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1955 The company N.E.R. (Nuove Edizioni Romane) publishing L'espresso is incorporated, with Adriano Olivetti as the majority shareholder. At the beginning of October the first copies of L'espresso, under the editorship of Arrigo Benedetti, start rolling off the presses.
1956 Carlo Caracciolo becomes the controlling shareholder of the company. Also Arrigo Benedetti and Eugenio Scalfari enter as major shareholders.
1958 Incorporation of Publietas, destined to remain the advertising agency of L'espresso for many years to come.
1963 Arrigo Benedetti hands over to Eugenio Scalfari as editor. Average circulation reaches 70,000 copies.
1965 Introduction of colour printing for photos, text and adverts.
1967 Publication of a colour insert in a format already consolidated by the Sunday Times and the Observer. Circulation rises to 100,000.
1968 Scalfari, elected to the lower house, leaves the position as editor in the hands of Gianni Corbi.
1970 Livio Zanetti takes over from Corbi at the helm of L'espresso. First appearance of the financial information insert L'espresso Economia & Finanza with Scalfari in the role of chief editor. Circulation edges up to 130,000. The Italian language monthly Le Scienze is published in a joint venture with Scientific American.
1974 L'espresso changes its format to adopt the same standard as the world's foremost newsmagazines. This move makes it possible, among other benefits, to meet rising demands for space from advertisers.
1975 The publishing company changes its corporate title to Editoriale L'Espresso. Circulation now exceeds 300,000.
1976 14 January sees the birth of la Repubblica under the editorship of Eugenio Scalfari in the context of a joint venture between Editoriale L'Espresso and Arnoldo Mondadori Editore. By the end of the year circulation of la Repubblica has already topped 100,000, increasing to the break-even point of 180,000 by 1979.
Editoriale L'Espresso acquires a controlling share in several regional and local newspapers: Il Tirreno, Il Mattino di Padova, La Tribuna di Treviso, La Provincia Pavese and La Nuova Sardegna. A press agency (A.G.L.) is set up with the role of central editorial office for all the local newspapers. A 50% share of the advertising company A. Manzoni & C is acquired (the remaining 50% is held jointly by Mondadori and Olivetti), which takes over the advertising business in la Repubblica and the local newspapers.
1984 Editoriale L'Espresso is listed on the Italian stock exchange. The local newspaper La Nuova Venezia is founded. Incorporation of Finegil, a holding company controlling the various local newspapers. Giovanni Valentini is appointed as editor of L'espresso.
The local daily Il Centro is launched in a joint venture with Franco Sensi. Subsequently, Franco Sensi's is shares are bought out. Take-over of Genoa daily Il Lavoro and Editoriale Le Gazzette; 50% of Finegil is sold to Mondadori. Launch of Repubbica's supplements Affari & Finanza (1986) and Il VenerdĪ (1987). The Espresso Group acquires 50% of Radio Deejay (1989).
1989 Arnoldo Mondadori Editore takes a controlling share in Editoriale l'Espresso. 1990 A. Manzoni & C. takes over the business of Publietas and Mondadori's internal advertising agency, thereby becoming Italy's largest printed press advertising concern.
1991 The clash between Silvio Berlusconi and Carlo De Benedetti over the control of the Mondadori Group results in a break-up of assets leading to the creation of the Espresso Group in its current form, with the CIR Group as majority shareholder. Claudio Rinaldi takes over from Valentini as editor of L'espresso. Following the merger with Cartiera di Ascoli, Editoriale la Repubblica is listed on the Italian stock exchange.
1992 The Espresso Group acquires the entire capital stock of A. Manzoni & C., which was previously held in equal parts with Arnoldo Mondadori Editore Spa. A controlling share is acquired in Rotosud and CPS, the printers of L'espresso and Il VenerdĪ di Repubblica. The shareholding in Radio Deejay is increased to 86%. The monthly magazine Gambero Rosso makes its first appearance on the news-stands. Repubblica International Holding SA acquires 16.75% of the Portuguese daily Publico.
1993 Finegil Spa changes its corporate title to Finegil Editoriale SpA and integrates the local newspaper publishers Editoriale Quotidiani Veneti SpA, Società Editrice Centro Italia SpA and Editoriale Le Gazzette Srl, into three internal Operative Divisions.
1994 The Monday edition of la Repubblica is released on 10 January.
1995 la Repubblica inaugurates the two new supplements Musica, rock & altro! and Salute. la Repubblica introduces colour printing technology for the first page and adverts.
1996 la Repubblica presents a new women's supplement D - la Repubblica delle Donne. Eugenio Scalfari relinquishes the editorship of la Repubblica in favour of Ezio Mauro. Finegil Editoriale SpA mergers with Editoriale Il Tirreno Srl. The share capital of Editoriale L'Espresso SpA is raised from Itl. 104,871,424,000 to Itl. 105,771,424,000 by means of a share issue destined to employees of the company and its subsidiaries. The first on-line experiment of repubblica.it is launched to coincide with the Italian political elections.
1997 www.repubblica.it becomes the first publishing site to have an independent editorial department and separate content with respect to the printed newspaper; the site is open 24 hours a day from January onwards. Take-over of Radio Capital SpA, the proprietor of Radio Capital Music network, thus creating a major radio broadcasting arm. The shareholding in Radio Deejay is increased to 100%. Birth of la Repubblica's weekly travel supplement Viaggi.
1998 On 1/1/98 the merger of Editoriale la Repubblica SpA and Editrice Periodici Culturali SpA with Editoriale L'Espresso SpA comes into effect; Editoriale L'Espresso SpA changes its corporate title to Gruppo Editoriale L'Espresso Spa. Majority shareholding acquired in the holding company NCE-Newco Edit Spa, which controls the publishers of the two local titles Il Piccolo and Il Messaggero Veneto. Production commences of the Italian edition of National Geographic. Acquisition of 100% of the share capital of the national broadcasting company Italia Radio. The three broadcasting companies Radio DeeJay, Radio Capital and Italia Radio are merged into a single organization denominated Elemedia Spa.
1999 The year opens with the incorporation of the Internet company Kataweb SpA, engaged in the development of new publishing products and new specific Internet business. Kataweb operates in three distinct areas: new publishing initiatives (content), consumer services (e-commerce), and development of Internet projects for private companies (web solutions and services). Kataweb rapidly becomes one of Italy's leading Internet players. Investments are designated for the introduction of four-colour printing of sixteen pages in all local newspapers. la Repubblica signs contracts with its suppliers for the expansion of print capabilities to 96 pages.
2000 During the year Gruppo Espresso has pursued the highest growth rate investment strategy (Internet, digital TV and Radio) without neglecting the development and reinforcement of its printed page publishing activities, which constitute its strength point. During the 2000 activity a strategic agreement was signed between Unicredito Group and Kataweb, which provided the banking group entrance in the company capital of the Espresso Internet Company with a 5% share. In May 2000 Ele TV was founded for the realization and development of thematic satellite Television channels, which gave birth to Dee Jay TV, which already started broadcasting. Finally Finegil Editoriale has acquired the 35% share of the company's capital of the publishing company of Piacenza's daily newspaper Libertà
2001 The difficulties in the advertising market and the crisis in the internet companies characterise this year. The Group intervenes in the internet sector remarkably, by closing all the activities abroad, disengaging from e-commerce progressively, focusing its effort on the development of the contents and the offerings of web-solution; two companies of the web-solution area Uhunu and We Bridges, are incorporated in Ksolutions, after the acquisition of the minority interests. New projects are activated to exploit the Group’s synergies, co-marketing and brand extension operations. Furthermore, the cost of dailies, unchanged from 1995, is increased to euro 0.88 between the end of November and the beginning of December.
2002 Notwithstanding the protraction of the crisis in the advertising market, the Group succeeds in improving its profitability; this is due, as concerns costs, to Kataweb’s re-organization, to the reduction of the expenses in all the Group’s activities and to the decrease of the paper cost; as concerns revenues, the positive effects are determined by the exploitation of the strength and the credibility of Repubblica and Espresso marks, which made “la biblioteca di Repubblica” (25 millions books sold during the year), and other publishing initiatives coupled to the two titles successful, and by the increase in the price of dailies and periodicals.
2003 The repeated great success of the editorial initiatives coupled with la Repubblica and l’Espresso, the interventions on costs, the recovery of the Internet area and the decrease in the cost of paper, together with advertising revenues in slight increase and the substantial stability of the circulation of the Group’s titles determine a further improvement in the Group’s profitability. The Group’s editorial initiatives have, altogether, registered sales equal to more than 34 million books, two million DVDs, and 1.6 million CD-ROMs and music CDs during the year. The Group’s radios are again the first among the private stations as to audience, with almost 7.4 million average daily listeners, and 16.4 million average weekly listeners (source Audioradio 2003). La Repubblica is carrying out the previewed investments to get the “full colour” and to offer even more efficacious performances to the advertising market.
2004 The full colour investment of la Repubblica was finalized: 96 pages of the daily may now be completely printed in colour. At the end of the year, an important agreement was reached for the purchase of Rete A, the national television network addressed to young people. The Group enters, thus, the sector of the analogical television. Its target is to have Rete A grow further. It will still address young people, exploiting the marks and the know-how of the three radios Radio DeeJay, Radio Capital, and m2o, and the Internet technologies of Kataweb. Among the publishing initiatives, the launch of a new fortnightly (TV Magazine) dealing with the television programmes, and the beginning of restyling of the weekly “Musica, which will be turned into a monthly magazine in 2005. The great success of the optional products coupled with Repubblica and L’Espresso continues. All the Roman premises of the Group moved into a new headquarter.
2005 In the first months of the year the acquisition of the television network Rete A - All Music has been completed. The Group has thus accomplished its multi-media presence and today it reaches the audience with its contents through several platforms and with different ways to enjoy contents in time. RadioTV Repubblica has been launched, broadcasting live every morning audio-video programmes with news and analysis edited by the editorial staff and reporters of la Repubblica and Radio Capital. Optional products issued with the Group’s newspapers and magazines confirmed themselves as successful as in previous years. 45 publishing initiatives have been carried out, compared to the 35 of 2004, with over 24 million copies sold including books, DVDs and CDs. Circulation of newspapers and magazines keeps steady: la Repubblica confirms 626 thousand average copies, local newspapers 438 thousand, L’espresso 391 thousand.
2006 The Group keeps developing its activity towards a multimedia system. The offer of contents on different platforms is strengthening. The market of young people is steadily kept by the three radio stations, by the monthly XL, by the Internet and by the TV network All Music, with a growing synergy among them. Repubblica is available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, on every media: apart from the newspaper, the website constantly updated by a dedicated editorial office, and Repubblica RadioTV, are now available Repubblica Flash, a simplified version of Repubblica.it suitable for cell phones, and Repubblica Last Minute, a free and updated version of Repubblica.it, printable in A4 format in 12 pages. Tests are being performed for the editing of the newspaper on a mobile device working with electronic ink.
Manzoni, the subsidiary for selling advertising space, has gone through a reorganization, in order to seize all opportunities offered by multimedia. The gathering of advertisements, on the different media, is strongly integrated with the editorial departments.
The Group’s media achieved further positive results on the previous years: Repubblica is again the most widely read newspaper with more than 3 million daily readers, Radio DeeJay the most listened private radio station with 5.8 million daily listeners. The L’espresso magazine is on a good trend as well, with 2.3 million readers, and also local newspapers, with 3.2 million daily readers, and the internet network, with 9.5 million unique users in the month of December.
2007 The Group’s ability in exploiting the force of its own brands in a market where contents are distributed more and more on multiple platforms, on demand, asynchronously, and mobile, it’s producing its first important results: the whole of the Espresso Group media have totalled in a week over 33 million unique contacts (over 50% of the Italian population). In order to strengthen the tie with its readers and follow them on all available platforms, the editorial staff of la Repubblica has signed an agreement, through which journalists engage themselves in delivering written and audio-video contents both for the website and for the printed paper. The effort in online activities goes hand in hand with the strengthening of the main titles in printed version. la Repubblica has launched R2, the new section of the newspaper with journalistic inquiries, dossier, reportages, whereas L’espresso magazine has new cover and graphics, holding on to its successful inquiring journalism-oriented editorial formula.
Radio Deejay, confirming its leadership in the number of listeners among commercial radio stations in Italy, has increased its multimedia offer, with the Radio Deejay Club, new website for cellular phones, and a new peer-to-peer connection for a wide social network, where people can create their own programming.
2008 The publishing sector, in a global scenario of economic downturn, suffers from a deep decline in advertising investments. Cost improvement measures have been taken in order to face the situation; savings derived from the abovementioned measures reach €47mln on a yearly basis.
la Repubblica proves again, for the eighth time in a row, number one in terms of readership among newspapers. A new website of Repubblica Parma has started out. It is the tenth local edition of the newspaper, though the only one exclusively online.
Multimedia contents are increasing. The Group’s websites have been renewed and developed, and the interaction with readers has improved. Radio Deejay social network gathers over 400 thousand monthly users; an official channel of the radio has been created on YouTube. Growing efforts have been shown towards the implementation of new services for mobile phones.

 Gruppo Editoriale L’Espresso - Via Cristoforo Colombo n.149 - 00147 Roma - Tel:+39.06.84781
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