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Web Pages
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  The Computer Language Benchmarks Game http://shootout.alioth.debian.org/
Performance measurements and source code for ~12 benchmark programs in ~30 languages; with side-by-side comparisons between any 2 programming language implementations, and interactive boxplot chart comparisons between any 15.
  Lisp as an Alternative to Java http://www.norvig.com/java-lisp.html
Brief text on comparisons of C, C++, Java, Lisp, Ron Garret / Erann Gat study, with conforming example program Lisp source code; very useful links.
  The Quine Page http://www.nyx.net/~gthompso/quine.htm
Collection of self-reproducing programs: each outputs a copy of its own source code; about 60 languages.
  TIOBE Programming Community Index: TPCI http://www.tiobe.com/content/paperinfo/tpci/
Updated monthly. Shows language popularity via world-wide availability of skilled engineers, courses, 3rd party vendors. Calculated from search engines Google, MSN, Yahoo.
  Why Pascal is Not My Favorite Programming Language http://www.lysator.liu.se/c/bwk-on-pascal.html
Brian Kernighan's comparison of Pascal and C
  HOPL: An Interactive Roster of Programming Languages http://hopl.murdoch.edu.au/
History of Programming Languages encyclopedia, over 8,500 languages, full verified references, code samples, big bibliography, biographical-institutional material, 4,000 language family tree.
  An Empirical Comparison of C, C++, Java, Perl, Python, Rexx, and Tcl for a Search/string-processing Program http://page.mi.fu-berlin.de/prechelt/Biblio/jccpprtTR.pdf
One set of requirements, 80 implementations, coded by 74 different programmers in various languages, compared for properties: run time, memory use, source text length, comment density, program structure, reliability, effort needed.
  PLEAC: Programming Language Examples Alike Cookbook http://pleac.sourceforge.net/
Suite of common programming problems solved in Ada, C++, Erlang, Guile, Haskell, Java, Masd, merd, NASM, Objective Caml, Perl, Pliant, Python, Ruby, Tcl.
  Lisp as an Alternative to Java http://www.flownet.com/gat/papers/lisp-java.pdf
Ron Garret / Erann Gat comparison, starts from 1999 Prechelt study results, adds many insights; as text, a few tables. [Intelligence]
  Accumulator Generator http://www.paulgraham.com/accgen.html
Compares canonical solutions to same problem as code samples in: C++, Dylan, E, Erlang, Haskell, JavaScript, Lisp (Arc, Common, Goo, Scheme), Lua, Maple, Mathematica, Oz-Mozart, NewtonScript, Perl, Python, REBOL, Ruby, Smalltalk, VBScript. [Paul Graham]
  99 Bottles of Beer on the Wall http://www.99-bottles-of-beer.net/
Shows source code implementation for the same simple program across over 250 different programming languages.
  What Languages Fix http://paulgraham.com/fix.html
Compares many languages in brief text, describes each by the problem it fixes. [Paul Graham]
  Python Compared to Other Languages http://wiki.python.org/moin/LanguageComparisons
Many links to comparisons involving Python.
  Seven Reasons I Switched Back to PHP after Two Years on Rails http://www.oreillynet.com/ruby/blog/2007/09/7_reasons_i_switched_back_to_p_1.html
Derek Sivers spent two years trying to make Rails do something it wasn't meant to do, then realized his old abandoned language (PHP) would do just fine if approached with my new Rails-gained wisdom.
  Ray Tracer Language Comparison http://www.ffconsultancy.com/languages/ray_tracer/
Mini ray tracer benchmark written equivalently in C++, Java, SML, Objective Caml, Lisp, Scheme. Compares verbosity, performance; text, code samples, tables, image, graph. [Flying Frog Consultancy]
  University of Michigan's Language Guide http://www.engin.umd.umich.edu/CIS/course.des/cis400/
Each entry includes history, description, code examples, and references.
  What I Hate About Your Programming Language http://www.onlamp.com/pub/a/onlamp/2003/05/12/languagephilosophy.html
Text treats general aspects of language choices, then compares hatred of Perl, Python, Ruby, PHP, Java, C, C++, JavaScript, XSLT, SQL. With many forum comments. [ONLamp.com]
  Nine Language Performance Round-up: Benchmarking Math & File I/O http://www.osnews.com/story/5602
Small-scale benchmark test run on 9 languages or variants: Java 1.3.1 and 1.4.2, C via gcc 3.3.1, Python 2.3.2 and via Psyco 1.1.1, 4 from Microsoft Visual Studio .NET 2003: Visual Basic/C#/C++/J#.
  Programming Languages Mini-howto http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Programming-Languages.html
Briefly compares major Linux programming languages: C, C++, Fortran, Java, Lisp, Perl, PHP, Python, Tcl; by Risto S. Varanka.
  The Zen of Python http://www.awaretek.com/zen.html
Compares traits of many languages, without naming any; by Tim Peters.
  C# from a Java Developer's Perspective http://www.25hoursaday.com/CsharpVsJava.html
Thorough article by Dare Obasanjo, treats most similarities and differences between the two languages: features in Java and not in C#, and features in C# and not in Java. Text, tables, code, resources.
  Four-fold Increase in Productivity and Quality http://www.erlang.se/publications/Ulf_Wiger.pdf
Published internal study, of Ericsson AXD 301 ATM switch project, using Erlang, C, C++, Java. Results: programmer productivity, code error rates, roughly proportional to source code size.
  Programming Language Comparison http://www.jvoegele.com/software/langcomp.html
Table and text compares many features of some popular object-oriented languages: C++, C#, Eiffel, Java, Perl, Python, Ruby, Smalltalk, Visual Basic.
  The BNF Web Club Language http://cui.unige.ch/db-research/Enseignement/analyseinfo/
Browse, explore some programming language syntax rules, see relations between rules, understand them via BNF (Backus-Naur Form notation) and syntactic diagrams: SQL, PL/SQL, SQL2, IDL; Ada 95, Java, Modula-2; Lazy, Lisp, M5.
  History and Comparison of Programming Languages http://www.gavilan.edu/csis/languages/history.html
Files compare statements in several different languages, tracing from early to present languages.
  D vs Other Languages http://www.digitalmars.com/d/2.0/comparison.html
Yes-No table with definitions compares D, C, C++, C#, Java, on: GC, functions, arrays, OOP, performance, reliability, compatibility, conditional compiling. [Digital Mars]
  Programming Language Benchmarks http://dan.corlan.net/bench.html
Compares the same program in Ada, C, Forth, FORTRAN, Java, Lisp, Perl, R, Ruby. Goal: support decisions in language choice for making compute-intensive Web programs. Text, table, code samples.
  Examples of Programs in Different Programming Languages http://www.ntecs.de/old-hp/uu9r/lang/html/lang.en.html
Compares 129 (or 157?) languages, via 418 code samples, and growing.
  What's Wrong with Perl http://www.garshol.priv.no/download/text/perl.html
Author explains what he considers wrong about Perl, presents Python as an alternative. Descriptions, code samples, links.
  CLOS, Eiffel, and Sather: A Comparison http://www.icsi.berkeley.edu/~sather/Publications/tr-91-047.html
References, zipped Postscript, and inlined gifs.
  Guidelines for Choosing a Computer Language: Support for the Visionary Organizations http://archive.adaic.com/docs/reports/lawlis/content.htm
Multipage study compares: 4GL/5GL, 3GL (Ada 95, C, C++, COBOL, FORTRAN, Java, Smalltalk), 2GL (Assembly). Divides language (definition) from traits of products that implement and support it. Several sections, tables, appendixes.
  Timing Trials, or, the Trials of Timing: Experiments with Scripting and User-Interface Languages http://cm.bell-labs.com/cm/cs/who/bwk/interps/pap.html
By Brian Kernighan, Christopher Van Wyk. Compares how fast C, Awk, Perl, Tcl, Java, Visual Basic, Limbo, Scheme, run a range of representative tasks. Text, tables, graphs, code samples.
  An Empirical Comparison of C, C++, Java, Perl, Python, Rexx, and Tcl http://page.mi.fu-berlin.de/~prechelt/Biblio/jccpprt_computer2000.pdf
By Lutz Prechelt. Neutral, quantitative analysis of 7 languages in title, for 7 variables, via 80 implementations of the same requirement set. PDF format. [IEEE Computer]
  The C Family of Languages http://www.gotw.ca/publications/c_family_interview.htm
Interview with Dennis Ritchie, Bjarne Stroustrup, James Gosling.
  Programming Languages Study http://merd.sourceforge.net/pixel/language-study/
Includes: diagram, history of languages; history of language concepts; syntax across languages; Scriptometer measures scripting ease of languages; mutability and sharing of various values in various languages.
  A Comparison of Ada and Real-Time Java for Safety-Critical Applications http://www.adacore.com/wp-content/files/attachments/PaperPresentationAE2006-Brosgol.pdf
Slide show, was Best Paper at Ada Europe 2006 Conference, Porto, Portugal. By Ben Brosgol, AdaCore; Andy Wellings, University of York, UK. Text, diagrams.
  C++??: A Critique of C++ (3rd ed.) http://atlas.web.cern.ch/Atlas/GROUPS/SOFTWARE/OO/tools/java/misc/ACritiqueOfC++.pdf
A critical view on the C++ and C programming language.
  Ada, C, C++, and Java vs. The Steelman http://www.adahome.com/History/Steelman/steeltab.htm
Compares 4 programming languages (Ada 95, C, C++, Java) with the needs of "Steelman", original 1978 requirements document for Ada language. Big detailed table.
  C++ vs. Java vs. Python vs. Ruby: A First Impression http://www.dmh2000.com/cjpr/
Essay compares aspects of the languages, one page allows matched comparing of code of a red-black tree algorithm in each language.
  A Comparative Overview of C# http://genamics.com/developer/csharp_comparative.htm
Also compares C#, Java, C++. By Ben Albahari.
  The ROT13 Page http://www.miranda.org/~jkominek/rot13/
ROT13 implemented in many programming languages.
  Comparing PHP with Other Languages http://www.procata.com/blog/archives/2006/02/09/comparing-php-with-other-languages/
Text compares several traits of ASP.NET, C#, PHP, Java, Lisp, Perl, Python, Ruby, Smalltalk. Article with forum posts. [Professional PHP]
  ASP vs. PHP http://www.webpronews.com/expertarticles/2005/12/22/asp-vs-php
Brief text compares website building languages ASP, PHP on several points. [WebProNews]
  C#: A Language Alternative or Just J--?, Part 1 http://www.javaworld.com/javaworld/jw-11-2000/jw-1122-csharp1.html
Compares C# to Java, describes features and design trade-offs, places C# in context of broader Microsoft .Net strategy. Text, tables, code samples, links. By Mark Johnson. First article of 2-part series. [JavaWorld]
  Comparing Development Costs of C and Ada http://www.adaic.com/whyada/ada-vs-c/cada_art.html
Article by Stephen F. Zeigler. Analysis of a case where most variables were controlled enough to make a comparison between development costs (time, error rates, code size, ...) of the 2 languages.
  Languages Versus D http://www.prowiki.org/wiki4d/wiki.cgi?LanguagesVersusD
Growing table compares D, C, C++, C#, Java, Delphi, Python, Perl, Eiffel, Sather, Smalltalk, Lisp/CLOS, Ada. Many clarifying comments below. [Wiki4D, Open Content]
  Java and C-sharp Compared http://www.csharphelp.com/archives/archive96.html
Briefly compares several traits; text, code samples.
  Comparisons of Tcl with Other Systems http://www.mathematik.uni-ulm.de/sai/ss96/uxdb2/comparison.html
Many comparisons between Tcl/Tk and other similar systems, most copied from comp.lang.tcl.
  Comparison of Oberon-2 with Modula-2 http://www.zel.org/oberon/compo2m2.htm
Short text summary of main features of Oberon-2; target audience: Modula-2 programmers unfamiliar with Oberon-2, but familiar with object-oriented and extensible programming concepts.
  1% the Code http://www.colorforth.com/1percent.html
Chuck Moore, father of Forth, says programs can be far smaller in colorForth than C. No code samples.
  Ruby Versus Nine Object-Oriented Languages http://www.approximity.com/ruby/Comparison_rb_st_m_java.html
Compares Ruby, Objective-C, Smalltalk-80, C++, Java, Python, CLOS, Perl5, PHP, Dylan.
  Forth Versus C http://www.inventio.co.uk/forthvsc.htm
Pro-Forth question and answer text, some questions have several answers.
  Java and C++ Resource Management Comparison http://www.fatalmind.com/papers/java_vs_cplusplus/resource.pdf
Detailed discussion of the techniques used in Java and C++ to implement leak free and exception safe resource management. Covers memory management, finalizers, destructors and finally blocks with examples.
  Programming Language Categories http://www.cs.oberlin.edu/~jwalker/languageCategories.html
Brief text compares 6 basic language types: general scripting, programmer scripting, application development, low-level, pure functional, complete core.
  Perl vs. Python vs. Ruby http://mjtsai.com/blog/2002/11/25/perl_vs_python_vs_ruby/
Comparison with text, code samples, many reader comments. Michael Tsai weblog.
  Gnat and Linux: C++ and Java Under Fire http://linuxgazette.net/issue33/burtch.html
Compares Ada, Java, C, C++, Delphi. Text, tables. Gnat and Linux orientation. [Linux Gazette]
  Haskell and Scheme: Which One and Why? http://scienceblogs.com/goodmath/2006/10/haskell_and_scheme_which_one_a.php
Text comparison. ScienceBlogs LLC; Good Math, Bad Math.
  Forth and Not C http://www.inventio.co.uk/forthnc.htm
Pro-Forth text explains why C is used more than Forth.
  Linux Number Crunching: Benchmarking Languages http://www.coyotegulch.com/reviews/number_crunching/
Compares performance of Intel Fortran and C++, gcc, and IBM, Sun and GNU Java compilers, on an Intel Linux platform.
  Why to Move from ASM to C http://www.scienceprog.com/why-to-move-from-asm-to-c/
Brief text compares Assembly to C; lower to higher level language. ScienceProg.
  Simple Programs in Various Different Programming Languages http://cer.freeshell.org/renma/
Common algorithms and other sample code in the languages: Bash and Bourne shells, C/C++, Java, MATLAB/Octave, Perl, Python, Ruby, Scheme.
  The Case against C http://www.tcm.phy.cam.ac.uk/~mjr/C/
Five short essays compare C (and C++ by extension) to Fortran: Why C is Not a Good Numerical Language, Why C is Not a Good First Language, C's Poor Loop Constructs, C's Pointers and Optimisation, Optimisation through Directives.
  Team Eiffel: The Zen of Python, Part I http://teameiffel.blogspot.com/2006/06/zen-of-python-part-i.html
Text compares Python and Eiffel, via Tim Peters' Zen rules.
  Java vs Ruby: A Comparison of the Key Elements http://www.developer.com/open/article.php/3716356/
Compares building blocks of two languages, in text and code samples. Developer.com.
  A Comparison between BETA, C++, Eiffel, Java, Object Pascal, Ruby and Smalltalk http://www.ntecs.de/old-hp/s-direktnet/lang_cmp.en.htm
Table compares 12 traits to side, 7 languages at top.
  Programming Language Critiques: Pascal, C, C++, and C-Linda http://www.infoplanic.ch/teko/thema/pascal/pashtml/critique.html
Text compares languages on many points; by Jim Basney.
  Programming Information from HB http://www.cybercomm.nl/~broers/programming.html
Text descriptions compare C/C++, Java, Pascal, Basic, VeraStream; Oracle; HTML, XML; JavaScript, PHP.
  Quantifying the Debate: Ada vs. C++ http://www.stsc.hill.af.mil/crosstalk/1996/07/quantify.asp
Tables and text compare Ada 83/95, C, C++; mainly costs, reliability. By Donald J. Reifer. [CrossTalk]
  Are Scripting Languages the Wave of the Future? http://www.itworld.com/itw-0314-rcmappdevint
Programming guru, Robert Martin, on languages of the coming decade. [ITworld.com]
  Syntax Across Languages http://merd.sourceforge.net/pixel/language-study/syntax-across-languages.html
Operator names and syntax elements in various programming languages.
  Java vs. C# http://www.javacamp.org/javavscsharp/index.html
Code for code comparison. All features on both languages are compared.
  Ada and Java: Realtime Advantages http://www.embedded.com/columns/technicalinsights/16100316?_requestid=442880
Compares C, Ada, Java, for flaws and strengths in realtime programming, embedded software, built-in support for multithreading; text, code samples. Embedded.com.
  C# Strikes a Chord http://www.ddj.com/cpp/184404409
Compares 4 languages: C, C++, C#, Java. Shows family genealogy. [Dr. Dobb's Journal]
  Multi-Core Ant Colony Optimization for TSP in Erlang http://eric_rollins.home.mindspring.com/erlangAnt.html
Compares Erlang, GHC Haskell, Standard ML (Alice, MLton); text, tables, graphs.
  Programmers: Otters with Rocks? http://news.zdnet.com/2100-9595_22-529641.html
Discusses historical move from low level languages to higher level interpreted ones, productivity, future developments. Active feedback response. [ZDNet News]
  Ada 95, Java, and C++ http://www.adahome.com/Resources/Languages/chart3.html
Some think Java is like C++. Usual C++ idioms do not apply to Java as it is not a C++ superset or subset; Java is a derivation with many modifications, extensions. Both language syntax are alike, but semantics and philosophy are very different. Java is nearer Ada 95 than C++, except in syntax.
  Eiffel and Delphi Compared http://www.berenddeboer.net/eiffel/eiffel_and_delphi.html
Text compares differences of several main aspects.
  A Comparison between 10 Languages http://www.ntecs.de/old-hp/s-direktnet/langcomp.en.html
Table compares 13 traits at top, 10 languages to side: BETA, C#, C++, C-Talk, Eiffel, Java, Object Pascal, Ruby, Sather, Smalltalk.
  TMXxine Languages http://www.cyber-shaktipat.org/relax/languages.html
Brief comparison Curl with High Level assembler, BCX, Dark Basic, Mono (C#/.Net implementation), Python, Squeak, XBasic/XBlite. Curl applet examples.
  Reasons for TOM http://gerbil.org/tom/doc/why.shtml
TOM attempts to address flaws in these languages: C++, Cecil, Common Lisp, Eiffel, Java, Objective-C, Smalltalk.
  Qtime Collection, FTP Download, Gzipped ftp://www.ibiblio.org/pub/linux/devel/lang/misc/
Display time as English sentence, coded in: AWK, C, ICI, Icon, JavaScript, Lite/mSQL, PHP3, Pike, Python, REBOL, Rexx, Ruby, SLang, Spanner. Tested on only Linux (all) and AmigaOS (C and Rexx versions).
  Water Comparisons http://waterlanguage.org/Comparisons.html
Two medium length documents compare object-oriented languages: Water with ConciseXML syntax, to JSP (JavaServer Pages) and Java; 1 brief list compares Water to PHP.
  Io Comparisons http://www.iolanguage.com/about/simplicity/
Compares a few variables (size, speed, syntax) in many languages: Brain, C, Cel, F-Script, Forth (gForth, pForth), Icon, Java (Kaffe), Lisp (CLisp, Guile, LispMe, Scheme48), Lua, Perl, Pike, Python, Ruby, Self, Smalltalk (GNU, Squeak, SuperCollider), Tcl.
  Schizoid Classes: Of Class, Type, and Method http://acmqueue.com/modules.php?name=Content&pa;=showpage&pid;=205
Compares Java and Smalltalk, in text and table. By Rodney Bates. [ACM Queue]

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