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Hybrid photovoltaic systems

"The best and most beautiful things in the world cannot be seen or even touched. They must be felt with the heart."
(Helen Keller)

Wind - the most common additional source of energy used hybrid systems Wind - the most common additional source of energy used hybrid systems Wind - the most common additional source of energy used hybrid systems Wind - the most common additional source of energy used hybrid systems

Wind - the most common additional source of energy used in hybrid systems
(photo: Denis Lenardic)

Hybrid photovoltaic systems most commonly take the form of photovoltaic systems combined with wind turbines or diesel generators. They would most likely be found on islands, yet they could also be built in other areas. The largest European PV system used as a part of the hybrid system is located on Pellworm Island in Germany. A very large hybrid system was also built on the Canary Islands. The following descriptions depict some of the world most interesting PV-wind or PV-diesel hybrid systems.

 

Hybrid system configuration

Sunny Island as inverter used in hybrid systems, courtesy SMA Techologie AG

Sunny Island as inverter used in hybrid systems, courtesy SMA Technologie AG

SMA's inverter "Sunny Island" used in hybrid systems
(courtesy SMA Technologie AG)
 

Some interesting hybrid system examples

Khythnos Island

The Kythnos Island hybrid system plant utilizes a 100 kW PV array, a 100 kW wind turbine, and a 600 kWh battery. The entire system is connected to the existing distribution grid, which is fed by a 200 kVA diesel generator. Three 50 kVA inverters operate simultaneously delivering power into the grid. The plant is monitored by control system, which optimises the amount of renewable energy available to the grid.

Name and location: Kythnos Island Plant - Kythnos, Greece
PV system type: PV-wind-diesel hybrid system
Operate since: 1983
Rated power: 100 kW peak PV, 200 kW diesel, 100 kW wind turbine
Storage: 600 kWh battery storage
Number of modules: almost 60,000
Total PV area: 1290 m2
Module mounting: Fixed tilt
Inverter: 3 x Siemens 50 kVA
Utility interconnection: 380 V, 3 Phase, 50 Hz
Design energy output: 170,000 kWh/year

Picture courtesy SMA Technologie AG
 



Kythnos hybrid plant, courtesy SMA Regelsysteme GmbH

Pellworm Island

The largest European PV wind hybrid system is located on the Pellworm Island in Germany. The PV array has the capacity of 800 kW (originaly 600 kW). The first 300 kW array was constructed in 1983. System was renewed in 2006 and has peak power of 1,1 MW (PV + wind).

Name and location: Pellworm Power Plant - Island Pellworm, Germany
PV system type: PV hybrid grid connected
Operates since: 1983 (part one), 1992 (part two), renewed in 2006
Rated power: 300 kWp PV part one + 300 kWp PV part two, after renewal 800 kWp
Number of modules: 17569 19.2 W modules, 6048 50 W modules (originaly), exchanged with Shell Solar and BP Solar modules in 2006
Total PV area: 4500 m2 + 3500 m2
Module mounting: Fixed tilt
Inverter: Tyristor + IGBT inverter
Design energy output: 770 MWh/year



 

Wilpena Pound

The Wilpena Pound power station combines 100 kWp PV system, battery storage of 400 kWh, an inverter and 440 kWp diesel generators. At night a computerized smart controller automatically switches between the battery storage and the most-efficient diesel generator combination to match the load. A modem-link provides remote monitoring and control facilities.

Name and location: Wilpena Pound PV System - South Australia
PV system type: Standalone PV-diesel hybrid plant
Rated power: 100 kW peak PV + 440 kW diesel genset
Number of modules: 1260, 80 W Solarex modules
Storage: 400 kWh, Sonnenschein Gel battery storage
Module mounting: Fixed tilt
Inverter: AES 125 kVA

 

 

Power

Location

Description

Constructed

MWh/GHG

Picture

800 kW

de Germany,
Pellworm Island

Pellworm Photovoltaic Plant

SA, HY, GC, WI

Pellworm plant was renewed with new amorphous BP Solar and Shell Solar modules and is since August 2006 again on-line. The same area has initially peak power of 600 kW. After renewal plant has 800 kWp. Together with wind turbines 1,1 MWp

Plant renewed/repowered in August 2006

   

750 kW

jp Japan,
Miyakojima Island, Okinawa

Miyakojima Photovoltaic System

SA, HY, DI

Hybrid System with 300 kW diesel backup.

1995

   

600 kW

it Italy,
Carloforte, Sardinia

Carloforte Hybrid Plant

SA, HY

1995

   

600 kW

it Italy,
Lamezia Terme

Photovoltaic Hybrid Plant

SA, HY

1996

   

600 kW

it Italy,
Salve

Photovoltaic Hybrid Plant

SA, HY

     

480 kW

es Spain,
Tenerife, Canarian Islands


Picture courtesy:
ITER, Tenerife, Canarian Islands, Spain

Euclides plant

SA, CONC, TRAC, HY, GC

   

Euclides hybrid plant

175 kW

usa USA,
Kameula, HA


Picture courtesy: PowerLight Corp.

Parker Ranch Hybrid system

SA, TRAC, HY, WI

175 kW PV + 50 kW wind power.

PowerLight corp.
2001

357 MWh PV+wind annualy
6207 tons CO2 emission reduction in 25 years (70000 barrels of oil)

Parker Ranch, Kameula, Hawaii

100 kW

blz
Belize,
Essene Way/Ambergris Caye Island


Picture courtesy:
Real Goods Design & Consulting Group

Standalone system with 125 kW generator backup on Essene Way/Ambergris Caye Island

SA, HY, DI

Constructed in 1996, destroyed by a huricane after 3 years of operation

350 kg CO2 emmision reduction in three years

357 MWh PV+wind annualy
6207 tones CO2 emission reduction in 25 years (70000 barrels of oil).

Ambergris Caye photovoltaic system, Belize. Decommisioned after huricane in a year 2000

100 kW

gr
Greece,
Kythnos Island


Picture courtesy:
SMA Technologie AG

Kythnos Island PV-wind hybrid system

SA, HY, WI

1982 - 2001

 

Kythnos hybrid plant, courtesy SMA Technologie AG

100 kW

aus Australia,
Wilpena Pound

Wilpena Pound hybrid power plant

SA, HY

     



* Abbreviations - explanation

BG - Biogas as additional energy source in hybrid systems
BIPV - Building integrated photovoltaic system
BM - Biomass as additional energy source in hybrid systems
CONC - Concentrating photovoltaic system
CSC - Coloured solar cells
DI - Diesel fuel as additional source of energy in hybrid systems
DIST - Distributed photovoltaic system
GC - Grid-connected photovoltaic system
FC - Fuell cells as additional energy source in hybrid systems
FI - Facade-integrated system
FLEX - Flexible solar cells
FM - Facade-mounted system
HY - Hybrid photovoltaic system
NB - Noise barrier
PB - PV System part of a passive building
RES - Residental housing
RI - Roof-integrated photovoltaic system
RM - Roof-mounted photovoltaic system
SA - Standalone photovoltaic system
SV - "Shadow-Voltaic" system
TRAC - Tracking system
TRAN - Transparent modules
WI - Wind as additional source of energy in hybrid systems
WP - Water pumping
 

Hybrid systems - interesting web sites

Languages: gb Webmaster's choice
Webmaster's choice - many very interesting stand alone and hybrid system related technical documents available as pdf files.

 

Languages: gb Webmaster's choice
Webmaster's choice - hybrid photovoltaic systems explained in detail - sizing, environmental concerns, load demands etc.

Literature and more information

pdf klicaj SMA Regelsystems GmbH: Kythnos Island - 20 Years Experience of Sytem Technology for Renewable Energies, (1700 kB).
pdf klicaj Kremer, P., Schmitt, S., Mainka, C.: Photovoltaic Hybrid Systems Enhance Reliability of Power Supply; Photovoltaic Hybrid Power Systems Conference, Aix en Provence, 7-9 September, 2000 (2574 kB).
www Pellworm Island (Germany) - Pellworm Energy
pdf www Proceedings of the Workshop on Photovoltaic Hybrid Systems, Montreal September 10, 2001.