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and the hemieda of Crates the twelfth of the Pho- caean stater. The weight of the hemiecton would be a little less than that of the Attic obol ; and their value would therefore give a ratio of gold to silver, as 8 to 1, a low value for gold, it is true, but one easily explained by the fact, conjectured by Bockh, and distinctly stated by Hesychius (s.v. ^cokcus), that the Phocaean gold money was very base : this fact also will explain the light weight of the coin as compared with the Attic obol. The result of this somewhat intricate discussion seems to ns "both clear and consistent: nameh7, that the standard weight, the drachma, was divided, on the duodeci mal system, into sixths (gktcu or $§o\oi), and twelfths, 7}/ni€KTa : that Athens had silver coins of these weights: and that, in those states which used a gold coinage, of which the unit was a stater equal (generally) in weight to two drachmae and in value to twenty, this stater was subjected to a simi lar duodecimal division, by which the sixth (ticry or e/creus) became in weight a piece of tico obols, and the twelfth (•^cue/cro*') a piece of one obol. The values of these coins (according to the average ratio of the value of gold to that of silver, namely 10 : 1) would have been 20 obols and 10 obols re spectively ; but those of Phocaea were so light and debased, that they were only worth 16 and 8 respec tively of the obols of Athens, whose coinage was proverbially pure. [P. S.j
HECTEMORII (IfCTtj/^pioi), a name given to the poor citizens of Attica before the time of Soton, who cultivated the fields of the rich and received only a sixth part (hence their name) of the produce. (Hesych. s.v. €Krfjfi6poi • Eustath. ad Horn. Od. xix. 28. p. 680. 49, ed. Basil, p. 1854, ed. Rom.) Plutarch (Solon, 13) seems to have made a mistake in stating that they paid a sixth portion to their masters, and retained five-sixths themselves. (Comp. Schomann, De Comitiis, p. 362, Antic/. Jur. Pull. Grace, p. 169 ; Hermann, LehrbiLch d. Griech. Staatsalterth. § 101, n. 10.) HEDNA (e'Sj/a). [Dos.] HEGEMO'NIA DICASTE'RIOU
HEIRGMOU GRAPHE (dpy^ov This was an action for false imprisonment of a free citizen or stranger, and keeping such person in private custody. There are no orations upon this subject extant, nor indeed any direct allusions to it by name ; but it is hinted at as a remed}r that might have been adopted by Agatharchus, the painter, for the restraint put upon his personal liberty by Alcibiades (Andoc. c. Ale. p. 119) ; and in a passage of Deinarchus (c. Dem. 17), where a miller is mentioned to have incurred capital punish ment for a like offence. The thesmothetae pro bably presided in the court before which offenders of this kind were brought to trial. (Meier, Ati. Proc. p. 332.) [J.S. M.]
HELEPOLIS (eAc-TToAis). When Demetrius Poliorcetes besieged Salamis, in Cyprus, he caused a machine to be constructed, which he called " the taker of cities." Its form was that of a square tower, each side being 90 cubits high and 45 wide. It rested on four wheels, each eight cubits high. It was divided into nine stories, the lower of which contained machines for throwing great stones, the middle large catapults for throwing spears, and the highest, other machines for throwing smaller stones, together with smaller catapults.
It was manned with 200 soldiers, besides those who moved it by pushing the parallel beams at the bottom. (Diod. xx. 48.)
At the siege of Rhodes, b. c. 306, Demetrius employed an helepolis of still greater dimensions and more complicated construction. Besides wheels it had castors (avnffTp^irra), so as to admit of being moved laterally as well as directly. Its form was pyramidal. The three sides which were exposed to attack, were rendered fire-proof by being covered with iron plates. In front each story had port-holes, which were adapted to the several kinds of missiles, and were furnished with shutters that could be opened or closed at pleasure, and were made of skins stuffed with wool. Each story had two broad flights of steps, the one for ascending, the other for descending. (Diod. xx. 91 ; compare Vitruv. x. 22.) This helepolis was constructed by Epimachus the Athenian ; and a much esteemed description of it was written by Dioeclides ofAbdera. (Athen. v. p. 206, d.) It was no doubt the greatest and most remarkable engine of the kind that was ever erected. In subsequent ages we find the name of " helepolis " applied to moving towers which carried battering rams, as well as machines for throwing spears and stones. (Amm. Marcell. xxiii. ; Agathias, i. 18. p. 30, ed. Ven. ; Nicet. Chon. Jo. Commenus, p. 14, b.) Towers of this description were used to destroy the walls of Jerusalem, when it was taken by the Romans. (Jos. B. J. ii. 19. § 9, iii. 6. § 2.) [aries ; tor-
MENTUM.] [J. Y.]
HELIAEA. [DiCASTERioN.] HELIOCAMI'NUS. [domus, p. 432, b.J HELIX (eAi£), any thing of a spiral form, whether
in one plane, as the spiral curve, or in different
planes, as the screw.
1. In architecture, the spiral volutes of the Ionic and Corinthian capitals. The Roman architects, while they used the word volutae for the angular spirals, retained the term helices for the smaller spirals in the middle of each face of the Corinthian capital. (Vitruv. iv. 1. § 12.)
2. In mechanics, the word designates the screw in its various applications ; but its chief use was to describe a machine used for pushing or drawing ships in the water from the beach, which was said to have been invented by Archimedes. (Athen. v. p. 207, a., with Casaubon's Notes.) [P. S.]
HELLANODICAE ('EAAa^i/ccu), the judges in the Olympic games, of whom an account is given under olympia. The same name was also given to the judges or court-martial in the Lacedaemonian army (Xen. Rep. Lac. xiii. 11) ; and they were probably first called by this name when Sparta was at the head of the Greek confederacy.
HELLENOTAMIAE (<EAAo?wra,ufcu), or treasurers of the Greeks, were magistrates appointed by the Athenians to receive the contributions of the allied states. They were first appointed b. c. 477, when Athens, in consequence of the conduct of Pausanias, had obtained the command of the allied states. The money paid by the different states, which was originally fixed at 460 talents, was deposited in Delos, which was the place of meeting for the discussion of all common interests ; and there can be no doubt that the hellenotamiae not only received, but were also the guardians of these monies, which were called by Xenophon (clc Vectig. v. 5) 'EAAT/j/ora/At'a. (Thuci