wall, Pl. Asiat. Rar. 2: 15 (1830); Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 53 (1832); in DC., Prodr. 12: 73 (1848); Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 4: 626 (1885); Mukerjee in Rec. Bot. Surv. India 14: 54 (1940); Doan in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 4: 957 (1936); Y. C. Huang in C. Y. Wu & H. W. Li, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 66: 543, f. 114, 8 (1977); Back. & Bakh. f., Fl. Java 2: 637 (1965); Keng in Gard. Bull. Sing. 24: 51, f. 9a-e (1969); Murata in SouthE Asian Stud. 14 (2): 181 (1976); L. H. Cramer in Kew Bull. 32 (3): 555 (1978); L. H. Cramer in Dassan. & Fosberg, Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceylon 3: 140 (1981); Phuong in Novit. Syst. Pl. Vasc. 19: 130 (1982); X. W. Li & Hedge in C. Y. Wu & P. H. Raven, Fl. China 17: 293 (1994); A. L. Budantsev in Komarovia 1: 28 (1999). Type: as for O. scutellarioides.

Coleus atropurpureus Benth. in Wall., Pl. Asiat. Rar. 2: 16 (1830); Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 54 (1832); in DC., Prodr. 12: 74 (1848); Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 4: 626 (1885); Muschler & Hosseus in Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 27 (2): 501 (1910); Doan in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 4: 958 (1936); Murata in SouthE Asian Stud. 8 (4): 492 (1971). Type: Singapore, Wall. Cat. 2733A [syntypes K! (Herb. Benthamianum), K-W!].

Coleus atropurpureus Benth. var. ramosus Benth. in Wall., Pl. Asiat. Rar. 2: 16 (1830). Type: Malaysia, Penang, Wall. Cat. 2733B [syntypes G-DC (microfiche!), K! (Herb. Benthamianum), K! (Herb. Hookerianum)].

Coleus acuminatus Benth. in Linnaea 6: 81 (1831); Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 53 (1832); in DC., Prodr. 12: 73 (1848). Type: Philippines, Island of Samar, 1841, Cuming 1683 [K! (Herbarium Benthamianum), neotype chosen here; isoneotypes BM!, K! (Herbarium Hookerianum), P!, TCD!]. The type specimen of Chamisso from Manila has not been found. The neotype is chosen from Cuming 1683, the specimen Bentham cited under this name in Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 53 (1832) and in DC., Prodr. 12: 73 (1848).

Coleus ingratus (Blume) Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 53 (1832); in DC., Prodr. 12: 73 (1848). Type: as for P. ingratus.

Coleus grandifolius Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 54 (1832); in DC., Prodr. 12: 73 (1848). Type: Timor, Guichenot s.n. [syntype P!; isosyntypes K!, L!, G-DC (microfiche!)].

Coleus atropurpureus Benth. var. densiflorus Benth. Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 54 (1832); in DC., Prodr. 12: 74 (1848); Doan in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 4: 958 (1936). Type: Philippines, Manila, 1830, Chamisso s.n. [syntype K! (Herb. Benthamianum)].

Coleus multiflorus Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 55 (1832). Type: Philippines, Manila, Perrottet s.n. (holotype P!).

Coleus secundiflorus Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 55 (1832); in DC., Prodr. 12: 75 (1848). Type: Timor, Guichenot s.n. (holotype P!).

Coleus blumei Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 56 (1832); in DC., Prodr. 12: 75 (1848); Kudo in Mem. Fac. Sci Taihoku Imp. Univ. 2 (2): 144 (1929); Mukerjee in Rec. Bot. Surv. India 14: 55 (1940). Type: Indonesia, Java, Blume s.n. (L! lectotype chosen here)[The lectotype is chosen from the most complete specimen from several collections of Blume in L; which are the specimens upon which he based P. scutellarioides on. Bentham considered that this material was different from Ocimum scutellarioides L. (=Plectranthus scutellarioides (L.) R. Br.) and published ‘C. blumei’, as a new name for the illegitimate P. scutellariodes Blume which was unavailable for use].

Coleus laciniatus (Blume) Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 56 (1832); in DC., Prodr. 12: 76 (1848); Mukerjee in Rec. Bot. Surv. India 14: 56 (1940). Type: as for. P. laciniatus.

Coleus grandifolius Blanco (non Benth. 1832), Fl. Filip.: 482 (1837), nom. illeg.

Coleus pumilus Blanco, Fl. Filip.: 482 (1837). Type: Philippines, Barrio of Pineda, Pasig, Rizal Province, Luzon, Oct. 1914, Merrill: Species Blancoanae No. 190 (K! neotype chosen here).

Coleus atropurpureus Benth. var. javanicus Benth. in DC., Prodr. 12: 74 (1848); Doan in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 4: 959 (1936). Type: Indonesia, Java, Zollinger 138 [syntypes G-DC (microfiche!), K! (Herb. Benthamianum), K! (Herb. Benthamianum)].

Coleus scutellarioides (L.) Benth. var. ingratus (Blume) Miq. in Fl. Ind. Bat. 2: 950 (1858). Type: as for P. ingratus.

Coleus scutellarioides (L.) Benth. var. gracilis Miq. in Fl. Ind. Bat. 2: 950 (1858). Type: Indonesia, Ceram, Bangka, Miquel?, (type probably in U or L, not seen).

Coleus scutellarioides (L.) Benth. var. laciniatus (Blume) Miq. in Fl. Ind. Bat. 2: 950 (1858). Type: as for P. laciniatus.

Coleus scutellarioides (L.) Benth. var. blumei (Benth.) Miq. in Fl. Ind. Bat. 2: 950 (1858); Doan in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 4: 957 (1936). Type: as for C. blumei.

Coleus scutellarioides (L.) Benth. var. celebica Miq. in Fl. Ind. Bat. 2: 950 (1858). Type: Indonesia, Celebes, Reinwardt s.n. (type probably in L, not seen).

Coleus verschaffeltii Lem., Illustr. Hort. 8: t. 293 (1861). Type: based on cultivated plants from Java (illustration in Hort. 8: t. 293 (1861), lectotype chosen here).

Plectranthus monadelphus Llanos ex F.-Vill. & Naves (non Roxb. 1832) in Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 3 (4): 105 (1880), nom. illeg.

Majana scutellarioides (L.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 2: 524 (1891). Type: as for O. scutellarioides.

Majana scutellarioides (L.) Kuntze var. atropurpureus (Benth.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 2: 524 (1891). Type: as for C. atropurpureus.

Majana scutellarioides (L.) Kuntze var. blumei (Benth.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 2: 524 (1891). Type: as for as for C. blumei.

Coleus igolotorum Briq. in Ann. Cons. Jard. Bot. Geneve 2: 236 (1898). Type: Philippines, fle de Luzon, dans le pays des Igolotes, Callery s.n. (holotype G-DEL; isotype P!).

Coleus gaudichaudii Briq. in Ann. Cons. Jard. Bot. Geneve 2: 237 (1898). Type: Philippines, fle de Luzon pres de Manille, Dec. 1836, Gaudichaud s.n. (holotype G-DEL).

Coleus formosanus Hayata in Matsum. & Hayata, En. Pl. Formos.: 320 (1906); Kudo in Mem. Fac. Sci Taihoku Imp. Univ. 2 (2): 145 (1929), excl. syn. Coleus bracteatus. Type: Kotosho, 21 Nov. 1899, Miyake s.n. (holotype TI!).

Coleus macranthus Merr. var. crispipilus Merr. in Philip. J. Sc. 1: Suppl. 234 (1906). Type: Philippines, Suyoc to Panai, Province of Benguet, Luzon, 2200 m, Nov. 1905, Merril 4780 (holotype probably in PNH; isotypes BM!, K!, NY).

Coleus pubescens Merr. in Philip. J. Sc. 3: Bot. 432 (1908). Type: Philippines, Babuyan Island, 17 June 1907, Eugenio Zenix, Bureau of Science 3892 (holotype probably in PNH; isotype BM!).

Coleus crispipilus (Merr.) Merr. in Philip. J. Sc. 5: Bot. 382 (1910). Type: as for C. macranthus var. crispipilus Merr.

Coleus zschokkei Merr. in Philip. J. Sc. 5: Bot. 382 (1910). Type: Philippines, Mt. Pulog, Prov. of Bengnet, Luzon, May 1909, Merril 6529 (holotype probably in PNH; isotypes K!, NY, P!).

Solenostemon blumei (Benth.) Maza in Maza & Roig., Fl. Cuba (Bot. Ser. Agr. Commer. Trab. Cuba n. 22): 127 (1914). Type: as for C. blumei.

Coleus rehneltianus A. Berger in Bot. Jahrb. 54, Beibl. 120: 71 (1915). Type: types of Alwin Berger are probably in NY.

Coleus integrifolius Elmer in Leaf. Philip. Bot. 7: 2696 (1915). Type: Philippines, Mindanao, Cabadbaran (Mt. Urdaneta), Prov. of Agusan. Island of Mindanao, August 1912, Elmer 13627 (holotype probably in PNH; isotypes A, BM!, K!, L!, NY, P!).

Coleus gibbseae S. Moore in L.S. Gibbs, Phytogeogr. & Fl. Arfak Mts.: 178 (1917). Type: Indonesia, New Guinea, Arfak Mts., 2100 m, Gibbs 5909 (holotype BM!; isotypes K!, L!).

Plectranthus blumei (Benth.) Launert in Mitt. Bot. Munchen 7: 301 (1968). Type: as for C. blumei.

Coleus scutellarioides (L.) Benth. var. crispipilus (Merr.) Keng in Gard. Bull. Sing. 24: 56 (1969); Murata in SouthE Asian Stud. 14 (2): 182 (1976), excl. syn. Calamintha esquirolii H. Lév. & Coleus esquirolii (H. Lév. ) Dunn; Y. C. Huang in C. Y. Wu & H. W. Li, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 66: 543, f. 114, 1-6 (1977); L. H. Cramer in Kew Bull. 32 (3): 555 (1978); L. H. Cramer in Dassan. & Fosberg, Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceylon 3: 141 (1981); X. W. Li & Hedge in C. Y. Wu & P. H. Raven, Fl. China 17: 293 (1994). Type: as for C. macranthus var. crispipilus.

Coleus scutellarioides (L.) Benth. var. gibbseae (S. Moore) Keng in Gard. Bull. Sing. 24: 58 (1969). Type: as for C. gibbseae.

Coleus scutellarioides (L.) Benth. var. grandifolius (Benth.) Keng in Gard. Bull. Sing. 24: 58 (1969). Type: as for C. grandifolius Benth..

Coleus scutellarioides (L.) Benth. var. integrifolius (Elmer) Keng in Gard. Bull. Sing. 24: 58 (1969). Type: as for C. integrifolius.

Solenostemon scutellarioides (L.) Codd in Bothalia 11: 439 (1975); McKean in Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 40 (1): 186 (1982). Type: as for O. scutellarioides.

                Erect or ascending annual or short lived perennial herbs up to 1 m tall. Stems succulent, round-quadrangular, pubescent, with sessile glands, much branched. Leaves subfleshy, often variegated, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 15-100 x 10-60 mm, apex obtuse, acute or acuminate, base cuneate, rounded, truncate or subcordate, margin crenate-serrate, sometimes lacinate, pubescent on both sides, with sessile glands and prominent veins beneath; petioles 5-50 mm, pubescent. Inflorescence terminal, simple, up to 40 cm long; axis pubescent, with sessile glands; verticils 5-20 mm apart, usually clearly interrupted; cymes pedunculate or not, producing obvious lateral cincinni, with few to many flowered; bracts sessile, caducous, ovate, up to 7 x 5 mm, acute or acuminate, ciliate, pubescent; pedicels 1-2 mm long at anthesis, 3-7 mm long in fruit, pubescent. Calyx campanulate, 1-2 mm long at anthesis, 5-7 mm long in fruit; posterior lip ovate, acute at apex, margin entire or ciliate, decurrent on tube, glabrous inside, glabrescent, with sessile glands outside, nerves prominent both sides; anterior lip with median teeth united for 2/3 of their length, teeth acuminate at apex, longer than posterior lip, lateral teeth oblong or obovate-oblong, rounded or truncate at apex, much shorter than posterior and median teeth; tube 10-nerved, pubescent, with sessile glands outside, slightly gibbous at anterior base. Corolla bluish-purple, 8-10 mm long; posterior lip with lobes pubescent, with sessile glands on back, median lobes rounded at apex, lateral lobes minute, obtuse at apex; anterior lip ovate-oblong, 4-5 mm long, concave, glabrous inside, pubescent outside; tube 4-5 mm long, sigmoid below the middle, slightly dilated at base, widely expanded at throat, slightly pubescent with sessile glands outside. Stamens united for half of their length, included in anterior corolla lip. Style bifid with subequal branches, exceeding anterior corolla lip. Disc with anterior side obtuse at apex, exceeding ovary. Nutlets black, ovoid or globose, c 1 mm long; minutely tuberculate, shining, producing mucilage when wet. Plate 5.3E, Map 5.11

Note: An extremely variable species in leaf shape, colour and inflorescence size. There is no clear discontinuity to divide the species to infraspecific taxa.

Distribution: India, Himalaya, Sri Lanka, China, Burma, Thailand, Loas, Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia, Australia, and widely cultivated in other tropic regions.

Ecology. Cultivated and sometimes naturalised; alt. 100-1600 m. Flowering & fruiting all year round.

Vernacular names. Laotian: Nawm Juat, Wan Chawt. Thai: Rusee Phasom. Vietnamese: Gia to trang, Gia To Do, Gia To San, Cay Co Lug.

Specimens examined. Laos: Vientiane, Puk Munung, c 500 m, 25 Apr. 1932, Kerr s.n. (BM); Louang Prabang, 300 m, 2 Feb. 1970, Pottier 626 (P). Thailand: Chiang Mai, Mae Rim, Queen Sirikit Botanic Garden, c 500 m, 5 Sept. 1994, BGO Staff 1520 (QBG); Chiang Mai, Biology Department, Chiang Mai University, 350 m, 1 Oct. 1981, Chaigoon 78 (CMU); Chiang Mai, 300 m, 1 Dec. 1914, Kerr 3485 (BM, K); Chiang Mai, 300 m, 8 Dec. 1914, Kerr 3486 (BM, K); Nakhon Si Thammarat, Wat Kiriwong, c 100 m, 3 May. 1928, Kerr 15586 (ABD, 2 sht. BM, L); Songkhla, Rattapoom, Boripat Falls, 150 m, 20 Dec. 1984, Maxwell 84-544 (A, BKF, PSU); SongKhla, Ton Nga Chang, 400 m, 21 Aug. 1992, Niyomdham & Puudjaa 3123 (BKF); Chiang Mai, Doi Sutep, Muang Distr., 12 Aug. 1981, Paingawan 106 (CMU); Chiang Mai, base of the east side of Doi Sutep; Muang Distr., Huay Gaew Aboretum, 350 m, 4 Jul. 1981, Pornchote 231 (CMU); Bangkok, 1859, Schomburgk 297 & 318 (K, on the same sheet); Songkhla, Rattapoom, Boripat Falls, 120-150 m, 18 Dec. 1979, Shimizu et al T-27638 (KYO); Nan, Doi Phu Kha N.P., c 1 km to Park H.Q. on main road, 1180 m, 2 Nov. 1998, Suddee et al 1094 (BKF, K, TCD); Nakhon Si Thammarat, Khao Rawn Nai Hawm, Kiriwong, 550 m, 27 Nov. 1951, Suwanakoses 194 (BKF, L). Vietnam: Kontum, NW slopes of Ngoc Lihn mountain system, 1600 m, 2 Mar. 1995, Averyanov et al VH 415 (AAU, HN, P); Cong Ty, Cong Vien, 8 Nov. 1972, Lai Bach 189 (4 sht. HN); Da Nang (Tourane), May-Jul. 1927, Clemens 3244 (NY); Hanoi, Vuon Uom Chuy Khe, 10 Apr. 1969, Kim Dao 7143 (HN); idem, 10 Apr. 1969, Kim Dao 7155 (HN); idem, 10 Apr. 1969, Kim Dao 7156 ( 4 sht. HN); idem, 10 Apr. 1969, Kim Dao 7159 (HN); Cochinchina, 29 Jan. 1926, Dau 154 in Evrard 2497 (P); Cochinchina, 1875, Godefroy s.n. (P); Lam Dong, Da Lat, Lien 14 (HN); Hanoi, 20 Dec. 1955, Dinh Ngoi 1208 (HNU); Cochinchina, Tay Ninh, Apr. 1866, Pierre s.n. (A, 2 sht. P); Vinh Phu, Tam Dao, 21 Jun. 1976, Phuong 1067 (2 sht. HN); Unknown locality, Phuong 14502 (2 sht. HN); Hanoi, Vuon Thuoc, Van Dien, 19 May. 1976, Phuong 16104 (5 sht. HN); Hanoi, 5 Oct. 1911, Section Agricole 37 (P); Cochichina, May 1868, Talmy 79 (P); Jard. Bot. Siagon, Talmy s.n. (K); Cochichina, Talmy s.n. (3 sht. P); Dong Nai, Bien Hoa, 1862-1866, Thorel 1042 (3 sht. P); Bach Ma, Thua Thien, 20 Aug. 1941, Vidal 689A (P).

Doubtful species:

Plectranthus daoi Phuong in Bot. Zhurn., 67 (8): 1132 (1982); A. L. Budantzev in Komarovia 1: 27 (1999); Phuong in N. T. Ban et al., Fl. Vietnam 2: 63 (2000). Type: Than Nyen, Prov. Hoang Lien Son, 10 Apr. 1971, Nguyen Kim Dao s.n. (holotype HN!; isotype HN!). This species probably belongs in the genus Paralamium.

Plectranthus incisus sensu Muschler & Hosseus in Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 27 (2): 500 (1910) & Plectranthus sp. aff. hispidus sensu Hosseus in Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 28 (2): 434 (1911); Craib in Aberdeen Univ. Stud. 57: 169 (1912). The specimen cited, Hosseus 411a, collected from Doi Chiang Doa, Chiang Mai, Thailand on 16 Feb. 1905 has not been seen for this study. It is probably Isodon hispidus.

Plectranthus racemosus sensu auctt. Muschler & Hosseus in Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 27 (2): 500 (1910); Craib in Aberdeen Univ. Stud. 57: 168 (1912).

Isodon racemosus (Hemsl.) Murata in SouthE Asian Stud. 8 (4): 504 (1971). The specimen Muschler & Hosseus cited, Hosseus 407a, collected from Doi Chiang Doa, Chiang Mai, Thailand on 17 Feb. 1905 has not been seen for this study. It is probably Isodon coetsa.

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