Food Security Statistics - Metadata
 

Food deprivation

Prevalence of undernourishment in total population

Proportion of the population in a condition of undernourishment.

Undernourishment refers to the condition of people whose dietary energy consumption is continuously below a minimum dietary energy requirement (MDER) for maintaining a healthy life and carrying out a light physical activity.

Data source: FAO Statistics Division.

 

Number of undernourished persons

Number of persons in a condition of undernourishment.

Undernourishment refers to the condition of people whose dietary energy consumption is continuously below a minimum dietary energy requirement (MDER) for maintaining a healthy life and carrying out a light physical activity.

Data source: FAO Statistics Division.

 

Intensity of food deprivation

Intensity of food deprivation:

The intensity of food deprivation indicates how much food-deprived people falls short of minimum food needs in terms of dietary energy.
It is measured as the difference between the minimum dietary energy and the average dietary energy consumption of the undernourished population (food-deprived).
The intensity of food deprivation is low when it is less than 200 kilocalories per person per day and high when it is higher than 300 kilocalories per person per day.
The greater the food deficit, the greater the susceptibility for health risks related to undernutrition.

Data source: FAO Statistics Division.

 

Food needs

Minimum dietary energy requirement (MDER)

In a specified age and sex group, the amount of dietary energy per person is that considered adequate to meet the energy needs for minimum acceptable weight for attained-height maintaining a healthy life and carrying out a light physical activity. In the entire population, the minimum energy requirement is the weighted average of the minimum energy requirements of the different age and sex groups in the population.

Data source: FAO Statistics Division.

 

Rates of change

Food consumption and food needs average annual growth rates:

The average annual rate of change of dietary energy consumption (Kcal/person/day) — rPCDEC

The average annual rate of change of Minimum Dietary Energy Requirement (MDER) — rMDER

The average annual rate of change of Average Dietary Energy Requirement (ADER) — rADER

The average annual rates of change have been estimated based on the exponential change between the two indicated 3-year periods.

Data source: FAO Statistics Division.

 

Food consumption

Nutrients: Dietary Energy, Protein and Fat

Dietary Energy, Protein, Fat Consumption:

The food consumption refers to the amount of food available for human consumption as estimated by the FAO Food Balance Sheets. However the actual food consumption may be lower than the quantity shown as food availability depending on the magnitude of wastage and losses of food in the household, e.g. during storage, in preparation and cooking, as plate-waste or quantities fed to domestic animals and pets, thrown or given away.

The dietary energy consumption per person is the amount of food, in kcal per day, for each individual in the total population.

The dietary protein consumption per person is the amount of protein in food, in grams per day, for each individual in the total population.

The dietary fat consumption per person is the amount of fat in food, in grams per day, for each individual in the total population.

Kilocalorie is a unit of measurement of dietary energy. One kcal equals 1 000 calories and one kJ equals 1 000 joules. In the International System of Units (ISU), the universal unit of dietary energy is the joule (J). One kcal = 4.184 kJ.

Data source: FAO Statistics Division.

 

Food consumption and population growth

Food consumption growth versus population growth:

The average annual rate of change of dietary energy consumption (Kcal/person/day) — rPCDEC

The average annual rate of change of population — rPOP

The average annual rate of change of total dietary energy consumption for total population (Kcal/day) — rDEC

The average annual rates of change have been estimated based on the exponential change between the two indicated 3-year periods.

Hence rates of change hold an additive property, that is, rPCDEC = rDEC — rPOP.

Data source: FAO Statistics Division.

 

Quantities: food groups   food items

Consumption - food groups:

Food consumption per person is the amount of food, in terms of quantity, of each commodity and it's derived products for each individual in the total population. Figures are shown for food groups.

Consumption - food items:

Food consumption per person is the amount of food, in terms of quantity, of each commodity and it's derived products for each individual in the total population. Figures are shown for food items.

Data source: FAO Statistics Division.

 

Role of trade

Net trade & Imports:

The net-trade is obtained by subtracting the amount of food imports from the amount of food exports. Data on net-trade are converted in kilocalories using conversion factors by commodities in order to calculate the share of net-trade in the total Dietary Energy Supply. Data on imports are converted in kilocalories using conversion factors by commodities in order to calculate the share of imports in the total Dietary Energy Supply.

Data source: FAO Statistics Division.

 

Food production and trade

Food Production: Index   Group quantity   Item quantity

Food - Production indices:

Food production indices are based on the sum of price-weighted quantities, after deducting similarly weighted quantities of seed and feed.
All indices at country, regional and world level are calculated by the Laspeyres formula. Production quantities of each commodity are weighted by 1999-2001 average international commodity prices and summed for each year. In order to obtain the index, the aggregate for a given year is divided by the average aggregate of the base period 1999-2001.

Production - main food groups:

Production per person is the amount produced, in terms of quantity, for each individual in the total population. Figures are shown for main food groups.

Production - main food items:

Production per person is the amount produced, in terms of quantity, for each individual in the total population. Figures are shown for main food items.

Data source: FAO Statistics Division.

 

Food Trade: Index   Group quantity  Item quantity

Food excluding fish - Trade indices:

Trade indices of food products include commodities that are considered edible and contain nutrients, except for animal feed products and alcoholic beverages. Coffee and tea are also excluded because, although edible, they have practically no nutritive value.

- Quantity Index

Quantity indices portray the changes in the price-weighted sum of quantities of products traded between countries. The weights are the unit value averages of 1989-1991. The formulas used are those of the Laspeyres type.

- Import Value Index

Value indices portray the change in the current values of import c.i.f. (cost, insurance and freight), all expressed in US dollars. For countries which report import values on an f.o.b. (free on board) basis, these are adjusted to approximate c.i.f. values (by a standard factor of 112 percent).

- Export Value Index

Value indices portray the change in the current values of export f.o.b (free on board), all expressed in US dollars.

- Unit Value Index

Unit value indices portray the changes in the quantity-weighted unit values of products traded between countries. The weights are the quantity averages of 1989-1991. The formulas used are those of the Laspeyres type.

Trade - main food groups:

Imports and Exports per person is the amount of imports and exports, in terms of quantity, for each individual in the total population. Figures are shown for main food groups.

As a general rule, figures are reported in terms of net weight, i.e. excluding the weight of the container.

Trade - main food items:

Imports and Exports per person is the amount of imports and exports, in terms of quantity, for each individual in the total population. Figures are shown for main food items.

As a general rule, figures are reported in terms of net weight, i.e. excluding the weight of the container.

Data source: FAO Statistics Division.

 

Diet composition

Nutrients

Contribution of Carbohydrates, Proteins and Fats in total Dietary consumption, expressed in percentages.

Shares may not add up to 100 percent due to rounding.

Data source: FAO Statistics Division.

 

Food consumption pattern of main food groups:
Dietary Energy   Dietary Protein  Dietary Fat

Share in total dietary energy consumption:

Contribution of food groups providing at least 90 percent of total dietary energy supply.

Share in total dietary protein consumption:

Contribution of food groups providing at least 90 percent of total dietary protein supply.

Share in total dietary fat consumption:

Contribution of food groups providing at least 90 percent of total dietary fat supply.

Data source: FAO Statistics Division.

 

Food consumption pattern of main food items:
Dietary Energy   Dietary Protein   Dietary Fat

Share in total dietary energy consumption:

Contribution of food items providing at least 90 percent of total dietary energy supply.

Share in total dietary protein consumption:

Contribution of food items providing at least 90 percent of total dietary protein supply.

Share in total dietary fat consumption:

Contribution of food items providing at least 90 percent of total dietary fat supply.

Data source: FAO Statistics Division.

 

Diet diversification index: Dietary energy   Dietary protein   Dietary fat

Contribution of Non-starchy foods to total Dietary Energy consumption.

Contribution of Non-starchy food to total Dietary Protein consumption.

Contribution of Non-starchy foods to total Dietary Fat consumption.

Data source: FAO Statistics Division.

 

Food from animal origin: Dietary energy   Dietary protein   Dietary fat

Contribution of Animal products to total Dietary Energy consumption.

Contribution of Animal products to total Dietary Protein consumption.

Contribution of Animal products to total Dietary Fat consumption.

Data source: FAO Statistics Division.

 

Micronutrients:  Iron   Vitamin A

Iron:

The dietary availability of iron is calculated by converting the amount of food available for human consumption as estimated by the FAO Food Balance Sheets in equivalent of iron. Animal iron dietary availability is the sum of iron derived from animal products (i. e. meat, milk, fish, animal fats, eggs). The vegetal iron availability is derived from vegetable products (i. e. cereals, pulses, roots and tubers, vegetable oils, fruits, vegetables, etc.). The amount of iron in the derived products, like flour and other cereal preparations, refers to the actual unriched iron content of the product.

Vitamin A:

The dietary availability of vitamin A is calculated by converting the amount of food available for human consumption as estimated by the FAO Food Balance Sheets in equivalent of Vitamin A (micrograms of retinol activity equivalent - RAE).

Data source: FAO Statistics Division.

 

Access to food

Inequality of dietary energy consumption distribution  

Gini coefficient for dietary energy consumption:

An aggregate numerical measure of dietary energy consumption inequality, ranging from 0 (perfect equality) to 100 (perfect inequality).

Data sources:

FAO Statistics Division.

World Bank. 2000. World Development Indicators.

UNDP. 2004. Human Development Report.

 

Food consumption expenditure  

Share of food consumption in total consumption:

Food consumption refers to the monetary value of acquired food, purchased and non purchased, including non-alcoholic and alcoholic beverages as well as food expenses away from home. Total consumption refers to the monetary value of acquired goods for consumption, food and non-food items. The share is the contribution of food consumption to total consumption.

Data sources:

International Labour Organization (ILO) and country publications.

 

Food aid

Cereals

Food aid shipments represent a transfer of food commodities from donor to recipient countries, on a total-grant basis or on highly concessional terms.

Data source:
From 1970/71 to 1990/91, data on food aid shipments were compiled by FAO from the information provided by donor countries and complemented by data provided by the FAO Consultative Sub-Committee on Surplus Disposal, the World Food Programme (WFP), the International Wheat Council, OECD and other international organizations. From 1990/91 to date, the information on food aid shipments has been provided to FAO exclusively by WFP.

 

Role of food aid

Share of food aid in total consumption:

Contribution of food aid shipments (cereals and non-cereal products) in total food consumption. Data on food aid in tonnes are converted in kilocalories using conversion factors by commodities in order to calculate the share of the food aid in the total Dietary Energy Supply.

Data source: FAO Statistics Division.

 

Nutritional status

Children - Stunting, Underweight, Wasting, Overweight

Prevalence of underweight in children under five years:

The proportion of children under-five with weight less than that of 2 standard deviations below the median (moderate underweight) including weight less than that of 3 standard deviations below the median (severe underweight) of weight-for-age of the reference population as adopted by the World Health Organization.

Prevalence of stunting in children under five years:

The proportion of children under-five with height or stature less than that of 2 standard deviations below the median including height or stature less than that of 3 standard deviations below the median of height or stature-for-age of the reference population as adopted by the World Health Organization.

Prevalence of wasting in children under five years:

The proportion of children under-five with weight less than that of 2 standard deviations below the median including weight less than that of 3 standard deviations below the median of weight-for-height or stature of the reference population as adopted by the World Health Organization.

Prevalence of overweight in children under five years:

The proportion of children under-five with weight greater than that of 2 standard deviations above the median including weight greater than that of 3 standard deviations above the median of weight-for-height or stature of the reference population as adopted by the World Health Organization.

Data sources: WHO. 2004. Global Database on Child Growth and Malnutrition. World Bank. 2004. World Development Indicators.

 

Adults - Underweight, Overweight, Obesity

Prevalence of underweight in adults:

The proportion of underweight in adults refers to the adult population falling below 18.5 BMI as defined in the classification below.

Prevalence of overweight in adults:

The proportion of overweight in adults refers to the adult population with BMI 25 and above as defined in the classification below.

Prevalence of obesity in adults:

The proportion of obesity in adults refers to the adult population with BMI 30 and above as defined in the classification below.

Body Mass Index (BMI) is an index of weight-for-height that is commonly used to classify underweight, overweight and obesity in adults, also called Quetelet index after Adolphe Quetelet (1796-1874). It is defined as the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in metres (kg/m2).

The International Classification of adult underweight, overweight and obesity according to BMI is as follows:

Classification                                    BMI(kg/m2)
                                                   Cut-off points

Underweight                                           <18.50
Normal range                                18.50 - 24.99
Overweight                                           >=25.00
Overweight (pre-obese)*              25.00 - 29.99
Obese                                                   >=30.00

* The proportion of overweight includes pre-obese and obese persons; the proportion of pre-obesity can be estimated as proportion of overweight minus proportion of obesity.

Data sources: The WHO Global Database on Body Mass Index (BMI).

 

Health

Life expectancy at birth, under five mortality, infant mortality

Life expectancy at birth (years):

Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of birth were to stay the same during the lifespan.

Child mortality rate:

The probability of dying between birth and exactly five year of age, expressed per 1000 live births.

Infant mortality rate:

The probability of dying between birth and exactly one year of age, expressed per 1000 live births.

Data sources:
Life expectancy at birth: World Bank. 2005. World Development Indicators.
Child mortality rate: UNICEF. 2005. Child mortality.
Infant mortality rate: UNICEF. 2005. Infant mortality.

 

Poverty

Urban, Rural, Total

Poverty headcount:

National poverty rate or headcount index is the percentage of the population living below the national poverty line deemed appropriate for the country by its authorities.

Urban poverty rate or headcount index is the percentage of the urban population living below the urban poverty line.

Rural poverty rate or headcount index is the percentage of the rural population living below the rural poverty line.

Data sources: World Bank. 2004. World Development Indicators.

 

Population

Total, Age groups

Total Population:

Data refer generally to the present-in-area (de facto) population, total and for different age groups, within the present geographical boundaries.

Age group Share in Total Population (percentage):

The proportion of the population of different age groups to the total population.

Data source: UN Population Division. 2002 Revision. World Population Prospects.

 

Agricultural Population Density

Agricultural Population:

The Agricultural Population is defined as all persons depending for their livelihood on agriculture, hunting, fishing or forestry. This estimate comprises all persons actively engaged in agriculture and their non-working dependants.

Arable Land:

Land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted only once), temporary meadows for mowing or pasture, land under market and kitchen gardens and land temporarily fallow (less than five years). The abandoned land resulting from shifting cultivation is not included in this category. Data for "Arable land" are not meant to indicate the amount of land that is potentially cultivable.

Permanent Crops:

Land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee and rubber; this category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber.

Data sources:
FAO Statistics Division.
UN Population Division. 2002 Revision. World Population Prospects.