Excerpts From Official Descriptions of Aid to Western Hemisphere Regional

  • The U.S. Department of State 2010 Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs Program and Budget Guide, Fiscal Year 2010 contains this description of International Narcotics Control Economic Aid aid with Western Hemisphere Regional funds:
    "Program Objectives and Performance Indicators � Caribbean Basin Security Initiative (CBSI)

    • Develop strong civil forfeiture legislation that allows the host government to seize funds and/or assets identified as proceeds of illegal activities and to be used to fund certain law enforcement activities.


    Program Objectives and Performance Indicators � Merida Central America

    The Merida Initiative seeks to strengthen the capacities of the Governments of Central America to confront and bring under control criminal organizations operating within their territories.

    United States Government assistance falls into the broad areas of (1) counternarcotics, counterterrorism, and border security; (2) public security and law enforcement; and (3) institution-building and rule of law. We recognize the immediate need to combat the criminal organizations and associated violence; the medium-term requirement to augment the capabilities of civilian law enforcement and security entities; and the long-term necessity of strengthening judicial and other state institutions to resist corruption and improve the administration of justice.

    FY 2010 Program

    Transnational Crime

    Merida Funding supports the five components of the ""U.S. Strategy to Combat the Threat of Criminal Gangs from Central America and Mexico."" INCLE funding will support: Diplomacy -- funding SICA conferences to discuss regional approaches to security threats; Law Enforcement -- supporting the three Transnational Anti-gang Groups in El Salvador, Honduras and Guatemala; Capacity Enhancement -- technical assistance and training for police, investigators, and other justice sector personnel; Repatriation --- extending funding for the analysts that provide information to our law enforcement partners on criminal deportees under the Criminal History Information Program (CHIP); and Prevention � community and in-school programs to protect vulnerable youth from the lure of gangs.

    Additionally, programs in FY 2010 will provide technical assistance to investigators and prosecutors combating money laundering; operational support to units seizing smuggled bulk cash; and technical and legal training support to countries implementing programs to seize the assets of organized crime and use them for law enforcement.

    INCLE funds will also provide equipment and training to counternarcotics forces, assist efforts to strengthen anti-crime legislation and support information sharing among the customs, law enforcement, and border control agencies in the Caribbean.

    Rule of Law and Human Rights

    The third year of Merida will build sustainability by focusing on building justice sector institutions. Funding will provide technical assistance and equipment for improved courts management, including case management and protection of courts from threats. It will also provide technical assistance to prosecutors to improve their capacity to convict criminals and to use new legal tools such as wiretaps. In addition, the project will provide technical assistance to improve prison management, juvenile justice systems and post-prison rehabilitation to ensure that the corrections system protects society from criminals while also guiding and rehabilitating young offenders. The program will also continue technical support to police academies of the region to develop and implement curricula that will train police forces in modern law enforcement techniques and to work effectively with communities while respecting human rights. Based on the Forensics Capability Assessment conducted in FY 2009, funding will also be used to equip and provide technical assistance to selected forensics laboratories in the region to develop a shared regional capacity.

    Additionally, the U.S. will extend its support to the Guatemalan Commission Against Impunity with an operating grant of $1 million."
  • The U.S. Department of State 2010 Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs Program and Budget Guide, Fiscal Year 2010 contains this description of International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement aid with Western Hemisphere Regional funds:
    "Program Objectives and Performance Indicators � Caribbean Basin Security Initiative (CBSI)

    • Strengthen criminal enterprise legislation that allows each member of a criminal organization to be charged with criminal acts committed by any one member of the organization.


    • Facilitate regional and national security and law enforcement cooperation.


    Program Objectives and Performance Indicators � Merida Central America

    The Merida Initiative seeks to strengthen the capacities of the Governments of Central America to confront and bring under control criminal organizations operating within their territories.

    United States Government assistance falls into the broad areas of (1) counternarcotics, counterterrorism, and border security; (2) public security and law enforcement; and (3) institution-building and rule of law. We recognize the immediate need to combat the criminal organizations and associated violence; the medium-term requirement to augment the capabilities of civilian law enforcement and security entities; and the long-term necessity of strengthening judicial and other state institutions to resist corruption and improve the administration of justice.

    The USG has established four strategic goals listed below and a series of indicators to evaluate the success of the Merida Initiative.

    Break the power and impunity of criminal organizations. Assist the Governments of Central America in strengthening border, air, and maritime controls. Improve the capacity of justice systems in the region. Curtail gang activity in Central America and diminish the demand for drugs in the region.

    Program Justification

    Roughly 90 percent of all the cocaine consumed in the United States transits Central America and Mexico, and the region is also challenged by declining public security. Central American officials have identified gangs, drug trafficking, and trafficking of arms as the most pressing security concerns in that region. Vulnerabilities created by the increasingly violent nature of the security situation in Central America, if left unchecked, could open the way for more dangerous threats to emerge. An example of this threat is the increasing activity of the Zetas (the security arm of the Mexican Gulf Cartel) in Guatemala that has targeted civilians, law enforcement and courts and prosecutors. Our partners in Central America have already made some progress in their own efforts to fight transnational organized criminal networks, and are demonstrating unprecedented will to work with us and each other to address these issues. FY 2010 Merida funding will continue the support the U.S. has given to this unprecedented regional effort. To increase sustainability, the largest component of that assistance is to strengthen security forces of the region, followed by training and technical assistance to strengthen justice sector institutions under Rule of Law and Good Governance.

    A Caribbean-specific initiative announced at the Fifth Summit of the Americas laid the groundwork for increased cooperation on social justice, economic development, and citizen safety with Caribbean and partner countries. This announcement was made by the President as an acknowledgement of increasing crime and violence affecting the safety of citizens through the Caribbean and in recognition of Caribbean nations' lack of capacity to address threats aimed at the United States.

    Developing this initiative became a priority as the Merida Initiative began yielding positive results in Mexico and Central America, making the Caribbean an increasingly attractive transit zone for transnational organized criminals, terrorists and illicit traffickers. FY 2010 is an investment in anticipation of a five-year citizen safety partnership relying on multiple foreign assistance monies to strengthen Caribbean countries' capacities to develop, coordinate, and execute, in cooperation with the United States, other partner countries, and international organizations, a regional security plan to provide increased citizen safety in a region witnessing increasing spillover effects in the form of crime, drug use, and declining foreign investment.

    Program Accomplishments

    Merida implementation has just begun in Central America, but the governments of the region have developed a strategic plan to combat security threats through SICA, the Central American Integration System. All countries have signed Letters of Agreement. Assessments of needs for border security and police equipment are underway or completed and procurement of police equipment has begun.


    FY 2010 Program

    Law Enforcement Security

    FY 2010 assistance will help police receive and share information about crime and criminals that cross borders, the program will fund extension of the Central American Fingerprint System to additional mobile stations within each country and add additional real-time links to the Interpol ""24/7"" network.

    The International Law Enforcement Academy (ILEA) will extend specialized training to law enforcement and justice sector personnel by adding additional courses and enabling additional students to attend. Examples of courses include investigating organized crime, combating criminal youth gangs and prevention, officer safety, and legal aspects of using tools such as wiretaps and controlled deliveries. A Regional Firearms Advisor, firearms interdiction training, and the OAS Stockpile Management and Destruction program will help participating countries combat arms trafficking.

    The program will continue to provide equipment and related training for enhanced ports and border inspection operations at the multiple crossings between the countries of the region. Maritime interdiction funding will help maintain and repair interdiction craft and provide spare parts and will refurbish seized boats that police can use against traffickers.

    Counternarcotics

    FY 2010 funds will provide equipment, training and operational support for counternarcotics vetted units, including those under DEA, Customs and Border Patrol, as well as national police units historically supported by INL. Project support will also extend the training for the DEA's Center for Drug Intelligence, an online information exchange network, and for an OAS drug prevention program.

    Caribbean Training and Logistical Support Teams will provide a platform for leading U.S. engagement and support for maritime interdiction in the Caribbean. Teams will deploy to the region to provide training, logistical and maintenance support. The primary goal for these teams is to provide onsite support until a U.S. vessel, with an international crew, can be deployed to provide those services. That vessel will foster international cooperation by offering the opportunity for a diverse, international and joint/interagency crew to work together and support all of the cooperating countries in the Caribbean. The Caribbean support vessel will deliver a total support package including a mobile professional training program and maintenance team with potential for shops, tools, technicians, and limited onboard classroom/berthing/messing for students. Additionally, it may provide a centralized supply source for standard spare parts, turn-in items, etc., and will have the capability to deliver cargo.

    Rule of Law and Human Rights

    ... In addition, the project will provide technical assistance to improve prison management, juvenile justice systems and post-prison rehabilitation to ensure that the corrections system protects society from criminals while also guiding and rehabilitating young offenders. The program will also continue technical support to police academies of the region to develop and implement curricula that will train police forces in modern law enforcement techniques and to work effectively with communities while respecting human rights...."
  • The U.S. Department of Defense 2007 Report on Training of Special Operations Forces for the period ending September 30, 2007 says this about Non-Security Assistance - Unified Command aid with Western Hemisphere Regional funds:
    "U.S. Special Operations Forces (SOF) conducts an ever increasing number of activities in more locations and under a broader range of diverse conditions. Among these many activities are Joint Combined Exchange Training (JCET) deployments of SOF units and personnel, which are conducted under the provisions of 10 U.S.C. section 2011, in order to train U.S. SOF with friendly foreign nation forces. The primary purpose of these deployments is the training of U.S. Special Operations Forces.

    These JCET events, along with many other operational deployments, such as OPERATION IRAQI FREEDOM in Iraq; OPERATION ENDURING FREEDOM in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Uzbekistan, Yemen, the Horn of Africa, Central Caribbean and the Philippines; in Southwest Asia; Humanitarian Mine Action (HMA); Trans Sahara Counterterrorism Partnership (TSCTP); are part of an overall greater employment of SOF. JCETs serve as a platform for ensuring persistent engagement in those countries designated as critical to the War on Terror. Although not the primary purpose of the JCET program, the geographical combatant commands have integrated JCETs into their greater theater campaign plans. This integration not only maintains highly trained SOF and increased counter-terrorism (CT) capabilities in partner nation forces, it also helps to ensure a consistent and persistent method of engaging those high priority GWOT countries in addition to the other conventional DOD engagement programs. The regional combatant commanders and U.S. Ambassadors appreciate SOF's unique capabilities and how these capabilities support U.S. policy goals and concerns, complementing their regional and country objectives. SOF display the strategic flexibility to adapt throughout the world and maintain the tactical proficiency required for operations with far-reaching political consequences. Working closely with host nation counter-terrorist units, SOF utilizes JCETs to improve the host nation's ability to combat terrorism and hone essential SOF skills. JCETs continue to be an essential tool for ensuring SOF are fully trained in the languages, geographies, and cultural and communications skills necessary to support national security objectives. An incidental benefit of the JCET program for the geographical combatant commanders is a flexible, low-cost, low-signature complement to their regional strategies, which are based on the President's National Security Strategy and the Secretary of Defense's Security Cooperation Guidance. Special Operations Force units exchange ideas, techniques, and experiences in unconventional military operations with foreign counterparts. Special Operations Force units actively seek JCET opportunities to perform regionally focused training, based upon mission essential tasks, to sharpen critical SOF mission essential task list (METL) skills. The activities often enhance U.S. influence in the host countries, providing an invaluable means of establishing critical military-to-military relationships with these host countries.

    Many aspects of the training available through JCETs prepare SOF for other types of missions, to include disaster relief operations and personnel recovery that cannot be duplicated in a simulated training activity on a military base in the United States. Through JCET activities overseas, SOF can practice their skills in the geographic region and the cultural setting in which SOF may have to conduct operations. The cross-cultural knowledge and language skills gained through the conduct of JCETs enable SOF to achieve results far beyond what could be expected from their small numbers and low profile. JCET events with host nation military forces improve joint and allied readiness and interoperability, facilitate the exchange of training techniques, and mutually enhance military professionalism.

    SOCSOUTH participated in eleven (11) JCET events in eight (8) countries during FY 2007."
  • The U.S. Department of Defense 2008 Department of Defense Regional Centers for Security Studies, FY 2008 says this about Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies aid with Western Hemisphere Regional funds:
    "The Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS), established in 1997, is a regional strategic studies institute that utilizes academic-style outreach fora in defense and security communication, research and dialogue for the promotion, at the strategic-level, of effective security policies within the Western Hemisphere. The civilian and military graduates and partner institutions comprise communities of mutual interest and support that work toward a more cooperative and stable international security environment.

    A. Status and Objectives

    The CHDS activities focus on three critical tasks, as directed by the Secretary of Defense:

    - Countering ideological support for terrorism
    - Harmonizing views on common security challenges; and
    - Building the capacity of partners' national security institutions consistent with the norms of civil-military relations.

    The CHDS programs form a three-tiered approach toward the region that includes foundational, sustainment and strategic interaction activities tailored to the needs of emerging regional civilian, military and police leaders, as well as senior U.S. policy makers. In carrying out its work, CHDS supports U.S. Southern and Northern Commands (SOUTHCOM and NORTHCOM), the National Defense University and the Inter-American Defense College (through the Amistad (Friendship) Program).

    - Foundational activities are tailored to the needs of mid-level government and military security and defense professionals, and interested parties from civil society, including the media and academia.
    - Sustainment activities for CHDS graduates (courses, seminars, conferences and workshops) are designed to build upon foundational activities with topic-specific advanced courses and regionally-focused academic-style events.

    Strategic influence activities, including National Security Planning Workshops, where the host-nations' leaders develop or refine their National Security strategies, and Legislative Leader Seminars, focused on the civilian leaders of the National Defense Commissions, have significantly advanced U.S. strategic influence on the core U.S. regional security and defense concerns.

    B. Program Accomplishments

    The CHDS core program consists of a series of courses, seminars, conferences, workshops, and research activities. In addition to the enriching value of these endeavors, the CHDS is developing a significant, diverse network of regional leaders and decision-makers upon whom the U.S. can rely to candidly discuss regional and hemispheric defense and security issues.

    The scope and power of this network is poignantly exemplified by the award, in September, 2008, of CHDS' 2nd annual William J. Perry individual Award for Excellence in Defense Education, to the President of Colombia, Alvaro Uribe. Significantly, this was not the first interaction with President Uribe in 2008. Direct access with the Colombian president was a factor in the selection of Colombia to host the next CHDS Sub-Regional Conference in July 2009, an event President Uribe plans to attend.

    By nurturing personal relationships at the early stages of emerging leaders' development, and sustaining them through multi-faceted programs, the CHDS sets favorable conditions to enhance future US bilateral and regional relationships. As graduates of CHDS foundational and sustainment programs attain national prominence, access to senior leaders is further enhanced. At the top end of the spectrum, CHDS Strategic Influence activities promote direct access to presidents and cabinet members through National Security Planning Workshop program and Defense Minister Workshops.

    - In 2008, two more CHDS graduates were selected to be their countries' Ministers of Defense (Uruguay and Guatemala), while three other CHDS graduates also became ministers (Education - Paraguay; Justice - Suriname, Government and Justice Panama).
    -The recent selection of a multi-course graduate as the Chief of Armed Forces of Paraguay highlights how CHDS has relationships that extend to the highest echelons of civilian and military leadership.

    C. Program Highlights FY 08

    The CHDS expanded its core program in 2008 with new and more demanding courses, new modules, and more facilitated and conference-based activities throughout the region. The three core resident courses, which in 2008 included the second iteration of the foundational course "Caribbean Defense and Security Course", had 240 graduates, including the first-ever participants from Dutch protectorates in the region. The flagship Strategy and Defense Policy course underwent a major overhaul: Attendees now have the opportunity to participate in optional lunch hour discussion groups on issues related to defense and security strategy and policy. Guest speakers include very senior officials, including the Minister of Defense of Uruguay, a former CHDS graduate. Relationships with former fellows often pay immense dividends.

    Thirty-four additional fellows, primarily returning CHDS fellows, graduated from the rapidly-expanding advanced course program. Each of the advanced courses features a demanding, three-tiered approach, including two on-line phases bracketing a three-week resident phase. Three new advanced courses were started in 2008; the Advanced Defense Policy (ADP) course; the Terrorism and Counterinsurgency (TCI) course; and the CHDS' first global course, the Transnational Security, Stability and Democracy (TSSD) course. The TSSD had the first-ever participants from Nigeria, Pakistan, Jordan, and Romania, which greatly enhanced the course's global perspective. National Defense University elected to seek accreditation for these advanced courses in 2008, adding prestige to these rigorous programs.

    The CHDS continued its relationship with the Inter-American Defense College by hosting the eighth Amistad course, entitled "Reform in the Defense Sector", for 71 participants, and provided subject matter expertise throughout the 10-month program. The CHDS academic program also instructed 348 students enrolled at superior studies institutes in the Dominican Republic, Paraguay and Peru through the CHDS Nation Lab simulation program. An additional 434 people participated in the Policy Lab, Region Lab and Strategy Lab programs that augment the Nation Lab program. Policy Lab is a three-day exercise that requires students to articulate policies in response to a crisis management situation. Strategy Lab is a five-day seminar that poses a strategic scenario requiring a comprehensive solution. Student teams form virtual governments and develop solutions reviewed by subject matter experts and tested in a time-driven simulation and presented to all other groups in a plenary. An analytical session then allows groups to learn from each other's experiences. The third component - Region Lab - will feature multinational play and will re-emerge in 2009 with this enhanced format. The CHDS continues to develop its simulation program and aims to become a hemispheric leader in this field.

    Another component of the developing academic program includes the expansion of the Faculty Outreach Seminar (FOS). Six FOS's were delivered to audiences in Bolivia, Guyana, Jamaica and Guatemala. In response to a request by the government of Panama, CHDS also assisted in the development of the Panamanian National Security Strategy via a National Security Planning Workshop, which was praised by the U.S. Ambassador. Panama's Ministry of Government and Justice, along with the CHDS, co-hosted a SubRegional Conference (SRC) at which 130 participants from the hemisphere discussed "Regional, Governmental, and Private Entity Responses to Critical Security and Defense Challenges". A CHDS graduate, recently named to be the Minister of Government and Justice, was the guest speaker at a concurrent event for CHDS graduates.

    Not only were many foreign governments eager to collaborate with CHDS, but two major regional events were sponsored by CHDS at the behest of USG stakeholders.
    - The CHDS hosted 46 senior leaders from the hemisphere to discuss "Career Development and Civilian Functions in the Defense and Security Sectors" on behalf of the Office of the Secretary of Defense (DASD for Western Hemisphere Affairs). This was a groundbreaking achievement that increased the dialogue on improving civilian careers in these sectors.
    -On behalf of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Homeland Defense and Americas' Security Affairs, U.S. Southern Command, and U.S. Northern Command, the CHDS hosted a conference on "Defense Support to Civil Authorities in the Western Hemisphere", during which the Perry Award was presented to Colombian President Uribe, and the institutional award was presented to director of the Chilean National Academy of Strategic Policy Studies (War College). Over seventy foreign participants from thirty countries attended this event.

    Overall in FY08, core programs reached a record number of participants from 42 countries."
  • The U.S. Department of Defense 2007 Department of Defense Regional Centers, FY 2007 contains this description of Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies aid with Western Hemisphere Regional funds:
    "The Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS), established in 1997, is a regional strategic studies institute that utilizes academic outreach forum offerings in defense and security education, research and dialogue for the promotion of effective security policies within the Western Hemisphere at the strategic-level. CHDS activities, in Washington. D.C. and in the region, are designed to address three core U.S. and hemispheric security and defense concerns: countering ideological support for terrorism, harmonizing views on common security challenges, and educating emerging leaders from civil societies on defense and security issues. The Center's civilian and military graduates and partner institutions comprise communities of mutual interest and support that work toward a more cooperative and stable international security environment.

    CHDS programs are formed as part of a three-tier approach toward the region thai includes foundational, sustainment and strategic interaction activities tailored to the needs of emerging regional civilian, military and police leaders as well as senior US policymakers. Foundational activities are tailored to the needs of mid-level security and defense professionals and interested parties from civil society, including the mass media. Sustainment activities for CHDS graduates (seminars, conferences and workshops) are designed to build upon this educational foundation. Strategic influence activities have significantly furthered U.S. strategic influence on the core U.S. regional security and defense concerns. In carrying out its work, CHDS supports SOUTHCOM and NORTHCOM, the National Defense University and the Inter-American Defense College (through the Amistad ("Friendship") Program).

    Program Highlights
    The Academic Program at CHDS consists of a series of courses, seminars, conferences, workshops, and research. The flagship course, conducted 30 times since its first offering in March 199S, is the Strategy & Defense Policy course (SDP), formerly the Defense Planning and Resource Management course (DPRM). This survey course is planned for civilians, both governmental and non-governmental, with about 25% of the participants being uniformed military and police officers. The version of this course that is taught in English is available bi-annually for the English-speaking Caribbean. Additional courses are the Interagency Coordination and Combating Terrorism course and the Amistad: Defense Planning and Force Transformation course held exclusively for the Inter-American Defense College. In 2007 CHDS introduced the first of several advanced courses, called the International and Stability Operations course, which included on-line, resident and research components. The primary audience for this and other advanced courses is the pool of CHDS graduates. Nation Lab seminars, primarily conducted at War Colleges in partner nations, were held in six countries, plus a partner program with the Inter-American Defense College.

    The Center's continuing education activities, also primarily developed for CHDS graduates and conducted throughout the hemisphere, include Advanced Policy-making Seminars (APS) on such topics as Planning and Resource Management for the War against Terrorism and Defense Transformation, plus Sub-Regional Conferences (SRC). In FY 2007 there were two SRC's - the Security, Defense and Integration conference held in November 2006 in Guatemala, plus a conference in Lima, Peru in July 2007 entitled Confronting Transnational Challenges Regional Defense and Security Cooperation. Other seminars include the Washington Security and Defense Seminar, for the Washington diplomatic community, and the Senior Executive Dialogue, which brings senior decision-makers from the region to Washington, DC meet their US counterparts. Additionally, CHDS supports the leadership of newly-elected governments in the region with National Security Planning Workshops. One NSPW was conducted in the Dominican Republic, with the president of the country in attendance. CHDS also conducts academic research that supports the Department of Defense and the defense ministries in the region."
  • The U.S. Department of State 2010 FY 2010 Congressional Budget Justification for Foreign Operations contains this description of aid with Western Hemisphere Regional funds:
    "With shrinking exports, falling commodity prices, declining tourism and remittances, and sharply diminished capital flows, every Latin American and Caribbean country faces sluggish growth, rising unemployment, and deepening poverty. Poverty and persistent inequality are contributing to a growing disenfranchised populace that is questioning the benefits of democracy and free markets. The Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) Regional program is uniquely positioned to help address these issues by taking a comprehensive regional development approach. The program utilizes best practices, multilateral partnerships, and South/South linkages that go beyond bilateral responses to look at common development challenges and interdependent solutions within the Latin America and Caribbean region in the areas of democracy, economic growth, education, health, and the environment.

    Governing Justly and Democratically: The United States is committed to working with countries in the Americas to make democracy deliver for their citizens by supporting competitive, transparent electoral processes, representing citizen views, and establishing checks and balances at all levels of government. U.S. programs support strategic approaches to promote participatory democracies, helping to strengthen democracies by emphasizing the responsibility of citizens to engage as full partners in creating accountable governance. To accomplish these objectives, the regional program supports South-to-South technical assistance exchanges through the Inter-American Institute of Human Rights, for free, fair and transparent elections which are the fundamental tool of accountability to citizens. Between elections, the program supports host country collection and dissemination of information on citizen values and experiences, providing a critical vehicle through which citizens can express their most pressing concerns to policymakers. Additionally, the regional program undertakes initiatives in concert with other donors and international organizations, as well as regional forums, like the Summit of the Americas, on topics such as violence prevention and youth engagement.

    While the LAC region is broadly dominated by democratic electoral systems, a confluence of political, social and economic factors have undermined consolidation of democratic gains made over the last two decades. Using its comparative advantage of a regional, multilateral perspective, the LAC Regional Program, together with host-country support, strengthens the institutional capacity of electoral management bodies. FY 2010 funds will be used to provide assistance to election management bodies to ensure transparent, fair and efficient administration of local and national elections, as well as national referenda, where appropriate. The focus will be on increasing the number of election officials trained. While the FY 2008 target was not met because funding for the implementing grantee was reduced, the expected increased funding will enable future targets to be met. Please note that FY 2008 results were achieved with prior-year funds and FY 2008 carry- 677 over funds will be obligated to achieve FY 2009 targets, which is why there are prior year results but no funding indicated in the above template.

    Investing in People: Improving quality and equitable access to education is essential to economic growth and sustaining well-governed democratic states. While education access has improved, education quality, as measured by student learning, remains poor. The LAC Regional education activities support improving the quality of basic skills instruction, building the capacity for reform advocacy, strengthening strategic information capacity, and developing effective models for change. In doing so, USAID and host countries strengthen local institutions� ability to develop innovative, research-based solutions to development challenges. In addition, the United States will provide greater access to high-quality technical education to talented, high-achieving students from disadvantaged rural areas and through partnerships and short-term trainings with U.S. institutions. Critical sectors for scholarship include: agriculture, education, health, information and computer technologies, natural resource management, and trade development.

    The health sector in the LAC region has made tremendous gains in improving health indicators for the majority of the population. Yet the health sector is characterized by stark inequalities and poor quality of care that threaten progress made towards achieving sustainable health systems. The LAC Regional programs in health respond to these challenges by providing assistance to strengthen health systems. Programs will complete family planning phase-out activities in seven countries and ensure contraceptive security throughout the region, improve quality of care (especially with respect to pregnancy and delivery), expand HIV/AIDS prevention, care and treatment, build alliances, share best practices, reduce the spread of infectious diseases and facilitate technical assistance to improve performance of Global Fund grants. The LAC Regional program works with the Pan American Health Organization in several countries to improve quality and strengthen systems in partnership with host country ministries of health and has developed a mechanism to increase regional public-private partnerships, as well as for South-to-South exchanges.

    Providing higher education scholarships and training to talented, high-achieving students from disadvantaged rural areas, strengthens human capacity in the region, reduces inequality, and promotes economic growth. Participants gain technical and leadership skills to contribute to their country�s social and economic development in technical fields critically-needed to help their countries become more competitive and better realize the opportunities brought by free trade. U.S. diplomacy is advanced through participants� greater understanding and appreciation for U.S culture and democratic processes and values. Increased funding in FY 2010 will provide scholarships and technical training in FY 2011 to 50 additional disadvantaged youth and professionals, who otherwise would not have access to higher education, in areas critical to the social and economic development of their communities and countries.

    Economic Growth: The United States will help host country governments cope with globalization, competitiveness, and trade liberalization challenges, such as those associated with implementing and taking advantage of free trade agreements. Funds under this objective will support trade capacity building, increasing access to productive assets, transparent environmental governance, and sound management of natural resources. U.S. assistance will also promote access to financial services and improve rural infrastructure. The LAC Regional program will help countries to cope with the fallout from the global economic crisis by fostering competitiveness-oriented economic policy reform, strengthening institutional capacity to deal with economic shocks and promote growth, and promoting expanded access to productive assets with the goal of substantially reducing poverty. The United States will also provide technical assistance to address food security access issues. In addition, modest resources will be used to carry out assessments and identify best practices that can be used to help small and medium enterprises to deal with the challenges presented by trade agreements, including increasing competition and penetrating new markets. Demonstration activities that are worthy of emulation throughout the region will be implemented in areas such as workforce development, competitiveness, improving the business environment, trade-led agricultural diversification, and promoting ongoing engagement by civil society in economic reform efforts.

    The United States will continue to promote the responsible management of natural resources in the Andean headwaters of the Amazon Basin, the largest remaining area of contiguous tropical forest in the world. Programs will build the capacity of select local and regional organizations to address critical threats to natural assets on which Amazonian communities depend for jobs, food, potable water, medicines, and building materials. U.S. assistance will expand access to markets for targeted, sustainable, natural resourcebased products originating in the Basin. By empowering key indigenous peoples and traditional communities to manage natural resources under their control and attain sustainable livelihoods, activities will both protect biodiversity and mitigate conflict and violence over dwindling natural resources. U.S. programs will also help countries reduce greenhouse gas emissions and spur growth in climate-dependent communities and economic sectors, underpinning U.S. diplomacy in this area.

    The majority of the Latin America and Caribbean Regional program environmental funding will support programs crucial to adaptation initiatives, particularly, for poorer, developing countries most vulnerable to climate change, and which are already suffering adverse impacts. The U.S. will expand its support for responsible management of natural resources in the Andean headwaters of the Amazon Basin, the largest remaining area of contiguous tropical forest in the world and the world's most biodiverse region. Programs will build the capacity of select local and regional organizations to address critical threats, including climate change, to natural assets on which Amazonian communities depend. By empowering key indigenous peoples and traditional communities to manage natural resources under their control and attain sustainable 679 livelihoods, activities will both protect biodiversity and help climate-dependent communities and economic sectors succeed in a changing climate. Because adaptation is a new focus of Global Climate Change (GCC), funds will be allocated to bilateral operating units after coordination between donors and an identified funds advisory board. FY 2010 funding will help set the stage for strong donor contributions through multilateral negotiations and allow the U.S. to take a lead role in facilitating coordination with other major donors in an attempt to significantly increase bilateral funding for adaptation. The indicator above represents a preliminary target. As further bilateral initiatives are finalized, the metrics used to monitor progress against these activities and broader GCC goals will be incorporated to measure their impact.

    The fallout from the global financial (and broader economic) crisis is likely to last for many years with significant repercussions in the LAC region. Even before the crisis, a considerable portion of the population lacked access to financial services and, thus, opportunities for increased investment, productivity, and job creation. As financial institutions face liquidity constraints, impose stricter lending standards, and otherwise respond to the crisis, access to credit will be tightened further, particularly among small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Consequently, the otherwise strong potential for SMEs to help drive economic recovery will be weakened. FY2010 funds will be used to complete at least six financial sector assessments between FY2010 and FY2011 to explore potential solutions to these challenges and to help strengthen LAC Missions' strategic and programmatic responses. Assessments will be regional, sub-regional, and/or country-specific in nature. Funds will also provide for technical assistance and program design support which builds upon the assessments.

    A significant portion of the population in the LAC region depends on the agriculture sector for their livelihoods such that attention to the sector is critical to promoting broad-based economic growth. Challenges to building a stronger agriculture sector include: low levels of productivity; reliance on low-value basic grains and lack of investment in diversification to higher-value crops; poor market information and linkages; inadequate access to credit and high quality inputs; and others. Meanwhile, food prices spiked last year and remain higher than in decades, and food security has emerged as a growing concern in the region. Although food is available, populations face income constraints in meeting basic food requirements. FY 2010 funds will be used to complete at least six agriculture sector/food security assessments between FY 2010 and FY 2011 to help strengthen LAC Missions' strategic and programmatic responses to these challenges. Assessments will be regional, sub-regional, and/or specific to food insecure countries such as Bolivia, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Nicaragua, and others. Funds will also provide for technical assistance and program design support which builds upon the assessments."
  • The U.S. Department of State 2010 FY 2010 Congressional Budget Justification for Foreign Operations contains this description of aid with Western Hemisphere Regional funds:
    "As the Americas work to consolidate democratic gains, build upon economic growth, make work forces healthier and better educated, and protect their citizens, partnership plays an increasingly important role in fulfilling shared development goals. U.S. efforts in the Western Hemisphere are focused on building cooperation through multilateral fora and joint programs geared to achieve common objectives. These joint endeavors help unify the region, fostering new initiatives and upgrading existing bilateral relationships and programs. The Department of State's Western Hemisphere Regional (WHA) program provides crucial support to U.S. collaborative efforts with hemispheric partners, particularly as it implements initiatives from the 2009 Summit of the Americas aimed at strengthening democratic institutions, promoting prosperity, investing in people, and increasing security in the region. These pillars frame U.S. foreign policy priorities for the western hemisphere region and build multilateral consensus through initiatives under the Summit of the Americas, signatories of the Central America-Dominican Republic Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR), and the advancement of the Caribbean basin countries participating in Caribbean Basin Security Initiative programs. The WHA Regional program is also the primary vehicle for Merida Initiative and Enduring Friendship programs in Central America.

    Peace and Security: As part of the Merida Initiative, the U.S. Government remains committed to supporting the nations of Central America in countering the influence of traffickers, gangs, and organized criminal groups in their territories. Central America programs are slated to improve border security, counter the demand for and illicit movement of narcotics, deter gang activity, combat financial crimes and money laundering, and curb trafficking in persons. The Merida Initiative provides the United States and the countries of Central America with a regional vehicle to accomplish these objectives and to link our efforts in Mexico with those in Central America and the Caribbean. Ultimately, the results will enable the governments in Central America, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic to reassert control over their territory, provide the stability needed for the creation of new economic opportunities, and reinforce the critical role of democratic institutions and adherence to the rule of law. Continued support for Enduring Friendship, a program that began in 2006 to bolster maritime interdiction capabilities in the Caribbean and eastern Central America, complements maritime security support provided under both the Merida Initiative and the new Caribbean Security Initiative.

    Caribbean security is a key element in the U.S. national security strategy. As the Merida Initiative yields positive results in Mexico and Central America, the Caribbean will remain increasingly vulnerable to transnational organized crime and terrorism. A Caribbean-specific initiative, announced by the President at the Fifth Summit of the Americas, will lay the groundwork for increased cooperation on social justice, economic development, and citizen safety with Caribbean and partner countries. The nations of the Caribbean have structures in place, beginning with the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), to address security threats and to fashion regional strategies to address them. Additionally, the Regional Security System of the Eastern Caribbean is a mature entity with operational successes and the ability to take a 661 leading role within a security structure for the Eastern Caribbean.

    Preliminary requests from the United States' regional partners include command, control, and communications systems that will improve the effectiveness of partner nation operations and enable partner nations to work better with each other. Caribbean geography dictates robust air and maritime forces to counter porous borders and ill-equipped security agencies. Funds will provide air and maritime assets, training, and C3 (command, control, and communications) architecture to more fully integrate Caribbean regional security and law enforcement agencies. Social justice and economic development components will support grants for senior teacher training (for example, a continuation and expansion of the highly-regarded Centers of Excellence in Teacher Training (CETT) program for primary school reading) and scholarships to students in the Caribbean over the next three fiscal years. They will also be used for remedial education, workforce development, selected youth entrepreneurship programs, and juvenile justice, including rehabilitation programs for young offenders and at-risk youth. Funds will link vocational training youth programs to long-term employment and economic growth through private investment. A third component of the initiative will support programs to enhance rule of law, provide equipment and training to counternarcotics forces, assist efforts to strengthen anti-crime legislation, and support information sharing among the customs, law enforcement, border control agencies in the Caribbean.

    The Export Control and Related Border Security (EXBS) program will bolster regional efforts to enhance the capability of Central American and Caribbean states to implement UN Security Council Resolution 1540. CARICOM member states have requested assistance with challenges they face in implementing UNSCR 1540, but due to the primarily bilateral nature of program funding, the EXBS response has been limited. While it is not feasible to engage these nations on a bilateral basis, multilateral activities in the region have proved to be highly successful and have been well-received. Multilateral efforts will provide training on how to manage the unique export control and proliferation challenges faced by small and island states. These important nonproliferation initiatives would have a salutary effect upon U.S. security due to proximity of partner countries and ease of transit. FY 2010 regional funding would also support EXBS assessments of strategic trade control systems and proliferation threats in the Tri-Border region of Peru, Paraguay, and Colombia to determine if bilateral EXBS program engagement is warranted and likely to be successful.

    An increase in assistance in this area will leverage the maritime patrol and interdiction capability of each individual country in the Caribbean region and Central America into a more cohesive multilateral force. Assistance will be used to increase situational awareness among participating countries by sharing information, building responsive decision-making architectures, enhancing countries ability to patrol their sovereign waters, and providing a mechanism for collective action should a threat arise in the region. The intent is to provide standardized command, control and communications equipment; training; and spare parts 662 to participating countries� forces so that they can operate with U.S. and other modern interdiction forces (e.g. United Kingdom, France, Canada, Norway) in the Caribbean, the U.S.�s "Third Border." It will also improve regional response capabilities to deal with environmental crisis, such as oil spills, and hurricanes and other natural disasters.

    Governing Justly and Democratically: The Summit of the America's process provides a key opportunity for the United States to engage the entire region in developing and reinforcing its bilateral and regional goals at the highest level. Regional funds for the Summit of the Americas ensure that the President can advance partnerships, networks, and joint approaches that respond to our regional objectives of social and economic investment, green growth, and citizen security in a way that strengthens democratic governance. Summit resources are also crucial to strengthening relationships with bilateral partners and ensuring that the U.S. maintains a significant voice in influencing development in the region.

    Central America programs under the Merida Initiative aim to strengthen justice systems and preserve the integrity of human rights, as well as promote economic and social development and good governance in lowincome areas, including rural communities that are vulnerable to drug-trafficking and related violence and organized crime.

    The Merida Initiative seeks to weaken the structure � and diminish the influence and violence � of drug cartels and other criminal organizations operating in Mexico, Central America, and the U.S., with a continual drive toward their destruction. Whether they are drug traffickers, human smugglers, or gangs, these criminal groups have weakened government institutions, exercised control over territory, and presided over a significant increase in crime and violence throughout the region. The indicator provided above is provisional and may be adjusted as the program is further developed. The Department of State is currently still compiling baseline data, which will be comprised of annual national data. Due to lack of baseline data, the Department was not able to establish FY 2010 targets. It is anticipated that the impact in the number of prosecutions will be seen in the second year, FY 2011.

    Caribbean security is a key element in the U.S. national security strategy. As the Merida initiative yields positive results in Mexico and Central America, the Caribbean will remain increasingly vulnerable to transnational organized crime and terrorism. The increase in funds will support an expansion in programs to enhance rule of law, provide equipment and training to counter-narcotics forces, assist efforts to strengthen anti-crime legislation, and support information sharing among the customs, law enforcement, and border control agencies in the Caribbean.

    Investing in People: Through the Summit of the Americas process, U.S. assistance has enabled the U.S. Government to work with partners in the region to prevent disease and improve education. One of the pillars of the April 2009 Summit of the Americas is human prosperity. U.S. assistance will bolster programs in the region that promote social inclusion, developing an Inter-American Social Protection Network, which will share best practices, including complementing conditional cash transfer programs in the region, providing incentives to poor families in order to improve school attendance and performance, increasing the number of children receiving basic health services, and improving access to basic financial services.

    Economic Growth: U.S. assistance will continue to build labor and environmental capacity of CAFTA-DR signatory countries � Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and the Dominican Republic - initiated in FY 2006 and continued through FY 2009. The Department of State and the U.S. Agency for International Development will continue to focus U.S. programs on strengthening and improving implementation and enforcement of labor and environmental laws at the national, local, and municipal levels and developing the institutional capacity of national labor and environmental authorities throughout the CAFTA-DR region. Labor programs will additionally focus on modernizing labor justice systems, strengthening government capacity to conduct inspections, reducing gender discrimination and sexual harassment in the workplace, and promoting a culture of compliance with labor laws. Environmental programs will additionally focus on improving private sector environmental performance, promoting marketbased conservation, protecting biodiversity and other natural resources, and promoting public participation and transparency.

    The three pillars of the April 2009 Summit of the Americas are: human prosperity, energy security, and environmental sustainability. In Trinidad and Tobago, the President invited countries of the region to participate in an Energy and Climate Partnership of the Americas, a voluntary and flexible framework for advancing energy security and combating climate change. Countries will be encouraged to suggest tangible ideas for cooperation, including on energy efficiency, renewable energy, cleaner fossil fuels, and energy infrastructure. U.S. assistance will support voluntary and open cooperation on energy and climate, with a particular focus on energy efficiency, renewable energy, clean fossil fuel technologies, and energy infrastructure. Regional work on adaptation and sustainable forestry may also be addressed.

    In the area of human prosperity, U.S. assistance will support initiatives from the 2009 Summit to promote social inclusion and economic recovery in the midst of financial and economic turmoil. U.S. assistance will support a pilot program to form partnerships with countries that have the highest levels of inequality, significant numbers of unemployed and at-risk youth, and strong potential for leveraging additional public and private sector resources. This program will add a focus on youth at risk such as out of school youth, under-employed youth, and ex-gang members.

    The FY 2010 increase will provide funds to initiate the Administration's Energy and Climate Partnership of the Americas, which was launched by President Obama at the April 2009, Summit of the Americas. Funds will develop at least six initiatives related to the Partnership, from areas of energy efficiency, renewable energy, cleaner conventional energy, energy infrastructure, and affordable access to energy. The actual initiatives will depend on gathering input from partner countries. The indicator listed is provisional and may be adjusted as the program is further developed. Given the efforts needed to identify priority countries and establish partnerships during the first year, it is anticipated that the initial impact will be seen in the second year, FY 2011.

    Challenges faced by high numbers of undereducated and unemployed youth in the Latin America and 665 Caribbean region include high unemployment and growing involvement in crime, violence, and the illegal drugs trade. As proposed at the Summit of the Americas, the United States will address these challenges through forming education partnerships for at-risk youth. USAID will form partnerships with countries that have the highest levels of inequality, significant numbers of unemployed and at-risk youth, and considerable potential for leveraging additional public and private sector resources. The program will focus on youth at risk, such as out of school youth, under-employed youth, and ex-gang members.

    The indicator listed is provisional and may be adjusted as the program is further developed. Given the efforts needed to identify priority countries and establish partnerships during the first year, it is anticipated that the initial impact on training youth will be seen in the second year, FY 2011."
  • According to the Department of Defense 2006 2006 Annual Report to Congress on the Activities of the Western Hemisphere Institute for Security Cooperation, International Military Education and Training will fund the following activities with Western Hemisphere Regional funds:
    "The IMET program's traditional purpose of promoting more professional militaries around the world through training and education has taken on greater importance as an effective means to strengthen military alliances and the international coalition against terrorism. IMET has made partner nation militaries more efficient and effective and has improved interoperability with U.S., NATO, and regional coalitions. Recipients of IMET training include foreign military personnel and civilian government and NGO personnel whose participation contributes to improved civil-military relations, civilian control of the military, and human rights. It is a low- cost, grant component of the U.S. security assistance program, and is funded through the Department of State's International Affairs budget. Western Hemisphere countries traditionally rely heavily on IMET to support their students' attendance.

    IMET Funding. The American Service Members Protection Act (ASPA) prohibits countries that are parties to the International Criminal Court (ICC) Treaty from receiving IMET and other forms of U.S. security assistance unless they sign "Article 98 agreements" with the United States agreeing not to surrender U.S. nationals to the ICC without the U.S. Government's consent. Thirteen countries in the Hemisphere have signed Article 98 agreements, but IMET funding was suspended for another 12 countries, reducing participation in WHINSEC. In late 2006, these sanctions were lifted. As a result, WHINSEC anticipates training students from additional countries.

    Expanded IMET (E-IMET). This subset of the overall IMET program has the same basic goals as IMET, but qualifying courses concentrate specifically on defense resource management, the principle of civilian control of the military, cooperation between military and law enforcement personnel with respect to counter-narcotics law enforcement efforts, and improving military justice systems and procedures in accordance with internationally recognized human rights. Five WHINSEC courses have been certified to receive E-IMET funding: Human Rights Instructor, Civil Military Operations, Democratic Sustainment, International Operational Law, and Resource Management and Logistics."
  • The U.S. Department of Defense 2008 Navy Re-establishes 4th Fleet to Promote Future Interoperability contains this description of aid with Western Hemisphere Regional funds:
    "The recent re-establishment of U.S. 4th Fleet will promote increased alignment with the 32 countries and 13 territories in the Caribbean and in Central and South America, a senior Navy official said yesterday.

    �The Navy, and probably the Department of Defense, recognized the importance of the region to the south of the United States that includes the Caribbean and western side of the Atlantic and the eastern side of the Pacific and all our partners down there,� Navy Rear Adm. James W. Stevenson Jr., commander of U.S. Naval Forces Southern Command, said in a teleconference with online journalists and �bloggers.�

    Chief of Naval Operations Adm. Gary Roughead announced the 4th Fleet�s re-establishment April 24.

    The 4th Fleet will man, train and equip U.S. ships deploying to Latin America, Stevenson said. He added that it will be patterned after the 5th Fleet and the Navy component of U.S. Central Command.

    �The Navy, by re-establishing the 4th Fleet, is serious about the countries in the Caribbean and Central and South America, and � we�re very mindful of the 40 percent of U.S. trade that goes on with those countries and the 50 percent of the oil imports from that region,� Stevenson said. �I think that the other navies and coast guards recognize that, and they would view that as a positive step.�

    With headquarters in Mayport, Fla., the new U.S. 4th Fleet commander also will command U.S. Naval Forces Southern Command, which will retain the mission as the Navy component for U.S. Southern Command.

    �The area of operations within the Caribbean [and] Central and South American waters will be under the operational and tactical control of the 4th Fleet,� Stevenson explained. �[This includes] its aircraft, submarine, surface ships and personnel.�

    The U.S. 4th Fleet originally was established in 1943 to protect the United States against raiders, blockade runners and enemy submarines. It was disestablished in 1950, when its responsibilities were taken over by U.S. 2nd Fleet. While its missions may evolve over time, Stevenson said, the new 4th Fleet�s objectives are to keep the economic sea lanes of communication free and open.

    �In this area, � there are no conflicts on the seas or anything like that,� he said. �And so, we�re focused on building relationships and trying to improve the interoperability of our partner navies and coast guards in the region.�

    Stevenson said building on the cooperative maritime strategy for the 21st century will include core competencies such as humanitarian assistance, disaster relief and theater security cooperation. The admiral said he believes amphibious forces are among the best assets he has to help in carrying out the theater�s objectives, as they typically have enormous capacity to bring in equipment for military-to-military training.

    Stevenson added that he looks forward to using that capability later this year when USS Kearsarge and USS Boxer deploy on humanitarian missions.

    �Kearsarge and Boxer will be primarily a humanitarian assistance type of load-out, in that doctors and dentists and nongovernmental organization people will embark, and we�re going to try and perform medical assistance [and] medical training within the Caribbean and also Central and South America,� he said.

    The Norfolk, Va.-based Kearsarge will visit about 12 different ports in the Caribbean, and will focus on the northern portion of South America and a few ports in Central America. Boxer, based in San Diego, will visit eight ports in the eastern Pacific.

    Stevenson said the Navy�s forward presence and the ability to sail anywhere, any time and sustain itself will be a benefit to the region, especially when that region is faced with natural disasters such as earthquakes, mudslides, forest fires and flooding.

    Amphibious units provide �the perfect platform� for those types of missions if they�re postured correctly and officials keep a sharp eye on indications of impending natural disasters, Stevenson said."
  • According to the U.S. Southern Command 2008 Guard commanders discuss greater support to partner nations, Exercises will fund the following activities with Western Hemisphere Regional funds:
    "U.S. Southern Command hosted National Guard leadership to discuss opportunities to broaden state and territory support of U.S. military engagement activities in Central America, South America and the Caribbean and deepen relationships with partner nations.

    The discussions were part of the one-day Adjutants General State Partnership Program Conference held at the command headquarters. The conference brought together 11 Adjutants General and representatives from six states who are part of SOUTHCOM�s State Partnership Program (see list, right).

    The Assistant Secretary of Defense for Homeland Defense and America�s Security Affairs, Paul McHale, National Guard Bureau Chief, Army Lt. Gen. Steven Blum and SOUTHCOM commander, Navy Adm. James Stavridis also participated in the conference.

    �The citizen-Airmen and citizen-Soldiers of U.S. National Guard forces have unique civil-military expertise to share with our partner nations in Latin America and the Caribbean. Many of these nations are striving to improve their capabilities to confront transnational security threats such as illicit trafficking, gangs and crime,� said Air Force Lt. Gen. Glen F. Spears, deputy commander of SOUTHCOM.

    �The Guard also offers first-hand institutional knowledge of dealing with natural disasters, a critically important issue to many nations in the region that annually face down major hurricanes and storms,� Spears said.

    The conference focused on the way ahead as SOUTHCOM works to increase efforts to help foster stability, security and prosperity throughout the region. The future includes new and unique opportunities for Guard forces to build upon their efforts in the region, SOUTHCOM leaders stressed.

    �For more than 10 years, SOUTHCOM�s State Partnership Program has led to the establishment of many long-term professional and personal relationships. Those relationships will prove invaluable in a time of crisis or emergency, and that�s why we�re aiming to grow this program in the region,� Spears said.

    State and territory regional support is part of the National Guard�s State Partnership Program (SPP), designed to link National Guard states and territories with partner countries for the purpose of fostering mutual interest and establishing habitual long-term relationships across all levels of society. Since its inception in 1993, the program has blossomed, with 43 U.S. states, two territories, and the District of Columbia partnered with 50 countries around the world.

    In the SOUTHCOM area of focus, 18 state and territory Guard units have partnerships with 26 Latin American and Caribbean countries.

    There are 134 planned SPP events planned in the region this fiscal year, many of which are military exchange and training activities. SPP support also extends to SOUTHCOM�s heralded Medical Readiness Training Exercise (MEDRETE) program, which deploys U.S. military medical professionals to dozens of nations in the region annually to provide medical and dental services to citizens in need. Additionally, more than 1,600 Guardsmen will support SOUTHCOM-sponsored exercises and engagements in the region.

    In Fiscal Year 2007, more than 7,000 Guardsmen and Reservists supported 115 SPP events and 10 SOUTHCOM-sponsored exercises.

    The office of the Adjutant General in each state or territory manages involvement in the SPP. The goals of SPP include improving military interoperability; demonstrating military subordination to civilian authority; assisting in the development of democratic institutions in open market societies, and promoting political stability while projecting U.S. humanitarian values.

    All activities are coordinated through the respective U.S. military combatant commander and the State Department to ensure that Guard support is tailored to meet both U.S. and country objectives

    According to Guard leadership, the program has made tremendous contributions to the participating nations� environmental awareness, advancements in medical treatment, civilian and military emergency preparedness and disaster response, non-commissioned officer development, military education and leadership development."
  • The U.S. Southern Command 2008 U.S. aircraft carrier to train with South American navies, visit ports reports that Exercises aid with Western Hemisphere Regional funds will do the following:
    "USS GEORGE WASHINGTON (CVN 73) departed Norfolk Naval Station, Va., today en route to U.S. Southern Command�s area of focus, marking the start of Partnership of the Americas 2008 -- an annual, command-directed, maritime-engagement operation aimed at increasing multinational cooperation and strengthening partnerships among regional navies.

    The operation, scheduled to run in three phases from April through October, will include bilateral and multinational sea-based exercises and training opportunities, as well as port visits to various countries in the region.

    WASHINGTON�s current visit is the second to the region in two years. The carrier will participate in phase one of Partnership of the Americas 2008 and will remain in the SOUTHCOM area of focus through late May, before proceeding to her new homeport in Yokosuka, Japan.

    WASHINGTON�s scheduled activities in SOUTHCOM�s area of focus include aerial defense, surface warfare and anti-submarine warfare exercises with South American navies, as well as port visits to Brazil and Chile. She will be joined during the first phase of Partnership of the Americas 2008 by the destroyer USS FARRAGUT (DDG 99) and frigate USS KAUFFMAN (FFG 59).

    FARRAGUT and KAUFMAN will remain in the SOUTHCOM area of focus following WASHINGTON�s departure and will be joined by the destroyer USS FORREST SHERMAN (DDG 98) for phases two and three of the deployment.

    Activities taking part during the final two phases include UNITAS-Pacific and UNITAS Atlantic -- two international, geographically-focused maritime exercises aimed at synchronizing and integrating the capabilities of participating navies to operate effectively as a single, multinational naval force.

    Additionally, crews from the FARRAGUT, KAUFFMAN and FORREST SHERMAN will train with sailors from the Caribbean, Central and South America during PANAMAX � a multinational exercise focused on the defense of the Caribbean and Pacific approaches to the Panama Canal, one of the most strategically and economically crucial waterways in the world.

    "Partnership of the Americas demonstrates our commitment to work with our naval partners in the region on an ongoing basis to protect the hemisphere�s waterways and guarantee our collective security," said Adm. James Stavridis, commander of U.S. Southern Command. "The activities taking place during this deployment will afford our sailors many opportunities to enhance critical maritime skills, share their best practices and build camaraderie with fellow sailors from across the Americas."

    Partnership of the Americas 2008 is the third deployment of its kind to SOUTHCOM�s area of focus in the past two years. In 2007, Partnership of the Americas included the deployment of the landing dock ship USS PEARL HARBOR (LSD 52), the destroyer USS MITSCHER (DDG 57), and the frigate USS SAMUEL B. ROBERTS (FFG 58). They were joined during the deployment by the Chilean Navy frigate Almirante LATORRE (FFG 14)."
  • The U.S. Southern Command 2008 USS Farragut delivers support for Partnership of Americas contains this description of Exercises aid with Western Hemisphere Regional funds:
    "USS Farragut (DDG 99) onloaded eight pallets of Project Handclasp supplies April 3 for donation to several Latin American partner nations during the ship�s deployment for Partnership of the Americas (POA) 2008.

    POA is an annual U.S. Southern Command (SOUTHCOM) operation under the operational control of U.S. Naval Forces Southern Command (NAVSO), SOUTHCOM�s Naval component command. POA focuses on interoperability and theater security cooperation events, at sea and on shore. U.S. maritime forces work jointly with partner nation governmental forces throughout the Caribbean, and Central and South America to develop the relationships needed to ensure maritime security in the region.

    Project Handclasp donations, such as the pallets of toys and medical and hygiene supplies Farragut is carrying, are part of POA 2008, promoting goodwill in the region.

    "Over the last several years, Project Handclasp has become a more prominent part of our mission as we visit and work with our partner nations," said Cmdr. Lewis Preddy, NAVSO Project Handclasp coordinator. "Officers and Sailors onboard deploying ships are loading up with as much of the donated material as they can carry, knowing that during these visits, they can help people who are truly in need."

    Project Handclasp is a Navy sponsored program which collects and distributes a variety of items donated by companies, groups, and individuals. The donations are then transported world-wide by military vessels to regions in need. For the SOUTHCOM area of focus, Project Handclasp supplies are stored at Naval Station Mayport. When ships such as Farragut deploy to the region, they take with them as many pallets as they can to distribute the items to the various places they visit, including Chile, Panama, Peru, and many other partner nations.

    For POA 2008, Farragut, homeported at Naval Station Mayport, will join Carrier Strike Group 8, USS George Washington (CVN 73), Carrier Air Wing 17, USS Kauffman (FFG 59) out of Norfolk; and Destroyer Squadron 40, also based in Mayport. USS Forrest Sherman (DDG 98), based in Norfolk, will join up later in the deployment, which is scheduled to last six months."
  • The U.S. Southern Command 2008 Preview of 2008 partner nation engagements says this about Humanitarian and Civic Assistance aid with Western Hemisphere Regional funds:
    "BEYOND THE HORIZON / NEW HORIZONS: From March through September, U.S. military personal specializing in engineering, construction and health care will deploy to four nations in the region to conduct comprehensive humanitarian assistance exercises. As part of the command�s Beyond the Horizon, troops will deploy to Honduras, Trinidad & Tobago and Suriname to provide much needed services to communities in need while receiving valuable, real world training and building important relationships with local officials. Some of the services troops will provide include building schools, clinics, community centers, water wells, and other quality of life enhancement facilities. Medical troops will also provide general and specialized health services to citizens requiring care. Also, the exercises will include Small Unit Familiarization Program engagements, reciprocal platoon exchanges, Subject Matter Expertise Exchanges and state partnership activities. At the same time, U.S. military teams will conduct Beyond the Horizon support in Belize, Dominican Republic, Guatemala and Panama, setting the stage for future humanitarian exercise deployments next year. For exercise New Horizons, troops will deploy to Peru and provide the same humanitarian services for citizens there.

    CONTINUING PROMISE:A U.S. Marine Corps AV-8B Harrier launches from the flight deck of the amphibious assault ship USS Kearsarge (LHD 3) during flight operations in the Mediterranean Sea.

    This multi-month training mission includes separate deployments of two large deck amphibious ships, USS Boxer (LHD 4) and USS Kearsarge (LHD 3), to the region this summer. The deployments will continue last year�s successful humanitarian mission of the hospital ship USNS Comfort. The ships will visit nine nations where embarked teams of joint military, interagency and non-governmental groups specializing in health care and engineering will provide a range of medical services, infrastructure improvements and humanitarian aid to citizens in need. Like the Beyond the Horizons events, Continuing Promise provides valuable training to U.S. forces while at the same time providing much-needed help to thousands of people in the region."
  • The U.S. Southern Command 2008 Preview of 2008 partner nation engagements says this about Exercises aid with Western Hemisphere Regional funds:
    "USS GEORGE WASHINGTON (CVN 73) DEPLOYMENT: The aircraft carrier will be sailing around the region this spring as the centerpiece of the command�s Partnership of the Americas 2008 maritime engagement event. The deployment will encompass involvement in major SOUTHCOM maritime exercises and other smaller exercises and events at sea and on shore. These engagements with partner nations will focus on enhancing relationships with the region and improving operational readiness.

    OTHER MULTINATIONAL EXERCISES: The command will continue its long tradition of training exercises that focus on enhancing security in the region and fostering partnerships. Starting in late March, U.S. Marines will train alongside troops from 14 nations during Tradewinds, which will focus on disaster relief, humanitarian assistance, crowd and riot control, and hazardous-material handling. In May and June, the command will sponsor Fuerzas Aliadas Humanitarias (FAHUM), which prepares security forces for natural disasters, and Fuerzas Commando, which is a skills competition between the region�s top counter-terrorism teams. This summer, the command will also continue the long-standing UNITAS maritime exercise series, with naval forces from the U.S. and partner nations set to train together during a variety of maritime scenarios in both the Atlantic and the Pacific. The computer simulated PKO North and South exercises, which focus on improving coordination and support to peacekeeping operations, are also planned for this summer with numerous partner nations expected to participate."
  • The U.S. Department of Defense Fiscal Year 2009 Budget Request: Summary Justification says this about Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies aid with Western Hemisphere Regional funds:
    "The Department seeks increases in funding and authority for its fellowship programs and the Regional Centers for Security Studies. These programs create the strategic-level human and institutional capacity required to sustain U.S. investments in training and equipment, and they build networks of like-minded security experts to combat global threats. Expanded Regional Center funding will sustain the FY 2008 investment Congress made in the Centers and enhance their ability to develop human capital and conduct strategic outreach."
  • According to the U.S. Department of Defense Fiscal Year 2009 Budget Request: Summary Justification, Combatant Commanders Initiative Fund will fund the following activities with Western Hemisphere Regional funds:
    "Combatant Commanders outside of CENTCOM have requested an authority similar to the Commander�s Emergency Response Program (CERP), which that has been enormously successful in Iraq and Afghanistan. To meet this need, Congress granted DoD a similar authority in the FY 2007 NDAA (Section 902) by expanding authorized uses of the Combatant Commanders Initiative Fund (CCIF). Like CERP, CCIF provides commanders with funds for urgent relief and reconstruction in their areas of responsibility. The operational tool allows commanders to shape the local environment and counter ideological support for terrorism by building goodwill, lessening potential requirements for military force, and enhances prospects for mission success in other regions of the world. Conferees noted the importance of providing Combatant Commanders with additional authority, resources, and flexibility to respond to urgent and unanticipated humanitarian relief and reconstruction needs in their area of responsibility (AORs), particularly in countries where U.S. forces are engaged in a contingency operation.

    In the past, CCIF has served as a small account used to fund up to $25 million annually in priority projects identified by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs. With this change, CCIF can also be used to fund urgent Humanitarian Relief and Reconstruction Assistance globally. In the NDAA conference report, the conferees �urged the Department of Defense to request sufficient funds in the CCIF for this purpose in future years budget requests� and to �develop guidance for the use of this authority to ensure that the authority can be used quickly and without bureaucratic delay in urgent situations.� The Department will develop guidance for the use of this expanded authority globally to ensure responsiveness to Commanders� needs."
  • The U.S. Department of Defense Fiscal Year 2009 Budget Request: Summary Justification reports that Section 1207 Security and Stabilization Assistance aid with Western Hemisphere Regional funds will do the following:
    "Recent experience has made clear that many of our challenges do not have purely military solutions; foreign partners also require non-military assistance to promote stability or reduce terrorist space and influence. The Security and Stabilization Assistance authority (�Section 1207� authority) allows DoD to transfer funds to the Department of State to help meet this need. This program allows DoD and State, working together, to facilitate whole-of-government solutions to complex security challenges. By bringing civilian stabilization and reconstruction tools to bear in situations where U.S. forces might otherwise be forced to assume the burden, this program reduces strain on U.S. forces.

    To date, this authority has been used to provide innovative security and stabilization projects in Haiti, Somalia, Nepal, Colombia, Trans Saharan Africa, Yemen, and Southeast Asia. Projects have been used to provide assistance to foreign police forces; to improve governance, rule of law, economic development, or essential services; and for humanitarian assistance. For example, in the Haiti Stabilization Initiative, DoD supported this innovative State program in Cite Soleil, Port au Prince�s largest slum, providing $20 million to combine community policing with small-scale employment and infrastructure projects to improve security and stability and bolster the reach of central authorities. Positive reaction of the populace within the project area has reinforced efforts of peacekeeping forces to wrest control from rapacious gangs and reinforced legitimacy of government authority.

    In FY 2007, DoD and State piloted a few small focused activities in various critical countries/regions to demonstrate proof of concept. While they have been largely successful, most could have more significant impact if continued or expanded. The demand in critical regions is much greater than these pilot projects support. For example, tripling the resources to expand the Haiti Stabilization initiative in FY 2008 to Gonaives and Cap Haitien would maximize that program�s effectiveness. DoD is also seeking a change to legislation to allow transfers of funds, at the request and with the concurrence of the Secretary of State, to other USG departments and agencies, making 1207 a true whole- of-government mechanism. Finally, 1207 complements the State Department�s Civilian Stabilization Initiative (CSI), which will establish a corps of trained civilian experts to respond to stabilization missions, by providing a source of funding for programs developed, coordinated with DoD, and overseen by civilians available for deployment through CSI. To meet these program needs and expansion to a wider set of government entities, for FY 2009, DoD seeks to expand this program to $0.2 billion, and a corresponding increase in authority.

    Like Global Train and Equip authority, these programs are developed under �dual key� procedures, producing programs that have demonstrable benefit in areas where the Combatant Commands are operating. In the future, DoD and State may consider synergies between these authorities, where security capacity provided using Global Train and Equip funding could be augmented by non-military measures to improve the underlying sources of instability."
  • According to the U.S. Department of Defense Fiscal Year 2009 Budget Request: Summary Justification, Section 1206 Train and Equip Authority will fund the following activities with Western Hemisphere Regional funds:
    "Global Train and Equip Authority (FY 2006 NDAA Section 1206) to build partner nation security capacity ($0.5 billion);

    Global Train and Equip programs allow Combatant Commanders and Ambassadors, working together, to train and equip foreign military forces in response to urgent and emergent threats and opportunities, solving problems before they become crises that require significant military interventions. The geographic Combatant Commanders consider global train and equip authority the Department�s single most important tool for building partner operational capacity, shaping the environment, and countering terrorism outside Iraq and Afghanistan. The annual demand from Combatant Commanders and Ambassadors for train and equip funds has significantly exceeded current authority. In fact, over the past two years, Combatant Commanders have submitted more than $1.6 billion of proposals. While the Global Train and Equip authority has been in effect less than three years, it has rapidly become the gold standard for interagency cooperation to meet emerging threats and opportunities because of the revolutionary way it is managed. Beneficial program characteristics include:

    � Speed and Prevention. Traditional security assistance takes three to four years from concept to execution. Global Train and Equip authority allows a response to urgent and emergent threats or opportunities in six months or less.

    � Rigor. Thorough vetting of submissions results in strategically sound choices with a high national security return on investment. Proposals for Global Train and Equip funds are scored by SOCOM, the Joint Staff, Defense Security Cooperation Agency (DSCA), the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy, and separately by numerous Department of State components, with independent review by regional, functional, and programmatic experts. Both Departments of Defense and State must agree explicitly before any program can go forward. Planning requirements also far exceed those for comparable programs. Combatant Commands and Embassies must lay out detailed proposals that are assessed on the full range of issues that impact program success, including operations and maintenance plans, absorptive capacity and executability, adherence to broad foreign policy objectives, military feasibility, integration with other USG efforts, and mitigation of human rights concerns. Leveraging the range of core competencies resident in U.S. Departments and Agencies results in the selection of proposals the need for which is strategically clear.

    � Targeted National Security Investments. Under traditional security assistance programs, most countries get roughly equivalent levels of assistance year after year, independent of new needs or changes in the strategic environment. Moreover, recipient countries have significant say in what they purchase with the money. With Global Train and Equip programs, countries must compete for funds yearly for projects that support shared security goals. There is no �fair share� each year, nor entitlement that any Embassy or Command will receive funding from one year to the next. Also, each proposal is generated by an Ambassador or Combatant Commander, ensuring that the projects meets a U.S. requirement, rather than partner-nation wish list.

    � Dual-Key Authority. DoD and Department of State coordinate on all security cooperation activities, but the Global Train and Equip authority takes cooperation to a new level. It encourages joint formulation of programs between embassies and Combatant Commands, and both must approve each program explicitly in writing. This brings the best competencies of both departments to bear, including the diplomacy that is required to achieve buy-in from foreign partners. embassies and Combatant Commands, and both must approve each program explicitly in writing. This brings the best competencies of both departments to bear, including the diplomacy that is required to achieve buy-in from foreign partners.

    The Department will continue to build on the success of this program in several ways. Metrics are under development to measure operational and strategic effects. DoD has asked the Inspector General to do a three-year systemic review of Global Train and Equip programs and to make its own recommendations to improve program performance. When operations tempo allows, the Department will use U.S. forces to conduct and supervise training in order to improve the quality of training and build military-to-military relationships. Finally, the Department will integrate partners into combined exercise programs to periodically test their capabilities and assess how well they are maintained or improved over time."
  • According to the U.S. Department of Defense Fiscal Year 2009 Budget Request: Summary Justification, Section 1004 Counter-Drug Assistance will fund the following activities with Western Hemisphere Regional funds:
    "The clear linkages between international narcotics trafficking and international terrorism constitute a threat to U.S. national security interests. The global and regional terrorists who threaten U.S. interests can finance their activities with the proceeds from narcotics trafficking. The Department�s counternarcotics efforts contribute to homeland defense, foster cooperation with U.S. agencies, strengthen alliances with partner nations, and form relationships with new international partners otherwise reluctant to cooperate with DoD in counter- terrorism and other military activity.

    In accordance with its statutory authorities, the Department will continue to use its counternarcotics resources as effectively and efficiently as possible to achieve national counternarcotics priorities, as well supporting efforts in the GWOT. The FY 2009 budget request of $1.1 billion will fund mandatory counternarcotics detection and monitoring missions; permissive counternarcotics support (information sharing and building partner capacity) to domestic and host nation law enforcement and/or military forces; and drug demand reduction activities internal to the Department."
  • According to the U.S. Department of Defense Fiscal Year 2009 Budget Request: Summary Justification, Humanitarian and Civic Assistance will fund the following activities with Western Hemisphere Regional funds:
    "The U.S. Naval hospital ship, USNS Comfort, returned home after a four-month, 12-country, humanitarian assistance and training deployment in Latin America and the Caribbean [in 2007]. Comfort�s medical crew, Air Force and Air National Guard medical personnel, SeaBees (construction battalions), and international partners helped to treat more than 98,000 patients and renovated and completed construction projects at 27 sites throughout the region."
  • The U.S. Department of Defense 2009 Fiscal Year 2009 Budget Request: Summary Justification says this about Section 1206 Train and Equip Authority aid with Western Hemisphere Regional funds:
    "Global Train and Equip ($0.5 billion): Global Train and Equip programs allow Combatant Commanders and Ambassadors to train and equip foreign military forces to respond to urgent and emergent threats and opportunities to solve problems before they become crises requiring military intervention. Combatant Commanders consider this the single most important tool for the Department to shape the environment and counter terrorism outside Iraq and Afghanistan."
  • The U.S. Southern Command March 6, 2007 Hearing of the Senate Armed Services Committee says this about Humanitarian and Civic Assistance aid with Western Hemisphere Regional funds:
    "Admiral Stavridis, commander, U.S. Southern Command: Comfort -- a large hospital ship, it's essentially a big hospital that floats. It's manned-up by about 1,000 people. We put a crew on it that was both military, and loaded up with non-governmental, charitable organization volunteers. We had some international partners who came with us -- notably, the Canadians.
    We sent it on a four-month voyage through 12 different ports throughout South America and Central America and the Caribbean. It was extremely well-received. Four hundred thousand patient encounters; 25,000 sets of eyeglasses; thousands of surgeries; a very visible, prominent and compassionate signal from our country to the region."
  • The U.S. Southern Command March 6, 2007 Hearing of the Senate Armed Services Committee contains this description of Section 1206 Train and Equip Authority aid with Western Hemisphere Regional funds:
    "Admiral Stavridis, commander, U.S. Southern Command: 1206- type monies are how we equip partner nations to go after things like these self-propelled, semi-submersibles. We have used them to provide our partners with high-speed boats, command and control, the ability to control the area around them. So all of those programs are excellent and critical in every way."
  • The U.S. Southern Command March 6, 2007 Hearing of the Senate Armed Services Committee contains this description of aid with Western Hemisphere Regional funds:
    "Admiral Stavridis, commander, U.S. Southern Command: The good news is the United States remains the partner of choice to, I would say, the majority of nations in the region, including almost everywhere in Central America, most of the Caribbean, and most of South America. We have close military-to-military relations with almost every state with the exception of Cuba and Venezuela. Even in countries where we have differences at the government-to- government level, like Nicaragua or Bolivia, Ecuador at times, we continue to have strong military-to-military relations."
  • The Department of State 2008 International Narcotics Control Strategy Report says this about aid with Western Hemisphere Regional funds:
    "Short Term Advisory Training. This training allows on-site CBP experts to assist host government agencies with selected projects, such as building institutions and improving interdiction capabilities. These may focus on specific narcotics threats, port security initiatives and the counterproliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). CBP advisors are also deployed to help with host nation strategic planning, commercial processing, investigations, canine enforcement, automation and border/trade facilitation. In 2007, many CBP short-term advisors were fielded to various countries in Latin America and the Caribbean."
  • According to the Department of State 2008 International Narcotics Control Strategy Report, International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement will fund the following activities with Western Hemisphere Regional funds:
    "The mission of the regional ILEAs has been to support emerging democracies, help protect U.S. interests through international cooperation, and promote social, political and economic stability by combating crime. To achieve these goals, the ILEA program has provided high-quality training and technical assistance, supported institution building and enforcement capability, and fostered relationships of American law enforcement agencies with their counterparts in each region. ILEAs have also encouraged strong partnerships among regional countries, to address common problems associated with criminal activity.

    The ILEA concept and philosophy is a united effort by all the participants�government agencies and ministries, trainers, managers, and students alike�to achieve the common foreign policy goal of international law enforcement. The goal is to train professionals that will craft the future for the rule of law, human dignity, personal safety and global security.

    The ILEAs are a progressive concept in the area of international assistance programs. The regional ILEAs offer three different types of programs. The Core program, a series of specialized training courses and regional seminars tailored to region-specific needs and emerging global threats, typically includes 50 participants, normally from three or more countries. The Specialized courses, comprised of about 30 participants, are normally one or two weeks long and often run simultaneously with the Core program. Lastly, topics of the Regional Seminars include transnational crimes, financial crimes, and counterterrorism.

    The ILEAs help develop an extensive network of alumni that exchange information with their U.S. counterparts and assist in transnational investigations. These graduates are also expected to become the leaders and decision-makers in their respective societies. The Department of State works with the Departments of Justice (DOJ), Homeland Security (DHS) and Treasury, and with foreign governments to implement the ILEA programs. To date, the combined ILEAs have trained over 18,000 officials from over 75 countries in Africa, Asia, Europe and Latin America. The ILEA budget averages approximately $16-18 million annually.

    Global. ILEA Roswell (New Mexico) opened in September 2001. This ILEA offers a curriculum comprised of courses similar to those provided at a typical Criminal Justice university/college. These three-week courses have been designed and are taught by academicians for foreign law enforcement officials. This Academy is unique in its format and composition with a strictly academic focus and a worldwide student body. The participants are mid-to-senior level law enforcement and criminal justice officials from Eastern Europe; Russia; the Newly Independent States (NIS); Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member countries; and the People�s Republic of China (including the Special Autonomous Regions of Hong Kong and Macau); and member countries of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) plus other East and West African countries; the Caribbean, Central and South American countries. The students are drawn from pools of ILEA graduates from the Academies in Bangkok, Budapest, Gaborone and San Salvador. ILEA Roswell trains approximately 450 students annually.

    Latin America. ILEA San Salvador was established in 2005. The training program for the newest ILEA is similar to the ILEAs in Bangkok, Budapest and Gaborone and will offer a six-week Law Enforcement Management Development Program (LEMDP) for law enforcement and criminal justice officials as well as specialized courses for police, prosecutors, and judicial officials. In 2007, ILEA San Salvador will deliver three LEMDP sessions and about 10 Specialized courses that will concentrate on attacking international terrorism, illegal trafficking in drugs, alien smuggling, terrorist financing, financial crimes, culture of lawfulness and accountability in government."
  • The U.S. Southern Command 2008 Posture Statement says this about Section 1206 Train and Equip Authority aid with Western Hemisphere Regional funds:
    "Operation Enduring Freedom-Caribbean and Central America (OEF-CCA). This year, U.S. Southern Command began OEF-CCA as a key initiative to address potential terrorist threats in the region. Within a cooperative regional environment, OEF-CCA seeks to improve the capabilities of Caribbean and Central American partners to interdict and disrupt terrorists who might leverage illicit transnational routes and uncontrolled areas to threaten the United States and/or our neighbors. OEF- CCA is a long-term endeavor and will create a multi-layered counter-terrorism posture of mutual benefit to the United States and regional partners."
  • The U.S. Southern Command 2008 Posture Statement contains this description of Exercises aid with Western Hemisphere Regional funds:
    "39
    Persistent engagement. As discussed above, the
    capability to forge willing and capable partnerships
    throughout the region and to create a sense of goodwill
    towards the United States are essential to achieving
    our mission. In order to do this, we need persistent
    engagement. We plan to conduct deployments similar
    Joint Task Force-Bravo community relations event in Honduras
    to the USNS COMFORT and HSV SWIFT on a regular basis. We need military and civilian, public
    and private exercises and initiatives throughout the region, with more microbursts of assistance, as
    well as long-term initiatives integrated across the federal government. In short, we need coordinated,
    whole-of-government, persistent efforts that meld with the efforts of the international community
    and the private sector.
    In order to strengthen and/or gain partners, first we need to earn and maintain their trust.
    This will require a unified approach with consistent, effective, and flexible engagement. It will
    require cohesive strategic messaging and innovative and earnest information sharing across the
    board. It will require innovative ways to make our various exercises, programs, and partnerships
    more inclusive and more effective in reinforcing our connection to the peoples of the region.
    Along with this engagement, we need to ensure our message gets out effectively and that we
    understand the impact of our efforts. Over the past year, U.S. Southern Command has refocused
    efforts on strategic communication, making it a priority at all levels of the command."
  • The U.S. Southern Command 2008 Posture Statement says this about Foreign Military Financing aid with Western Hemisphere Regional funds:
    "A significant tool for building capacity is the Foreign Military Financing (FMF) program. FMF represents a powerful method of supporting military relationships, ensuring interoperability of equipment in coalition operations, regional cooperation, and developing partner nations� response capability to mutual threats and challenges. Although U.S. Southern Command�s focus region covers one-sixth of the globe and represents a region with significant linkages and shared challenges with the United States, FMF to this region in 2007 amounted to a slight fraction of the worldwide total. The FMF we did receive was spent on critical capacity building programs with our partners."
  • The U.S. Southern Command 2008 Posture Statement reports that International Military Education and Training aid with Western Hemisphere Regional funds will do the following:
    "We also facilitate International Military Education and Training (IMET), which invests in the professional development of key military officers and senior enlisted leaders of our partners. IMET improves the professionalism and interoperability of partner military and defense forces and builds a sense of mutual understanding between the United States armed forces and the partner nation armed services. Training at our security institutions continues to be very popular and beneficial to our partners in the region, and access to funded billets at U.S. schools significantly diminishes the draw of extra-hemispheric military influence."
  • The U.S. Southern Command 2008 Posture Statement contains this description of Foreign Military Financing aid with Western Hemisphere Regional funds:
    "ENDURING FRIENDSHIP (EF) � a multi-year maritime security assistance program that enhances the capability of select Central American and Caribbean partner nations to patrol their sovereign waters and share information. EF provides interceptor boats, operation and maintenance training, command and control systems, and a common operating picture to improve maritime domain awareness and interoperability. This key program shares U.S. information on illicit traffickers and builds or improves partner nations� ability to detect and interdict illicit trafficking along their shores."
  • The U.S. Southern Command 2008 Posture Statement reports that Counter-Terrorism Fellowship Program aid with Western Hemisphere Regional funds will do the following:
    "U.S. Southern Command participates in the Regional Counter Terrorism Fellowship Program that sponsors seminars, symposiums, and tactical and operational training designed to build the counter-terrorism capability of participating nations. Our training involves information collection and sharing, professional development, port security procedures, quick-reaction force actions, explosive device response, and civil-military responses to terrorism."
  • The U.S. Southern Command 2008 Posture Statement reports that Exercises aid with Western Hemisphere Regional funds will do the following:
    "Global Fleet Station � Pilot Deployment. Last summer, U.S. Southern Command sponsored the pilot deployment of a new U.S. Navy program called Global Fleet Station. The new concept provides a modular platform for sustained engagement tailored to each unique region. U.S. Southern Command quickly realized the great benefit for this program, given that all but two of our partner nations have direct access to the sea. Last summer, the High Speed Vessel (HSV) SWIFT conducted a seven-month tour of the Caribbean Basin with visits to seven countries.

    The focus of the HSV SWIFT deployment was to train local security units on port security operations, small boat operations and repair, and small unit tactics. This floating theater security cooperation platform hosted more than 1,000 military and civilian personnel and HSV SWIFT personnel coordinate delivery of donated medical supplies in Guatemala 26 involved a joint, multinational, and interagency approach at each training site. HSV SWIFT also conducted community relations projects in each port to refurbish local schools and community centers and to deliver tons of donated goodwill materials. As with USNS COMFORT, this deployment represents the future of engagement - visible, persistent, scalable, and cooperative engagement that trains our personnel and demonstrates the goodwill of the United States while building partner nation security capabilities.

    The return on investment of the HSV SWIFT is very high. It is relatively inexpensive to operate; it can maneuver into very shallow ports; and it supports modular, tailored security cooperation missions. Providing more of this type of capability would greatly facilitate the achievement of U.S. Southern Command�s mission.

    Partnership of the Americas 2007. For the second year in a row, U.S. Southern Command conducted a maritime Partnership of the Americas (POA) event in our region. Evolving from the initial one-month event in 2006, POA �07 involved a six-month Navy and Marine Corps mission throughout Latin America and the Caribbean that focused on enhancing relationships with regional partners and improving operational readiness and interoperability. During the deployment, a four-ship multinational task force circumnavigated South America, participated in several multinational exercises sponsored by U.S. Southern Command, and conducted theater security cooperation and community relations events on Multinational ships from the 2007 Partnership of the Americas event shore. Our POA events serve as visible symbols of U.S. commitment to bilateral and multilateral military cooperation and have evolved into comprehensive engagement missions that maximize exposure to international partners and local communities.

    Exercises. In 2007, U.S. Southern Command sponsored numerous military and security force training exercises throughout the region. Our largest exercise, Fuerzas Aliadas (Allied Force) PANAMAX, brought together 19 nations from three continents, all operating in a combined task force to simulate the defense of the Panama Canal and surrounding region from traditional and non-traditional threats. PANAMAX also involved representatives from the United Nations and the Organization of American States. As one of the Department of Defense�s largest exercises, PANAMAX �07 was a resounding success. The exercise placed 30 ships, numerous aircraft, and several brigades of simulated ground forces under the control of multinational staffs, and all participants left with an improved understanding and capability for multinational cooperation.

    We also conducted a multinational exercise - TRADEWINDS - that focused on transnational threats in the Caribbean Basin. This successful exercise brought together security forces and interagency personnel from 18 nations to practice coordinated first-responder, fire, police, and military responses to security threats. The exercise scenario emphasized basic security operations, counter-drug activities, and disaster preparedness in a field environment with a focus on regional cooperation.

    We conducted two multinational peacekeeping exercises (PKO NORTH and PKO SOUTH) designed to improve the capability of partner nations to plan and conduct peacekeeping operations. The emphasis of this exercise series was operational planning, command and control, and interoperability with regional armed forces assigned to UN missions and involved the integration of non-governmental agencies and international organizations.

    Another of our exercises is FUERZAS COMANDO (Commando Forces), a skills competition and senior leadership seminar designed to enhance cooperation and trust between international Special Operations Forces while improving their training, readiness, and interoperability. Eighteen countries from throughout the region participated in this U.S. Southern Command-sponsored exercise in 2007. Each year, this exercise assembles anti-terrorism experts to exchange information and share tactics, techniques, and procedures for counter-terrorism operations.

    Another significant exercise is our UNITAS maritime exercise program that we conduct on both the Atlantic and Pacific sides of South America. These two exercises sponsor multinational maritime forces to enhance security cooperation and improve coalition operations. UNITAS is our longest running exercise program and is coming up on its 49th year. Last year�s exercises were conducted as part of our Partnership of the Americas event and trained each participant in a variety of maritime scenarios designed to practice operations within a multinational force."
  • The U.S. Southern Command 2008 Posture Statement reports that Humanitarian and Civic Assistance aid with Western Hemisphere Regional funds will do the following:
    "USNS COMFORT. A very visible and successful recent initiative was the deployment of the hospital ship COMFORT to the Caribbean, Central America, and South America. For four months last summer, this unique ship � with its specially tailored joint, interagency, international, and private sector crew � traveled to 12 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean to bring modern medical care to almost 100,000 men, women, and children through nearly 400,000 patient encounters. The symbol of goodwill brought renewed hope to those who might have given up on a healthy future and to those who might have previously been sympathetic to anti-U.S. rhetoric. The one deployment alone directly changed the lives of many and indirectly touched the lives of several hundred thousand throughout the region.

    More than just a medical mission, USNS COMFORT provided dental care to about 25,000 patients, conducted medical training for almost 30,000 host nation students and medical providers, and sponsored over 20 construction and restoration projects at local schools and health care facilities. USNS COMFORT also extended veterinarian services throughout its journey, treating and vaccinating thousands of animals, which constitute the livelihood of many families. It is difficult to assess precisely the overall impact of a training mission with humanitarian benefits of this scale. But based upon the positive local and international press, the number of national leadership visits, and the vast number of people touched by the USNS COMFORT mission, we believe it was a significant success. Certainly, there are many lessons learned from this first-ever deployment to Latin America and the Caribbean � and we will incorporate them into any future deployments � but the integrated and cooperative nature of this mission really serves as a model for the future of engagement and training: Joint� Interagency�International�Public-Private. We plan to conduct similar missions on a regular basis.

    Disaster Relief. Also demonstrating U.S. goodwill, last year, U.S. Southern Command directed military forces to provide disaster relief to six of our partner nations in times of dire need. These disaster relief operations, which were integrated with USAID-led efforts and those of the international community, helped alleviate the suffering of many and assisted affected regions in their recovery. Specifically, we provided much needed food relief to Bolivia in March, and quickly provided relief to Peru following an earthquake in August. Also in August, we assisted Belize after the passage of Hurricane Dean. We were critical first-responders to a Nicaraguan request for relief following Hurricane Felix in September, arranged the procurement of firefighting equipment for Paraguay during a widespread wildfire also in September, and assisted the Dominican Republic after Tropical Storm Noel ravaged the island nation in October.

    In almost every case, our Joint Task Force � Bravo (JTF-B), located in Soto Cano, Honduras, was a major contributor to the success of these disaster relief operations. Essentially a small, joint air wing comprised of 18 helicopters, JTF-B is our only permanently-deployed contingency force in the region. JTF-B responds to crises as a first-responder and routinely participates in humanitarian assistance, disaster relief, search and rescue, personnel recovery, and non-combatant medical evacuations. JTF-B has a long history of answering the call for assistance and is a tremendously valuable asset to U.S. Southern Command�s partnership and goodwill efforts in the region.

    Humanitarian Assistance. Throughout the year, U.S. Southern Command�s Humanitarian Assistance Program augments traditional military-to-civilian engagement activities in order to increase our partner nations� ability to respond independently to natural and man-made disasters. Our program helps local populations who could benefit from completed projects such as schools, clinics, community centers, orphanages, emergency operations centers, disaster response warehouses, wells, and potable water systems. Last year we completed 49 construction projects and provided critical training programs for first responders, disaster managers,firefighters, and disaster warehouse managers.

    A close corollary to the Humanitarian Assistance Program is the New Horizons series of joint and combined humanitarian assistance exercises that U.S. Southern Command conducts with Latin American and Caribbean nations. These exercises not only provide readiness training for U.S. Engineer, Medical, and Combat Service Support units, but also provide great benefits to the host nation. Each New Horizon exercise lasts several months and usually takes place in remote areas. U.S. Southern Command strives to combine these efforts with those of host nation doctors and civic personnel. In 2007, we conducted these exercises with four nations � Belize, Guatemala, Panama, and Nicaragua. U.S. Army Soldiers construct a school in Nicaragua during a New Horizons exercise great benefits to the host nation. Each New Horizon exercise lasts several months and usually takes place in remote areas. U.S. Southern Command strives to combine these efforts with those of host nation doctors and civic personnel. In 2007, we conducted these exercises with four nations � Belize, Guatemala, Panama, and Nicaragua.

    Along with the New Horizons exercises, U.S. Southern Command also conducts medical readiness training exercises to bring medical aid to needy rural, isolated populations and to provide valuable training for our medical units � primarily from our Air Force and Army component commands. These demonstrations of goodwill reached over 200,000 patients in 13 countries. Complemented by our coastal USNS COMFORT mission, these unique training exercises had tremendous humanitarian impact inland across the region at 63 separate locations � changing lives, influencing opinions, and spreading goodwill through quality donated medical assistance."