Colonel William Light was sent from England to South Australia in 1835 to select and survey a suitable site for the new settlement.
He chose the banks of the River Torrens and named it after Queen Adelaide. The free colony of South Australia was founded in 1836.
Construction of Adelaide Gaol commenced in 1841.
Along with Government House, the Gaol is one of the oldest surviving buildings designed by the colony's first architect, George Strickland Kingston.