Mapping Transcription Factor Occupancy in Human Embryonic Stem Cells
Oct4 Promoter Occupancy in Human ES Cells
Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog Co-occupy Many Target Genes
ES Cell Transcription Factors Occupy Active and Inactive Genes
Core Transcriptional Regulatory Circuitry in ES Cells
Expanded Transcriptional Regulatory Circuitry
Core Transcriptional Regulatory Circuitry in Human Embryonic Stem Cells
This site supports Boyer* and Lee*, et al.
The transcription factors Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog have essential roles in early development and are required for the propagation of undifferentiated embryonic stem (ES) cells in culture. To gain insights into transcriptional regulation of human ES cells, we have identified Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog target genes using genome-scale location analysis. We found, surprisingly, that Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog co-occupy a substantial portion of their target genes. These target genes frequently encode transcription factors, many of which are developmentally important homeodomain proteins. Our data also show that Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog collaborate to form regulatory circuitry in ES cells consisting of autoregulatory and feedforward loops. These results provide new insights into the transcriptional regulation of stem cells and reveal how Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog contribute to pluripotency and self-renewal.