Qingdao

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Qingdao
青岛
—  Sub-provincial city  —
青岛市
Clockwise from top left: A Stone building in Ba Da Guan, A house in the old section of Qingdao, Qingdao TV Tower, Qingdao skyline and Zhan Qiao Pier, May 4th Square

Seal
Qingdao (red) in Shandong province (orange) and China
Coordinates: 36°04′N 120°23′E / 36.067°N 120.383°E / 36.067; 120.383Coordinates: 36°04′N 120°23′E / 36.067°N 120.383°E / 36.067; 120.383
Country China
Province Shandong
City seat Shinan District
Government
 - CPC Secretary Li Qun (李群)
 - Mayor Xia Geng (夏耕)
Area
 - Sub-provincial city 10,654 km2 (4,113.5 sq mi)
 - Land 10,654 km2 (4,113.5 sq mi)
 - Water 13,800 km2 (5,328.2 sq mi)
 - Urban 1,102 km2 (425.5 sq mi)
Population (2007)
 - Sub-provincial city 7,579,900
 Density 711.5/km2 (1,842.7/sq mi)
 Urban 2,755,500
 - Urban density 2,500.5/km2 (6,476.1/sq mi)
Time zone China Standard (UTC+8)
Postal code 266000
Area code(s) 532
GDP RMB¥ 443.6 billion (2008)
GDP per capita RMB¥ 52,895 (2008)
License Plate Prefix 鲁B & 鲁U
Coastline 862.64 km
(inclusive of offshore islands)
730.64 km
(exclusive of islands)
Major Nationalities Han: 99.86%
County-level divisions 12
Website www.qingdao.gov.cn
Qingdao
Simplified Chinese 青岛
Traditional Chinese 青島
Literal meaning lush island or green island

About this sound Qingdao (simplified Chinese: 青岛; pinyin: Qīngdǎo; Mandarin pronunciation: [tɕʰíŋtɑ̀ʊ̯]) also known in the West by its postal map spelling Tsingtao,[1] is a major city in eastern Shandong province, People's Republic of China. It borders Yantai to the northeast, Weifang to the west and Rizhao to the southeast. Lying across the Shandong Peninsula while looking out to the Yellow Sea, Qingdao today is a major seaport, naval base, and industrial center. It is also the site of the Tsingtao Brewery. The character (qīng) in Chinese means "green" or "lush", while the character (dǎo) means "island". Qingdao is administratively at the sub-provincial level. In 2009, Qingdao was named China's most livable city.[2]

Contents

[edit] Other names

[edit] History

[edit] Ancient times

Human settlement in the area dates back 6,000 years. The Dongyi nationality, one of the important origins of the Chinese nation, lived here and created the Dawenkou, Longshan and Dongyeshi cultures. In the Eastern Zhou Dynasty (770BC~256BC), the town of Jimo was established, which was then the second largest one in the Shandong region. The area in which Qingdao is located today was named Jiao'ao (胶澳) when it was administered by the Qing Dynasty on 14 June 1891.

[edit] German colonial period and Japanese occupation

Sketch map of Tsingtao, circa 1906
Main gate of Chinese munitions depot, taken over by imperial navy, 1898
Administration/commercial building, harbor area, 1912

In 1891 the Qing government decided to make the area a defense base against naval attack and began to improve Qingdao's existing fortifications. German naval officials observed and reported on this Chinese activity during a formal survey of Jiaozhou Bay in May 1897. Subsequently, German troops seized and occupied the fortification.[3] China conceded the area to Germany the following year, and the Kiautschou Bay concession, as it became known, existed from 1898 to 1914. With an area of 552 square kilometres (136,000 acres; 213 sq mi), it was located in the imperial province of Shandong (alternately romanized as Shantung or Shan-tung) on the southern coast of the Shandong Peninsula in northern China. Jiaozhou was romanized as Kiaochow, Kiauchau or Kiao-Chau in English and Kiautschou in German. Qingdao was its administrative center. "The so-called Marktstrasse (Market street) was nothing more than the old main street of the Chinese village of Tsingtao, and the buildings lining it were the former homes of fishermen and farmers. Having sold their property, they resettled their homes and fields in the villages further east."[4] Upon gaining control of the area, the Germans outfitted the impoverished fishing village of "Tsingtao" (Qingdao) with wide streets, solid housing areas, government buildings, electrification throughout, a sewer system and a safe drinking water supply, a rarity in large parts of Asia at that time and later.[5] The area had the highest school density and the highest per capita student enrollment in all of China, with primary, secondary and vocational schools funded by the Imperial German treasury and Protestant and Roman Catholic missions.[5] Commercial interests established the Germania Brewery in 1903 , which later became the world-famous Tsingtao Brewery. German influence extended to other areas of Shandong Province, including the establishment of diverse commercial enterprises.

Identified by the German authorities as a strategically important port, Qingdao was administered by the Imperial Department of the Navy (Reichsmarineamt) rather than the Imperial Colonial Office (Reichskolonialamt). The navy based their Far East Squadron there, allowing the ships to conduct operations throughout the Pacific. Beginning January 1898 the marines of III. Seebatallion were based at Tsingtao.

Before the outbreak of World War I the ships of the German naval forces under Admiral Count von Spee were located at central Pacific colonies on routine missions. The fleet then rendezvoused in the Marianas to plan a transit to Germany rather than be trapped in the Pacific by Allied fleets.[6]

After a minor British naval attack on the German colony in 1914, Japan occupied the city and the surrounding province during the Siege of Tsingtao after Japan's declaration of war on Germany in accordance with the Anglo-Japanese Alliance. The failure of the Allied powers to restore Chinese rule to Shandong after the war triggered the May Fourth Movement.

Map of Qingdao in 1912

The city reverted to Chinese rule in December, 1922, under control of the Republic of China. The city became a direct-controlled municipality of the ROC Government in 1929. Japan re-occupied Qingdao in 1938 with its plans of territorial expansion onto China's coast.

[edit] Post-World War II

After World War II the KMT allowed Qingdao to serve as the headquarters of the Western Pacific Fleet of the US Navy in 1945. On 2 June 1949 the CCP-led Red Army entered Qingdao and the city and province have been under PRC control since that time.

Since the 1984 inauguration of China's open-door policy to foreign trade and investment, western Qingdao developed quickly as a port city. It is now the headquarters of the Chinese navy's northern fleet. An early example of the open-door policy occurred on November 5, 1984, when three United States Naval vessels visited Qingdao. This was the first US port call in more than 37 years to China. USS Rentz (FFG-46), USS Reeves (DLG-24) and USS Oldendorf (DD-972) and their crews were officially hosted by the Chinese People's Liberation Army Navy (PLAN).

Northern Qingdao, particularly Shibei and Chengyang districts, is now a manufacturing center. The city has recently experienced a strong growth period, with a new central business district created to the east of the older business district. Outside of the center of the city there is a large industrial zone, which includes chemical processing, rubber and heavy manufacturing, in addition to a growing high-tech area. Numerous local and national service companies, rather than manufacturers, are based in the city's southern district; this, as well as local wind patterns, allows Qingdao to enjoy clean, clear air year round.

[edit] Administrative divisions

The sub-provincial city of Qingdao has direct jurisdiction over 7 districts (区 qu) and 5 county-level cities (市 shi):

Subdivisions of Qingdao-China.png Subdivision Population Land area Post Code Admin. Area Code*
as of 2007 km²
Qingdao City Proper
Shinan-qu 市南区 / 市南區 430,000 30.01 266000 370202
Shibei-qu 市北区 / 市北區 470,000 28.63 266000 370203
Sifang-qu 四方区 / 四方區 360,000 34.55 266000 370205
Licang-qu 李沧区 / 李滄區 280,000 95.52 266000 370213
Qingdao Suburban and Rural
Laoshan-qu 崂山区 / 嶗山區 190,000 389.34 266100 370212
Chengyang-qu 城阳区 / 城陽區 430,000 553.2 266000 370214
Huangdao-qu 黄岛区 / 黃島區 260,000 274.1 266000 370211
Jiaozhou-shi 胶州市 / 膠州市 750,000 1210 266300 370281
Jiaonan-shi 胶南市 / 膠南市 840,000 1927 266400 370284
Jimo-shi 即墨市 / 即墨市 1,070,000 1727 266200 370282
Pingdu-shi 平度市 / 平度市 1,330,000 3166 266700 370283
Laixi-shi 莱西市 / 萊西市 720,000 1522 266600 370285

*These codes are also being used by ID cards.

Geographically, Shinan is viewed as the old downtown, located in the south of Qingdao city proper, while Sifang and Shibei are located in the center of the city with Shibei designated as the new downtown, and Licang located further up the peninsula in the outskirts of the city. In 2003, the percentage of Qingdao’s population in these four districts was 21.0 percent, 20.8 percent, 16.8 percent, and 12.5 percent, respectively.[7]

[edit] Geography and climate

Qingdao
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
11
 
3
−4
 
 
12
 
4
−3
 
 
21
 
9
2
 
 
36
 
14
8
 
 
51
 
20
13
 
 
83
 
23
18
 
 
177
 
27
22
 
 
156
 
28
23
 
 
90
 
25
19
 
 
47
 
20
13
 
 
27
 
12
6
 
 
9.7
 
5
−1
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Hong Kong Observatory [8]

Qingdao is located on the south facing coast of the Shandong Peninsula. It borders three prefecture-level cities, namely Yantai to the northeast, Weifang to the west, and Rizhao to the southwest. The city's total jurisdiction area occupies 10,654 square kilometres (4,114 sq mi). The populated sections of the city are relatively flat while mountains spur up within city limits and nearby. The highest elevation in the city is 1,133 metres (3,717 ft) above sea level. 15.5% of the total area is highland, while the foothill, plain and lowland areas constitute 25.1%, 37.8% and 21.7%. The city has a 730.64 kilometres (454.00 mi) coastline. Five significant rivers that flow for more than 50 kilometres (31 mi) can be found in the region.

Qingdao has a temperate, four-season, monsoon-influenced[9] climate that falls on the borderline between humid subtropical (Koppen Cwa) and humid continental (Koppen Dwa). Winter is cool to cold and windy,[9] sometimes snowy, but generally dry, with a January average of −0.9 °C (30.4 °F). Summer is generally hot and humid, but very hot days are rare, with an August average of 25.3 °C (77.5 °F). Due to its proximity to the coast and being on a peninsula, it experiences a one-month delayed spring compared to most of central China.[9] Conversely, autumn is much milder than inland areas. The water temperature peaks at about 25 °C (77 °F) in late August, with swimming possible two months on either side.

Climate data for Qingdao (1961-1990)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 2.6
(36.7)
3.8
(38.8)
8.7
(47.7)
14.4
(57.9)
19.7
(67.5)
23.3
(73.9)
26.7
(80.1)
28.3
(82.9)
24.9
(76.8)
19.7
(67.5)
12.4
(54.3)
5.3
(41.5)
15.8
(60.4)
Average low °C (°F) −3.7
(25.3)
−2.5
(27.5)
2.0
(35.6)
7.5
(45.5)
12.9
(55.2)
17.6
(63.7)
21.9
(71.4)
23.0
(73.4)
18.6
(65.5)
13.2
(55.8)
6.0
(42.8)
−0.8
(30.6)
9.6
(49.3)
Precipitation mm (inches) 10.5
(0.413)
12.4
(0.488)
21.0
(0.827)
36.4
(1.433)
50.9
(2.004)
82.7
(3.256)
177.1
(6.972)
156.0
(6.142)
90.2
(3.551)
46.5
(1.831)
26.6
(1.047)
9.7
(0.382)
720
(28.346)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 1.9 2.1 2.8 4.6 4.9 6.0 9.9 8.0 5.7 4.2 3.2 2.2 55.5
Sunshine hours 186.0 180.8 220.1 222.0 244.9 219.0 182.9 223.2 219.0 220.1 189.0 182.9 2,489.9
Source: Hong Kong Observatory [8]

[edit] Demographics

By the end of 2006, Qingdao was estimated to be the home of about 8 million inhabitants, of which around 3 million reside in the Qingdao urban area. Another estimated 5 million live in other cities under Qingdao's jurisdiction. The annual birth rate is calculated around 76,507, with a birth rate of 10.15 per year per thousand, and a death rate of 6.32, both calculated on an annual basis. Living standards are among highest of leading Chinese cities due to the strong export economy and relatively high family wages.

Qingdao is home to 38 Chinese ethnic minorities, which account for 0.14% of the city's total population.

There is a large Korean community in Qingdao. By 2009, there are approximately 100,000 Koreans working, studying and living in Qingdao, which makes Qingdao the second in terms of Korean population in China, following Beijing which has about 200,000 Koreans.[10]

[edit] Economy

Qingdao TV Tower

An important region in Eastern China, Shandong Province has seen substantial change in its economic landscape in recent years. Much of this development has been concentrated in Qingdao.[11] Qingdao has seen rapid development. Enjoying an annual growth rate of 18.9 percent in 2006, the city's GDP reached 42.3 billion, ranking first in Shandong Province and tenth out of China's top 20 cities.[11] GDP per capita comprised RMB¥52,895 (US$7,616) in 2008. The GDP has grown steadily at an average pace of 16% annually. In 2006, Qingdao was ranked one of six "golden cities" by the World Bank, out of 120 Chinese cities assessed on factors including investment climate and government effectiveness.[11]

Internationally, Qingdao is perhaps best known for its Tsingtao Brewery, founded by a German-British joint venture in 1903 that produces Tsingtao beer, the most well-known Chinese export beer. It is also home to Haier, a large white goods manufacturer, and Hisense, a major electronics company. In 2002 guitar manufacturer Epiphone opened a factory in Qingdao.

In 1984 the Chinese government named a district of Qingdao a Special Economic and Technology Development Zone (SETDZ). Along with this district, the entire city had gone through amazing development of secondary and tertiary industries. As an important trading port in the province, Qingdao flourishes with foreign investment and international trade. South Korea and Japan in particular made extensive investment in the city. Approximately 80,000 South Korean citizens reside there. Construction proceeds at a relatively fast pace in Qingdao.

In terms of primary industry, Qingdao has an estimated 50,000 acres (200 km²) of arable land. Qingdao has a zigzagging pattern coastline, and thus possesses an invaluable stock of fish, shrimp, and other sea resources.

Qingdao is also home to a variety of mineral resources. Up to thirty different kinds have been mined. Qingdao's wind power electricity generation performs at among the best levels in the region.[citation needed] The city has also a number of paper mills. One plant is called Qingdao Bei Fa paper mill. Mill's machine is Karlstads Mekaniska Werkstad (KMW)-made (width 3048 mm) and it was acquired from Kajaani paper mill in Finland in the middle of the 1980s.

[edit] Industrial zones

Approved by the State Council in October 1984, Qingdao Economic and Technical Development Zone has a planned of 12.5 square kilometers. In 2004 the local GDP is 27.51 billion RMB, increased by 28.9%; the total industrial output value is 60.6 billion RMB, increased by 31%. There have been 48 projects invested by companies listed among the Global Fortune 500 in the zone. With the fast development of reform and opening-up, Haier, Hisense, Aucma, Sinopec, CSIC, CNOOC, CIMC etc. all locate in the zone.[12]

Qingdao Free Trade Zone was established by the State Council in 1992. The zone is 60 km away from Qingdao Liuting Airport. It is also close to Qingdao Qianwan Harbor. At present, more than 40 foreign-invested enterprises have moved in and 2000 projects have been approved. It is one of the special economic areas which enjoys the most favorable investment policies on customs, foreign exchange, foreign trade and taxation in China.[13]

Qingdao High-Tech Industrial Development Zone was approved the State Council in 1992. The zone is located close to Qingdao Liuting Airport and Qingdao Harbor. Encouraged industries include electronic information, biotechnology, medicine, new materials, new energy, advanced equipment manufacturing, marine science & technology, national defense technology.[14]

[edit] Transport

[edit] Road

The lengths of highways on operation are 14,326 km, including 700 km Expressways. At the present, the traffic mileage is more than 6.02 billion km per year.[citation needed] There are a total of 1,145 km of roads in the Qingdao area, with nearly 500 km of expressways. Expressways connect Qingdao with Jinan.

[edit] Marine

The Orient Ferry connects Qingdao with Shimonoseki, Japan. There are two ferry lines connecting Qingdao with South Korea. The New Golden Bridge II operates between Qingdao and Incheon, and the Blue Sea Ferry operates between Qingdao and Gunsan.[15]

Qingdao hosts one of China's largest seaports. Cooperative relations have been established with 450 ports in 130 countries worldwide. The 1999 annual cargo handling capacity was 72 million tons. Exported commodities amounted to more than 35 million tons and 1.5 million Twenty-foot equivalent units (TEU) of cargo.[citation needed]

[edit] Aviation

The Qingdao Liuting International Airport, 65 kilometres away from city centre, is served by 13 domestic and international airlines, operating 94 routes, 12 of which are international and regional. It is estimated that in 2007 that 7.868 million people, including 1,082,000 international travelers, were transported through the airport.

[edit] Intercity rail

Qingdao railway station

Qingdao's railway development was picked up during the late 1990s. It is at the beginning of the Jiaoji Railway. Qingdao's city proper has some major railway stations, Qingdao Station, Sifang Station[16], Cangkou Station, Great-Seaport Station, etc. At the present, domestic rail lines connect Qingdao with cities including Beijing, Lanzhou, Chengdu, Xi'an, Zhengzhou, Jinan and Jining.

[edit] Public transport

Qingdao's public traffic owns about 4,500 large and medium-sized fangpi buses, CNG buses and trolleybuses, operating more than 200 routes.[citation needed] All of these buses and trolleybuses can be accessed using the Qingdao Public Traffic IC Card (Ri-Xin Card ), which uses radio frequencies so the card does not have to physically touch the scanner. The volume of road passenger transport approaches 0.8 billion per year.[citation needed] The Public Transport Brand of 'Ri-Xin Bus ()' is also known in China.

There are a number of taxi companies in Qingdao including Yiqing Company, Zhongqing Company, Jiaoyun Company and, Huaqing Company.

[edit] Subway

Qingdao is ready to spend more than 29 billion yuan ($4.2 billion) before 2016 on its subway construction, the government announced on August 18, 2009 after getting the approval from the State Council. The construction of 54.7 km mileage of subway line will be completed before 2016 with a total investment of 29.2 billion yuan ($4.3 billion). The city plans to build eight subway lines in downtown and some suburban districts, which account for 231.5 kilometers in future.[17]

[edit] Culture

[edit] Architecture

Qingdao retains many buildings with a German architectural style

The unique combination of German and Chinese architecture in the city centre, combined with German demographic roots and a large Korean expat population, gives Qingdao a distinct atmosphere.[citation needed] A larger number of areas in former foreign styles are well preserved. Although the new city area is under large-scale reconstruction, the old city area (especially Taixi) still retains some traditional buildings.

Skyscrapers in Qingdao

[edit] Celebrities

Other notable people include:

[edit] Language

A local accent known as Qingdao dialect (青岛话, pinyin qingdao hua)" distinguishes the residents of the city from those of the surrounding Shandong province. Due to the efforts by the city government to promote standard Mandarin, most educated people can affect that accent. With reform policies and English teaching, some young citizens have been taught English and many can converse with foreigners. Business and traffic signs in English are becoming more and more common.

[edit] Cuisine

Seafood is a typical delicacy of the coastal city, divided into two categories: "Great Seafood" including sea cucumbers, abalones, shark's fin, prawns, crabs, conch, and some big fish, and "Little Seafood" comprising squid, shrimps, octopus, oysters, razor clams, clams, periwinkles, yellow croakers, etc. Generally, fresh seafood is served in every hotel.

The distinctive cuisine of the area is Lu Cai, the Shandong regional style.

[edit] Festivals

Festival in Qingdao in 1913

[edit] Tourism

Qingdao attracts many tourists due to its seaside setting and temperate weather. Parks, beaches, sculpture and unique German and modern architecture line the shore. For more information head over to the Qingdao Information Centre for International Visitors located on Mid-Hong Kong Road (Xianggang Zhong Lu).

Qingdao's major attractions include:

[edit] Historical Euro-Asia Area

Former site of the headquarters of the German Administration
The Protestant Church(基督教堂)
The pier on the seafront
City View Of Qingdao 1.JPG

[edit] The Flourishing Eastern Area

[edit] State-level Mount Lao Scenic Area

[edit] Outlying Area

[edit] Education

[edit] Post-secondary educational institutions

[edit] International schools

[edit] Sports

Qingdao has long been a hub of professional sports in The People's Republic of China.

[edit] Stadiums

[edit] Olympic Games

Along with Beijing's hosting of the 2008 Summer Olympics, Qingdao was the host city for the Olympic Sailing competitions which took place along the shoreline by the city. These events were hosted at the Qingdao International Sailing Centre and held in Fushan Bay, near the city's central business district. A hotel and an international broadcasting centre were built.

[edit] Football

Qingdao Hainiu Football Club (former name of Qingdao Shengwen Jonoon Football Club) was founded in 1993. They joined the first Chinese professional football as a second-class league club in 1994. They got the champion in their first season and were promoted to the top league (the first two could be promoted). In 1995, they finished as 11th (total 12 teams, last two would be relegated) and was relegated from the top league. In the next year, they got the runner-up in the second-class league and came back to the top league. Till now, they have been playing in the top league for 12 successive seasons.

[edit] Motorsport

IndyCar Series commercial division president Terry Angstadt has mentioned Qingdao as a possible venue for a second race in Asia after Twin Ring Motegi, Japan.[18] There are plans for a 400,000+ seat purpose-built course to be opened in 2011 or later. Angstadt has suggested that the series may race in a street circuit while the facilities are under construction.

[edit] Surfing

Qingdao is one of the few cities in northern China where surfing is possible. The best surfing season is during the typhoon season (June–October). The south oriented beaches of Qingdao are the most appropriate to receive swells. Shinan and Laoshan districts are reported to have the best wave and wind orientation.

[edit] International relations

[edit] Twin towns — Sister cities

Qingdao is twinned with:

[edit] Friendly co-operative cities

Qingdao is a friendly co-operative city of the following cities around the world.

[edit] References

  1. ^ Google map regard Tsingtao and Qingdao as the same place.
  2. ^ "List of 10 Most Livable Cities in China Issued". 9 July 2009. http://english.cri.cn/6566/2009/07/09/2263s500163.htm. Retrieved 18 December 2010. 
  3. ^ Gottschall, Terrell (2003). By Order of the Kaiser, Otto von Diederichs and the Rise of the Imperial German Navy 1865–1902. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. p. 146. ISBN 978-1557503091. 
  4. ^ Matzat, Wilhelm (May 2003). "Landmann Gottfried 1860-1926 Uhrmacher, Optiker, Bierbrauer [Gottfried Landmann, 1860-1926: Watchmaker, Optician, Beer Brewer]" (in German). tsingtau.org. Wilhelm Matzat. http://www.tsingtau.org/landmann-gottfried-1860-1926-uhrmacher-optiker-bierbrauer/. Retrieved June 9, 2010. 
  5. ^ a b Schultz-Naumann, Joachim (1985) (in German). Unter Kaisers Flagge: Deutschlands Schutzgebiete im Pazifik und in China einst und heute [Under the Kaiser's Flag: Germany's protected areas in the Pacific and in China then and now]. Universitas. p. 183. ISBN 978-3800410941. 
  6. ^ see German East Asia Squadron, Battle of Coronel and Battle of the Falkland Islands for fleet engagements
  7. ^ Segmentation of Retail Food Store Formats in Qingdao, China, http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/bitstream/21233/1/sp06ba13.pdf 
  8. ^ a b "Climatological Normals of Qingdao". Hong Kong Observatory. http://www.weather.gov.hk/wxinfo/climat/world/eng/asia/china/qingdao_e.htm. Retrieved 2010-04-10. 
  9. ^ a b c "自然地理 [Geography]" (in Chinese). Qingdao: Shinan District Information Office. http://www.qdsn.gov.cn/n16/n1114/n1145/n1160/index.html. 
  10. ^ "韩国旅客位居北京入境外国人之首". 10/08/2009. http://www.chinanews.com.cn/sh/news/2009/10-08/1899449.shtml. Retrieved 12/1/2009. 
  11. ^ a b c "Qingdao Shinan District Investment Environment Study 2007", Report (KPMG Huazhen), 2007, http://www.kpmg.com.cn/redirect.asp?id=8584, retrieved 10 June 2010 
  12. ^ RightSite.asia | Qingdao Economic & Technological Development Area
  13. ^ RightSite.asia | Qingdao Free Trade Zone
  14. ^ RightSite.asia | Qingdao High-tech Industrial Zone
  15. ^ Ferries Korea-China
  16. ^ Until August 2008, travellers not from Qingdao are often confused in that railway tickets to Qingdao are listed as destined for "Sifang". These trains, in reality, are headed to Qingdao's Sifang District. The destination's name will revert to "Qingdao" once renovations to the larger Qingdao Railway Station is complete.
  17. ^ "$4.3 billion budget to boost Qingdao subway construction". 08/19/2008. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2009-08/19/content_8588389.htm. 
  18. ^ Will the IRL go international? - Fox Sports, July 2, 2009
  19. ^ http://www.brd.nrw.de/presse/reden/20012008.pdf

[edit] External links

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