AWMF online

 

Arbeitsgemeinschaft der
Wissenschaftlichen
Medizinischen
Fachgesellschaften

Leitlinie der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Verdauungs- und Stoffwechselerkrankungen und der
Deutschen Gesellschaft für Viszeralchirurgie


 AWMF-Leitlinien-Register  Nr. 021/008   Entwicklungsstufe:  3 

Druck-PDF

Diagnostik und Therapie von Gallensteinen

Vorwort

Gallenblasensteine

Gallengangssteine

Qualitätssicherung


Addendum A: Klassifikation der Leitlinien

Addendum B: Zeitlicher Ablauf der Leitlinienerstellung

Addendum C: Suchbegriffe für die MEDLINE-Literraturrecherche

Addendum D: Mitglieder der Arbeitsgruppen

Addendum E: Teilnehmer


Abbildungslegende


Literatur

  1. Berndt H, Nürnberg D, Pannwitz H. Prävalenz der Cholelithiasis. Ergebnisse einer epidemiologischen Studie mittels Sonographie in der DDR. Z Gastroenterol 1989;27:662-666
  2. Kratzer W, Mason RA, Kachele V. Prevalence of gallstones in sonographic surveys worldwide. J Clin Ultrasound 1999;27:1-7
  3. Lammert F, Sauerbruch T. Mechanisms of disease: the genetic epidemiology of gallbladder stones. Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol 2005;2:423-433
  4. Völzke H, Baumeister SE, Alte D, et al. Independent risk factors for gallstone formation in a region with high cholelithiasis prevalence. Digestion 2005;71:97-105
  5. Statistisches Bundesamt. Fallpauschalenbezogene Krankenhausstatistik (DRG-Statistik), Diagnosen und Prozeduren der vollstationären Patienten und Patientinnen in Krankenhäusern 2005. Fachserie 12, Reihe 6.4. Statistisches Bundesamt, Wiesbaden 2007
  6. Sandler RS, Everhart JE, Donowitz M, et al. The burden of selected digestive diseases in the United States. Gastroenterology 2002;122:1500-1511
  7. Neubrand M, Sackmann M, Caspary W, et al. Leitlinien der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Verdauungs- und Stoffwechselkrankheiten zur Behandlung von Gallensteinen. Z Gastroenterol 2000;38:449-468
  8. Lorenz W, Ollenschläger G, Geraedts M, et al. Das Leitlinien-Manual. Entwicklung und Implementierung von Leitlinien in der Medizin. Z Ärztl Fortbild Qual Gesundheitswes 2001;95 (Suppl. I):1-84
  9. Beyer M, Geraedts M, Gerlach FM, et al. Deutsches Instrument zur methodischen Leitlinien-Bewertung (DELBI). Z Ärztl Fortbild Qual Gesundheitswes 2006;99:468-492
  10. Hoffmann JC, Fischer I, Hohne W, Zeitz M, Selbmann HK. Methodische Basis für die Entwicklung von Konsensusempfehlungen. Z Gastroenterol 2004;42:984-986
  11. Ollenschläger G, Kirchner H, Berenbeck C, et al. Aktuelle Initiativen zur Realisierung nationaler Leitlinien in Deutschland - eine Übersicht. Gesundheitswesen 2002;64:513-520
  12. Kirchner H, Fiene M, Ollenschläger G. Bewertung und Implementierung von Leitlinien. Rehabilitation 2003;42:74-82
  13. Breidenbach S. Transparenz von Recht durch knowledgeTools. Versicherungswissenschaftliche Studien 2003;24:131-136
  14. Leese T, Neoptolemos JP, Baker AR, Carr-Locke DL. Management of acute cholangitis and the impact of endoscopic sphincterotomy. Br J Surg 1986;73:988-992
  15. Lai EC, Mok FP, Tan ES, et al. Endoscopic biliary drainage for severe acute cholangitis. N Engl J Med 1992;326:1582-1586
  16. Leung JW, Ling TK, Chan RC, et al. Antibiotics, biliary sepsis, and bile duct stones. Gastrointest Endosc 1994;40:716-721
  17. Sharma BC, Agarwal DK, Baijal SS, et al. Endoscopic management of acute calculous cholangitis. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1997;12:874-876
  18. Shea JA, Berlin JA, Escarce JJ, et al. Revised estimates of diagnostic test sensitivity and specificity in suspected biliary tract disease. Arch Intern Med 1994;154:2573-2581
  19. Trowbridge RL, Rutkowski NK, Shojania KG. Does this patient have acute cholecystitis? JAMA 2003;289:80-86
  20. Tenner S, Dubner H, Steinberg W. Predicting gallstone pancreatitis with laboratory parameters: a meta-analysis. Am J Gastroenterol 1994;89:1863-1866
  21. Ammori BJ, Boreham B, Lewis P, Roberts SA. The biochemical detection of biliary etiology of acute pancreatitis on admission: a revisit in the modern era of biliary imaging. Pancreas 2003;26:e32-35
  22. Lévy P, Boruchowicz A, Hastier P, et al. Diagnostic criteria in predicting a biliary origin of acute pancreatitis in the era of endoscopic ultrasound: multicentre prospective evaluation of 213 patients. Pancreatology 2005;5:450-456
  23. Liu CL, Fan ST, Lo CM, et al. Clinico-biochemical prediction of biliary cause of acute pancreatitis in the era of endoscopic ultrasonography. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2005;22:423-431
  24. Sackmann M. Behandlung der biliären Kolik. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 1998;123:945-947
  25. Festi D, Sottili S, Colecchia A, et al. Clinical manifestations of gallstone disease: evidence from the multicenter Italian study on cholelithiasis (MICOL). Hepatology 1999;30:839-846
  26. Rünzi M, Layer P, Büchler MW, et al. Therapie der akuten Pankreatitis. Gemeinsame Leitlinien. Z Gastroenterol 2000;38:571-581
  27. Berger MY, van der Velden JJ, Lijmer JG, et al. Abdominal symptoms: do they predict gallstones? A systematic review. Scand J Gastroenterol 2000;35:70-76
  28. Jørgensen T. Abdominal symptoms and gallstone disease: an epidemiological investigation. Hepatology 1989;9:856-860
  29. Berhane T, Vetrhus M, Hausken T, Olafsson S, Sondenaa K. Pain attacks in noncomplicated and complicated gallstone disease have a characteristic pattern and are accompanied bydyspepsia in most patients: the results of a prospective study. Scand J Gastroenterol 2006;41:93-101
  30. Glambek I, Arnesjo B, Soreide O. Correlation between gallstones and abdominal symptoms in a random population. Results from a screening study. Scand J Gastroenterol 1989;24:277-281
  31. Kennedy TM, Jones RH. Epidemiology of cholecystectomy and irritable bowel syndrome in a UK population. Br J Surg 2000;87:1658-1663
  32. Weinert CR, Arnett D, Jacobs D, Kane RL. Relationship between persistence of abdominal symptomes and successful outcome after cholecystectomy. Arch Intern Med 2000;160:989-995
  33. Thistle JL, Cleary PA, Lachin JM, Tyor MP, Hersh T. The natural history of cholelithiasis: the National Cooperative Gallstone Study. Ann Intern Med 1984;101:171-175
  34. Friedman GD, Raviola CA, Fireman B. Prognosis of gallstones with mild or no symptoms: 25 years of follow-up in a health maintenance organization. J Clin Epidemiol 1989;42:127-136
  35. Ransohoff DF, Gracie WA. Treatment of gallstones. Ann Intern Med 1993;119:606-619
  36. Attili AF, De Santis A, Capri R, Repice AM, Maselli S. The natural history of gallstones: the GREPCO experience. Hepatology 1995;21:655-660
  37. Gebel M. Die Sonographie beim Gallensteinleiden. Chir Gastroenterol 1989;5:469-476
  38. Macheiner P, Gritzmann N. Sonographie der Streßcholezystitis - Diagnose und Differentialdiagnose. Z Gastroenterol 1996;34:21-26
  39. Ralls PW, Colletti PM, Lapin SA, et al. Real-time sonography in suspected acute cholecystitis. Prospective evaluation of primary and secondary signs. Radiology 1985;155:767-771
  40. Angelico M, Gandin C, Canuzzi P, et al. Gallstones in cystic fibrosis: a critical reappraisal. Hepatology 1991;14:768-775
  41. Duggirala R, Mitchell BD, Blangero J, Stern MP. Genetic determinants of variation in gallbladder disease in the Mexican-American population. Genet Epidemiol 1999;16:191-204
  42. Nakeeb A, Comuzzie AG, Martin L, et al. Gallstones: genetics versus environment. Ann Surg 2002;235:842-849
  43. Katsika D, Grjibovski A, Einarsson C, et al. Genetic and environmental influences on symptomatic gallstone disease: a Swedish study of 43,141 twin pairs. Hepatology 2005;41:1138-1143
  44. Puppala S, Dodd GD, Fowler S, et al. A genomewide search finds major susceptibility loci for gallbladder disease on chromosome 1 in Mexican Americans. Am J Hum Genet 2006;78:377-392
  45. Rosmorduc O, Hermelin B, Poupon R. MDR3 gene defect in adults with symptomatic intrahepatic and gallbladder cholesterol cholelithiasis. Gastroenterology 2001;120:1459-1467
  46. Rosmorduc O, Hermelin B, Boelle PY, et al. ABCB4 gene mutation-associated cholelithiasis in adults. Gastroenterology 2003;125:452-459
  47. Fracchia M, Pellegrino S, Secreto P, et al. Biliary lipid composition in cholesterol microlithiasis. Gut 2001;48:702-706
  48. Buch S, Schafmayer C, Völzke H, et al. A genome-wide association scan identifies the hepatic cholesterol transporter ABCG8 as a susceptibility factor for human gallstone disease. Nat Genet 2007;46:epub
  49. Grünhage F, Acalovschi M, Tirziu S, et al. Increased gallstone risk in humans conferred by common variant of hepatic ATP binding cassette transporter for cholesterol. Hepatology 2007,46:epub
  50. Van Mil SW, van der Woerd WL, van der Brugge G, et al. Benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis type 2 is caused by mutations in ABCB11. Gastroenterology 2004;127:379-384
  51. Venneman NG, Besselink MG, Keulemans YC, et al. Ursodeoxycholic acid exerts no beneficial effect in patients with symptomatic gallstones awaiting cholecystectomy. Hepatology 2006;43:1276-1283
  52. McSherry CK, Ferstenberg H, Calhoun WF, Lahman E, Virshup M. The natural history of diagnosed gallstone disease in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. Ann Surg 1985;202:59-63
  53. Ransohoff DF, Gracie WA. Management of patients with symptomatic gallstones: a quantitative analysis. Am J Med 1990;88:154-160
  54. Bates T, Ebbs SR, Harrison M, A'Hern RP. Influence of cholecystectomy on symptoms. Br J Surg 1991;78:964-967
  55. Qureshi MA, Burke PE, Brindley NM, et al. Post-cholecystectomy symptoms after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 1993;75:349-353
  56. Plaisier PW, van der Hul RL, Nijs HG, et al. The course of biliary and gastrointestinal symptoms after treatment of uncomplicated symptomatic gallstones: results of a randomized study comparing extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy with conventional cholecystectomy. Am J Gastroenterol 1994;89:739-744
  57. Lublin M, Crawford DL, Hiatt JR, Phillips EH. Symptoms before and after laparoscopic cholecystectomy for gallstones. Am Surg 2004;70:863-866
  58. Vetrhus M, Berhane T, Soreide O, Sondenaa K. Pain persists in many patients five years after removal of the gallbladder: observations from two randomized controlled trials of symptomatic, noncomplicated gallstone disease and acute cholecystitis. J Gastrointest Surg 2005;9:826-831
  59. Gracie WA, Ransohoff DF. The natural history of silent gallstones: the innocent gallstone is not a myth. N Engl J Med 1982;307:798-800
  60. Friedman GD. Natural history of asymptomatic and symptomatic gallstones. Am J Surg 1993;165:399-404
  61. Ransohoff DF, Gracie WA, Wolfenson LB, Neuhauser D. Prophylactic cholecystectomy or expectant management for silent gallstones. A decision analysis to assess survival. Ann Intern Med 1983;99:199-204
  62. Sonnenberg A, Derfus GA, Soergel KH. Lithotripsy versus cholecystectomy for management of gallstones. A decision analysis by Markov process. Dig Dis Sci 1991;36:949-956
  63. Randi G, Franceschi S, La Vecchia C. Gallbladder cancer worldwide: geographical distribution and risk factors. Int J Cancer 2006;118:1591-1602
  64. Maringhini A, Moreau JA, Melton LJ, et al. Gallstones, gallbladder cancer, and other gastrointestinal malignancies. An epidemiologic study in Rochester, Minnesota. Ann Intern Med 1987;107:30-35
  65. Sheth S, Bedford A, Chopra S. Primary gallbladder cancer: recognition of risk factors and the role of prophylactic cholecystectomy. Am J Gastroenterol 2000;95:1402-1410
  66. Aucott JN, Cooper GS, Bloom AD, Aron DC. Management of gallstones in diabetic patients. Arch Intern Med 1993;153:1053-1058
  67. Law CHL, McKay D, Tandan VR. Gallstone disease. In: McDonald JWD, Burroughs A, Feagan BG (Hrsg.). Evidence-based Gastroenterology and Child Health. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford 2004, S. 311-320
  68. Ashur H, Siegal B, Oland Y, Adam YG. Calcified gallbladder (porcelain gallbladder). Arch Surg 1978;113:594-596
  69. Towfigh S, McFadden DW, Cortina GR, et al. Porcelain gallbladder is not associated with gallbladder carcinoma. Am Surg 2001;67:7-10
  70. Stephen AE, Berger DL. Carcinoma in the porcelain gallbladder: a relationship revisited. Surgery 2001;129:699-703
  71. Diehl AK. Gallstone size and the risk of gallbladder cancer. JAMA 1983;250:2323-2326
  72. Lowenfels AB, Walker AM, Althaus DP, Townsend G, Domellof L. Gallstone growth, size, and risk of gallbladder cancer: an interracial study. Int J Epidemiol 1989;18:50-54
  73. Lowenfels AB, Lindstrom CG, Conway MJ, Hastings PR. Gallstones and risk of gallbladder cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 1985;75:77-80
  74. Jørgensen T, Jensen KH. Polyps in the gallbladder. A prevalence study. Scand J Gastroenterol 1990;25:281-286
  75. Chen CY, Lu CL, Chang FY, Lee SD. Risk factors for gallbladder polyps in the Chinese population. Am J Gastroenterol 1997;92:2066-2068
  76. Okamoto M, Okamoto H, Kitahara F, et al. Ultrasonographic evidence of association of polyps and stones with gallbladder cancer. Am J Gastroenterol 1999;94:446-450
  77. Myers RP, Shaffer EA, Beck PL. Gallbladder polyps: epidemiology, natural history and management. Can J Gastroenterol 2002;16:187-194
  78. Heyder N, Gunter E, Giedl J, Obenauf A, Hahn EG. Polypoide Läsionen der Gallenblase. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 1990;115:243-247
  79. Persley KM. Gallbladder polyps. Curr Treat Options Gastroenterol 2005;8:105-108
  80. Yang HL, Sun YG, Wang Z. Polypoid lesions of the gallbladder: diagnosis and indications for surgery. Br J Surg 1992;79:227-229
  81. Mainprize KS, Gould SW, Gilbert JM. Surgical management of polypoid lesions of the gallbladder. Br J Surg 2000;87:414-417
  82. Terzi C, Sokmen S, Seckin S, Albayrak L, Ugurlu M. Polypoid lesions of the gallbladder: report of 100 cases with special reference to operative indications. Surgery 2000;127:622-627
  83. Lee KF, Wong J, Li JC, Lai PB. Polypoid lesions of the gallbladder. Am J Surg 2004;188:186-190
  84. Moriguchi H, Tazawa J, Hayashi Y, et al. Natural history of polypoid lesions in the gall bladder. Gut 1996;39:860-862
  85. Csendes A, Burgos AM, Csendes P, Smok G, Rojas J. Late follow-up of polypoid lesions of the gallbladder smaller than 10 mm. Ann Surg 2001;234:657-660
  86. Koga A, Watanabe H, Fukuyama T. Diagnosis and operative indication for polypoid lesions of the gallbladder. Arch Surg 1988;123:26-29
  87. Kubota K, Bandai Y, Noie T, et al. How should polypoid lesions of the gallbladder be treated in the era of laparoscopic cholecystectomy? Surgery 1995;117:481-487
  88. Nürnberg D, Ignee A, Dietrich CF. Aktueller Stand der Sonographie in der Gstroenterologie. Biliopankreatisches System. Med Klinik 2007;102:112-126
  89. Azuma T, Yoshikawa T, Araida T, Takasaki K. Differential diagnosis of polypoid lesions of the gallbladder by endoscopic ultrasonography. Am J Surg 2001;181:65-70
  90. Sugiyama M, Atomi Y, Yamato T. Endoscopic ultrasonography for differential diagnosis of polypoid gall bladder lesions: analysis in surgical and follow up series. Gut 2000;46:250-254
  91. O'Brien PE, Dixon JB. A rational approach to cholelithiasis in bariatric surgery: its application to the laparoscopically placed adjustable gastric band. Arch Surg 2003;138:908-912
  92. Swartz DE, Felix EL. Elective cholecystectomy after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: why should asymptomatic gallstones be treated differently in morbidly obese patients? Surg Obes Relat Dis 2005;1:555-560
  93. Lapidus A, Bangstad M, Astrom M, Muhrbeck O. The prevalence of gallstone disease in a defined cohort of patients with Crohn's disease. Am J Gastroenterol 1999;94:1261-1266
  94. Fraquelli M, Losco A, Visentin S, et al. Gallstone disease and related risk factors in patients with Crohn disease: analysis of 330 consecutive cases. Arch Intern Med 2001;161:2201-2204
  95. Lindner H, Bauer H. Untersuchungen zur Gallenblasenmotitlität nach totaler Gastrektomie. Viszeralchirurgie 2002;327:299-304
  96. Kobayashi T, Hisanaga M, Kanehiro H, et al. Analysis of risk factors for the development of gallstones after gastrectomy. Br J Surg 2005;92:1399-1403
  97. Chew SS, Ngo TQ, Douglas PR, et al. Cholecystectomy in patients with Crohn's ileitis. Dis Colon Rectum 2003;46:1484-1488
  98. Thompson JS. The role of prophylactic cholecystectomy in the short-bowel syndrome. Arch Surg 1996;131:556-559
  99. Greenstein SM, Katz S, Sun S, et al. Prevalence of asymptomatic cholelithiasis and risk of acute cholecystitis after kidney transplantation. Transplantation 1997;63:1030-1032
  100. Melvin WS, Meier DJ, Elkhammas EA, et al. Prophylactic cholecystectomy is not indicated following renal transplantation. Am J Surg 1998;175:317-319
  101. Jackson T, Treleaven D, Arlen D, et al. Management of asymptomatic cholelithiasis for patients awaiting renal transplantation. Surg Endosc 2005;19:510-513
  102. Kao LS, Flowers C, Flum DR. Prophylactic cholecystectomy in transplant patients: a decision analysis. J Gastrointest Surg 2005;9:965-972
  103. Milas M, Ricketts RR, Amerson JR, Kanter K. Management of biliary tract stones in heart transplant patients. Ann Surg 1996;223:747-753
  104. Hüttl TP, Hrdina C, Krämling HJ, Schildberg FW, Meyer G. Gallstone surgery in German university hospitals. Development, complications and changing strategies. Langenbecks Arch Surg 2001;386:410-417
  105. Gleisberg C, Seidel JH, Bauer H, et al. Cholezystektomie. In: Bundesgeschäftsstelle Qualitätssicherung (Hrsg.). Qualität sichtbar machen BQS-Qualitätsbericht 2001. Düsseldorf 2002, S. 47-53
  106. Ludwig K, Köckerling F, Hohenberger W, Lorenz D. Die chirurgische Therapie der Cholecysto-/Choledocholithiasis. Ergebnisse einer deutschlandweiten Umfrage an 859 Kliniken mit 123.090 Cholecystektomien. Chirurg 2001;72:1171-1178
  107. Velanovich V, Morton JM, McDonald M, et al. Analysis of the SAGES outcomes initiative cholecystectomy registry. Surg Endosc 2006;20:43-50
  108. Keus F, de Jong JA, Gooszen HG, van Laarhoven CJ. Laparoscopic versus open cholecystectomy for patients with symptomatic cholecystolithiasis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006:CD006231
  109. Putensen-Himmer G, Putensen C, Lammer H, et al. Comparison of postoperative respiratory function after laparoscopy or open laparotomy for cholecystectomy. Anesthesiology 1992;77:675-680
  110. Agnifili A, Verzaro R, Colangeli A, Debernardinis G, Ibi I. Perioperative pulmonaryfunction, pain and stress-response after cholecystectomy performed via laparotomy or laparoscopy - comparison between laparoscopy and laparotomy. Minim Invasive Ther Allied Technol 1993;2:283-288
  111. Coelho JC, de Araujo RP, Marchesini JB, Coelho IC, de Araujo LR. Pulmonary function after cholecystectomy performed through Kocher's incision, a mini-incision, and laparoscopy. World J Surg 1993;17:544-546
  112. Garcia-Caballero M, Vara-Thorbeck C. The evolution of postoperative ileus after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. A comparative study with conventional cholecystectomy and sympathetic blockade treatment. Surg Endosc 1993;7:416-419
  113. Trondsen E, Reiertsen O, Andersen OK, Kjaersgaard P. Laparoscopic and open cholecystectomy. A prospective, randomized study. Eur J Surg 1993;159:217-221
  114. Berggren U, Gordh T, Grama D, et al. Laparoscopic versus open cholecystectomy: hospitalization, sick leave, analgesia and trauma responses. Br J Surg 1994;81:1362-1365
  115. Dionigi R, Dominioni L, Benevento A, et al. Effects of surgical trauma of laparoscopic vs. open cholecystectomy. Hepatogastroenterology 1994;41:471-476
  116. Kjaersgaard P, Reiertsen O, Trondsen E, Rosseland AR, Larsen S. Comparison of sequential and fixed-sample designs in a controlled clinical trial with laparoscopic versus conventional cholecystectomy. Scand J Gastroenterol 1994;29:854-858
  117. Milheiro A, Sousa FC, Manso EC, Leitao F. Metabolic responses to cholecystectomy: open vs. laparoscopic approach. J Laparoendosc Surg 1994;4:311-317
  118. Dauleh MI, Rahman S, Townell NH. Open versus laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a comparison of postoperative temperature. J R Coll Surg Edinb 1995;40:116-118
  119. Essen P, Thorell A, McNurlan MA, et al. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy does not prevent the postoperative protein catabolic response in muscle. Ann Surg 1995;222:36-42
  120. Huang SM, Wu CW, Lui WY, P'Eng FK. A prospective randomised study of laparoscopic v. open cholecystectomy in aged patients with cholecystolithiasis. S Afr J Surg 1996;34:177-179
  121. Koprulu G, Esen F, Pembeci K, Denkel T. Pulmonary mechanics during laparoscopic surgery. Adv Exp Med Biol 1996;388:643-646
  122. Ortega AE, Peters JH, Incarbone R, et al. A prospective randomized comparison of the metabolic and stress hormonal responses of laparoscopic and open cholecystectomy. J Am Coll Surg 1996;183:249-256
  123. Rovina N, Bouros D, Tzanakis N, et al. Effects of laparoscopic cholecystectomy on global respiratory muscle strength. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1996;153:458-461
  124. Gal I, Roth E, Lantos J, Varga G, Jaberansari MT. Inflammatory mediators and surgical trauma regarding laparoscopic access: free radical mediated reactions. Acta Chir Hung 1997;36:97-99
  125. Karayiannakis AJ, Makri GG, Mantzioka A, Karousos D, Karatzas G. Systemic stress response after laparoscopic or open cholecystectomy: a randomized trial. Br J Surg 1997;84:467-471
  126. Bellon JM, Manzano L, Larrad A, et al. Endocrine and immune response to injury after open and laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Int Surg 1998;83:24-27
  127. Chumillas MS, Ponce JL, Delgado F, Viciano V. Pulmonary function and complications after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Eur J Surg 1998;164:433-437
  128. Engin A, Bozkurt BS, Ersoy E, Oguz M, Gokcora N. Stress hyperglycemia in minimally invasive surgery. Surg Laparosc Endosc 1998;8:435-437
  129. Lujan JA, Sanchez-Bueno F, Parrilla P, et al. Laparoscopic vs. open cholecystectomy in patients aged 65 and older. Surg Laparosc Endosc 1998;8:208-210
  130. Volpino P, Cangemi V, D'Andrea N, Cangemi B, Piat G. Hemodynamic and pulmonary changes during and after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. A comparison with traditional surgery. Surg Endosc 1998;12:119-123
  131. Chaudhary D, Verma GR, Gupta R, Bose SM, Ganguly NK. Comparative evaluation of the inflammatory mediators in patients undergoing laparoscopic versus conventional cholecystectomy. Aust N Z J Surg 1999;69:369-372
  132. Lausten SB, Ibrahim TM, El-Sefi T, et al. Systemic and cell-mediated immune response after laparoscopic and open cholecystectomy in patients with chronic liver disease. A randomized, prospective study. Dig Surg 1999;16:471-477
  133. Le Blanc-Louvry I, Coquerel A, Koning E, Maillot C, Ducrotte P. Operative stress response s reduced after laparoscopic compared to open cholecystectomy: the relationship with postoperative pain and ileus. Dig Dis Sci 2000;45:1703-1713
  134. oskun I, Hatipoglu AR, Topaloglu A, et al. Laparoscopic versus open cholecystectomy: effect on pulmonary function tests. Hepatogastroenterology 2000;47:341-342
  135. Demirer S, Karadayi K, Simsek S, Erverdi N, Bumin C. Comparison of postoperative acute-phase reactants in patients who underwent laparoscopic vs open cholecystectomy: a randomized study. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A 2000;10:249-252
  136. Hendolin HI, Paakonen ME, Alhava EM, et al. Laparoscopic or open cholecystectomy: a prospective randomised trial to compare postoperative pain, pulmonary function, and stress response. Eur J Surg 2000;166:394-399
  137. Mimica Z, Biocic M, Bacic A, et al. Laparoscopic and laparotomic cholecystectomy: a randomized trial comparing postoperative respiratory function. Respiration 2000;67:153-158
  138. Prisco D, De Gaudio AR, Carla R, et al. Videolaparoscopic cholecystectomy induces a hemostasis activation of lower grade than does open surgery. Surg Endosc 2000;14:170-174
  139. Galizia G, Prizio G, Lieto E, et al. Hemodynamic and pulmonary changes during open, carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum and abdominal wall-lifting cholecystectomy. A prospective, randomized study. Surg Endosc 2001;15:477-483
  140. Hasukic S, Mesic D, Dizdarevic E, et al. Pulmonary function after laparoscopic and open cholecystectomy. Surg Endosc 2002;16:163-165
  141. Zulfikaroglu B, Koc M, Soran A, Isman FK, Cinel I. Evaluation of oxidative stress in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Surg Today 2002;32:869-874
  142. Luo K, Li JS, Li LT, Wang KH, Shun JM. Operative stress response and energy metabolism after laparoscopic cholecystectomy compared to open surgery. World J Gastroenterol 2003;9:847-850
  143. Bukan MH, Bukan N, Kaymakcioglu N, Tufan T. Effects of open vs. laparoscopic cholecystectomy on oxidative stress. Tohoku J Exp Med 2004;202:51-56
  144. Bosch F, Wehrman U, Saeger HD, Kirch W. Laparoscopic or open conventional cholecystectomy: clinical and economic considerations. Eur J Surg 2002;168:270-277
  145. Shea JA, Healey MJ, Berlin JA, et al. Mortality and complications associated with laparoscopic cholectystectomy. A meta-analysis. Ann Surg 1996;224:609-620
  146. Ludwig K, Bernhardt B, Wilhelm L, Czarnetzki HD. Gallenwegsverletzungen bei laparoskopischer Cholezystektomie. Viszeralchirurgie 2002;37:61-66
  147. Bundesgeschäftsstelle Qualitätssicherung. BQS-Bundesauswertung 2005 Cholezystektomie. Düsseldorf 2006, S. 1-26
  148. Schiedeck TH, Schulte T, Gunarsson R, Bruch HP. Laparoskopische Cholezystektomie bei akuter Cholezystitis. Minimal Invasive Chirurgie 1997;6:48-51
  149. Kiviluoto T, Siren J, Luukkonen P, Kivilaakso E. Randomised trial of laparoscopic versus open cholecystectomy for acute and gangrenous cholecystitis. Lancet 1998;31:321-325
  150. Johansson M, Thune A, Nelvin L, et al. Randomized clinical trial of open versus laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the treatment of acute cholecystitis. Br J Surg 2005;92:44-49
  151. Puggioni A, Wong LL. A metaanalysis of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in patients with cirrhosis. J Am Coll Surg 2003;197:921-926
  152. Currò G, Iapichino G, Melita G, Lorenzini C, Cucinotta E. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in Child-Pugh class C cirrhotic patients. JSLS 2005;9:311-315
  153. Perkins L, Jeffries M, Patel T. Utility of preoperative scores for predicting morbidity after cholecystectomy in patients with cirrhosis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2004;2:1123-1128
  154. Desai DC, Smink RD. Mirizzi syndrome type II: is laparoscopic cholecystectomy justified? JSLS 1997;1:237-239
  155. Yeh CN, Jan YY, Chen MF. Laparoscopic treatment for Mirizzi syndrome. Surg Endosc 2003;17:1573-1578
  156. Barkun JS, Barkun AN, Sampalis JS, et al. Randomised controlled trial of laparoscopic versus mini cholecystectomy. Lancet 1992;340:1116-1119
  157. Kunz R, Orth K, Vogel J, et al. Laparoskopische Cholezystektomie versus Mini-Lap- Cholezystektomie. Chirurg 1992;63:291-295
  158. Tate JJ, Lau WY, Leung KL, Li AK. Laparoscopic versus mini-incision cholecystectomy. Lancet 1993;341:1214-1215
  159. McMahon AJ, Russell IT, Baxter JN, et al. Laparoscopic versus minilaparotomy cholecystectomy: a randomised trial. Lancet 1994;343:135-138
  160. Redmond HP, Watson RW, Houghton T, et al. Immune function in patients undergoing open vs laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Arch Surg 1994;129:1240-1246
  161. McGinn FP, Miles AJ, Uglow M, et al. Randomized trial of laparoscopic cholecystectomy and mini-cholecystectomy. Br J Surg 1995;82:1374-1377
  162. Majeed AW, Troy G, Nicholl JP, et al. Randomised, prospective, single-blind comparison of laparoscopic versus small-incision cholecystectomy. Lancet 1996;347:989-994
  163. Bruce DM, Smith M, Walker CB, et al. Minimal access surgery for cholelithiasis induces an attenuated acute phase response. Am J Surg 1999;178:232-234
  164. Ros A, Gustafsson L, Krook H, et al. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy versus minilaparotomy cholecystectomy: a prospective, randomized, single-blind study. Ann Surg 2001;234:741-749
  165. Srivastava A, Srinivas G, Misra MC, et al. Cost-effectiveness analysis of laparoscopic versus minilaparotomy cholecystectomy for gallstone disease. A randomized trial. Int J Technol Assess Health Care 2001;17:497-502
  166. Grande M, Tucci GF, Adorisio O, et al. Systemic acute-phase response after laparoscopic and open cholecystectomy. Surg Endosc 2002;16:313-316
  167. Keus F, de Jong JA, Gooszen HG, van Laarhoven CJ. Laparoscopic versus smallincision cholecystectomy for patients with symptomatic cholecystolithiasis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006:CD006229
  168. Schwenk W, Neudecker J, Mall J, Böhm B, Müller JM. Prospective randomized blinded trial of pulmonary function, pain, and cosmetic results after laparoscopic vs. microlaparoscopic cholecystectomy. Surg Endosc 2000;14:345-348
  169. Cheah WK, Lenzi JE, So JB, Kum CK, Goh PM. Randomized trial of needlescopic versus laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Br J Surg 2001;88:45-47
  170. Bisgaard T, Klarskov B, Trap R, Kehlet H, Rosenberg J. Microlaparoscopic vs conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a prospective randomized double-blind trial. Surg Endosc 2002;16:458-464
  171. Huang MT, Wang W, Wei PL, Chen RJ, Lee WJ. Minilaparoscopic and laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a comparative study. Arch Surg 2003;138:1017-1023
  172. Hsieh CH. Early minilaparoscopic cholecystectomy in patients with acute cholecystitis. Am J Surg 2003;185:344-348
  173. Sarli L, Iusco D, Gobbi S, et al. Randomized clinical trial of laparoscopic cholecystectomy performed with mini-instruments. Br J Surg 2003;90:1345-1348
  174. Linden W, Sunzel H. Early versus delayed operation for acute cholecystitis. A controlled clinical trial. Am J Surg 1970;120:7-13
  175. Lahtinen J, Alhava EM, Aukee S. Acute cholecystitis treated by early and delayed surgery. A controlled clinical trial. Scand J Gastroenterol 1978;13:673-678
  176. Jarvinen HJ, Hastbacka J. Early cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis: a prospective randomized study. Ann Surg 1980;191:501-505
  177. Jaeger G, Rothenbühler JM, Famos M, Tondelli P. Wann soll die Cholecystektomie bei akuter Cholecystitis vorgenommen werden? Schweiz Med Wschr 1983;113:552-554
  178. Norrby S, Herlin P, Holmin T, Sjodahl R, Tagesson C. Early or delayed cholecystectomy in acute cholecystitis? A clinical trial. Br J Surg 1983;70:163-165
  179. Lo CM, Liu CL, Fan ST, Lai EC, Wong J. Prospective randomized study of early versus delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis. Ann Surg 1998;227:461-467
  180. Lai PB, Kwong KH, Leung KL, et al. Randomized trial of early versus delayed laporoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis. Br J Surg 1998;85:764-767
  181. Johansson M, Thune A, Blomqvist A, Nelvin L, Lundell L. Management of acute cholecystitis in the laparoscopic era: results of a prospective, randomized clinical trial. J Gastrointest Surg 2003;7:642-645
  182. Kolla SB, Aggarwal S, Kumar A, et al. Early versus delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis: a prospective randomized trial. Surg Endosc 2004;18:1323-1327
  183. Gurusamy KS, Samraj K. Early versus delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006:CD005440
  184. Papi C, Catarci M, D'Ambrosio L, et al. Timing of cholecystectomy for acute calculous cholecystitis: a meta-analysis. Am J Gastroenterol 2004;99:147-155
  185. Dietzel M, Lippert H, Gastinger I, Schramm H. Die "akute Galle" - laparoskopische Cholezystektomie häufig möglich. Ergebnisse einer Multizenterstudie der Ostdeutschen Arbeitsgruppe für Leistungserfassung und Qualitätssicherung in der Chirurgie. Zentralbl Chir 2000;125:547-551
  186. Madan AK, Aliabadi-Wahle S, Tesi D, Flint LM, Steinberg SM. How early is early laparoscopic treatment of acute cholecystitis? Am J Surg 2002;183:232-236
  187. Hatzidakis AA, Prassopoulos P, Petinarakis I, et al. Acute cholecystitis in high-risk patients: percutaneous cholecystostomy vs conservative treatment. Eur Radiol 2002;12:1778-1784
  188. Vetrhus M, Soreide O, Nesvik I, Sondenaa K. Acute cholecystitis: delayed surgery or observation. A randomized clinical trial. Scand J Gastroenterol 2003;38:985-990
  189. Ito K, Fujita N, Noda Y, et al. Percutaneous cholecystostomy versus gallbladder aspiration for acute cholecystitis: a prospective randomized controlled trial. Am J Roentgenol 2004;183:193-196
  190. Akyürek N, Salman B, Yuksel O, et al. Management of acute calculous cholecystitis in high-risk patients: percutaneous cholecystotomy followed by early laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech 2005;15:315-320
  191. Schwesinger WH, Sirinek KR, Strodel WE. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy for biliary tract emergencies: state of the art. World J Surg 1999;23:334-342
  192. Garber SM, Korman J, Cosgrove JM, Cohen JR. Early laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis. Surg Endosc 1997;11:347-350
  193. Wilson RG, Macintyre IM, Nixon SJ, et al. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy as a safe and effective treatment for severe acute cholecystitis. Br Med J 1992;305:394-396
  194. Bedirli A, Sakrak O, Sozuer EM, Kerek M, Guler I. Factors effecting the complications in the natural history of acute cholecystitis. Hepatogastroenterology 2001;48:1275-1278
  195. Clavien PA, Richon J, Burgan S, Rohner A. Gallstone ileus. Br J Surg 1990;77:737-742
  196. Misawa T, Koike M, Suzuki K, et al. Ultrasonographic assessment of the risk of injury to branches of the middle hepatic vein during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Am J Surg 1999;178:418-421
  197. Kebudi A, Halefoglu AM, Yetkin G, Isgor A, Goktas C. Role of preoperative color Doppler ultrasound scan in the evaluation of the risk of injury of major branches of the middle hepatic vein during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Int Surg 2002;87:236-239
  198. Shen BY, Li HW, Chen M, et al. Color Doppler ultrasonographic assessment of the risk of injury to major branch of the middle hepatic vein during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int 2003;2:126-130
  199. Yau HM, Lee KT, Kao EL, et al. Color Doppler ultrasound detection and classification of the tangential hepatic vein before laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Surg Endosc 2005;19:1377-1380
  200. Zhang WZ, Shen J, Xie JX, Zhu H. Color Doppler ultrasonographic examination on the relationship between the gallbladder bed and major branch of the middle hepatic vein. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int 2005;4:299-301
  201. Abboud PA, Malet PF, Berlin JA, et al. Predictors of common bile duct stones prior to cholecystectomy: a meta-analysis. Gastrointest Endosc 1996;44:450-455
  202. Trondsen E, Edwin B, Reiertsen O, et al. Prediction of common bile duct stones prior to cholecystectomy: a prospective validation of a discriminant analysis function. Arch Surg 1998;133:162-166
  203. Ritz J, Germer C, Buhr H. Preoperative routine chest x-ray: expensive and of little value. Langenbecks Arch Chir Suppl Kongressbd 1997;114:1051-1053
  204. Fahlke J, Ridwelski K, Manger T, Grote R, Lippert H. Diagnostic workup before laparoscopic cholecystectomy - which diagnostic tools should be used? Hepatogastroenterology 2001;48:59-65
  205. Zehetner J, Shamiyeh A, Wayanad W. Choelcystolithiasis - Update 2006. In: Neugebauer EA, Sauerland S, Fingerhut A, Millat B, Buess G (Hrsg.). EAES Guidelines for Endoscpic Surgery Twelve Years Evidenced-Based Surgery in Europe. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 2006, S. 291-295
  206. Misra S, Chaturvedi A, Misra NC, Sharma ID. Carcinoma of the gallbladder. Lancet Oncol 2003;4:167-176
  207. Wiedmann M, Schoppmeyer K, Witzigmann H, et al. Aktuelle Diagnostik und Therapie von Gallengangs- und Gallenblasenkarzinomen. Z Gastroenterol 2005;43:305-315
  208. Kim EK, Lee SK, Kim WW. Does laparoscopic surgery have a role in the treatment of gallbladder cancer? J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg 2002;9:559-563
  209. Shimizu T, Arima Y, Yokomuro S, et al. Incidental gallbladder cancer diagnosed during and after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. J Nippon Med Sch 2006;73:136-140
  210. Wakai T, Shirai Y, Yokoyama N, et al. Early gallbladder carcinoma does not warrant radical resection. Br J Surg 2001;88:675-678
  211. Ouchi K, Mikuni J, Kakugawa Y. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy for gallbladder carcinoma: results of a Japanese survey of 498 patients. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg 2002;9:256-260
  212. Yeh CN, Jan YY, Chen MF. Management of unsuspected gallbladder carcinoma discovered during or following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Am Surg 2004;70:256-258
  213. Sun CD, Zhang BY, Wu LQ, Lee WJ. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy for treatment of unexpected early-stage gallbladder cancer. J Surg Oncol 2005;91:253-257
  214. Kraas E, Frauenschuh D, Farke S. Intraoperative suspicion of gallbladder carcinoma in laparoscopic surgery: what to do? Dig Surg 2002;19:489-493
  215. Wakai T, Shirai Y, Hatakeyama K. Radical second resection provides survival benefit for patients with T2 gallbladder carcinoma first discovered after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. World J Surg 2002;26:867-871
  216. Shirai Y, Yoshida K, Tsukada K, Muto T. Inapparent carcinoma of the gallbladder. An appraisal of a radical second operation after simple cholecystectomy. Ann Surg 1992;215:326-331
  217. Yamaguchi K, Chijiiwa K, Saiki S, et al. Retrospective analysis of 70 operations for gallbladder carcinoma. Br J Surg 1997;84:200-204
  218. Suzuki S, Yokoi Y, Kurachi K, et al. Appraisal of surgical treatment for pT2 gallbladder carcinomas. World J Surg 2004;28:160-165
  219. Kondo S, Nimura Y, Hayakawa N, et al. Regional and para-aortic lymphadenectomy in radical surgery for advanced gallbladder carcinoma. Br J Surg 2000;87:418-422
  220. Lundberg O, Kristoffersson A. Port site metastases from gallbladder cancer after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Results of a Swedish survey and review of published reports. Eur J Surg 1999;165:215-222
  221. Paolucci V, Schaeff B, Schneider M, Gutt C. Tumor seeding following laparoscopy: international survey. World J Surg 1999;23:989-995
  222. Sicklick JK, Choti MA. Controversies in the surgical management of cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder cancer. Semin Oncol 2005;32:S112-117
  223. Takada T, Amano H, Yasuda H, et al. Is postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy useful for gallbladder carcinoma? A phase III multicenter prospective randomized controlled trial in atients with resected pancreaticobiliary carcinoma. Cancer 2002;95:1685-1695
  224. Kubicka S. Cholangiozelluläres Karzinom und Gallenblasenkarzinom. Z Gastroenterol 2004;42:397-402
  225. Ko CW, Beresford SA, Schulte SJ, Matsumoto AM, Lee SP. Incidence, natural history, and risk factors for biliary sludge and stones during pregnancy. Hepatology 2005;41:359-365
  226. Ko CW. Risk factors for gallstone-related hospitalization during pregnancy and the postpartum. Am J Gastroenterol 2006;101:2263-2268
  227. Hiatt JR, Hiatt JC, Williams RA, Klein SR. Biliary disease in pregnancy: strategy for surgical management. Am J Surg 1986;151:263-265
  228. McKellar DP, Anderson CT, Boynton CJ, Peoples JB. Cholecystectomy during pregnancy without fetal loss. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1992;174:465-468
  229. Ghumman E, Barry M, Grace PA. Management of gallstones in pregnancy. Br J Surg 1997;84:1646-1650
  230. Lu EJ, Curet MJ, El-Sayed YY, Kirkwood KS. Medical versus surgical management of biliary tract disease in pregnancy. Am J Surg 2004;188:755-759
  231. Steinbrook RA, Brooks DC, Datta S. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy during pregnancy. Review of anesthetic management, surgical considerations. Surg Endosc 1996;10:511-515
  232. Glasgow RE, Visser BC, Harris HW, et al. Changing management of gallstone disease during pregnancy. Surg Endosc 1998;12:241-246
  233. Cosenza CA, Saffari B, Jabbour N, et al. Surgical management of biliary gallstone disease during pregnancy. Am J Surg 1999;178:545-548
  234. Neudecker J, Sauerland S, Neugebauer EA, et al. The EAES clinical practice guidelines on the pneumoperitoenum for laparoscopic surgery (2002). In: Neugebauer EA, Sauerland S, Fingerhut A, Millat B, Buess G (Hrsg.). EAES Guidelines for Endoscopic Surgery Twelve Years Evidence-Based Surgery in Europe. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 2006, S. 39-85
  235. Curet MJ. Laparoscopy during pregnancy. In: Scott-Conner CE (Hrsg.). The SAGES manual Fundamentals of laparoscopy, thoracoscopy, and GI endoscopy. Springer, New York 2006, S. 84-89
  236. May GR, Sutherland LR, Shaffer EA. Efficacy of bile acid therapy for gallstone dissolution: a meta-analysis of randomized trials. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1993;7:139-148
  237. Petroni ML, Jazrawi RP, Pazzi P, et al. Ursodeoxycholic acid alone or with chenodeoxycholic acid for dissolution of cholesterol gallstones: a randomized multicentre trial. The British-Italian Gallstone Study group. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2001;15:123-128
  238. Frigerio G. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in the treatment of dyspepsia: report of a multicenter controlled trial. Current Therapeutic Research 1979;26:214-223
  239. Inter-Hospital Clinical Research Group (G.I.R.C.). Effect of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) on dyspesia in patients with gallstones or other biliary tract anomalies. Current Therapeutic Research 1979;26:230-233
  240. Tomida S, Abei M, Yamaguchi T, et al. Long-term ursodeoxycholic acid therapy is associated with reduced risk of biliary pain and acute cholecystitis in patients with gallbladder stones: a cohort analysis. Hepatology 1999;30:6-13
  241. Paumgartner G. Strategies in the treatment of gallstone disease. Working team report. Gastroenterology International 1993;6:65-75
  242. Pauletzki J, Sailer C, Klüppelberg U, et al. Gallbladder emptying determines early gallstone clearance after shock-wave lithotripsy. Gastroenterology 1994;107:1496- 1502
  243. Wermke W. Ultrasonic diagnosis of gallstone disease. Z Gesamte Inn Med 1989;44:377-382
  244. Walters JR, Hood KA, Gleeson D, et al. Combination therapy with oral ursodeoxycholic and chenodeoxycholic acids: pretreatment computed tomography of the gall bladder improves gall stone dissolution efficacy. Gut 1992;33:375-380
  245. Jazrawi RP, Pigozzi MG, Galatola G, Lanzini A, Northfield TC. Optimum bile acid treatment for rapid gall stone dissolution. Gut 1992;33:381-386
  246. Podda M, Zuin M, Battezzati PM, et al. Efficacy and safety of a combination of chenodeoxycholic acid and ursodeoxycholic acid for gallstone dissolution: a comparison with ursodeoxycholic acid alone. Gastroenterology 1989;96:222-229
  247. Janssen J, Johanns W, Weickert U, Rahmatian M, Greiner L. Long-term results after successful extracorporeal gallstone lithotripsy: outcome of the first 120 stone-free patients. Scand J Gastroenterol 2001;36:314-317
  248. Lanzini A, Jazrawi RP, Kupfer RM, et al. Gallstone recurrence after medical dissolution. An overestimated threat? J Hepatol 1986;3:241-246
  249. Petroni ML, Jazrawi RP, Goggin PM, et al. Characteristics of recurrent gallstones following non-surgical treatment: implications for retreatment. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1991;3:473-478
  250. Sackmann M, Pauletzki J, Aydemir U, et al. Efficacy and safety of ursodeoxycholic acid for dissolution of gallstone fragments: comparison with the combination of ursodeoxycholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid. Hepatology 1991;14:1136-1141
  251. Sackmann M, Niller H, Klüppelberg U, et al. Gallstone recurrence after shock-wave therapy. Gastroenterology 1994;106:225-230
  252. Pelletier G, Raymond JM, Capdeville R, Mosnier H, Caroli-Bosc FX. Gallstone recurrence after successful lithotripsy. J Hepatol 1995;23:420-423
  253. Cesmeli E, Elewaut AE, Kerre T, et al. Gallstone recurrence after successful shock wave therapy: the magnitude of the problem and the predictive factors. Am J Gastroenterol 1999;94:474-479
  254. Tsumita R, Sugiura N, Abe A, et al. Long-term evaluation of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy for cholesterol gallstones. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2001;16:93-99
  255. Rabenstein T, Radespiel-Tröger M, Höpfner L, et al. Ten years experience with piezoelectric extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy of gallbladder stones. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2005;17:629-639
  256. Venneman NG, van Berge-Henegouwen GP, Portincasa P, et al. Absence of apolipoprotein E4 genotype, good gallbladder motility and presence of solitary stones delay rather than prevent gallstone recurrence after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. J Hepatol 2001;35:10-16
  257. Carrilho-Ribeiro L, Pinto-Correia A, Velosa J, Carneiro De Moura M. A ten-year prospective study on gallbladder stone recurrence after successful extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy. Scand J Gastroenterol 2006;41:338-342
  258. Pauletzki J, Althaus R, Holl J, Sackmann M, Paumgartner G. Gallbladder emptying and gallstone formation: a prospective study on gallstone recurrence. Gastroenterology 1996;111:765-771
  259. Ochi H, Tazuma S, Kajihara T, et al. Factors affecting gallstone recurrence after successful extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. J Clin Gastroenterol 2000;31:230- 232
  260. Petroni ML, Jazrawi RP, Pazzi P, et al. Risk factors for the development of gallstone recurrence following medical dissolution. The British-Italian Gallstone Study Group. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2000;12:695-700
  261. Tazuma S, Nishioka T, Ochi H, et al. Impaired gallbladder mucosal function in aged gallstone patients suppresses gallstone recurrence after successful extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2003;18:157-161
  262. Adamek HE, Rochlitz C, von Bubnoff AC, Schilling D, Riemann JF. Predictions and associations of cholecystectomy in patients with cholecystolithiasis treated with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Dig Dis Sci 2004;49:1938-1942
  263. Sonnenberg A, Benninger J, Ell C. Kostenvergleich zwischen der laparoskopischen Cholezystektomie und der extrakorporalen Stoßwellenlithotripsie in der Behandlung von Gallenblasensteinen. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 1994;119:1532-1537
  264. Go PM, Stolk MF, Obertop H, et al. Symptomatic gallbladder stones. Costeffectiveness of treatment with extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy, conventional and laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Surg Endosc 1995;9:37-41
  265. Neubrand M, Holl J, Sackmann M, et al. Combination of extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy and dissolution of gallbladder stones with methyl tert-butyl ether: a randomized study. Hepatology 1994;19:133-137
  266. Pauletzki J, Holl J, Sackmann M, et al. Gallstone recurrence after direct contact dissolution with methyl tert-butyl ether. Dig Dis Sci 1995;40:1775-1781
  267. Hellstern A, Leuschner U, Benjaminov A, et al. Dissolution of gallbladder stones with methyl-tert-butyl ether and stone recurrence: a European survey. Dig Dis Sci 1998;43:911-920
  268. Maclure KM, Hayes KC, Colditz GA, et al. Weight, diet, and the risk of symptomatic gallstones in middle-aged women. N Engl J Med 1989;321:563-569
  269. Tsai CJ, Leitzmann MF, Willett WC, Giovannucci EL. Central adiposity, regional fat distribution, and the risk of cholecystectomy in women. Gut 2006;55:708-714
  270. Ortega RM, Fernandez-Azuela M, Encinas-Sotillos A, Andres P, Lopez-Sobaler AM. Differences in diet and food habits between patients with gallstones and controls. J Am Coll Nutr 1997;16:88-95
  271. Leitzmann MF, Giovannucci EL, Rimm EB, et al. The relation of physical activity to risk for symptomatic gallstone disease in men. Ann Intern Med 1998;128:417-425
  272. Leitzmann MF, Rimm EB, Willett WC, et al. Recreational physical activity and the risk of cholecystectomy in women. N Engl J Med 1999;341:777-784
  273. Misciagna G, Centonze S, Leoci C, et al. Diet, physical activity, and gallstones - a population-based, case-control study in southern Italy. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:120-126
  274. Broomfield PH, Chopra R, Sheinbaum RC, et al. Effects of ursodeoxycholic acid and aspirin on the formation of lithogenic bile and gallstones during loss of weight. N Engl J Med 1988;319:1567-1572
  275. Liddle RA, Goldstein RB, Saxton J. Gallstone formation during weight-reduction dieting. Arch Intern Med 1989;149:1750-1753
  276. Yang H, Petersen GM, Roth MP, Schoenfield LJ, Marks JW. Risk factors for gallstone formation during rapid loss of weight. Dig Dis Sci 1992;37:912-918
  277. Weinsier RL, Wilson LJ, Lee J. Medically safe rate of weight loss for the treatment of obesity: a guideline based on risk of gallstone formation. Am J Med 1995;98:115-117
  278. Syngal S, Coakley EH, Willett WC, et al. Long-term weight patterns and risk for cholecystectomy in women. Ann Intern Med 1999;130:471-477
  279. Tsai CJ, Leitzmann MF, Willett WC, Giovannucci EL. Weight cycling and risk of gallstone disease in men. Arch Intern Med 2006;166:2369-2374
  280. Williams C, Gowan R, Perey BJ. A double-blind placebo-controlled trial of ursodeoxycholic acid in the prevention of gallstones during weight loss after vertical banded gastroplasty. Obes Surg 1993;3:257-259
  281. Worobetz LJ, Inglis FG, Shaffer EA. The effect of ursodeoxycholic acid therapy on gallstone formation in the morbidly obese during rapid weight loss. Am J Gastroenterol 1993;88:1705-1710
  282. Shiffman ML, Kaplan GD, Brinkman-Kaplan V, Vickers FF. Prophylaxis against gallstone formation with ursodeoxycholic acid in patients participating in a very-lowcalorie diet program. Ann Intern Med 1995;122:899-905
  283. Sugerman HJ, Brewer WH, Shiffman ML, et al. A multicenter, placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind, prospective trial of prophylactic ursodiol for the prevention of gallstone formation following gastric-bypass-induced rapid weight loss. Am J Surg 1995;169:91-96
  284. Wudel LJ, Wright JK, Debelak JP, et al. Prevention of gallstone formation in morbidly obese patients undergoing rapid weight loss: results of a randomized controlled pilot study. J Surg Res 2002;102:50-56
  285. Miller K, Hell E, Lang B, Lengauer E. Gallstone formation prophylaxis after gastric restrictive procedures for weight loss: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Ann Surg 2003;238:697-702
  286. Shoheiber O, Biskupiak JE, Nash DB. Estimation of the cost savings resulting from the use of ursodiol for the prevention of gallstones in obese patients undergoing rapid weight reduction. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1997;21:1038-1045
  287. Schmieder G, Stankov G, Zerle G, Schinzel S, Brune K. Observer-blind study with metamizole versus tramadol and butylscopolamine in acute biliary colic pain. Arzneimittelforschung 1993;43:1216-1221
  288. Staritz M, Poralla T, Manns M, Meyer zum Büschenfelde KH. Effect of modern analgesic drugs (tramadol, pentazocine, and buprenorphine) on the bile duct sphincter in man. Gut 1986;27:567-569
  289. Cuer JC, Dapoigny M, Ajmi S, et al. Effects of buprenorphine on motor activity of the sphincter of Oddi in man. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1989;36:203-204
  290. Wu SD, Zhang ZH, Jin JZ, et al. Effects of narcotic analgesic drugs on human Oddi's sphincter motility. World J Gastroenterol 2004;10:2901-2904
  291. Hassel B. Treatment of biliary colic with nitroglycerin. Lancet 1993;342:1305
  292. Goldman G, Kahn PJ, Alon R, Wiznitzer T. Biliary colic treatment and acute cholecystitis prevention by prostaglandin inhibitor. Dig Dis Sci 1989;34:809-811
  293. Akriviadis EA, Hatzigavriel M, Kapnias D, et al. Treatment of biliary colic with diclofenac: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Gastroenterology 1997;113:225-231
  294. Thornell E, Jansson R, Svanvik J. Indomethacin intravenously - a new way for effective relief of biliary pain: a double-blind study in man. Surgery 1981;90:468-472
  295. Thornell E, Nilsson B, Jansson R, Svanvik J. Effect of short-term indomethacin treatment on the clinical course of acute obstructive cholecystitis. Eur J Surg 1991;157:127-130
  296. Kumar A, Deed JS, Bhasin B, Kumar A, Thomas S. Comparison of the effect of diclofenac with hyoscine-N-butylbromide in the symptomatic treatment of acute biliary colic. ANZ J Surg 2004;74:573-576
  297. Shim CS, Joo JH, Park CW, et al. Effectiveness of endoscopic ultrasonography in the diagnosis of choledocholithiasis prior to laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Endoscopy 1995;27:428-432
  298. Sugiyama M, Atomi Y. Endoscopic ultrasonography for diagnosing choledocholithiasis: a prospective comparative study with ultrasonography and computed tomography. Gastrointest Endosc 1997;45:143-146
  299. Sugiyama M, Atomi Y. Acute biliary pancreatitis: the roles of endoscopic ultrasonography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Surgery 1998;124:14-21
  300. Chak A, Hawes RH, Cooper GS, et al. Prospective assessment of the utility of EUS in the evaluation of gallstone pancreatitis. Gastrointest Endosc 1999;49:599-604
  301. Varghese JC, Liddell RP, Farrell MA, et al. The diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and ultrasound compared with direct cholangiography in the detection of choledocholithiasis. Clin Radiol 1999;54:604-614
  302. Cwik G, Wallner G, Ciechanski A, et al. Endoscopic sphincterotomy in 100 patients cheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy: ultrasound evaluation. Hepatogastroenterology 2003;50:1225-1228
  303. Rickes S, Treiber G, Mönkemüller K, et al. Impact of the operator's experience on value of high-resolution transabdominal ultrasound in the diagnosis of choledocholithiasis: a prospective comparison using endoscopic retrograde cholangiography as the gold standard. Scand J Gastroenterol 2006;41:838-843
  304. Thornton JR, Lobo AJ, Lintott DJ, Axon AT. Value of ultrasound and liver function tests in determining the need for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in unexplained abdominal pain. Gut 1992;33:1559-1561
  305. Majeed AW, Ross B, Johnson AG, Reed MW. Common duct diameter as an independent predictor of choledocholithiasis: is it useful? Clin Radiol 1999;54:170-172
  306. Aronson N, Flamm CR, Mark D, et al. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Evid Rep Technol Assess 2002;50:1-369
  307. Barkun AN, Barkun JS, Fried GM, et al. Useful predictors of bile duct stones in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. McGill Gallstone Treatment Group. Ann Surg 1994;220:32-39
  308. Koo KP, Traverso LW. Do preoperative indicators predict the presence of common bile duct stones during laparoscopic cholecystectomy? Am J Surg 1996;171:495-499
  309. Onken JE, Brazer SR, Eisen GM, et al. Predicting the presence of choledocholithiasis in patients with symptomatic cholelithiasis. Am J Gastroenterol 1996;91:762-767
  310. Santucci L, Natalini G, Sarpi L, et al. Selective endoscopic retrograde cholangiography and preoperative bile duct stone removal in patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a prospective study. Am J Gastroenterol 1996;91:1326-1330
  311. Alponat A, Kum CK, Rajnakova A, Koh BC, Goh PM. Predictive factors for synchronous common bile duct stones in patients with cholelithiasis. Surg Endosc 1997;11:928-932
  312. Kim KH, Kim W, Lee HI, Sung CK. Prediction of common bile duct stones: its validation in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Hepatogastroenterology 1997;44:1574-1579
  313. Bergamaschi R, Tuech JJ, Braconier L, et al. Selective endoscopic retrograde cholangiography prior to laparoscopic cholecystectomy for gallstones. Am J Surg 1999;178:46-49
  314. Masci E, Fanti L, Mariani A, et al. Selection criteria for pre-operative endoscopic retrograde cholangiography and endoscopic-laparoscopic treatment of biliary stones. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1999;11:781-784
  315. Prat F, Meduri B, Ducot B, et al. Prediction of common bile duct stones by noninvasive tests. Ann Surg 1999;229:362-368
  316. Sahai AV, Mauldin PD, Marsi V, Hawes RH, Hoffman BJ. Bile duct stones and laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a decision analysis to assess the roles of intraoperative cholangiography, EUS, and ERCP. Gastrointest Endosc 1999;49:334-343
  317. Kama NA, Atli M, Doganay M, et al. Practical recommendations for the prediction and management of common bile duct stones in patients with gallstones. Surg Endosc 2001;15:942-945
  318. Liu TH, Consorti ET, Kawashima A, et al. Patient evaluation and management with selective use of magnetic resonance cholangiography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography before laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Ann Surg 2001;234:33-40
  319. Luman W, Chan ES. Mathematical model for predicting biliary therapeutic endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERCP). Dig Liver Dis 2003;35:486-492
  320. Sarli L, Costi R, Gobbi S, et al. Scoring system to predict asymptomatic choledocholithiasis before laparoscopic cholecystectomy. A matched case-control study. Surg Endosc 2003;17:1396-1403
  321. Cohen S, Bacon BR, Berlin JA, et al. NIH state-of-the-science statement on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for diagnosis and therapy. NIH Consensus State Sci Statements 2002;19:1-26
  322. Palazzo L, Girollet PP, Salmeron M, et al. Value of endoscopic ultrasonography in the diagnosis of common bile duct stones: comparison with surgical exploration and ERCP. Gastrointest Endosc 1995;42:225-231
  323. Liu CL, Lo CM, Chan JK, et al. Detection of choledocholithiasis by EUS in acute pancreatitis: a prospective evaluation in 100 consecutive patients. Gastrointest Endosc 2001;54:325-330
  324. Tseng LJ, Jao YT, Mo LR, Lin RC. Over-the-wire US catheter probe as an adjunct to ERCP in the detection of choledocholithiasis. Gastrointest Endosc 2001;54:720-723
  325. Moon JH, Cho YD, Cha SW, et al. The detection of bile duct stones in suspected biliary pancreatitis: comparison of MRCP, ERCP, and intraductal US. Am J Gastroenterol 2005;100:1051-1057
  326. Johnson AG, Hosking SW. Appraisal of the management of bile duct stones. Br J Surg 1987;74:555-560
  327. Murison MS, Gartell PC, McGinn FP. Does selective peroperative cholangiography result in missed common bile duct stones? J R Coll Surg Edinb 1993;38:220-224
  328. Dancygier H, Nattermann C. The role of endoscopic ultrasonography in biliary tract disease: obstructive jaundice. Endoscopy 1994;26:800-802
  329. Prat F, Amouyal G, Amouyal P, et al. Prospective controlled study of endoscopic ultrasonography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiography in patients with suspected common-bileduct lithiasis. Lancet 1996;347:75-79
  330. Norton SA, Alderson D. Prospective comparison of endoscopic ultrasonography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in the detection of bile duct stones. Br J Surg 1997;84:1366-1369
  331. Canto MI, Chak A, Stellato T, Sivak MV. Endoscopic ultrasonography versus cholangiography for the diagnosis of choledocholithiasis. Gastrointest Endosc 1998;47:439-448
  332. De Ledinghen V, Lecesne R, Raymond JM, et al. Diagnosis of choledocholithiasis: EUS or magnetic resonance cholangiography? A prospective controlled study. Gastrointest Endosc 1999;49:26-31
  333. Polkowski M, Palucki J, Regula J, Tilszer A, Butruk E. Helical computed tomographic cholangiography versus endosonography for suspected bile duct stones: a prospective blinded study in non-jaundiced patients. Gut 1999;45:744-749
  334. Materne R, van Beers BE, Gigot JF, et al. Extrahepatic biliary obstruction: magnetic resonance imaging compared with endoscopic ultrasonography. Endoscopy 2000;32:3-9
  335. Scheiman JM, Carlos RC, Barnett JL, et al. Can endoscopic ultrasound or magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography replace ERCP in patients with suspected biliary disease? A prospective trial and cost analysis. Am J Gastroenterol 2001;96:2900-2904
  336. Ainsworth AP, Rafaelsen SR, Wamberg PA, et al. Is there a difference in diagnostic accuracy and clinical impact between endoscopic ultrasonography and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography? Endoscopy 2003;35:1029-1032
  337. Buscarini E, Tansini P, Vallisa D, Zambelli A, Buscarini L. EUS for suspected choledocholithiasis: do benefits outweigh costs? A prospective, controlled study. Gastrointest Endosc 2003;57:510-518
  338. Napoleon B, Dumortier J, Keriven-Souquet O, et al. Do normal findings at biliary endoscopic ultrasonography obviate the need for endoscopic retrograde cholangiography in patients with suspicion of common bile duct stone? A prospective follow-up study of 238 patients. Endoscopy 2003;35:411-415
  339. Thorboll J, Vilmann P, Jacobsen B, Hassan H. Endoscopic ultrasonography in detection of cholelithiasis in patients with biliary pain and negative transabdominal ultrasonography. Scand J Gastroenterol 2004;39:267-269
  340. Tse F, Barkun JS, Barkun AN. The elective evaluation of patients with suspected choledocholithiasis undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Gastrointest Endosc 2004;60:437-448
  341. Aubé C, Delorme B, Yzet T, et al. MR cholangiopancreatography versus endoscopic sonography in suspected common bile duct lithiasis: a prospective, comparative study. Am J Roentgenol 2005;184:55-62
  342. Kondo S, Isayama H, Akahane M, et al. Detection of common bile duct stones: comparison between endoscopic ultrasonography, magnetic resonance cholangiography, and helical-computed-tomographic cholangiography. Eur J Radiol 2005;54:271-275
  343. Mirbagheri SA, Mohamadnejad M, Nasiri J, et al. Prospective evaluation of endoscopic ultrasonography in the diagnosis of biliary microlithiasis in patients with normal transabdominal ultrasonography. J Gastrointest Surg 2005;9:961-964
  344. Ney MV, Maluf-Filho F, Sakai P, et al. Echo-endoscopy versus endoscopic retrograde cholangiography for the diagnosis of choledocholithiasis: the influence of the size of the stone and diameter of the common bile duct. Arq Gastroenterol 2005;42:239-243
  345. Guibaud L, Bret PM, Reinhold C, Atri M, Barkun AN. Bile duct obstruction and choledocholithiasis: diagnosis with MR cholangiography. Radiology 1995;197:109-115
  346. Chan YL, Chan AC, Lam WW, et al. Choledocholithiasis: comparison of MR cholangiography and ndoscopic retrograde cholangiography. Radiology 1996;200:85-89
  347. Reuther G, Kiefer B, Tuchmann A, Pesendorfer FX. MRCholangiopankreatikographie als inzelschussprojektion: Erfahrungen und Ergebnisse bei 200 Untersuchungen. Röfo 1996;165:535-543
  348. Pavone P, Laghi A, Lomanto D, et al. MR cholangiography (MRC) in the evaluation of CBD tones before laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Surg Endosc 1997;11:982-985
  349. Adamek HE, Albert J, Weitz M, et al. A prospective evaluation of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in patients with suspected bile duct obstruction. Gut 1998;43:680-683
  350. Holzknecht N, Gauger J, Sackmann M, et al. Breath-hold MR cholangiography with snapshot echniques: prospective comparison with endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. Radiology 1998;206:657-664
  351. Lomas DJ, Bearcroft PW, Gimson AE. MR cholangiopancreatography: prospective comparison of reath-hold 2D projection technique with diagnostic ERCP. Eur Radiol 1999;9:1411-1417
  352. Zidi SH, Prat F, Le Guen O, et al. Use of magnetic resonance cholangiography in the diagnosis of choledocholithiasis: prospective comparison with a reference imaging method. Gut 999;44:118-122
  353. Angulo P, Pearce DH, Johnson CD, et al. Magnetic resonance cholangiography in patients with biliary disease: its role in primary sclerosing cholangitis. J Hepatol 2000;33:520-527
  354. Demartines N, Eisner L, Schnabel K, et al. Evaluation of magnetic resonance cholangiography in the management of bile duct stones. Arch Surg 2000;135:148-152
  355. Soto JA, Alvarez O, Munera F, et al. Diagnosing bile duct stones: comparison of unenhanced helical CT, oral contrast-enhanced CT cholangiography, and MR cholangiography. Am J Roentgenol 2000;175:1127-1134
  356. Soto JA, Barish MA, Alvarez O, Medina S. Detection of choledocholithiasis with MR cholangiography: comparison of three-dimensional fast spin-echo and single- and multisection half-Fourier rapid acquisition with relaxation enhancement sequences. Radiology 2000;215:737-745
  357. Stiris MG, Tennoe B, Aadland E, Lunde OC. MR cholangiopancreaticography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography in patients with suspected common bile duct stones. Acta Radiol 2000;41:269-272
  358. Laokpessi A, Bouillet P, Sautereau D, et al. Value of magnetic resonance cholangiography in the preoperative diagnosis of common bile duct stones. Am J Gastroenterol 2001;96:2354-2359
  359. Boraschi P, Gigoni R, Braccini G, et al. Detection of common bile duct stones before laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Evaluation with MR cholangiography. Acta Radiol 2002;43:593-598
  360. Calvo MM, Bujanda L, Calderon A, et al. Role of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in patients with suspected choledocholithiasis. Mayo Clin Proc 2002;77:422-428
  361. Hakansson K, Ekberg O, Hakansson HO, Leander P. MR and ultrasound in screening of patients with suspected biliary tract disease. Acta Radiol 2002;43:80-86
  362. Hussein FM, Alsumait B, Aman S, et al. Diagnosis of choledocholithiasis and bile duct stenosis by magnetic resonance cholangiogram. Australas Radiol 2002;46:41-46
  363. Jendresen MB, Thorboll JE, Adamsen S, et al. Preoperative routine magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography before laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a prospective study. Eur J Surg 2002;168:690-694
  364. Kim TK, Kim BS, Kim JH, et al. Diagnosis of intrahepatic stones: superiority of MR cholangiopancreatography over endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Am J Roentgenol 2002;179:429-434
  365. Kim JH, Kim MJ, Park SI, et al. MR cholangiography in symptomatic gallstones: diagnostic accuracy according to clinical risk group. Radiology 2002;224:410-416
  366. Taylor AC, Little AF, Hennessy OF, et al. Prospective assessment of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography for noninvasive imaging of the biliary tree. Gastrointest Endosc 2002;55:17-22
  367. Urban M, Holzer B, Sebesta C, et al. Efficacy of diagnosis of mechanical cholestasis by magnetic resonance cholangiography. World J Surg 2002;26:353-358
  368. Griffin N, Wastle ML, Dunn WK, Ryder SD, Beckingham IJ. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography versus endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in the diagnosis of choledocholithiasis. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2003;15:809-813
  369. Kats J, Kraai M, Dijkstra AJ, et al. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreaticography as a diagnostic tool for common bile duct stones: a comparison with ERCP and clinical follow-up. Dig Surg 2003;20:32-37
  370. Romagnuolo J, Bardou M, Rahme E, et al. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography: a meta-analysis of test performance in suspected biliary disease. Ann Intern Med 2003;139:547-557
  371. Kaltenthaler E, Vergel YB, Chilcott J, et al. A systematic review and economic evaluation of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography compared with diagnostic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Health Technol Assess 2004;8:1-89
  372. Verma D, Kapedia A, Eisen GM, Adler DG. EUS vs MRCP for detection of choledocholithiasis. Gastrointest Endosc 2006;64:248-254
  373. Varadarajulu S, Eloubeidi MA, Wilcox CM, Hawes RH, Cotton PB. Do all patients with abnormal intraoperative cholangiogram merit endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography? Surg Endosc 2006;20:801-805
  374. Ludwig K, Bernhardt J, Lorenz D. Value and consequences of routine intraoperative cholangiography during cholecystectomy. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech 2002;12:154-159
  375. Ludwig K, Wilhelm L, Prinz C, Bernhardt B. Die intraoperative laparoskopische Cholangiografie - Wann ist sie sinnvoll? Zentralbl Chir 2004;129:185-190
  376. Sauerbruch T, Stellaard F, Soehendra N, Paumgartner G. Cholesteringehalt von Gallengangsteinen. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 1983;108:1099-1102
  377. Cahalane MJ, Neubrand MW, Carey MC. Physical-chemical pathogenesis of pigment gallstones. Semin Liver Dis 1988;8:317 - 328
  378. Thistle JL. Pathophysiology of bile duct stones. World J Surg 1998;22:1114-1118
  379. Neubrand M, Sauerbruch T. Pathogenese der Choledocholithiasis. Chir Gastroenterol 2001;17:119-122
  380. Lacaine F, Corlette MB, Bismuth H. Preoperative evaluation of the risk of common bile duct stones. Arch Surg 1980;115:1114-1116
  381. Saltzstein EC, Peacock JB, Thomas MD. Preoperative bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase and amylase levels as predictors of common duct stones. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1982;154:381-384
  382. Neuhaus H, Feussner H, Ungeheuer A, et al. Prospective evaluation of the use of endoscopic retrograde cholangiography prior to laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Endoscopy 1992;24:745-749
  383. Houdart R, Perniceni T, Darne B, Salmeron M, Simon JF. Predicting common bile duct lithiasis: determination and prospective validation of a model predicting low risk. Am J Surg 1995;170:38-43
  384. Welbourn CR, Mehta D, Armstrong CP, Gear MW, Eyre-Brook IA. Selective preoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiography with sphincterotomy avoids bile duct exploration during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Gut 1995;37:576-579
  385. Collins C, Maguire D, Ireland A, Fitzgerald E, O'Sullivan GC. A prospective study of common bile duct calculi in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy: natural history of choledocholithiasis revisited. Ann Surg 2004;239:28-33
  386. Millbourn E. Klinische Studien über die Choledocholithiasis unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Ikterus, des Verhaltens der Diastasurie des spontanen Steinabgangs, sowie der Früh- und Spätergebnisse nach konservativer und operativer Therapie. Acta Chir Scand 1941;86:1-310
  387. Frossard JL, Hadengue A, Amouyal G, et al. Choledocholithiasis: a prospective study of spontaneous common bile duct stone migration. Gastrointest Endosc 2000;51:175-179
  388. Caddy GR, Kirby J, Kirk SJ, et al. Natural history of asymptomatic bile duct stones at time of cholecystectomy. Ulster Med J 2005;74:108-112
  389. Acosta MJ, Rossi R, Ledesma CL. The usefulness of stool screening for diagnosing cholelithiasis in acute pancreatitis. A description of the technique. Am J Dig Dis 1977;22:168-172
  390. Greiner L, Münks C, Heil W, Jakobeit C. Gallbladder stone fragments in feces after biliary extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy. Gastroenterology 1990;98:1620-1624
  391. Classen M, Demling L. Endoskopische Sphinkterotomie der Papilla Vateri und Steinextraktion aus dem Ductus choledochus. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 1974;99:469-467
  392. Cotton PB. Endoscopic management of bile duct stones (apples and oranges). Gut 1984;25:587-597
  393. Miller BM, Kozarek RA, Ryan JA, Ball TJ, Traverso LW. Surgical versus endoscopic management of common bile duct stones. Ann Surg 1988;207:135-141
  394. Targarona EM, Ayuso RM, Bordas JM, et al. Randomised trial of endoscopic sphincterotomy with gallbladder left in situ versus open surgery for common bileduct calculi in high-risk patients. Lancet 1996;347:926-929
  395. Kautz G. Indikationen, Befunde und Komplikationen der ERCP in der Pädiatrie. Z Gastroenterol 1993;31:742-750
  396. Deenitchin GP, Konomi H, Kimura H, et al. Reappraisal of safety of endoscopic sphincterotomy for common bile duct stones in the elderly. Am J Surg 1995;170:51-54
  397. Deans GT, Sedman P, Martin DF, et al. Are complications of endoscopic sphincterotomy age related? Gut 1997;41:545-548
  398. Tham TC, Carr-Locke DL, Collins JS. Endoscopic sphincterotomy in the young patient: is there cause for concern? Gut 1997;40:697-700
  399. Shuchleib S, Chousleb A, Mondragon A, et al. Laparoscopic common bile duct exploration. World J Surg 1999;23:698-701
  400. Daradkeh S, Shennak M, Abu-Khalaf M. Selective use of perioperative ERCP in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Hepatogastroenterology 2000;47:1213-1215
  401. Biffl WL, Moore EE, Offner PJ, Franciose RJ, Burch JM. Routine intraoperative laparoscopic ultrasonography with selective cholangiography reduces bile duct complications during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. J Am Coll Surg 2001;193:272-280
  402. Iodice G, Giardiello C, Francica G, et al. Single-step treatment of gallbladder and bile duct stones: a combined endoscopic-laparoscopic technique. Gastrointest Endosc 2001;53:336-338
  403. Lauschke H, Kaminski M, Verfurth B, Rudolph J, Hirner A. Die Choledochusrevision im Zeitalter der endoskopischen Papillotomie. Indikationen und Ergebnisse. Zentralbl Chir 2001;126:364-368
  404. Leibl BJ, Ulrich M, Scheuritzel U, et al. Selektive prä-, intra- und postoperative Gallengangdiagnostik - Ein effizientes und komplikationsarmes Regime im Rahmen der laparoskopischen Cholecystektomie. Früh- und Spätergebnisse einer prospektiven Studie. Chirurg 2001;72:812-817
  405. Urbach DR, Khajanchee YS, Jobe BA, et al. Cost-effective management of common bile duct stones: a decision analysis of the use of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), intraoperative cholangiography, and laparoscopic bile duct exploration. Surg Endosc 2001;15:4-13
  406. Meyer C, Le JV, Rohr S, et al. Management of common bile duct stones in a single operation combining laparoscopic cholecystectomy and perioperative endoscopic sphincterotomy. Surg Endosc 1999;13:874-877
  407. Thielemann H, Laun C, Naveke R, et al. Das diagnostische und therapeutische Management bei symptomatischer Cholezystolithiasis und präoperativ bestehendem Verdacht auf eine Choledocholithiasis. Zentralbl Chir 2002;127:987-991
  408. Williams GL, Vellacott KD. Selective operative cholangiography and perioperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a viable option for choledocholithiasis. Surg Endosc 2002;16:465-467
  409. Hamy A, Hennekinne S, Pessaux P, et al. Endoscopic sphincterotomy prior to laparoscopic cholecystectomy for the treatment of cholelithiasis. Surg Endosc 2003;17:872-875
  410. Enochsson L, Lindberg B, Swahn F, Arnelo U. Intraoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) to remove common bile duct stones during routine laparoscopic cholecystectomy does not prolong hospitalization: a 2-year experience. Surg Endosc 2004;18:367-371
  411. Hüttl TP, Hrdina C, Geiger TK, et al. Management der Choledocholithiasis. Umfrageergebnisse und Analyse von 8433 Gallengangsrevisionen. Zentralbl Chir 2002;127:282-288
  412. Martin DJ, Vernon DR, Toouli J. Surgical versus endoscopic treatment of bile duct stones. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006:CD003327
  413. Clayton ES, Connor S, Alexakis N, Leandros E. Meta-analysis of endoscopy and surgery versus surgery alone for common bile duct stones with the gallbladder in situ. Br J Surg 2006;93:1185-1191
  414. Neoptolemos JP, Carr-Locke DL, Fossard DP. Prospective randomised study of preoperative endoscopic sphincterotomy versus surgery alone for common bile duct stones. Br Med J 1987;294:470-474
  415. Stain SC, Cohen H, Tsuishoysha M, Donovan AJ. Choledocholithiasis. Endoscopic sphincterotomy or common bile duct exploration. Ann Surg 1991;213:627-633; discussion 633-624
  416. Stiegmann GV, Goff JS, Mansour A, et al. Precholecystectomy endoscopic cholangiography and stone removal is not superior to cholecystectomy, cholangiography, and common duct exploration. Am J Surg 1992;163:227-230
  417. Hammarström LE, Holmin T, Stridbeck H, Ihse I. Long-term follow-up of a prospective randomized study of endoscopic versus surgical treatment of bile duct calculi in patients with gallbladder in situ. Br J Surg 1995;82:1516-1521
  418. Kapoor R, Kaushik SP, Saraswat VA, et al. Prospective randomized trial comparing endoscopic sphincterotomy followed by surgery with surgery alone in good risk patients with choledocholithiasis. HPB Surg 1996;9:145-148
  419. Suc B, Escat J, Cherqui D, et al. Surgery vs endoscopy as primary treatment in symptomatic patients with suspected common bile duct stones: a multicenter randomized trial. Arch Surg 1998;133:702-708
  420. Cuschieri A, Lezoche E, Morino M, et al. E.A.E.S. multicenter prospective randomized trial comparing two-stage vs single-stage management of patients with gallstone disease and ductal calculi. Surg Endosc 1999;13:952-957
  421. Sgourakis G, Karaliotas K. Laparoscopic common bile duct exploration and cholecystectomy versus endoscopic stone extraction and laparoscopic cholecystectomy for choledocholithiasis. A prospective randomized study. Minerva Chir 2002;57:467-474
  422. Rhodes M, Sussman L, Cohen L, Lewis MP. Randomised trial of laparoscopic exploration of common bile duct versus postoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiography for common bile duct stones. Lancet 1998;351:159-161
  423. Nathanson LK, O'Rourke NA, Martin IJ, et al. Postoperative ERCP versus laparoscopic choledochotomy for clearance of selected bile duct calculi: a randomized trial. Ann Surg 2005;242:188-192
  424. Poulose BK, Arbogast PG, Holzman MD. National analysis of in-hospital resource utilization in choledocholithiasis management using propensity scores. Surg Endosc 2006;20:186-190
  425. Ammori BJ, Birbas K, Davides D, et al. Routine vs "on demand" postoperative ERCP for small bile duct calculi detected at intraoperative cholangiography. Clinical evaluation and cost analysis. Surg Endosc 2000;14:1123-1126
  426. Basso N, Pizzuto G, Surgo D, et al. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy and intraoperative endoscopic sphincterotomy in the treatment of cholecysto-choledocholithiasis. Gastrointest Endosc 1999;50:532-535
  427. Meyer C, Le JV, Rohr S, et al. Management of common bile duct stones in a single operation combining laparoscopic cholecystectomy and peroperative endoscopic sphincterotomy. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg 2002;9:196-200
  428. Wei Q, Wang JG, Li LB, Li JD. Management of choledocholithiasis: comparison between laparoscopic common bile duct exploration and intraoperative endoscopic sphincterotomy. World J Gastroenterol 2003;9:2856-2858
  429. Lella F, Bagnolo F, Rebuffat C, et al. Use of the laparoscopic-endoscopic approach, the so-called "rendezvous" technique, in cholecystocholedocholithiasis: a valid method in cases with patient-related risk factors for post-ERCP pancreatitis. Surg Endosc 2006;20:419-423
  430. Rabago LR, Vicente C, Soler F, et al. Two-stage treatment with preoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) compared with singlestage treatment with intraoperative ERCP for patients with symptomatic cholelithiasis with possible choledocholithiasis. Endoscopy 2006;38:779-786
  431. Metcalfe MS, Ong T, Bruening MH, et al. Is laparoscopic intraoperative cholangiogram a matter of routine? Am J Surg 2004;187:475-481
  432. Järhult J. Is preoperative evaluation of the biliary tree necessary in uncomplicated gallstone disease? Results of a randomized trial. Scand J Surg 2005;94:31-33
  433. Hawasli A, Lloyd L, Pozios V, Veneri R. The role of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticrogram in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Am Surg 1993;59:285-288
  434. Trondsen E, Edwin B, Reiertsen O, Fagertun H, Rosseland AR. Selection criteria for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography (ERCP) in patients with gallstone disease. World J Surg 1995;19:852-856
  435. Menezes N, Marson LP, debeaux AC, Muir IM, Auld CD. Prospective analysis of a scoring system to predict choledocholithiasis. Br J Surg 2000;87:1176-1181
  436. Katz D, Nikfarjam M, Sfakiotaki A, Christophi C. Selective endoscopic cholangiography for the detection of common bile duct stones in patients with cholelithiasis. Endoscopy 2004;36:1045-1049
  437. Bachar GN, Cohen M, Belenky A, Atar E, Gideon S. Effect of aging on the adult extrahepatic bile duct: a sonographic study. J Ultrasound Med 2003;22:879-882
  438. Cotton PB. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Am J Surg 1993;165:474-478
  439. Van der Velden JJ, Berger MY, Bonjer HJ, Brakel K, Lameris JS. Percutaneous treatment of bile duct stones in patients treated unsuccessfully with endoscopic retrograde procedures. Gastrointest Endosc 2000;51:418-422
  440. Garcia-Vila JH, Redondo-Ibanez M, Diaz-Ramon C. Balloon sphincteroplasty and transpapillary elimination of bile duct stones: 10 years' experience. Am J Roentgenol 2004;182:1451-1458
  441. Chespak LW, Ring EJ, Shapiro HA, Gordon RL, Ostroff JW. Multidisciplinary approach to complex endoscopic biliary intervention. Radiology 1989;170:995-997
  442. Navarrete CG, Castillo CT, Castillo PY. Choledocholithiasis: percutaneous treatment. World J Surg 1998;22:1151-1154
  443. Stage JG, Moesgaard F, Gronvall S, Stage P, Kehlet H. Percutaneous transhepatic cholelithotripsy for difficult common bile duct stones. Endoscopy 1998;30:289-292
  444. Picus D, Weyman PJ, Marx MV. Role of percutaneous intracorporeal electrohydraulic lithotripsy in the treatment of biliary tract calculi. Work in progress. Radiology 1989;170:989-993
  445. Bonnel DH, Liguory CE, Cornud FE, Lefebvre JF. Common bile duct and intrahepatic stones: results of transhepatic electrohydraulic lithotripsy in 50 patients. Radiology 1991;180:345-348
  446. Hayashi N, Sakai T, Yamamoto T, Inagaki R, Ishii Y. Percutaneous transhepatic lithotripsy using a choledochoscope: long-term follow-up in 14 patients. Am J Roentgenol 1998;171:1387-1389
  447. Demling L, Ermert H, Riemann JF, Schmolke G, Heyder N. Lithotripsy in the common bile duct using ultrasound. Preliminary in vitro experiments. Endoscopy 1984;16:226-228
  448. Garg PK, Tandon RK, Ahuja V, Makharia GK, Batra Y. Predictors of unsuccessful mechanical lithotripsy and endoscopic clearance of large bile duct stones. Gastrointest Endosc 2004;59:601-605
  449. Chang WH, Chu CH, Wang TE, Chen MJ, Lin CC. Outcome of simple use of mechanical lithotripsy of difficult common bile duct stones. World J Gastroenterol 2005;11:593-596
  450. Jakobs R, Adamek HE, Maier M, et al. Fluoroscopically guided laser lithotripsy versus extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for retained bile duct stones: a prospective randomised study. Gut 1997;40:678-682
  451. Neuhaus H, Zillinger C, Born P, et al. Randomized study of intracorporeal laser lithotripsy versus extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy for difficult bile duct stones. Gastrointest Endosc 1998;47:327-334
  452. Sauerbruch T, Stern M. Fragmentation of bile duct stones by extracorporeal shock waves. A new approach to biliary calculi after failure of routine endoscopic measures. Gastroenterology 1989;96:146-152
  453. Sauerbruch T, Holl J, Sackmann M, Paumgartner G. Fragmentation of bile duct stones by extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy: a five-year experience. Hepatology 1992;15:208-214
  454. Adamek HE, Buttmann A, Wessbecher R, Kohler B, Riemann JF. Clinical comparison of extracorporeal piezoelectric lithotripsy (EPL) and intracorporeal electrohydraulic lithotripsy (EHL) in difficult bile duct stones. A prospective randomized trial. Dig Dis Sci 1995;40:1185-1192
  455. Adamek HE, Maier M, Jakobs R, et al. Management of retained bile duct stones: a prospective open trial comparing extracorporeal and intracorporeal lithotripsy. Gastrointest Endosc 1996;44:40-47
  456. Ellis RD, Jenkins AP, Thompson RP, Ede RJ. Clearance of refractory bile duct stones with extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy. Gut 2000;47:728-731
  457. Sackmann M, Holl J, Sauter GH, et al. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for clearance of bile duct stones resistant to endoscopic extraction. Gastrointest Endosc 2001;53:27-32
  458. Adamek HE, Kudis V, Jakobs R, et al. Impact of gallbladder status on the outcome in patients with retained bile duct stones treated with extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy. Endoscopy 2002;34:624-627
  459. Riemann JF, Lux G, Forster P, Altendorf A. Long-term results after endoscopic papillotomy. Endoscopy 1983;15(Suppl. 1):165-168
  460. Binmoeller KF, Brückner M, Thonke F, Soehendra N. Treatment of difficult bile duct stones using mechanical, electrohydraulic and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Endoscopy 1993;25:201-206
  461. Ell C, Lux G, Hochberger J, Müller D, Demling L. Laserlithotripsy of common bile duct stones. Gut 1988;29:746-751
  462. Behjou B, Prat F, Fritsch J, et al. Intra-corporeal shockwave lithotripsy in the treatment of complex lithiasis of the bile ducts. Comparison of endoscopic techniques and long-term results. Gastroenterol Clin Biol 1997;21:648-654
  463. Hochberger J, Bayer J, May A, et al. Laser lithotripsy of difficult bile duct stones: results in 60 patients using a rhodamine 6G dye laser with optical stone tissue detection system. Gut 1998;43:823-829
  464. Palmer K, Hofmann A. Intraductal mono-octanoin for the direct dissolution of bile duct stones: experience in 343 patients. Gut 1986;27:196-202
  465. Leuschner U. Topical treatment of calcified and pigment stones. Semin Liver Dis 1990;10:191-196
  466. Minami A, Nakatsu T, Uchida N, et al. Papillary dilation vs sphincterotomy in endoscopic removal of bile duct stones. A randomized trial with manometric function. Dig Dis Sci 1995;40:2550-2554
  467. Bergman JJ, Rauws EA, Fockens P, et al. Randomised trial of endoscopic balloon dilation versus endoscopic sphincterotomy for removal of bileduct stones. Lancet 1997;349:1124-1129
  468. Ochi Y, Mukawa K, Kiyosawa K, Akamatsu T. Comparing the treatment outcomes of endoscopic papillary dilation and endoscopic sphincterotomy for removal of bile duct stones. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1999;14:90-96
  469. Arnold JC, Benz C, Martin WR, Adamek HE, Riemann JF. Endoscopic papillary balloon dilation vs. sphincterotomy for removal of common bile duct stones: a prospective randomized pilot study. Endoscopy 2001;33:563-567
  470. Bergman JJ, van Berkel AM, Bruno MJ, et al. A randomized trial of endoscopic balloon dilation and endoscopic sphincterotomy for removal of bile duct stones in patients with a prior Billroth II gastrectomy. Gastrointest Endosc 2001;53:19-26
  471. Yasuda I, Tomita E, Enya M, Kato T, Moriwaki H. Can endoscopic papillary balloon dilation really preserve sphincter of Oddi function? Gut 2001;49:686-691
  472. Natsui M, Narisawa R, Motoyama H, et al. What is an appropriate indication for endoscopic papillary balloon dilation? Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2002;14:635-640
  473. Fujita N, Maguchi H, Komatsu Y, et al. Endoscopic sphincterotomy and endoscopic papillary balloon dilatation for bile duct stones: A prospective randomized controlled multicenter trial. Gastrointest Endosc 2003;57:151-155
  474. Vlavianos P, Chopra K, Mandalia S, et al. Endoscopic balloon dilatation versus endoscopic sphincterotomy for the removal of bile duct stones: a prospective randomised trial. Gut 2003;52:1165-1169
  475. DiSario JA, Freeman ML, Bjorkman DJ, et al. Endoscopic balloon dilation compared withsphincterotomy for extraction of bile duct stones. Gastroenterology 2004;127:1291-1299
  476. Lin CK, Lai KH, Chan HH, et al. Endoscopic balloon dilatation is a safe method in the management of common bile duct stones. Dig Liver Dis 2004;36:68-72
  477. Tanaka S, Sawayama T, Yoshioka T. Endoscopic papillary balloon dilation and endoscopic sphincterotomy for bile duct stones: long-term outcomes in a prospective randomized controlled trial. Gastrointest Endosc 2004;59:614-618
  478. Weinberg BM, Shindy W, Lo S. Endoscopic balloon sphincter dilation (sphincteroplasty) versus sphincterotomy for common bile duct stones. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006: CD004890466. Minami A, Nakatsu T, Uchida N, et al. Papillary dilation vs sphincterotomy in endoscopic removal of bile duct stones. A randomized trial with manometric function. Dig Dis Sci 1995;40:2550-2554
  479. Baron TH, Harewood GC. Endoscopic balloon dilation of the biliary sphincter compared to endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy for removal of common bile duct 1stones during ERCP: a metaanalysis of randomized, controlled trials. Am J Gastroenterol 2004;99:1455-1460
  480. Chopra KB, Peters RA, PA OT, et al. Randomised study of endoscopic biliary endoprosthesis versus duct clearance for bileduct stones in high-risk patients. Lancet 1996;348:791-793
  481. Soomers AJ, Nagengast FM, Yap SH. Endoscopic placement of biliary endoprostheses in patients with endoscopically unextractable common bile duct stones. A long-term follow up study of 26 patients. Endoscopy 1990;22:24-26
  482. Peters R, Macmathuna P, Lombard M, Karani J, Westaby D. Management of common bile duct stones with a biliary endoprosthesis. Report on 40 cases. Gut 1992;33:1412-1415
  483. Johnson GK, Geenen JE, Venu RP, Schmalz MJ, Hogan WJ. Treatment of nonextractable common bile duct stones with combination ursodeoxycholic acid plus endoprostheses. Gastrointest Endosc 1993;39:528-531
  484. Bergman JJ, Rauws EA, Tijssen JG, Tytgat GN, Huibregtse K. Biliary endoprostheses in elderly patients with endoscopically irretrievable common bile duct stones: report on 117 patients. Gastrointest Endosc 1995;42:195-201
  485. Dalton HR, Chapman RW. Role of biliary stenting in the management of bile duct stones in the elderly. Gut 1995;36:485-487
  486. Maxton DG, Tweedle DE, Martin DF. Retained common bile duct stones after endoscopic sphincterotomy: temporary and longterm treatment with biliary stenting. Gut 1995;36:446-449
  487. Bowrey DJ, Fligelstone LJ, Solomon A, Thomas G, Shandall AA. Common bile duct stenting for choledocholithiasis: a district general hospital experience. Postgrad Med J 1998;74:358-360
  488. Jain SK, Stein R, Bhuva M, Goldberg MJ. Pigtail stents: an alternative in the treatment of difficult bile duct stones. Gastrointest Endosc 2000;52:490-493
  489. Cotton PB. Stents for stones: short-term good, long-term uncertain. Gastrointest Endosc 1995;42:272-273
  490. Hui CK, Lai KC, Ng M, et al. Retained common bile duct stones: a comparison between biliary stenting and complete clearance of stones by electrohydraulic lithotripsy. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2003;17:289-296
  491. Boerma D, Rauws EA, Keulemans YC, et al. Wait-and-see policy or laparoscopic cholecystectomy after endoscopic sphincterotomy for bile-duct stones: a randomised trial. Lancet 2002;360:761-765
  492. Lau JY, Leow CK, Fung TM, et al. Cholecystectomy or gallbladder in situ after endoscopic sphincterotomy and bile duct stone removal in Chinese patients. Gastroenterology 2006;130:96-103
  493. Ando T, Tsuyuguchi T, Okugawa T, et al. Risk factors for recurrent bile duct stones after endoscopic papillotomy. Gut 2003;52:116-121
  494. Lee DW, Chan AC, Lam YH, et al. Biliary decompression by nasobiliary catheter or biliary stent in acute suppurative cholangitis: a prospective randomized trial. Gastrointest Endosc 2002;56:361-365
  495. Sharma BC, Kumar R, Agarwal N, Sarin SK. Endoscopic biliary drainage by nasobiliary drain or by stent placement in patients with acute cholangitis. Endoscopy 2005;37:439-443
  496. Sauter G, Ruckdeschel G, Sauerbruch T. Antibiotische Prophylaxe und Therapie infektiöser Komplikationen bei der ERCP. Leber Magen Darm 1992;22:173-176
  497. Niederau C, Pohlmann U, Lübke H, Thomas L. Prophylactic antibiotic treatment in therapeutic or complicated diagnostic ERCP: results of a randomized controlled clinical study. Gastrointest Endosc 1994;40:533-537
  498. Thompson BF, Arguedas MR, Wilcox CM. Antibiotic prophylaxis prior to endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in patients with obstructive jaundice: is it worth the cost? Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2002;16:727-734
  499. Neoptolemos JP, Carr-Locke DL, London NJ, et al. Controlled trial of urgent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic sphincterotomy versus conservative treatment for acute pancreatitis due to gallstones. Lancet 1988;2:979-983
  500. Fan ST, Lai EC, Mok FP, et al. Early treatment of acute biliary pancreatitis by endoscopic papillotomy. N Engl J Med 1993;328:228-232
  501. Fölsch UR, Nitsche R, Lüdtke R, Hilgers RA, Creutzfeldt W. Early ERCP and papillotomy compared with conservative treatment for acute biliary pancreatitis. N Engl J Med 1997;336:237-242
  502. Ayub K, Imada R, Slavin J. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in gallstone-associated acute pancreatitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004:CD003630
  503. Oria A, Cimmino D, Ocampo C, et al. Early endoscopic intervention versus early conservative management in patients with acute gallstone pancreatitis and biliopancreatic obstruction. A randomized clinical trial. Ann Surg 2007;245:10-17
  504. Acosta JM, Katkhouda N, Debian KA, et al. Early ductal decompression versus conservative management for gallstone pancreatitis with ampullary obstruction: a prospective randomized clinical trial. Ann Surg 2006;243:33-40
  505. Bradley EL. A clinically based classification system for acute pancreatitis. Summary of the International Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis, Atlanta, GA, September 11 through 13, 1992. Arch Surg 1993;128:586-590
  506. Whitcomb DC. Acute Pancreatitis. N Engl J Med 2006;354:2142-2150
  507. Hammarström LE, Andersson R, Stridbeck H, Ihse I. Influence of bile duct stones on patient features and effect of endoscopic sphincterotomy on early outcome of edematous gallstone pancreatitis. World J Surg 1999;23:12-17
  508. De Waele B, Peterson T, Smekens L, Willems G. Common bile duct stones in acute biliary pancreatitis: an endoscopic study. Surg Laparosc Endosc 1997;7:248-250
  509. Arbuckle J, Isla A. Acute pancreatitis - update 2006. In: Neugebauer EA, Sauerland S, Fingerhut A, Millat B, Buess G (Hrsg.). EAES Guidelines for Endoscopic Surgery Twelve Years of Evidence-based Surgery in Europe. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 2006, S. 377-386
  510. Banks PA, Freeman ML. Practice guidelines in acute pancreatitis. Am J Gastroenterol 2006;101:2379-2400
  511. Chang L, Lo S, Stabile BE, et al. Preoperative versus postoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in mild to moderate gallstone pancreatitis: a prospective randomized trial. Ann Surg 2000;231:82-87
  512. Prat F, Edery J, Meduri B, et al. Early EUS of the bile duct before endoscopic sphincterotomy for acute biliary pancreatitis. Gastrointest Endosc 2001;54:724-729
  513. Hallal AH, Amortegui JD, Jeroukhimov IM, et al. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography accurately detects common bile duct stones in resolving gallstone pancreatitis. J Am Coll Surg 2005;200:869-875
  514. Liu CL, Fan ST, Lo CM, et al. Comparison of early endoscopic ultrasonography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in the management of acute biliary pancreatitis: a prospective randomized study. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2005;3:1238-1244
  515. Makary MA, Duncan MD, Harmon JW, et al. The role of magnetic resonance cholangiography in the management of patients with gallstone pancreatitis. Ann Surg 2005;241:119-124
  516. Kelly TR, Wagner DS. Gallstone pancreatitis: a prospective randomized trial of the timing of surgery. Surgery 1988;104:600-605
  517. Nealon WH, Bawduniak J, Walser EM. Appropriate timing of cholecystectomy in patients who present with moderate to severe gallstone-associated acute pancreatitis with peripancreatic fluid collections. Ann Surg 2004;239:741-749
  518. Tate JJ, Lau WY, Li AK. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy for biliary pancreatitis. Br J Surg 1994;81:720-722
  519. Uhl W, Müller CA, Krähenbühl L, et al. Acute gallstone pancreatitis: timing of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in mild and severe disease. Surg Endosc 1999;13:1070-1076
  520. Schachter P, Peleg T, Cohen O. Interval laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the management of acute biliary pancreatitis. HPB Surg 2000;11:319-322
  521. Schietroma M, Carlei F, Lezoche E, et al. Acute biliary pancreatitis: staging and management. Hepatogastroenterology 2001;48:988-993
  522. Taylor E, Wong C. The optimal timing of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in mild gallstone pancreatitis. Am Surg 2004;70:971-975
  523. Cameron DR, Goodman AJ. Delayed cholecystectomy for gallstone pancreatitis: readmissions and outcomes. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 2004;86:358-362
  524. Hernandez V, Pascual I, Almela P, et al. Recurrence of acute gallstone pancreatitis and relationship with cholecystectomy or endoscopic sphincterotomy. Am J Gastroenterol 2004;99:2417-2423
  525. Gislason H, Vetrhus M, Horn A, et al. Endoscopic sphincterotomy in acute gallstone pancreatitis: a prospective study of the late outcome. Eur J Surg 2001;167:204-208
  526. Kaw M, Al-Antably Y, Kaw P. Management of gallstone pancreatitis: cholecystectomy or ERCP and endoscopic sphincterotomy. Gastrointest Endosc 2002;56:61-65
  527. Hui CK, Lai KC, Yuen MF, et al. The role of cholecystectomy in reducing recurrent gallstone pancreatitis. Endoscopy 2004;36:206-211
  528. Ros E, Navarro S, Bru C, Garcia-Puges A, Valderrama R. Occult microlithiasis in 'idiopathic' acute pancreatitis: prevention of relapses by cholecystectomy or ursodeoxycholic acid therapy. Gastroenterology 1991;101:1701-1709
  529. Evans WB, Draganov P. Is empiric cholecystectomy a reasonable treatment option for idiopathic acute pancreatitis? Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol 2006;3:356-357
  530. Garg PK, Tandon RK, Madan K. Is biliary microlithiasis a significant cause of idiopathic recurrent acute pancreatitis? A long-term follow-up study. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2007;5:75-79
  531. Testoni PA, Caporuscio S, Bagnolo F, Lella F. Idiopathic recurrent pancreatitis: longterm results after ERCP, endoscopic sphincterotomy, or ursodeoxycholic acid treatment. Am J Gastroenterol 2000;95:1702-1707
  532. Venneman NG, Renooij W, Rehfeld JF, et al. Small gallstones, preserved gallbladder motility, and fast crystallization are associated with pancreatitis. Hepatology 2005;41:738-746
  533. Venneman NG, Buskens E, Besselink MG, et al. Small gallstones are associated with increased risk of acute pancreatitis: potential benefits of prophylactic cholecystectomy? Am J Gastroenterol 2005;100:2540-2550
  534. Park DH, Kim MH, Lee SS, et al. Accuracy of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography for locating hepatolithiasis and detecting accompanying biliary strictures. Endoscopy 2004;36:987-992
  535. Mori T, Sugiyama M, Atomi Y. Gallstone disease: management of intrahepatic stones. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 2006;20:1117-1137
  536. Kusano T, Isa T, Ohtsubo M, Yasaka T, Furukawa M. Natural progression of untreated hepatolithiasis that shows no clinical signs at its initial presentation. J Clin Gastroenterol 2001;33:114-117
  537. Neuhaus H. Intrahepatic stones: the percutaneous approach. Can J Gastroenterol 1999;13:467-472
  538. Di Carlo I, Sauvanet A, Belghiti J. Intrahepatic lithiasis: a Western experience. Surg Today 2000;30:319-322
  539. Kim KH, Sung CK, Park BG, et al. Clinical significance of intrahepatic biliary stricture in efficacy of hepatic resection for intrahepatic stones. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg 1998;5:303-308
  540. Adamek HE, Schneider AR, Adamek MU, et al. Treatment of difficult intrahepatic stones by using extracorporeal and intracorporeal lithotripsy techniques: 10 years' experience in 55 patients. Scand J Gastroenterol 1999;34:1157-1161
  541. Maetani I, Ishiguro J, Ogawa S, et al. Percutaneous choledochoscopic treatment of intrahepatic stones, including management of associated biliary stenoses. Endoscopy 1999;31:456-459
  542. Jeng KS, Sheen IS, Yang FS. Are modified procedures significantly better than conventional procedures in percutaneous transhepatic treatment for complicated right hepatolithiasis with intrahepatic biliary strictures? Scand J Gastroenterol 2002;37:597-601
  543. Wu YW, Jian YP, Liang JS, Zhong W, Yang ZW. The treatment of intrahepatic calculosis by applying helix hydro-jet lithotripsy under video choledochoscope: a report of 30 cases. Langenbecks Arch Surg 2006;391:355-358
  544. Axelrad AM, Fleischer DE, Strack LL, Benjamin SB, al-Kawas FH. Performance of ERCP for symptomatic choledocholithiasis during pregnancy: techniques to increase safety and improve patient management. Am J Gastroenterol 1994;89:109-112
  545. Jamidar PA, Beck GJ, Hoffman BJ, et al. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in pregnancy. Am J Gastroenterol 1995;90:1263-1267
  546. Sungler P, Heinerman PM, Steiner H, et al. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy and interventional endoscopy for gallstone complications during pregnancy. Surg Endosc 2000;14:267-271
  547. Tham TC, Vandervoort J, Wong RC, et al. Safety of ERCP during pregnancy. Am J Gastroenterol 2003;98:308-311
  548. Kahaleh M, Hartwell GD, Arseneau KO, et al. Safety and efficacy of ERCP in pregnancy. Gastrointest Endosc 2004;60:287-292
  549. Freistühler M, Braess A, Petrides AS. Ultraschallgeleitete endoskopische Papillotomie in der Schwangerschaft bei schwerer biliärer Pankreatitis. Z Gastroenterol 1999;37:27-30
  550. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Medizinische Physik, Deutsche Röntgengesellschaft. Pränatale Strahlenexposition aus medizinischer Indikation. Dosisermittlung, Folgerungen für Arzt und Schwangere. DGMP, Berlin 2002, S. 1-48
  551. Testoni PA, Tittobello A. Long-term efficacy of endoscopic papillo-sphincterotomy for common bile duct stones and benign papillary stenosis. Surg Endosc 1991;5:135-139
  552. Bergman JJ, van der Mey S, Rauws EA, et al. Long-term follow-up after endoscopic sphincterotomy for bile duct stones in patients younger than 60 years of age. Gastrointest Endosc 1996;44:643-649
  553. Lai KH, Peng NJ, Lo GH, et al. Prediction of recurrent choledocholithiasis by quantitative cholescintigraphy in patients after endoscopic sphincterotomy. Gut 1997;41:399-403
  554. Kratzer W, Mason RA, Grammer S, et al. Difficult bile duct stone recurrence after endoscopy and extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy. Hepatogastroenterology 1998;45:910-916
  555. Tanaka M, Takahata S, Konomi H, et al. Long-term consequence of endoscopic sphincterotomy for bile duct stones. Gastrointest Endosc 1998;48:465-469
  556. Sugiyama M, Suzuki Y, Abe N, et al. Endoscopic retreatment of recurrent choledocholithiasis after sphincterotomy. Gut 2004;53:1856-1859
  557. Swobodnik W, Janowitz P, Kratzer W, et al. Rezidivprophylaxe von Choledochuskonkrementen nach endoskopischer Papillotomie mit Ursodeoxycholsäure. Z Gastroenterol 1990;28:621-625
  558. Paolucci V, Neckell M, Götze T. Das "okkulte" Gallenblasenkarzinom - CAE-S/CAMIC -Zentralregister. Zentralbl Chir 2003;128:309-312
  559. Baron TH, Petersen BT, Mergener K, et al. Quality indicators for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Am J Gastroenterol 2006;101:892-897
  560. Freeman ML, Nelson DB, Sherman S, et al. Complications of endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy. N Engl J Med 1996;335:909-918
  561. Zinsser E, Hoffmann A, Will U, Koppe P, Bosseckert H. Erfolgs- und Komplikationsraten der diagnostischen und der therapeutischen endoskopischen retrograden Cholangiopankreatikographie - eine prospektive Studie. Z Gastroenterol 1999;37:707-713
  562. Loperfido S, Angelini G, Benedetti G, et al. Major early complications from diagnostic and therapeutic ERCP: a prospective multicenter study. Gastrointest Endosc 1998;48:1-10
  563. Freeman ML, DiSario JA, Nelson DB, et al. Risk factors for post-ERCP pancreatitis: a prospective, multicenter study. Gastrointest Endosc 2001;54:425-434
  564. Masci E, Toti G, Mariani A, et al. Complications of diagnostic and therapeutic ERCP: a prospective multicenter study. Am J Gastroenterol 2001;96:417-423
  565. Enns R, Eloubeidi MA, Mergener K, et al. ERCP-related perforations: risk factors and management. Endoscopy 2002;34:293-298
  566. Christensen M, Matzen P, Schulze S, Rosenberg J. Complications of ERCP: a prospective study. Gastrointest Endosc 2004;60:721-731
  567. Washington M, Ghazi A. Complications of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. In: Scott-Conner CE (Hrsg.). The SAGES manual Fundamentals of laparoscopy, thoracoscopy, and GI endoscopy. Springer, New York 2006, S. 685-690
  568. Vaira D, Dowsett JF, Hatfield AR, et al. Is duodenal diverticulum a risk factor for sphincterotomy? Gut 1989;30:939-942
  569. Mehta SN, Pavone E, Barkun JS, Bouchard S, Barkun AN. Predictors of post-ERCP complications in patients with suspected choledocholithiasis. Endoscopy 1998;30:457-463
  570. R1abenstein T, Schneider HT, Bulling D, et al. Analysis of the risk factors associated with endoscopic sphincterotomy techniques: preliminary results of a prospective study, with emphasis on the reduced risk of acute pancreatitis with low-dose anticoagulation treatment. Endoscopy 2000;32:10-19
  571. Elfant AB, Bourke MJ, Alhalel R, Kortan PP, Haber GB. A prospective study of the safety of endoscopic therapy for choledocholithiasis in an outpatient population. Am J Gastroenterol 1996;91:1499-1502
  572. Freeman ML, Nelson DB, Sherman S, et al. Same-day discharge after endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy: observations from a prospective multicenter complication study. The Multicenter Endoscopic Sphincterotomy (MESH) Study Group. Gastrointest Endosc 1999;49:580-586
  573. Bittner R, Ulrich M. Gallenblasensteinleiden - immer eine Operationsindikation? Internist 2004;45:8-15
  574. Eypasch E, Williams JI, Wood-Dauphinee S, et al. Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index: development, validation and application of a new instrument. Br J Surg 1995;82:216-222
  575. Eypasch E, Troidl H, Wood-Dauphinée S, et al. Immediate improval in quality of life after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Minima Invasive Ther Allied Technol 1993;2:139-146
  576. Sanabria JR, Clavien PA, Cywes R, Strasberg SM. Laparoscopic versus open cholecystectomy: a matched study. Can J Surg 1993;36:330-336
  577. Kane RL, Lurie N, Borbas C, et al. The outcomes of elective laparoscopic and open cholecystectomies. J Am Coll Surg 1995;180:136-145
  578. Plaisier PW. Incidence of persistent symptoms after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Gut 1997;41:579
  579. Mentes BB, Akin M, Irkorucu O, et al. Gastrointestinal quality of life in patients with symptomatic or asymptomatic cholelithiasis before and after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Surg Endosc 2001;15:1267-1272
  580. Ludwig K, Patel K, Wilhelm L, Bernhardt J. Prospektive Analyse zur Outcomebewertung nach laparoskopischer versus konventioneller Cholecystektomie. Zentralbl Chir 2002;127:41-46
  581. Topcu O, Karakayali F, Kuzu MA, et al. Comparison of long-term quality of life after laparoscopic and open cholecystectomy. Surg Endosc 2003;17:291-295
  582. Quintana JM, Arostegui I, Cabriada J, Lopez de Tejada I, Perdigo L. Predictors of improvement in health-related quality of life in patients undergoing cholecystectomy. Br J Surg 2003;90:1549-1555
  583. Curet MJ, Contreras M, Weber DM, Albrecht R. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Surg Endosc 2002;16:453-457
  584. Keulemans Y, Eshuis J, de Haes H, de Wit LT, Gouma DJ. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy: day-care versus clinical observation. Ann Surg 1998;228:734-740
  585. Johansson M, Thune A, Nelvin L, Lundell L. Randomized clinical trial of day-care versus overnight-stay laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Br J Surg 2006;93:40-45
  586. Lau H, Brooks DC. Transitions in laparoscopic cholecystectomy: the impact of ambulatory surgery. Surg Endosc 2002;16:323-326
  587. Richardson WS, Fuhrman GS, Burch E, Bolton JS, Bowen JC. Outpatient laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Outcomes of 847 planned procedures. Surg Endosc 2001;15:193-195
  588. Rosen MJ, Malm JA, Tarnoff M, Zuccala K, Ponsky JL. Cost-effectiveness of ambulatory laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech 2001;11:182-184
  589. Maggiore D. Outpatient laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a reality. JSLS 2002;6:369-371
  590. Feussner H. Laparoskopische Eingriffe. Möglichkeiten und Grenzen der ambulanten und kurzstationären Chirurgie. Chirurg 2004;75:248-256
  591. Lillemoe KD, Lin JW, Talamini MA, et al. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy as a "true" outpatient procedure: initial experience in 130 consecutive patients. J Gastrointest Surg 1999;3:44-49
  592. Blatt A, Chen S. Day-only laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a regional teaching hospital. ANZ J Surg 2003;73:321-325


Verfahren zur Konsensbildung:

Ersterstellungsdatum:

03/2000

Letzte Überarbeitung:

07/2007

Nächste Überprüfung geplant:

12/2012


Zurück zur Index Leitlinien Verdauungs- und Stoffwechselkrankheiten
Zurück zur Liste der Leitlinien
Zurück zur AWMF-Leitseite


Stand der letzten Aktualisierung: 07/2007
© Dt. Ges. f. Verdauungs- und Stoffwechselkrankheiten
Autorisiert für elektronische Publikation: AWMF online
HTML-Code aktualisiert: 09.10.2009; 11:29:32