Ohio Valley Group of Technical Services Librarians
Spring Conference 2004   ó  Louisville, Kentucky
Technical Services = User Services: Making the Connection



Session Reports

  Cataloging Thin Air: Planning & Cataloging the Beyond the Shelf Grant Digital Items
  N view PowerPoint presentation
  Collaborative Triangle Between Circulation, Public and Technical Services
  Implementing E-journals in the Online Catalog: A Collaborative Effort
  N view PowerPoint presentation
  Magic Lanterns: Envisioning a Digitization Project through the User’s Eyes
  N view PowerPoint presentation
  Media Finders, Expert Search Intermediaries for  the Online Catalog
  N view PowerPoint presentation
  Patron Expectations and Internet Booksellers:    It's All Good
  N view PowerPoint presentation
  Periodicals Collection Management: Organizing, Creating and Implementing a System
  N view PowerPoint presentation
  Textbooks to the Shelf – Making the Connection Faster
  N view PowerPoint presentation
  There's No Sin in Synergy - A Success Story About Managing Access to E-journals at Indiana University
  To Borrow or to Buy? Library Departments Working Together to Rush Order InterLibrary Loans for the Permanent Collection
  N view PowerPoint presentation
  To Our Users With Love: Making Consortium-Based Resources Available to the Local Campus Community
  N view PowerPoint presentation
  Useful Anger! Fighting for the User in the War Over Scholarly Communications
  N view PowerPoint presentation
  We Who Serve Behind Closed Doors
N view PowerPoint presentation
  What’s FRBR and Why Do I Care?
about the conference
business meeting minutes
invited speakers  
scholarship winners  




Cataloging Thin Air: Planning & Cataloging the Beyond the Shelf Grant Digital Items

Presenters: Nancy Lewis, Special Projects Librarian; Kate Seago, Electronic Technical Services Librarian, University of Kentucky Libraries
Recorder: Nina Deeley, Jefferson Community College, Learning Resources Center

The University of Kentucky Libraries received a two-year grant to digitize Kentuckiana materials from the SOLINET Microfilm Project. “It has been funded in part by an Institute of Museum and Library Services National Leadership Grant for Preservation and Digitization.” (From the website) One of the stipulations of the grant was that materials must be accessible in OCLC WorldCat and the KYVL Dublin Core database. This session covered the planning of the project and the workflow.

They are creating a fully searchable digital page image archive of rare historic Kentuckiana books using a microfilm to digital methodology. Titles can be accessed by searching the UK Libraries Catalog (INFOKAT) or the Kentuckiana Digital Library (KYVL) website.

Texts are encoded using an SML structural markup language. One of the goals for this project was to sustain a high-productive workflow for producing electronic texts utilizing the microfilm to digital page image approach. Automation was used whenever possible.

As stated on their website: “This hybrid, standards based non-proprietary approach can serve as a model for cost effective access and preservation for published materials.” The website for this grant project is http://www.uky.edu/Libraries/BTS/



Collaborative Triangle Between Circulation, Public and Technical Services

Presenters: Jane F. Smith, Technical Services Coordinator; Carrie Herrmann, Circulation Services Coordinator; Pat Yannarella, Information Services Coordinator Boone County, Kentucky Public Library
Recorder: Melanie E. Hughes, Indiana University Southeast
Cooperation that exists within the Boone County Public Library (BCPL) has been inherent since its beginning thirty years ago. Jane Smith has been with the library since its beginning when there were no separate departments or workspaces. In the early years she was director, technical services, acquisitions and cataloger combined.

   In the early years, “cooperation” meant not “reinventing the wheel” with each department attempting to do the same thing, but drawing upon each other’s unique abilities to establish the collection and services they wanted.

   Cooperation for the BCPL means: saving time and quite often money, avoiding duplication of efforts, utilizing staff talents and interests, idea sharing, communication, involvement, being accessible, and being flexible. The end result is higher production and more effective, timely service to the public.

   What can influence the cooperative efforts within a library? Consider the job responsibilities of the different librarians and staff members. Are they able to cooperate with Technical Services within the realm of their job duties or would it be crossing job boundaries? Would the library director have a problem with this?

   Technology -- automated library systems, the Internet and e-mail -- will also have a huge impact on cooperation: ideas can be shared and communicated between staff and departments with e-mail more quickly and frequently, patrons can receive more unique information and direction through OPACs, and orders can be placed by staff outside of technical services.
Jane Smith asked us to imagine an octopus (Technical Services) sitting at the bottom of the ocean. Its many tentacles trap food to be carried to the octopus’ mouth, and aid in its flight from danger. The parts make a whole. And so it is with the departments in our libraries. Circulation and reference staffs are on the front line, serving the public, knowing what is asked for, identifying what is needed. When this information is communicated to technical services, the staff in that department has the responsibility of taking the ideas that have developed and making them happen in a consistent manner within the parameters of cataloging and MARC record guidelines. The octopus can hide under a rock for its lifetime, or it can take a chance by being visible and depending on its many arms to thrive and survive.

   Pat Yannarella describes how Public Services works with Technical Services: cataloging materials for patron’s to see library’s holdings, suggesting materials to bind, weeding the collection.

   Technical services helps with weeding by withdrawing titles; improving circulation by changing bibliographic records of low-circulating titles to see if circulation improves before de-selection, or adding more content notes to low-circulating books. Technical services adds an 856 field in the bibliographic record to digitized materials.

   Public services works with technical services with donations. A recent large donation, the Ann and William Fitzgerald collection contained local history and genealogical materials. Some items were cataloged, some microfilmed, some given to other libraries. Specific circulation requirements were added to certain items.

   Circulation services works with technical services with donations. Carrie Herrmann explained that a Technical Services staff member sorts through all donations before she sees the books. She does not want books without jackets, paperback books, books that are icky looking or icky smelling, or books over five years of age. Anything rejected goes to the bi-annual book sale. The catalog is checked and each book tagged with a listing of branches that hold the books and how many copies are at each branch. Ms. Herrmann then sorts by their destination: book sale books, titles to be added to the collection, titles to be added to the new branch to be built, and keepers. Keepers are books stored to be used as replacements as popular works wear out. A limit of 10 keepers per title is in storage. An 099 field identifies that a copy of a title is in storage.

   Circulation services also works with technical services with standing orders and item recommendations. BCPL uses standing orders for fiction, reference, books on tape, books on CD, videos and DVDs. Recommendation cards go to a Technical Services staff member who creates the order on Ipage, a service offered by Ingram Books.

   Two upcoming projects include categorizing DVDs and cataloging serials. DVDs were all in alphabetical order by title, but Ms. Herrmann decided to create categories similar to Blockbuster: Drama, Comedy, TV Series, Action/Adventure. Technical services will add a 500 field to all existing video and DVD records identifying the category.

   The BCPL believes very strongly in cooperation among the departments. New employees are cross-trained and all new hires receive training in technical services. They understand how new materials are ordered, how they are cataloged and how they are processed.

   If we remember Jane Smith’s octopus, we are all interconnected and dependent on each other. By cross-training staff, BCPL makes sure that all staff have enough knowledge to make intelligent suggestions so that library materials are easily accessible to their customers.



Fast Times in Technical Services: Learn it. Know it. Live it.


  óKeynote Address
Presenters: Janet Swan Hill, Associate Director for Technical Services, University of Colorado Libraries at Boulder
Recorder: Melanie E. Hughes, Indiana University Southeast

   “Hi. I’m Janet and I’m a cataloger.” Although Ms. Hill has not cataloged since 1978, and admits to fellow librarians, “I’m in technical services.”

   Technical Services has been made to feel that it’s not where “real” librarianship takes place. This trend seems to have gotten worse during Ms. Hill’s career, and it is our own fault. We have become very enthusiastic over things we are in charge of, resulting in greater productivity, more timely and consistent access. Our hard work has had unexpected side effects. We have more non-professionals on our support staff. We have delegated more activities to support staff with proper training, and in effect talked ourselves out of needing librarians. The largest component of non-professionals being paraprofessionals doing jobs which were once protected by librarian degrees and professional organizations. Have we taken a wrong turn?

   We have reduced personnel at all levels. Which is good, it saved money. And bad, the quality of service, our identity as librarians, the understanding of what librarians do and what is special about our profession is lost. We may become extinct, or at least an endangered species. We need to look out for ourselves and exercise our self-preservation instincts. We are doing to ourselves what supermarkets did to tomatoes—a long shelf-life, a convenient size and shape.

   With automation we have the same kinds of materials and rules, and then an avalanche of new materials and types of materials all incorporating varieties of metadata. Our catalog has evolved into a different type of animal than what we started with. We are also challenged by Google—used by people who don’t care how or if information is organized and classified.
People outside of technical services give us blank looks. We need to understand ourselves and our administrators and learn to communicate with all of our colleagues. Some suggestions: believing in ourselves, tooting our own horns, increasing our understanding and their understanding and increasing our cooperation with access and reference services.

   Technical Services is a minority in the field of librarianship, especially the professorate.
We need to become more visible by volunteering to teach classes, run for ALA’s council (and only vote for Technical Services folks by reading their profiles). Volunteer for task forces; teach others about technical services work; join state-wide groups; work on research, and special projects.

   New trends in the library world have created new crisis and opportunity. Digitization projects have a need for metadata (cataloging with a different name). Creating portals to provide access to information resources requires organization.

   By focusing on core values and identifying the foundations of librarianship, we can learn what real librarianship is all about. Although the original task force on which Ms. Hill served was unable to boil down core values for librarians to fit on a poker chip, two important values emerged: the connection of people to ideas and unfettered access to ideas; and preservation of the human record.

   We should refer to our core values in all decisions that we make in our libraries. Is this the best way to provide access? Should all paperbacks be bound? Is it necessary for preservation? What is the impact on users of doing x or y?

   Core values make us more comfortable with things we have to do, for example using vendor acquisition records; they are less pretty in the catalog, but the net result is more timely access. Core values help us wrestle with difficult questions: what if we eliminated a cataloging position and move it to reference? How minimal of an effect would it have? How much will be back-logged?

   Embracing core values can give us satisfaction with our positions and our goals and objectives and help us to measure our successes.

   Though studies have shown that Technical Services librarians can become better reference librarians than Public Services librarians can transition to technical services, we can still learn by being more proactive about our positions and by observing how public services and our patrons use the catalog.

   By sharing our knowledge of information organization with public services, we can help our patrons and fellow librarians find better access to our collections. Technical Services is a public service: Learn it. Know it. Love it.



Implementing E-journals in the Online Catalog: A Collaborative Effort

Presenters: Amy L. Carver, Team Leader for Cataloging and Processing, Montana State University - Bozeman
Recorder: Jill Sherman, University of Louisville Libraries

   Montana State University - Bozeman (MSU - Bozeman) is the land grant university for Montana, which has an enrollment of approximately 12,000 students. The MSU library system, consisting of nine libraries, uses an online shared catalog. The catalog is a Sirsi catalog, and is called OMNI (for MSU). This presentation discusses the implementation of online journal resources. The initial implementation process is discussed, along with complications that arose and the solutions created to address them. It must be noted that many of the complications that arose at MSU are common problems experienced at many other institutions.

   In 2000, MSU acquired the first electronic journal package, which consists of 1500 titles. After some debate, it was decided to add these new electronic titles to the online catalog. More debate happened regarding whether to use a single record for all formats of a given title. It was decided to go with using one record for all formats. This decision was made due to the number of libraries sharing the catalog. The generic note “For dates available, click Internet Access URL” was added as well as qualifiers at the end of call numbers to distinguish the format of the item.

   Complications that arose after implementation

   There were concerns regarding the public note “Access for Bozeman only.” This lead to a bad public relations situation due to the fact that MSU is the Montana land grant institution, which has an outreach mission. The public note was then changed to “Licensed Access for MSU-Bozeman.” There were additional problems with the Marc holdings records. As mentioned above, a generic note “For dates available, click Internet Access URL” was used. This became a problem when new electronic packages were purchased. Academic Press titles in particular were a problem. A change in procedure was warranted, and customized holdings were created for each title which made the reference staff very happy. This is an ongoing project.

   Proxy access caused complications to proprietary journal packages. For example, JSTOR was purchased for all four MSU campuses. The security proxy prefix allowed open use on proprietary databases. The vendors found out about this and put a stop to it. In order to correct the problem, separate URLs are included for each library in the bibliographic records. This added further complications, causing a “sea of blue” on the web page. It was very difficult to determine the right URL to use. Each URL had a license note, proxy URL prefix, and URL. This problem was addressed by shortening the hyperlink to include only “Click for access for (fill in library name).” Current issue or archive notes are added as necessary. This helped improve the appearance and usability of the records significantly.

   Vendor server changes and URLs were a constant problem. MSU was not using any kind of link-checking program and all changes had to be made manually. After changing Kluwer titles twice manually, the Systems Librarian created a way to make the change globally when the URLs changed for the third time. Unfortunately, making a global change in this way does not work in all cases. Many updates still have to be done by hand. Maintenance of URLs all have to be done manually, since no URL checker is used. Maintenance of the e-journal finder product, Serials Solutions, has to be done as well. Serials Solutions Article Linker has been started recently.

   Additional considerations concerning electronic journals

   Interlibrary loan policy issues are: Do you add holdings in the OCLC database for electronic only holdings? Can you “lend” electronic materials?

   Aggregator databases: Do you add titles that are covered in databases such as Proquest in your catalog? If you add such titles, how can you manage them?

   Article Linker programs: Which ISSN title is needed for the link to work?



Magic Lanterns: Envisioning a Digitization Project through the User’s Eyes

Presenters: Alicia White, Reference Librarian, Pennsylvania State University at Mont Alto
Recorder: Fannie Cox, University of Louisville Libraries

   The Mira Lloyd Dock (1853-1945) Collection consists of almost 500 lantern slides taken around the turn of the century. Dock was part of a growing group of people who studied forestry. Having studied botany, chemistry and biology at the University of Michigan, she went to Europe for a year and studied forestry and city planning. Dock was also instrumental in founding the Pennsylvania State Forestry Academy before it became part of the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) campus system in Mont Alto. As interest in the fragile, rare, and unique collection grew; the lantern slides became a candidate for digitization. Project leader and Reference Librarian Alicia “Lisa” White presented a checklist that PSU developed as an aid for their digitization projects. PSU also enlisted the help of the teaching faculty during various phases of the project. While not in sequential order, the checklist consists of nine items such as: material selection and project scope; targeted collection and copyright; pre-scanning preparation and preservation; scanning/digitization; cataloging/metadata; funding, web site development, design, distribution and access; communications and publicity; and user evaluation.

   With the checklist in mind, a decision was made to digitize the slides and eliminate handling of the slides. Before the actual scanning and digitizing could begin, other items in the checklist could also proceed simultaneously, such as the pre-scanning and preservation process. It was necessary to clean and repair the slides and protect them during the digitization process. The very dirty slides were being held together by black tape. Some slides were doubled-sided, meaning that they had images on both sides. Other slides had labels that contained information that users might find useful, which also had to be preserved. But many slides did not have labels and there was not any order to the slides. As part of scanning and digitizing, decisions had to be made about the format type(s) best to display the slides, the time it takes for the file to download, and how the file would be store. Another item on the checklist dealt with the metadata. Various issues were taken into consideration such as what type of software would be used, the systems’ infrastructure, whether or not to use a controlled vocabulary, the metadata schema for granularity mapping, who would create the metadata, and also, looking beyond this project, how the records could be integrated to create Institutional Repositories via Open Archives Initiative (OAI), or use Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard (METS).

   The Library of Congress Authority Files and the International Plant Names Index were used primarily as the controlled vocabularies. But, once librarians entered the data, professors, scholars, and students were asked to review the input and their input was used in the creation of the metadata. Another aspect of the metadata schema taken into consideration was the use of the Linnaean system of classification (i.e. order, family, genus, and species) as elements. The Use of Metadata Schemas core elements from the IFLA Working Group were also consulted, but the Dublin Core elements were mandatory.

   CONTENTdm software was chosen to manage the digitization project, along with web site development distribution and access. Once the website was mounted, PSU advertised the web site and sought feedback from users via a button for feedback on the web site. The project took about a year to complete.



Media Finders, Expert Search Intermediaries for the Online Catalog

Presenters: Kelley McGrath, Cataloging and Metadata Services Librarian (Audiovisual);         Sue Weiland, Cataloging and Metadata Services Librarian (Music), Ball State University
Recorder: Julia Graepel, University of Louisville Libraries
   A media finder can be described as a dynamic pathfinder or a mediated searching tool. They are user-friendly interfaces to the online catalog designed to help users find materials in specific formats or genres, such as movies or popular music. Media finders can provide browsing access to a particular collection of materials that is in closed stacks and/or assigned only accession call numbers. They are also helpful to remote users or to those that are not looking for a specific title and just want to see what is available. Media finders can help with this “blank screen problem” because users do not have to come up with specific search terms, rather they can choose from provided options to narrow their search.

   How does this work? The media finder is a web form (html) with check boxes, pull down menus, etc. and a submit button. A CGI script (Perl, ASP, or other programming language) then creates a dynamic URL that searches the OPAC and then a page with the search results is created on the fly. Forms that require little or no scrolling down the page seem to work best with users.

   The presenters gave a live demonstration of a popular music and a video finder in use at Ball State. These media finders can be found at http://www.bsu.edu/library/librarycatalogs/mediafinders/ .
Media finders can make it easy for patrons to do complicated searches because they can make use of any information in the bibliographic record. Similar finders could be developed for use with any online catalog that has the ability to show search results based on a URL which includes the search terms.



Patron Expectations and Internet Booksellers

Presenters: William P. Kane, Alibris Library Services
Recorder: Neal Nixon, University of Louisville Libraries

   With the advent of reasonably reliable bibliographic and real-time stock inventory readily available on the Web, patrons’ acquisitions expectations are sometimes skewed towards the overly optimistic. Since long-established library workflows cannot always change quickly enough to accommodate all of the relatively new marketplace realities, patrons may mistake the historic partnership between booksellers and libraries for fierce competition. Meanwhile, the impact of web-based retail bookstores has been far-reaching for many libraries’ traditional public services, including Rush/Reserve, ILL, collection development via faculty liaisons, gifts and exchange, and OPACs/reference.



Periodicals Collection Management: Organizing, Creating and Implementing a System

Presenters: Paul Bazin, Serials Librarian; Janice Schuster, Coordinator of Reference Services and Reference Librarian, Providence College
Recorder: Allen Ashman, University of Louisville Libraries

   Paul Bazin and Janice Schuster from Providence College in Providence, Rhode Island related their experiences with creating and utilizing a collection management system for their library’s bound periodical collection. The need for such a system became apparent as they assisted in planning a major library renovation. This renovation involved a substantial reconfiguration of the facility’s periodical storage space that resulted in the discontinued use of closed periodical stacks and a substantial expansion of open stacks resulting in an overall net increase in periodicals storage space. Making this transition required a careful assessment and inventory of the periodical collection.

   In order to accomplish this an Access database was created with the assistance of Dayna Mancini, one of the school’s undergraduate students. Information collected for each periodical title included academic department, holdings in other libraries, subscription costs, inclusion in Katz’s Magazines for Libraries, presence in online aggregators, and the results of a physical check of each title’s holdings. Additional information was included from the EBSCO subscription service and patrons’ usage statistics are regularly added.

   As the database was created user access login codes were created with varying permission levels. Some users are able to edit and create records while others have “read only” access. An internal tracking mechanism records the user who last altered a specific record. As a part of the local campus network, the data is backed-up on a regular nightly schedule. The library has benefited greatly from the many reports that are generated from the system. Fiscal records by department, usage statistics by subject, reports on online availability, stack space requirements, and subscription status are a few examples of the uses that have been made of the system. Web access to the database is one possible future enhancement.



Textbooks to the Shelf – Making the Connection Faster

Presenters: Nelda Sims, TOPCAT Systems Coordinator; Deana Groves, Education Catalog Librarian; Ellen Micheletti, Library Senior Educational Resources Center Assistant, Western Kentucky University
Recorder: Elizabeth Hegstrom, Louisville Free Public Library

   Nelda Sims, Deana Groves and Ellen Micheletti from Western Kentucky University Libraries presented an example of how public services worked with Technical Services to provide an enhanced service to their patrons. The Educational Resources Center (ERC) is a branch of the main university library. They support the educational program of the university.
For several years they have been receiving copies of instructional materials from one of the instructors who serves on the state textbook selection commission. These would consist of books, videotapes, DVDs, transparencies, posters, and other formats of information. Each year the ERC receives at least 120 boxes. Originally, the ERC staff would unload all of the materials, sort into publisher series, write notes on how they wanted things processed by Technical Services, pack everything up and send it over to the main library where Technical Services was located. Technical Services would then provide full level 3 cataloging for each piece individually. The process would take about 1 to 2 years to complete. The materials were only kept for about 7 years, so the length of time the materials were unavailable was not helpful to the patrons of the ERC.
   After talking with other professionals and Mary Vass from the University of Kentucky a new plan was developed. Since the materials are not kept for extended periods of time and most of the users browse the section without using the OPAC to find the materials, it was decided that full level 3 cataloging was not necessary. The ERC has physical room to have long-term book displays, which now house the materials when they arrive. The different formats used to be housed in different areas but are now together with the publisher series in the displays. The materials are in the display for approximately one year while Ellen from the ERC staff creates minimal level cataloging after which the materials are available for check out. Ellen was trained by Technical Services how to create the minimal records.
This project has been so successful that Western Kentucky University is looking into expanding the project to the Government Documents area. The backlog in Technical Services is gone, Ellen has more variety in her duties and the textbooks are in the hands of the patrons much faster. 



There's No Sin in Synergy - A Success Story About Managing Access to E-journals at Indiana University 


Jo McClamroch, Electronic Resources Acquisitions Librarian; James Castrataro, Head of Serials Cataloging, Indiana University at Bloomington Main Library


Bob Hays, Louisville Free Public Library


   The Indiana University Bloomington Libraries have achieved some notable successes over the last three years in taming the electronic beast.  Underlying this effort is recognition that together the IU libraries are stronger than when alone.  Collaboration, compromise and commitment are key ingredients in IU's success.  The key stance is to be mindful of the greater good and ultimate goal of quality service to the customers -- faculty, staff, students and citizens served by the library.  Do whatever is needed to offer the highest quality service to those customers.  




To Borrow or to Buy?:  Library Departments Working Together to Rush Order Interlibrary Loan Requests for the Permanent Collection

Presenters: Pamela Colyer, Cataloging Librarian; Jason Vance, Interlibrary Loan Librarian, Camden-Carroll Library, Morehead State University
Recorder: Lois Severt, University of Louisville Libraries


   In 2003, the Camden-Carroll Library's Interlibrary Loan, Acquisitions, and Cataloging Departments collaborated in a project that used patron ILL requests selectively to initiate the selection and ordering process to acquire certain categories of books for the library.  Although they approached the test period with some concerns, they discovered that such collaborative  projects between public and technical services are not unique, and can be very successful when the criteria and procedures are carefully planned and documented; areas of responsibility are assigned and clearly understood ; and the staff involved are flexible in dealing with problems.  During the test period, 888 requests were filled through traditional ILL prodedures, while 175 were purchased for the Library's Collection.  Those 175 books were purchased from 14 different vendors, with Amazon accounting for 87%,  The average cost for purchased ILL books was $34.24 per book. In addition, the average turnaround time for purchased vs. traditional ILL requests was faster by approximately 2 days.  




To Our Users With Love: Making Consortium-Based Resources Available to the Local Campus Community

Presenters: Julie Rabine, Bowling Green State University
Recorder: Tyler Goldberg, University of Louisville Libraries

   In this session, Ms. Rabine provided a content analysis of two studies of the web sites of OhioLINK members to see how consortial resources were incorporated into the local resources provided on these web sites. The studies compared the web sites of Ohio’s state universities, community colleges, and independent four-year colleges.

   The OhioLINK Web Redesign Task Force conducted the first study in 2000 (Ms. Rabine was part of this effort), and the 2003 study was done by Ms. Rabine. Statewide consortia help libraries expand resources and Ms. Rabine presented some basic facts about OhioLINK and its resources. She reported on the web site designers’ usage of OhioLINK’s resources, and compared the results of the 2000 and 2003 studies. For example, she noted that in both 2000 and 2003, four of the top five OhioLINK resources found on libraries’ web pages were identical. These were: “Name/Logo,” “Central Catalog,” “Electronic Journal Center,” and “Research Databases—individual.” “Name/Logo” and “Central Catalog” were the top two resources found on OhioLINK libraries’ web sites both years that were surveyed.

   In 2000, most libraries saw OhioLINK as a “storehouse.” But following the 2000 survey, OhioLINK redesigned and promoted its new web pages. Ms. Rabine presented figures showing how use of the resources on the Ohio libraries’ web pages changed. For example, by the 2003 study, the “Full-text Services” link moved into the top 5, and links to the “Digital Media Center” increased from 58% to 65% between 2000 and 2003. Also, the percentage of OhioLINK libraries’ web sites using “Name/Logo” went from 94% in 2000 to 99% in 2003.

   In addition, she explored whether the design of OhioLINK’s web site affected how member institutions used it. Most community colleges tended to use OhioLINK’s home page as it was, while universities and independent colleges tended to take OhioLINK’s web pages apart to fit their own needs and web page designs. While providing a link to OhioLINK on the home pages, universities and independent colleges also provided links at the individual resources level. Community colleges made less use of specialized pages. Ms. Rabine’s presentation led to several audience questions about OhioLINK and the availability of usage statistics for consortial resources. 



Useful Anger!: Fighting for the User in the War Over Scholarly Communication

Speaker: Lee Van Orsdel, Dean of University Libraries, Eastern Kentucky University
Recorder: Angel Clemons, University of Louisville Libraries
   Lee Van Orsdel, Dean of University Libraries at Eastern Kentucky University, gave an information packed presentation on the current trends in scientific, technical, and medical (STM) journal publishing, their effect on scholarly communication, and several initiatives designed to relieve the burden of purchasing and publishing in high-cost STM journals. For the past twelve years, Ms. Van Orsdel has co-authored Bowker’s Annual Periodicals Price Survey which is published each April in Library Journal. This presentation touched on many of the issues that she confronts in her latest Price Survey.

Trends in Journal Publishing

   The number of journals published has doubled in the past 20 years. However, the number of journals purchased by ARL libraries decreased 6% between 1985 & 2000. This is due in large part to the cost of journals which has soared in recent years, surpassing both the rise of inflation and the investment in research. The cost of some journals has increased to a point that rivals the price of a new vehicle. According to the most recent Library Journal Annual Periodicals Price Survey, the average cost of an arts and humanities journal increased by an average of 147% between 1994 and 2004 (140% for US journals, 154% for non-US journals). This constituted eight renewal seasons. The average cost of a social sciences journals increased by an average of 138.5% during those same years (140% for US and 137% for non-US journals). The result of this rise in cost has been journal cancellations and reduced book purchases by libraries.
STM journal publishers are experiencing profits of 35-40% compared to 8-11% for publishers of non-STM books and journals. Articles in the Guardian Unlimited (http://www.guardian.co.uk/) from February 19, 2004 point out that publisher Reed Elsevier recorded profits of over $1.8 billion n 2003. This is an 8% increase over profits in 2002. An article published on March 2, 2004 in the same publication states that STM publishers are defending their huge profits "against the rising challenge of new 'open access' internet publishing."

The Questioning of STM Practices

   These large institutions, however, are not the only ones taking notice of STM publishers questionable pricing and renewal practices in 2003. In October of the year, the Wellcome Trust published a report on "The Economic Analysis of Scientific Research Publishing" (http://www.wellcome.ac.uk/en/images/SciResPublishing3_7448.pdf). With the publication of that report, the Wellcome Trust hoped they would "be able to facilitate a dialogue between the different participants in the scientific publishing field in an attempt to reform current publishing practices." In an October 13, 2003 analysis of the STM journal industry and accompanying stock, investment analysis firm BNP Paribas (http://www.bnp.de/en/home/default.asp) issued a warning regarding Elsevier stock: "BNP Paribas expresses its concern regarding the company's [Elsevier's] current subscription based access, as compared to the newer and more successful article-fee based open access system." In April 2004, the UK Parliament convened the first session of its investigation of STM journal pricing, the results of which can be viewed in the report, "House of Commons Minutes of Evidence Taken Before Science and Technology Committee: Scientific Publications" (http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200304/cmselect/cmsctech/uc399-i/uc39902.htm).

Current Scholarly Communications Model

   The current model of scholarly communications is based on differing views from the Academy (i.e., faculty and administration) and from STM publishers (e.g. Elsevier, Springer/Kluwer, Taylor & Francis, Blackwell, Wiley, and Lippincott). While the Academy views published research as a contribution, STM publishers view it as a commodity. The Academy believes that published output builds a discipline's knowledge base. STM publishers believe that controlling that published output establishes market power. The Academy believes that published output advances one's career relative to the quality of the journal. STM publishers believe that published output attracts editors and manuscripts relative to the quality of the journal. The Academy believes that scholarship is best served by the diversity of publishers. STM publishers believe that the bottom line is best served by buying the competition. The Academy believes that technology removes boundaries while STM publishers believe that technology provides the ultimate toll-road. The Academy believes that access is a public good. STM publishers believe that profit is a shareholder good.
In other words, the Academy believes that research contributions build a discipline's knowledge base which ultimately advances the researcher's career. At the same time, the Academy believes that journal costs should remain conservative within an atmosphere that supports diversity among publishers, thus increasing access to researchers' contributions. The STM publishers, on the other hand, see those research contributions as a commodity and strive to capture the market within which they are published. They operate on the idea that journal costs should remain extravagant in order to stifle the competition and increase profits. Somewhere between these two radically differing views lies the "Great Middle." The Great Middle is made up of society publishers (e.g., AIP, IEEE, American Chemical Society), university presses (e.g., Cambridge, Oxford, MIT, Harvard), and small commercial publishers (e.g. Sage, Nature).
   This current model of scholarly communication has created an inelastic market. When journal prices went up, subscribers kept buying the journal. That is, until 2003 when large institutions such as the University of California, Harvard, MIT, Cornell, and the Triangle Research Libraries Network spoke up and said ‘We're not renewing under these conditions!’ and set out to renegotiate their renewals with these large STM publishers.

Open Access Initiatives (OAI)

   In addition to the upheaval generated by a few major libraries, STM publishers are experiencing competition on another level: the open access (OA) movement. Open access is defined as 1) digital, 2) online, 3) free of charge to users, and 4) free of most use restrictions. One such "open access system" is SPARC, The Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition. The mission of SPARC is five-fold: 1) create competition to lower commercial prices, 2) declare independence for editors and editorial boards, 3) secure scholars rights to retain some copyrights, 4) change academic culture to accept alternative publishers, formats, and delivery systems, and 5) grow potential for collaborative publishing initatives that are scholar-led. Another open access initiative (OAI) is the Budapest Open Access Initiative launched on February 14, 2001. The Budapest OAI combines the old tradition of free sharing with the new technologies of the internet to create open access.
   Open access initiatives (OAI) typically fall into one of two categories: 1) open archives, or 2) open access journals. Open archives consist of an institution's or discipline's research output. They are not peer-reviewed. Researchers simply post their findings to the archives. They are interoperable with other OA archives through metadata harvesting. Their use of open source software makes costs affordable. Some examples of open archives are arXiv (physics), RePec (Economics), DSpace, Fedora, and PubMed Central.
   Open access journals, which appear most viable for STM fields, are peer-reviewed. Costs come from peer-review, manuscript preparation, and server space. Costs are recovered through author fees, however those fees are waived if the author cannot pay. The user, however, always pays nothing. Some examples of open access journals are BioMed Central (www.biomedcentral.com), PLOS Biology, and PLOS Medicine. BioMed Central charges a $525.00 author fee per article which is waived for faculty of institutional members. PLOS Biology, a publication of the Public Library of Sciences, requests that authors pay $1500 upon acceptance of their article to help cover the costs of publication. They do note that if one cannot pay all or any of that cost they will waive the charge entirely stating that "inability to pay will never influence the decision whether to publish a paper."
   Open access initiatives have created some concern, however, among faculty, publishers, and libraries. Faculty concerns include a loss of peer-review with some OAI's, receiving promotion and tenure credit for online publication, and author fees discriminate against those in less well-funded disciplines. Publisher concerns include the risk of developing new business models with that risk being multiplied if each discipline creates its own model, the vicious cycle of manuscript attraction and reputation building, and that societies will lose revenues that fund other activities. Library concerns include not being able to afford dual systems, that university funding may shift away from libraries to fund OAI, and early adopters will pay and late adopters will get a free ride. These risks are acceptable for several reasons: 1) it exploits the internet for cheap distribution, 2) it expands access to research output, 3) it expands the impact of research, 4) it reduces the costs of scholarly communications systems, 5) it eliminates the need for DRM (digital rights management).


   So what can individuals do to help shift the scholarly communications model from the hands of the high-cost publishers? First, get informed about current journal trends in pricing and publication as well as new trends such as OAI. Second, recruit faculty. Strive to build this same awareness among faculty by educating them on the economics of journal publishing, the impact on copyright, and effect on editorial rights and their alternatives. And last, join the revolution! Subscribe to OA journals, say no to profiteers, and develop campus models of OAI.



We Who Serve Behind Closed Doors

Presenters: Glenda Alvin, Head of Acquisitions and Serials, and Coordinator of Collection Management, Tennessee State University
Recorder: Elizabeth Hegstrom, Louisville Free Public Library

   Glenda Alvin, coordinator of Collection Management at Tennessee State University, spoke on what Acquisitions, Cataloging and Serials personnel can do to assist the more visible personnel to serve the library patrons better. Ms. Alvin stated that Technical Services personnel tend to work behind closed doors and that this situation feels comfortable to them. This can foster anonymity and a culture that is not geared to giving help to people. One of Technical Service’s goals is to provide an up-to-date and well-organized collection that supports the needs of its users and this is one of the cornerstones of public service.
One way for Technical Services to help reach its goal and fulfill the cornerstone of public service is through cross training. A well-trained staff is important to all library functions. Cross training can also give the Technical Services staff experience in how the library functions beyond the closed doors.

   A second way Technical Services staff can help is to take part in collaborative projects. Some of these projects mean Technical Services staff needs to look outside their job descriptions. In some cases, this may mean taking over some projects that the public service staff doesn’t have the interest in doing or the time to devote to the project.
Ms. Alvin gave several examples outlining the types of collaborative efforts she took part in. One was straightening up the serials area of the library. The back issues of the serials had just been thrown on shelves, and she helped organize a group to sort, weed, list and organize the serials. This had several benefits, including helping the public service staff know exactly what serials they had and for what time periods. Another project Ms. Alvin took part in was filling the display area. Several members of Technical Services contributed and the displays were well received. When Ms. Alvin left for another place of employment, one of the reference staff took over the coordination.

   In conclusion, Ms. Alvin told the group to look for things that need to be done and find ways of doing them including the staff who are truly responsible for the project. Some projects seem overwhelming to one department, but when multiple departments collaborate then the project becomes more manageable. The main thing is to remember that the goal is to enhance service to the patrons and identify the patron needs and fill them.




What’s FRBR and Why Do I Care?

Presenters: Glenn Patton, Director, World Content Management Division, OCLC
Recorder: Margo Smith, University of Louisville Libraries

   Glenn Patton opened Friday’s session with his talk entitled, “What’s FRBR… and why do I care?” Mr. Patton shared a brief history of the development of the “Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records”, (FRBR), which was formalized by the International Federation of Bibliographic Associations, IFLA, in 1998. He noted that the impetus for FRBR was the increasing number of bibliographic formats in the late 1980’s and early 1990’s along with the increased use of automated integrated library systems. Mr. Patton stated that FRBR could best be understood as a conceptual model that clarifies how catalogs should function. He noted that one should think of “…incorporating the concepts of FRBR, rather than implementing a standard”.

   The first portion of his talk consisted of a review of basic bibliographic concepts and how FRBR assists one in thinking about a variety of multiple formats within the context of an online catalog. He described FRBR as an “entity relationship model”, whereby a conceptual model is created which expresses the relationship between three entity groups: Group I, the bibliographic entities - work, expression, manifestation, item; Group II, the responsible entities - person, corporate, family and finally, Group III, the subject entities – concept, object, event, place. Mr. Patton delineated various “attributes” of each of the entity groups and gave examples.

   Moving to the second part of his talk, “… and why do I care?” Mr. Patton described the evolution from the card catalog to online catalog, noting the gains and losses of that process. Two of the losses of the online catalog are collocation and navigation. He proposes that clearer understanding of FRBR can provide better collocation and navigation by the creation of a catalog that presents a network of connected data rather than a sequence of bibliographic records and a replica of the traditional card catalogue.



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