Saturday, February 6, 2010

World

Advertise on NYTimes.com
World news about Ireland, including breaking news and archival articles published in The New York Times.

General Information on Ireland

Official Name: Ireland
Capital: Dublin (Current local time)
Government Type: Republic, parliamentary democracy
Population: 4.11 million
Area: 27,136 square miles; slightly larger than West Virginia
Languages: English (official), Irish (Gaelic or Gaeilge) (official) spoken mainly in areas located along the western seaboard
Year of Independence: 1921
Web site: Irlgov.ie

answers.com logo

Reference Material on Ireland

Columbia Encyclopedia

Ireland, Irish Eire (âr'ə) [to it are related the poetic Erin and perhaps the Latin Hibernia], island, 32,598 sq mi (84,429 sq km), second largest of the British Isles. The island is divided into two major political units-Northern Ireland (see Ireland, Northern), which is joined with Great Britain in the United Kingdom, and the Republic of Ireland (see Ireland, Republic of). Of the 32 counties of Ireland, 26 lie in the Republic, and of the four historic provinces, three and part of the fourth are in the Republic.

Geology and Geography

More on this entry »

Ireland lies west of the island of Great Britain, from which it is separated by the narrow North Channel, the Irish Sea (which attains a width of 130 mi/209 km), and St. George's Channel. More than a third the size of Britain, the island averages 140 mi (225 km) in width and 225 mi (362 km) in length. A large central plain extending to the Irish Sea between the Mourne Mts. in the north and the mountains of Wicklow in the south is roughly enclosed by a highland rim. The highlands of the north, west, and south, which rise to more than 3,000 ft (914 m), are generally barren, but the central plain is extremely fertile and the climate is temperate and moist, warmed by southwesterly winds. The rains, which are heaviest in the west (some areas have more than 80 in./203 cm annually), are responsible for the brilliant green grass of the "emerald isle," and for the large stretches of peat bog, a source of valuable fuel. The coastline is irregular, affording many natural harbors. Off the west coast are numerous small islands, including the Aran Islands, the Blasket Islands, Achill, and Clare Island. The interior is dotted with lakes (the most celebrated are the Lakes of Killarney) and wide stretches of river called loughs. The Shannon, the longest of Irish rivers, drains the western plain and widens into the beautiful loughs Allen, Ree, and Derg. The River Liffey empties into Dublin Bay, the Lee into Cork Harbour at Cobh, the Foyle into Lough Royle near Derry, and the Lagan into Belfast Lough.

History

Ireland to the English Conquest

The earliest known people in Ireland belonged to the groups that inhabited all of the British Isles in prehistoric times. In the several centuries preceding the birth of Jesus a number of Celtic tribes invaded and conquered Ireland and established their distinctive culture (see Celt), although they do not seem to have come in great numbers. Ancient Irish legend tells of four successive peoples who invaded the country-the Firbolgs, the Fomors, the Tuatha De Danann, and the Milesians. Oddly enough, the Romans, who occupied Britain for 400 years, never came to Ireland, and the Anglo-Saxon invaders of Britain, who largely replaced the Celtic population there, did not greatly affect Ireland.

Until the raids of the Norse in the late 8th cent., Ireland remained relatively untouched by foreign incursions and enjoyed the golden age of its culture. The people, Celtic and non-Celtic alike, were organized into clans, or tribes, which in the early period owed allegiance to one of five provincial kings-of Ulster, Munster, Connacht, Leinster, and Meath (now the northern part of Leinster). These kings nominally served the high king of all Ireland at Tara (in Meath). The clans fought constantly among themselves, but despite civil strife, literature and art were held in high respect. Each chief or king kept an official poet (Druid) who preserved the oral traditions of the people. The Gaelic language and culture were extended into Scotland by Irish emigrants in the 5th and 6th cent.

Parts of Ireland had already been Christianized before the arrival of St. Patrick in the 5th cent., but pagan tradition continued to appeal to the imagination of Irish poets even after the complete conversion of the country. The Celtic Christianity of Ireland produced many scholars and missionaries who traveled to England and the Continent, and it attracted students to Irish monasteries, until the 8th cent. perhaps the most brilliant of Europe. St. Columba and St. Columban were among the most famous of Ireland's missionaries. All the arts flourished; Irish illuminated manuscripts were particularly noteworthy. The Book of Kells (see Ceanannus Mór) is especially famous.

The country did not develop a strong central government, however, and it was not united to meet the invasions of the Norse, who settled on the shores of the island late in the 8th cent., establishing trading towns (including Dublin, Waterford, and Limerick) and creating new petty kingdoms. In 1014, at Clontarf, Brian Boru, who had become high king by conquest in 1002, broke the strength of the Norse invaders. There followed a period of 150 years during which Ireland was free from foreign interference but was torn by clan warfare.

Ireland and the English

In the 12th cent., Pope Adrian IV granted overlordship of Ireland to Henry II of England. The English conquest of Ireland was begun by Richard de Clare, 2d earl of Pembroke, known as Strongbow, who intervened in behalf of a claimant to the throne of Leinster; in 1171, Henry himself went to Ireland, temporarily establishing his overlordship there. With this invasion commenced an Anglo-Irish struggle that continued for nearly 800 years.

The English established themselves in Dublin. Roughly a century of warfare ensued as Ireland was divided into English shires ruled from Dublin, the domains of feudal magnates who acknowledged English sovereignty, and the independent Irish kingdoms. Many English intermarried with the Irish and were assimilated into Irish society. In the late 13th cent. the English introduced a parliament in Ireland. In 1315, Edward Bruce of Scotland invaded Ireland and was joined by many Irish kings. Although Bruce was killed in 1318, the English authority in Ireland was weakening, becoming limited to a small district around Dublin known as the Pale; the rest of the country fell into a struggle for power among the ruling Anglo-Irish families and Irish chieftains.

English attention was diverted by the Hundred Years War with France (1337-1453) and the Wars of the Roses (1455-85). However, under Henry VII new interest in the island was aroused by Irish support for Lambert Simnel, a Yorkist pretender to the English throne. To crush this support, Henry sent to Ireland Sir Edward Poynings, who summoned an Irish Parliament at Drogheda and forced it to pass the legislation known as Poynings' Law (1495). These acts provided that future Irish Parliaments and legislation receive prior approval from the English Privy Council. A free Irish Parliament was thus rendered impossible.

The English Reformation under Henry VIII gave rise in England to increased fears of foreign, Catholic invasion; control of Ireland thus became even more imperative. Henry VIII put down a rebellion (1534-37), abolished the monasteries, confiscated lands, and established a Protestant "Church of Ireland" (1537). But since the vast majority of Irish remained Roman Catholic, the seeds of bitter religious contention were added to the already rancorous Anglo-Irish relations. The Irish rebelled three times during the reign of Elizabeth I and were brutally suppressed. Under James I, Ulster was settled by Scottish and English Protestants, and many of the Catholic inhabitants were driven off their lands; thus two sharply antagonistic communities were established.

Another Irish rebellion, begun in 1641 in reaction to the hated rule of Charles I's deputy, Thomas Wentworth, earl of Strafford, was crushed (1649-50) by Oliver Cromwell with the loss of hundreds of thousands of lives. More land was confiscated (and often given to absentee landlords), and more Protestants settled in Ireland. The intractable landlord-tenant problem that plagued Ireland in later centuries can be traced to the English confiscations of the 16th and 17th cent.

Irish Catholics rallied to the cause of James II after his overthrow (1688) in England (see the Glorious Revolution), while the Protestants in Ulster enthusiastically supported William III. At the battle of the Boyne (1690) near Dublin, James and his French allies were defeated by William. The English-controlled Irish Parliament passed harsh Penal Laws designed to keep the Catholic Irish powerless; political equality was also denied to Presbyterians. At the same time English trade policy depressed the economy of Protestant Ireland, causing many so-called Scotch-Irish to emigrate to America. A newly flourishing woolen industry was destroyed when export from Ireland was forbidden.

During the American Revolution, fear of a French invasion of Ireland led Irish Protestants to form (1778-82) the Protestant Volunteer Army. The Protestants, led by Henry Grattan, and even supported by some Catholics, used their military strength to extract concessions for Ireland from Britain. Trade concessions were granted in 1779, and, with the repeal of Poynings' Law (1782), the Irish Parliament had its independence restored. But the Parliament was still chosen undemocratically, and Catholics continued to be denied the right to hold political office.

Another unsuccessful rebellion was staged in 1798 by Wolfe Tone, a Protestant who had formed the Society of United Irishmen and who accepted French aid in the uprising. The reliance on French assistance revived anti-Catholic feeling among the Irish Protestants, who remembered French support of the Jacobite restoration. The rebellion convinced the British prime minister, William Pitt, that the Irish problem could be solved by the adoption of three policies: abolition of the Irish Parliament, legislative union with Britain in a United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and Catholic Emancipation. The first two goals were achieved in 1800, but the opposition of George III and British Protestants prevented the enactment of the Catholic Emancipation Act until 1829, when it was accomplished largely through the efforts of the Irish leader Daniel O'Connell.

Ireland under the Union

After 1829 the Irish representatives in the British Parliament attempted to maintain the Irish question as a major issue in British politics. O'Connell worked to repeal the union with Britain, which was felt to operate to Ireland's disadvantage, and to reform the government in Ireland. Toward the middle of the century, the Irish Land Question grew increasingly urgent. But the Great Potato Famine (1845-49), one of the worst natural disasters in history, dwarfed political developments. During these years a blight ruined the potato crop, the staple food of the Irish population, and hundreds of thousands perished from hunger and disease. Many thousands of others emigrated; between 1847 and 1854 about 1.6 million went to the United States. The population dropped from an estimated 8.5 million in 1845 to 6.55 million in 1851 (and continued to decline until the 1960s). Irish emigrants in America formed the secret Fenian movement, dedicated to Irish independence. In 1869 the British prime minister William Gladstone sponsored an act disestablishing the Protestant "Church of Ireland" and thereby removed one Irish grievance.

In the 1870s, Irish politicians renewed efforts to achieve Home Rule within the union, while in Britain Gladstone and others attempted to solve the Irish problem through land legislation and Home Rule. Gladstone twice submitted Home Rule bills (1886 and 1893) that failed. The proposals alarmed Protestant Ulster, which began to organize against Home Rule. In 1905, Arthur Griffith founded Sinn Féin among Irish Catholics, but for the time being the dominant Irish nationalist group was the Home Rule party of John Redmond.

Home Rule was finally enacted in 1914, with the provision that Ulster could remain in the union for six more years, but the act was suspended for the duration of World War I and never went into effect. In both Ulster and Catholic Ireland militias were formed. The Irish Republican Brotherhood, a descendent of the Fenians, organized a rebellion on Easter Sunday, 1916; although unsuccessful, the rising acquired great propaganda value when the British executed its leaders.

Sinn Fein, linked in the Irish public's mind with the rising and aided by Britain's attempt to apply conscription to Ireland, scored a tremendous victory in the parliamentary elections of 1918. Its members refused to take their seats in Westminster, declared themselves the Dáil Éireann (Irish Assembly), and proclaimed an Irish Republic. The British outlawed both Sinn Fein and the Dáil, which went underground and engaged in guerrilla warfare (1919-21) against local Irish authorities representing the union. The British sent troops, the Black and Tans, who inflamed the situation further.

Partition

A new Home Rule bill was enacted in 1920, establishing separate parliaments for Ulster and Catholic Ireland. This was accepted by Ulster, and Northern Ireland was created. The plan was rejected by the Dáil, but in autumn 1921, Prime Minister Lloyd George negotiated with Griffith and Michael Collins of the Dáil a treaty granting Dominion status within the British Empire to Catholic Ireland. The Irish Free State was established in Jan., 1922. A new constitution was ratified in 1937 that terminated Great Britain's sovereignty. In 1948, all semblance of Commonwealth membership ended with the Republic of Ireland Act.

See Ireland, Republic of and Ireland, Northern.

Bibliography

See N. Mansergh, The Irish Question, 1840-1921 (1965); J. C. Beckett, The Making of Modern Ireland, 1603-1921 (1966); K. S. Bottigheimer, Ireland and the Irish: A Short History (1982); R. Munck, Ireland: Nation, State, and Class Conflict (1985); R. D. Crotty, Ireland in Crisis (1986); R. F. Foster, Modern Ireland, 1600-1972 (1989); J. Lee, Ireland, 1912-1985: Politics and Society (1989); T. Cahill, How the Irish Saved Civilization: The Untold Story of Ireland's Heroic Role from the Fall of Rome to the Rise of Medieval Europe (1995); C. C. O'Brien, Religion and Nationalism in Ireland (1995); D. Kiberd, Inventing Ireland (1996); N. Davies, The Isles: A History (2000).

Hide «

ALSO SEE: Dictionary, Geography

Articles

Newest First | Oldest First
Page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | Next >>
Voices of Gay Irishmen, Set to Song

To a New York audience, the tales in “Silver Stars,” a song cycle stitched together from the stories of older gay Irishmen, may seem somewhat elementary and generic.

January 13, 2010
    Explosive Was on Dublin Flight in Bungled Slovak Security Test

    The Slovak interior minister, Robert Kalinak, expressed “profound regret” to the Irish government for the oversight and the three-day delay in alerting Irish authorities.

    January 6, 2010
      Coming Out in Ireland: Stories Set to Song

      True stories of older Irish men willing to flout tradition by frankly discussing their homosexuality form the spine of “Silver Stars,” produced by Dublin company Brokentalkers.

      December 27, 2009
        Irish Bishops Quit in Wake of an Inquiry

        Two more Roman Catholic bishops in Ireland have resigned in the wake of a damning investigation into decades of church cover-up of child abuse in the Dublin Archdiocese.

        December 26, 2009
          Bishop Resigns in Irish Abuse Scandal

          The Vatican accepted the resignation of an Irish bishop who had been criticized in a government report on systematic child sexual abuse by priests.

          December 18, 2009
            Bond Traders Put Pressure on Debt-Laden Nations

            For Britain, Ireland, Greece and Spain, activist bond traders are making higher costs of borrowing a consequence of deep deficits.

            December 14, 2009
              Pope Expresses Outrage at Abuse in Ireland

              The pope “shares the outrage” of Catholics in Ireland over the handling of a sex-abuse scandal and plans to write a letter to Catholics there, according to a Vatican statement.

              December 12, 2009
                Irish Wince as a Budget Proposal Cuts to the Bone
                Irish Wince as a Budget Proposal Cuts to the Bone

                Ireland, once one of the world’s biggest economic success stories, is now one of the recession’s worst casualties.

                December 10, 2009
                  Banking on a Ph.D. 'Ecosystem' to Drive New Economies

                  As countries seek a route to economic recovery many, like Ireland, are looking to advanced education to give them a competitive edge in global research and development.

                  December 2, 2009
                    Report Says Irish Bishops and Police Hid Abuse
                    Report Says Irish Bishops and Police Hid Abuse

                    The church and police colluded to hide decades of child abuse by priests in Dublin, an investigation concluded.

                    November 27, 2009
                      More Rain for Britain After Floods

                      As parts of Great Britain and Ireland braced for more storms on Monday, some residents were allowed back home to assess the damage from the region’s worst flooding in decades.

                      November 24, 2009
                        Irish Demand Replay Against France

                        Recriminations rumbled over the hand ball that helped France beat Ireland to take a spot in the World Cup finals.

                        November 20, 2009
                        MORE ON IRELAND: WORLD CUP (SOCCER), SOCCER, FRANCE
                          Now or Never at Soccer's Last-Chance Saloon
                          Now or Never at Soccer's Last-Chance Saloon

                          The last nine places to qualify for the World Cup must be decided this weekend, and countries, big and small in soccer terms, are treating this as the last-chance saloon.

                          November 14, 2009
                            Irish ?Bad Bank? Plan Faces Public Backlash
                            Irish ‘Bad Bank’ Plan Faces Public Backlash

                            The Irish are fuming at a bailout plan that could burden a generation and that many say is way too generous to banks that lent so freely.

                            November 13, 2009
                              Waiting for the Chief

                              Who will be the first president of the European Union?

                              October 17, 2009
                                For Irish, E.U. May Stand for Economic Unity

                                Irish voters overwhelmingly approved the European Union’s Lisbon Treaty, but like many other Europeans, they are glumly fixated on domestic issues.

                                October 5, 2009
                                  After Vote, Debate Shifts to New European Leader
                                  After Vote, Debate Shifts to New European Leader

                                  A difficult discussion lies ahead about how much power and influence the European Union president should have.

                                  October 5, 2009
                                    Ireland Backs Treaty to Streamline E.U.

                                    Ireland’s approval of the far-reaching pact removes one of the biggest stumbling blocks to its eventual enactment by Europe as a whole.

                                    October 4, 2009
                                      Ireland Votes Again on European Union Treaty

                                      Voters cast ballots Friday in a referendum that will help determine the future of the European Union.

                                      October 3, 2009
                                      MORE ON IRELAND: TREATIES, REFERENDUMS, EUROPEAN UNION
                                        E.U. Vote in Ireland Hangs on the Economy
                                        E.U. Vote in Ireland Hangs on the Economy

                                        For the second time in two years, a few million voters in once-booming Ireland are being asked to determine the future of a political and economic project that embraces nearly 500 million people.

                                        October 2, 2009
                                          For Bosnia, Future May Hinge on Irish Vote

                                          In many ways, Bosnia and Herzegovina ought already to be a showcase success for European “soft power,” but analysts fear violence could surge anew.

                                          October 2, 2009
                                            A Little Less Mystery in the Migration of Eels
                                            A Little Less Mystery in the Migration of Eels

                                            Scientists have tracked eels from the west coast of Ireland for part of the 3,000-mile trip to the Sargasso Sea.

                                            September 29, 2009
                                              Irish G.D.P. Points to Possible Return to Stability

                                              The slide in Ireland's gross domestic product halted in the second quarter from the preceding three months, according to official data released Thursday.

                                              September 25, 2009
                                                Indecision as E.U. Vote Comes Again to Ireland

                                                Less than two weeks before a vote on the Lisbon Treaty, Irish voters remain caught between a need for European stability and nagging doubts about entanglements the treaty may bring.

                                                September 22, 2009
                                                  If Ryanair Bids for It Again, Aer Lingus May Be Tempted

                                                  The former Irish flag carrier reported deepening losses that could threaten its independence.

                                                  August 28, 2009
                                                    On Vacation, Satisfaction Is in the Discovery
                                                    On Vacation, Satisfaction Is in the Discovery

                                                    Embracing the unknown is a good strategy for enjoying a day of vacation golf, especially when playing with people whom you have just met.

                                                    August 24, 2009
                                                    Ireland Frees 2 I.R.A. Men in 1996 Killing

                                                    The last two men imprisoned for Provisional I.R.A. offenses were released from prison, closing another chapter in peacemaking but rekindling memories.

                                                    August 6, 2009
                                                    MORE ON IRELAND: IRISH REPUBLICAN ARMY
                                                      The Palestinian Terrorist and Me
                                                      The Palestinian Terrorist and Me

                                                      What Jihad Jaara did. What I did. What brought the two of us together again far from the West Bank.

                                                      June 21, 2009
                                                        E.U. Coaxing Irish Toward 2nd Try on Lisbon Treaty

                                                        The European Union moved closer Thursday to removing one of the final obstacles to its plans to enact the Lisbon Treaty, a new charter intended to enhance the bloc’s role on the global stage.

                                                        June 19, 2009
                                                          With a Nod to Ireland, European Union Lifts Hopes for a Treaty to Strengthen Itself

                                                          The 27-member organization removed an obstacle to enacting the Lisbon Treaty intended to enhance the bloc’s global role.

                                                          June 19, 2009

                                                            SEARCH 1621 Articles:

                                                            Page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | Next >>

                                                            Multimedia

                                                            Critics' Picks: 'The Commitments'

                                                            In honor of St. Patrick's day, A.O. Scott reviews Alan Parker's 1991 film about a working-class Dublin soul band.

                                                            An Ambassador's Residence in Dublin

                                                            The U.S. ambassador's residence in Dublin, built in 1776, is one of two estates in Phoenix Park -- the other is the home of the Irish president.

                                                            Castles Revived

                                                            A look inside a few prominent Irish preservationists’ homes.

                                                            Farewell, Patrick Ireland

                                                            After 36 years, Brian O’Doherty put to rest his alter ego, Patrick Ireland.

                                                            Getting Around Dublin
                                                            Getting Around Dublin

                                                            A map of Dublin's center city, from James Joyce's house to the National Library.

                                                            More Multimedia »

                                                            Photos

                                                            Click on a photo to view related article

                                                            Rss Feeds On Ireland

                                                            Subscribe to an RSS feed on this topic. What is RSS?

                                                            Times Select Content Get Alerts On Ireland

                                                            Receive My Alerts e-mails on topics covered on this page.

                                                            More Alerts »