Athena |
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Country: USA. Status: Retired 2001. Privately funded family of solid propellant satellite launch vehicles. Originally known as LMLV (Lockheed-Martin Launch Vehicle); LLV (Lockheed Launch Vehicle). Sales did not develop as hoped by the company after the MEO-satellite bubble burst in the 1990's.
- Stage1: 1 x SR118.
*Gross Mass*: 53,020 kg (116,880 lb).*Empty Mass*: 4,211 kg (9,283 lb). Motor: 1 x Castor 120.*Thrust (vac)*: 1,606.594 kN (361,177 lbf).*Isp*: 286 sec.*Burn time*: 83 sec.*Length*: 10.70 m (35.10 ft).*Diameter*: 2.36 m (7.74 ft).*Propellants*: Solid.
- Stage2: 1 x ESBM.
*Gross Mass*: 10,810 kg (23,830 lb).*Empty Mass*: 1,030 kg (2,270 lb). Motor: 1 x SRM-1.*Thrust (vac)*: 189.200 kN (42,534 lbf).*Isp*: 293 sec.*Burn time*: 150 sec.*Length*: 3.00 m (9.80 ft).*Diameter*: 2.30 m (7.50 ft).*Propellants*: Solid.
- Stage3: 1 x OAM.
*Gross Mass*: 714 kg (1,574 lb).*Empty Mass*: 360 kg (790 lb). Motor: 4 x MR-107.*Thrust (vac)*: 882 N (198 lbf).*Isp*: 222 sec.*Burn time*: 1,500 sec.*Length*: 1.00 m (3.20 ft).*Diameter*: 2.30 m (7.50 ft).*Propellants*: Hydrazine.
Version:
The Athena-2 version featured a Castor 120 first stage, Castor 120 second stage, Orbus third stage, and OAM Orbital Adjustment Module.
- Stage1: 1 x SR118.
*Gross Mass*: 53,020 kg (116,880 lb).*Empty Mass*: 4,211 kg (9,283 lb). Motor: 1 x Castor 120.*Thrust (vac)*: 1,606.594 kN (361,177 lbf).*Isp*: 286 sec.*Burn time*: 83 sec.*Length*: 10.70 m (35.10 ft).*Diameter*: 2.36 m (7.74 ft).*Propellants*: Solid.
- Stage2: 1 x SR118.
*Gross Mass*: 53,020 kg (116,880 lb).*Empty Mass*: 4,211 kg (9,283 lb). Motor: 1 x Castor 120.*Thrust (vac)*: 1,606.594 kN (361,177 lbf).*Isp*: 286 sec.*Burn time*: 83 sec.*Length*: 10.70 m (35.10 ft).*Diameter*: 2.36 m (7.74 ft).*Propellants*: Solid.
- Stage3: 1 x ESBM.
*Gross Mass*: 10,810 kg (23,830 lb).*Empty Mass*: 1,030 kg (2,270 lb). Motor: 1 x SRM-1.*Thrust (vac)*: 189.200 kN (42,534 lbf).*Isp*: 293 sec.*Burn time*: 150 sec.*Length*: 3.00 m (9.80 ft).*Diameter*: 2.30 m (7.50 ft).*Propellants*: Solid.
- Stage4: 1 x OAM.
*Gross Mass*: 714 kg (1,574 lb).*Empty Mass*: 360 kg (790 lb). Motor: 4 x MR-107.*Thrust (vac)*: 882 N (198 lbf).*Isp*: 222 sec.*Burn time*: 1,500 sec.*Length*: 1.00 m (3.20 ft).*Diameter*: 2.30 m (7.50 ft).*Propellants*: Hydrazine.
Version:
Planned but never flown heavier-lift version of Athena.
- Stage0: 2 x Castor 4A.
*Gross Mass*: 11,743 kg (25,888 lb).*Empty Mass*: 1,529 kg (3,370 lb). Motor: 1 x Castor 4A.*Thrust (vac)*: 478.309 kN (107,528 lbf).*Isp*: 266 sec.*Burn time*: 56 sec.*Length*: 9.12 m (29.92 ft).*Diameter*: 1.02 m (3.34 ft).*Propellants*: Solid.
- Stage1: 1 x SR118.
*Gross Mass*: 53,020 kg (116,880 lb).*Empty Mass*: 4,211 kg (9,283 lb). Motor: 1 x Castor 120.*Thrust (vac)*: 1,606.594 kN (361,177 lbf).*Isp*: 286 sec.*Burn time*: 83 sec.*Length*: 10.70 m (35.10 ft).*Diameter*: 2.36 m (7.74 ft).*Propellants*: Solid.
- Stage2: 1 x SR118.
*Gross Mass*: 53,020 kg (116,880 lb).*Empty Mass*: 4,211 kg (9,283 lb). Motor: 1 x Castor 120.*Thrust (vac)*: 1,606.594 kN (361,177 lbf).*Isp*: 286 sec.*Burn time*: 83 sec.*Length*: 10.70 m (35.10 ft).*Diameter*: 2.36 m (7.74 ft).*Propellants*: Solid.
- Stage3: 1 x ESBM.
*Gross Mass*: 10,810 kg (23,830 lb).*Empty Mass*: 1,030 kg (2,270 lb). Motor: 1 x SRM-1.*Thrust (vac)*: 189.200 kN (42,534 lbf).*Isp*: 293 sec.*Burn time*: 150 sec.*Length*: 3.00 m (9.80 ft).*Diameter*: 2.30 m (7.50 ft).*Propellants*: Solid.
- Stage4: 1 x OAM.
*Gross Mass*: 714 kg (1,574 lb).*Empty Mass*: 360 kg (790 lb). Motor: 4 x MR-107.*Thrust (vac)*: 882 N (198 lbf).*Isp*: 222 sec.*Burn time*: 1,500 sec.*Length*: 1.00 m (3.20 ft).*Diameter*: 2.30 m (7.50 ft).*Propellants*: Hydrazine.
Athena Chronology
Starshine-3 was a 90 kg, 0.9 m geodetic sphere that was to be observed by students. The NASA satellite was basically a passive light-reflecting sphere, consisting of 1,500 student-built mirrors (polished by kindergarten and grade school students from many countries) and 31 laser "retroreflectors". A few solar cells provide enough power to send a beacon at 145.825 MHz every minute. Ham operators around the world were expected to obtain signal strengths from which the decay (due to magnetic torque) of its spin rate could be determined. The project was managed by NASA GSFC and Starshine was built by the Naval Research Laboratory. Bibliography:- McDowell, Jonathan,
*Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records)*, Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: http://www.planet4589.org/jsr.html. - Krebs, Gunter,
*Gunter's Space Page*, University of Frankfurt, 1996. Web Address when accessed: http://www.skyrocket.de/space. - Isakowitz, Steven J,,
*International Reference to Space Launch Systems Second Edition*, AIAA, Washington DC, 1991 (succeeded by 2000 edition). - Wilson, Andrew, editor,,
*Jane's/Interavia Space Directory*, Jane's Information Group, Coulsdon, Surrey, 1992 et al. *NASA GSFC Orbital Parameters*,*National Space Science Center Planetary Page*, As of 19 February 1999.. Web Address when accessed: http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/planetary_home.html.
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