Application Manual
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 Index




1

Basics


1.1 Application fields and today’s application limits of IGBT and MOSFET power modules [ 13 ]
1.2 Power MOSFET and IGBT [ 14 ]
1.2.1 Different structures and functional principles [ 14 ]
1.2.2 Static behaviour [ 22 ]
1.2.2.1 Power-MOSFET [ 23 ]
1.2.2.2 IGBT [ 27 ]
1.2.3 Hard switching behaviour of MOSFETs and IGBTs [ 29 ]
1.2.4 New developments in MOSFET and IGBT technology [ 35 ]
1.3 Free-wheeling- and snubber-diodes [ 39 ]
1.3.1 Demands to free-wheeling and snubber-diodes [ 39 ]
1.3.1.1 Reverse voltage and forward voltage drop [ 39 ]
1.3.1.2 Turn-on behaviour [ 40 ]
1.3.1.3 Reverse recovery behaviour [ 41 ]
1.3.1.4 Demands on free-wheeling diodes used in the rectifier and inverter mode of voltage source converters [ 47 ]
1.3.2 Structure of fast power diodes [ 50 ]
1.3.3 Characteristics of fast power diodes [ 51 ]
1.3.3.1 Forward and blocking behaviour [ 51 ]
1.3.3.2 Turn-on behaviour [ 52 ]
1.3.3.3 Turn-off behaviour [ 53 ]
1.3.3.4 Dynamic ruggedness [ 54 ]
1.3.4 Modern diodes with optimized recovery behaviour [ 55 ]
1.3.4.1 Emitter conception [ 55 ]
1.3.4.2 Controlled Axial Lifetime (CAL) - conception [ 57 ]
1.3.4.3 The concept of hybrid diodes [ 59 ]
1.3.5 Series and parallel connection of fast power diodes [ 61 ]
1.3.5.1 Series connection [ 61 ]
1.3.5.2 Connection in parallel [ 63 ]
1.4 Power modules: special features of multi-chip structures [ 64 ]
1.4.1 Structure of power modules [ 64 ]
1.4.2 Features of power modules [ 67 ]
1.4.2.1 Complexity [ 67 ]
1.4.2.2 Heat dissipation capability [ 69 ]
1.4.2.3 Isolation voltage/ partial discharge stability [275] [ 76 ]
1.4.2.4 Power cycling capability [ 77 ]
1.4.2.5 Internal low-inductive structure [ 80 ]
1.4.2.6 Internal structure-adapted to EMC [ 81 ]
1.4.2.7 Defined safe behaviour in case of module failure [ 82 ]
1.4.2.8 Non-polluting recycling [ 82 ]
1.4.3 Assembly and connection technology: types of cases [ 83 ]
1.4.4 SEMIKRON code designation system for SEMITRANS- and SEMITOP-power modules [ 85 ]
1.5 Examples for new packaging technologies [ 87 ]
1.5.1 SKiiPPACK [ 88 ]
1.5.2 MiniSKiiP [ 90 ]
1.5.3 SEMITOP [ 93 ]
1.5.4 New low-inductive IGBT module constructions for high currents and voltages [ 93 ]
1.6 Integration of sensors, protective functions, drivers and intelligence [ 94 ]



2 Datasheet parameters for MOSFET, IGBT, MiniSKiiP- and SKiiPPACK modules
2.1 General [ 97 ]
2.1.1 Letter symbols, terms, standards [ 97 ]
2.1.2 Maximum ratings and characteristics [ 99 ]
2.2 Power MOSFET modules [264], [265] [ 99 ]
2.2.1 Maximum ratings [ 99 ]
2.2.2 Characteristics [ 101 ]
2.2.3 Diagrams [ 106 ]
2.3 IGBT-modules [264], [265] [ 110 ]
2.3.1 Maximum ratings [ 110 ]
2.3.2 Characteristics [ 111 ]
2.3.3 Diagrams [ 119 ]
2.4 Special parameters for MiniSKiiPs [ 126 ]
2.5 Special parameters for SKiiPPACKs [ 127 ]
2.6 Temperature dependency of static and dynamic characteristics of power modules [ 127 ]
2.7 Reliability [ 130 ]



3 Hints for application
3.1 Dimensioning and selection of MOSFET, IGBT and SKiiPPACK modules [ 133 ]
3.1.1 Forward blocking voltage [ 133 ]
3.1.2 Forward current [ 134 ]
3.1.3 Switching frequency [ 135 ]
3.2 Thermal behaviour [ 137 ]
3.2.1 Balance of power losses [ 137 ]
3.2.1.1 Single and total power losses [ 137 ]
3.2.1.2 Power losses of a step-down converter [ 139 ]
3.2.1.3 Power losses in pulsed voltage source inverters/rectifiers with sinusoidal currents [ 140 ]
3.2.2 Calculation of the junction temperature [ 146 ]
3.2.2.1 General hints [ 146 ]
3.2.2.2 Junction temperature during short-time operation [ 148 ]
3.2.2.3 Junction temperature under pulse operation [ 150 ]
3.2.2.4 Junction temperature at fundamental harmonics frequency [ 152 ]
3.2.3 Evaluation of temperature characteristics with regards to module life [ 154 ]
3.3 Cooling of power modules [ 155 ]
3.3.1 Cooling devices, coolants and cooling methods [ 155 ]
3.3.2 Thermal model of the cooling device [ 156 ]
3.3.3 Natural air cooling (free convection) [ 157 ]
3.3.4 Forced air cooling [ 157 ]
3.3.5 Water cooling [ 161 ]
3.3.6 Heatsink ratings for SKiiPPACKs on standard heatsinks [ 162 ]
3.3.6.1 Forced air cooling [ 162 ]
3.3.6.2 Liquid cooling [ 164 ]
3.4 Power design [ 165 ]
3.4.1 Parasitic inductances and capacitances [ 165 ]
3.4.2 EMI/mains feedbacks [ 168 ]
3.4.2.1 Processes in the converter [ 168 ]
3.4.2.2 Causes of interference currents [ 169 ]
3.4.2.3 Propagation paths [ 170 ]
3.4.2.4 EMI suppression measures [ 173 ]
3.4.3 Power units ready for installation [ 174 ]
3.5 Driver [ 178 ]
3.5.1 Gate voltage and gate current characteristics [ 178 ]
3.5.2 Influence of driver parameters on switching features [ 181 ]
3.5.3 Driver circuit structures and basic requirements on drivers [ 184 ]
3.5.4 Integrated protection and monitoring functions of a driver [ 187 ]
3.5.5 Time constants and interlock functions [ 188 ]
3.5.6 Transmission of control signal and driving energy [ 189 ]
3.5.6.1 Control data and feedback [ 191 ]
3.5.6.2 Driving energy [ 191 ]
3.5.7 Driver circuits for power MOSFETs and IGBTs [ 192 ]
3.5.8 SEMIDRIVER [ 192 ]
3.5.8.1 OEM-drivers [225], [264], [272] [ 193 ]
3.5.8.2 SKiiPPACK-drivers [112], [264] [ 195 ]
3.6 Fault behaviour and protection [ 199 ]
3.6.1 Types of faults [ 199 ]
3.6.2 Behaviour of IGBTs and MOSFETs during overload and short-circuit operation [ 202 ]
3.6.3 Fault detection and protection [ 208 ]
3.6.3.1 Detection and reduction of fault currents [ 208 ]
3.6.3.2 Overvoltage limitation [ 211 ]
3.6.3.3 Overtemperature detection [ 217 ]
3.7 Parallel and series connection of MOSFET, IGBT and SKiiPPACK modules [ 218 ]
3.7.1 Parallel connection [ 218 ]
3.7.1 Parallel connection [ 218 ]
3.7.1.1 Problems of current sharing [ 218 ]
3.7.1.2 Module selection, driver circuit, layout [ 221 ]
3.7.1.3 Parallel connection of SKiiPPACK modules [ 223 ]
3.7.2 Series connection [ 225 ]
3.7.2.1 Problems of voltage sharing [ 225 ]
3.7.2.2 Module selection, driver circuit, snubber networks, layout [ 226 ]
3.8 Soft switching in ZVS or ZCS-mode / switching loss reduction networks [ 231 ]
3.8.1 Requirements and application fields [ 231 ]
3.8.2 Switching loss reduction networks [ 232 ]
3.8.3 Soft switching [ 234 ]
3.8.3.1 Typical current and voltage characteristics / power semiconductor stress [ 234 ]
3.8.3.2 Requirements on semiconductor switches and their drivers [ 237 ]
3.8.3.3 Features of switches [ 239 ]
3.8.3.4 Conclusions [ 244 ]
3.9 Handling of MOSFET, IGBT, MiniSKiiP and SKiiPPACK modules [ 245 ]
3.9.1 Sensitivity to ESD and measures for protection [ 245 ]
3.9.2 Mounting instructions [ 245 ]
3.9.3 SKiiPPACK: thermal testing ex works [ [265] ], [ [93] ], [ [233] ] [ 246 ]
3.10 Dimensioning software [ 246 ]
3.10.1 Model levels of mathematical circuit description [ 246 ]
3.10.2 SEMIKRON software service [ 250 ]



4 References [ 253 ]