Washington, George, 1732-1799. The writings of George Washington from the original manuscript sources: Volume 4
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The writings of George Washington from the original manuscript sources: Volume 4
Washington, George, 1732-1799
Fitzpatrick, John Clement, 1876-1940

Creation of machine-readable version: National Digital Library Program, Library of Congress

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mgw-gw04 31-5736

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   © 1997, Library of Congress.


2001

   The Papers of George Washington at the Library of Congress


Note: Manuscript Division, Library of Congress
About the print version


The writings of George Washington from the original manuscript sources
Volume 4
George Washington
John Clement Fitzpatrick
U. S. Govt. Print. Off.
Washington
1931-1944
Source copy consulted: UVA Library A 1931 .W36

   The National Digital Library Program at the Library of Congress makes digitalized historical materials available for education and scholarhsip.

   This transcription is intended to have and accuracy rate of 99.95 percent or greater and is not intended to reproduce the appearance of the original work. Accompanying images provide a facsimile of this work and represent the appearance of the original.


Published: 1745-1799

[Subject: Washington family United States -- History -- Revolution, 1775-1783 United States -- History Fitzpatrick, John Clement, 1876-1940 Matteson, David Maydole, 1871-1949 George Washington Bicentennial Commission (U.S.)]
Revisions to the electronic version
1997-09-30 corrector American Memory, Library of Congress, Washington, DC
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  • February 2002 corrector Cara Welch and Colleen Guilford, Electronic Text Center, University of Virginia
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    Page

       GEORGE WASHINGTON
    BICENTENNIAL EDITION
    THE WRITINGS OF
    GEORGE WASHINGTON


    From the Houdon Bust



    Page

    From the Houdon Bust, modeled from life at Mount Vernon in 1785. Here reproduced by permission of the Mount Vernon Ladies' Association of the Union



    Page


    THE WRITINGS OF
    George
    Washington


    from the
    Original Manuscript Sources
    1745 -- 1799


    Prepared under the direction of the United States
    George Washington Bicentennial Commission
    and published by authority of Congress
    John C. Fitzpatrick, Editor
    Volume 4
    October, 1775 -- April, 1776

    United States
    Government Printing Office

    Washington

    Printed
    November, 1931

    Page

    UNITED STATES GEORGE WASHINGTON
    BICENTENNIAL COMMISSION

        President of the United States

        Chairman

        Vice President of the United States

        Speaker of the House of Representatives

        United States Senate

        Simeon D. Fess, Vice Chairman
    Ohio

        Arthur Capper
    Kansas

        Carter Glass
    Virginia

        Millard E. Tydings
    Maryland

        House of Representatives

        Willis C. Hawley
    Oregon

        John Q. Tilson
    Connecticut

        Joseph W. Byrns
    Tennessee

        R. Walton Moore
    Virginia

        Presidential Commissioners

        Mrs. Anthony Wayne Cook
    Pennsylvania

        Mrs. John Dickinson Sherman
    Colorado

        Henry Ford
    Michigan

        George Eastman
    New York

        C. Bascom Slemp
    Virgina

        Wallace McCamant
    Oregon

        Albert Bushnell Hart
    Massachusetts

        Bernard M. Baruch
    New York

        Executive Committee

        The Senate and House
    Commissioners

        C. Bascom Slemp

        Mrs. Anthony Wayne Cook

        Bernard M. Baruch

        Historian

        Prof. Albert Bushnell Hart

        Associate Directors

        Representative Sol Bloom

        Executive Secretary

        William Tyler Page

    ADVISORY COMMITTEE
    ON THE WRITINGS

        Dr. J. Franklin Jameson, Chairman

        Chair of American History and Chief of Manuscripts Division
    Library of Congress

        Professor Randolph G. Adams

        Librarian William L. Clements Library

        University of Michigan

        President J. A. C. Chandler

        William and Mary College

        Dr. Tyler Dennett

        Editor, United States Department of State

        Dr. Charles Moore

        Chairman United States Commission of Fine Arts

        George W. Ochs-Oakes, Esq. *

    [Note:Deceased. ]

        Editor, New York Times

        Brigadier General John M. Palmer

        United States Army, Retired

        Victor H. Paltsits

        Chief of Manuscript Department
    New York Public Library

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

  •    1775


  •    page


  •    General Orders, October 1 1


  •    General Orders, October 3 1


  •    To Captain Daniel Morgan, October 4
    Claim of exemption from command inadmissible -- Officers must command according to rank. 2


  •    General Orders, October 4 3


  •    To Major General Philip Schuyler, October 4
    Arnold's march to Canada -- Intercepted letters from Quebec -- Bunker's Hill in England -- Gage's recall. 4


  •    Instructions to Colonel John Glover and Stephen Moylan, October 4
    Fitting out armed vessels. 6


  •    To the General Officers, October 5
    Questions submitted by Congress and the General. 7


  •    To the President of Congress, October 5
    Opinion of officers asked on the questions of Congress -- Treason of Doctor Church -- Captured property intended for the enemy -- Intelligence from Boston and Canada. 9


  •    General Orders, October 5 13


  •    To Robert Carter Nicholas, October 5
    Acknowledges his congratulations -- Pay of Mr. Byrd -- Position of the two armies. 14


  •    To the Committee of Portsmouth, N.H., October 5
    Captured flour. 15


  •    To the Committee of the City of New York, October 5
    Sailing of a British fleet -- British reenforcements. 16


  •    To the Massachusetts Legislature, October 6
    Firewood -- Winnisimet ferry -- Barracks. 17


  •    To Major General Philip Schuyler, October 6
    Wooster's command in Canada. 18


  •    General Orders, October 7 19


  •    General Orders, October 8 20


  •    General Orders, October 9 21


  •    General Orders, October 11 21


  •    To the President of Congress, October 12
    Committee of Congress -- Pay of men can not be reduced -- Surgeons recommended -- Vessels to intercept supplies for Boston and for Quebec -- Intelligence -- Lord Dunmore's schemes. 22


  •    To John Augustine Washington, October 13
    Resolutions of the Virginia convention -- Position of the army -- Arnold's detachment for Canada -- Mrs. Washington invited to camp. 35


  •    General Orders, October 13 28


  •    To Governor Jonathan Trumbull, October 13
    British Fleet -- Armed vessels. 28


  •    To Governor Nicholas Cooke, October 13
    Interception of British ships -- Meeting of committee. 29


  •    General Orders, October 14 30


  •    General Orders, October 15 30


  •    To the Committee of Safety of New Hampshire, October 15
    Captured flour. 31


  •    Certificate, October 15 32


  •    To Colonel John Glover and Stephen Moylan, October 16
    Bread for armed vessels. 32


  •    To Captain Nicholson Broughton, October 16
    Instructions. 33


  •    General Orders, October 17 34


  •    General Orders, October 18 35


  •    To Major Christopher French, October 19
    Liberty to wear his sword. 35


  •    To Major Benjamin Tupper, October 20
    Seizure of vessels. 36


  •    General Orders, October 21 36


  •    General Orders, October 22 37


  •    Instructions to Captain William Coit, October 22 37


  •    General Orders, October 23 39


  •    To the New York Legislature, October 24
    Captain Thompson's information. 40


  •    To the President of Congress, October 24
    Destruction of Falmouth -- Sullivan sent to that place. 40


  •    To the Committee of Falmouth, October 24
    Inability to send a detachment to their assistance. 41


  •    To Major Christopher French, October 25
    Liberty to wear his sword. 42


  •    General Orders, October 25 43


  •    General Orders, October 26 43


  •    To Major General Philip Schuyler, October 26
    Obstacles -- Colonel Allen's capture -- Committee of Congress -- Intelligence -- Importance of Canadian campaign. 45


  •    To the Massachusetts Legislature, October 27
    Prices of wood, hay, etc. 47


  •    General Orders, October 27 48


  •    General Orders, October 28 49


  •    To Anthony White, October 28 50


  •    To Governor Jonathan Trumbull, October 29
    Doctor Cheeney's conduct. 50


  •    To Richard Henry Lee, October 29
    Col. Joseph Reed's law practice. 52


  •    To Governor Nicholas Cooke, October 29
    Captain Whipple's voyage. 53


  •    To the Massachusetts Legislature, October 30
    Fortifications at Cape Ann. 53


  •    To Joseph Reed, October 30
    Mr. Tudor's recommendations as to general courts-martial. 54


  •    To the President of Congress, October 30
    Return of committee -- Continuance of officers in service -- Encouragement should be given to the privates. 55


  •    General Orders, October 31 56


  •    General Orders, November 1 58


  •    To the President of Congress, November 2 Death of Peyton Randolph -- Return of officers willing to continue -- Brigadier general should be appointed -- British proclamations. 58


  •    To the Massachusetts Legislature, November 2
    Wood and hay required -- Regiments cutting throats for a few locust trees near the camp -- Destruction of trees depreciated. 60


  •    To Joseph Trumbull, November 2
    His health. 61


  •    To Governor Jonathan Trumbull, November 2
    Lack of engineers. 61


  •    To Governor Nicholas Cooke, November 2
    Beef and pork. 62


  •    General Orders, November 3 63


  •    To Josiah Quincy, November 4
    Point Alderton. 63


  •    General Orders, November 5 64


  •    To Major General Philip Schuyler, November 5
    Chamblee -- Wooster and Montgomery -- Destruction of Falmouth -- Situation of the army. 65


  •    To Brigadier General John Sullivan, November 5
    British measures -- Orders seizure of all royal officers. 67


  •    General Orders, November 6 68


  •    To the Committee of Falmouth, November 6
    Inability to protect the town. 69


  •    To Colonel Edmund Phinney, November 6
    Orders him to Falmouth. 69


  •    Instructions to Brigadier General John Sullivan, November 7 70


  •    To the President of Congress, November 8
    Scheme of Captain Macpherson -- British vessels taken -- Proper courts to condemn prizes necessary -- British prisoners -- The new establishment delayed -- Knox to succeed Gridley -- Canada and Falmouth. 71


  •    To Richard Henry Lee, November 8
    Captures by armed vessels. 75


  •    To Joseph Reed, November 8
    Captures of British property -- New arrangement of officers and difficulties encountered -- A series of blunders. 76


  •    General Orders, November 9 78


  •    To the Massachusetts Legislature, November 9 78


  •    General Orders, November 10 79


  •    To Colonel William Woodford, November 10
    Advice as to disciplining troops. 80


  •    To the President of Congress, November 11
    Prizes and determination of questions pertaining to them -- Arrangement of the army -- Want of arms and powder -- Affair at Letchmores Point. 81


  •    General Orders, November 12 84


  •    General Orders, November 13 87


  •    General Orders, November 14 87


  •    General Orders, November 15 89


  •    To Governor Jonathan Trumbull, November 15
    Doctor Cheeney's case -- Seizure of Tories. 90


  •    To the New York Legislature, November 16
    Stores for the main army. 91


  •    To Major General Philip Schuyler, November 16
    Surrender of St. John -- Need of powder, lead, etc. 92


  •    To Major General Philip Schuyler, November 16
    Knox's mission. 93


  •    Instructions to Henry Knox, November 16 93


  •    General Orders, November 16 94


  •    General Orders, November 17 95


  •    To Major General Artemas Ward, November 17
    Wishes to consult him on fortifying his camp -- Also a surprise of Castle William. 97


  •    General Orders, November 18 98


  •    To Governor Nicholas Cooke, November 18
    Reenforcements. 99


  •    To the President of Congress, November 19
    Messengers to Nova Scotia: -- Arrangement of troops -- Battalions of marines -- News from Canada expeditions -- Mortifying scarcity of firewood -- Returns of enlistments. 99


  •    General Orders, November 19 102


  •    General Orders, November 20 103


  •    To Joseph Reed, November 20
    His position as secretary -- Other aides described -- Suggestion of advance pay -- Doctor Church sent to Connecticut -- Mutiny of the privateersmen -- News from Arnold -- Mrs. Washington's journey to camp. 104


  •    General Orders, November 21 107


  •    General Orders, November 22


  •    General Orders, November 23 110


  •    To the Committee of the Council of Massachusetts, November 24
    Willards and Child's mission. 111


  •    General Orders, November 24 112


  •    To Aaron Willard, November 24 112


  •    General Orders, November 25 113


  •    To Lund Washington, November 26
    Servants unreliable -- His own wages -- Directions for maintaining the hospitality of the house. 114


  •    General Orders, November 26 116


  •    To Richard Henry Lee, November 27
    Works on Cobble Hill -- Armed vessels -- The British not likely to leave Boston -- Money wanted -- Canada. 116


  •    To Joseph Reed, November 27
    Occupation of Cobble Hill -- Fortifications constructed -- The exodus from Boston -- An ordnance vessel to be captured. 118


  •    General Orders, November 27 119


  •    General Orders, November 28 119


  •    To the President of Congress, November 28
    Knox's orders -- Messengers to Nova Scotia -- Colonel Enos -- Enlistment of men for war not obtainable -- Cobble Hill -- Inhabitants of Boston coming out -- Number of enlisted men, and favors granted -- Militia and minutemen to be called in -- Smallpox in Boston -- The Canada expedition. 120


  •    To Lieutenant Colonel George Baylor, November 28
    Horses and money. 123


  •    To Joseph Reed, November 28
    His presence needed -- Mr. Lynch on his position -- Want of money -- Stock jobbing and want of virtue prevail -- Connecticut troops will not stay beyond their time -- Would not have accepted command had present difficulties been foreseen -- Operations of Army -- Knox -- Proposed exchange of prisoners -- Aides should be ready writers -- The new arrangement of the officers -- Capture of Montreal -- Reed's perquisites. 123


  •    To Major General Philip Schuyler, November 28
    Little patriotic spirit shown by troops -- Colonels Enos and Montgomery -- Incidents of the camp -- Capture of military stores. 127


  •    To the Massachusetts Legislature, November 29
    Furloughs -- Pay month. 128


  •    General Orders, November 29 129


  •    To Joseph Reed November 30
    Capture of the Nancy -- Fight at Letchmores Point. 130


  •    General Orders, November 30 131


  •    To the President of Congress, November 30
    Captain Manley's successes. 132


  •    To William Ramsay, November
    Canadian situation -- Siege of Boston -- Advises fortifying the Potomac. 133


  •    General Orders, December 1 135


  •    General Orders, December 2 136


  •    To Governor Trumbull, December 2
    Reprehensible conduct of the Connecticut troops -- Militia called in to take their place. 137


  •    General Orders, December 3 138


  •    General Orders, December 4 139


  •    To Colonel Alexander McDougall, December 4
    Shot and shell -- Need of cannon. 139


  •    To Brigadier General John Thomas, December 4
    Raising a company. 140


  •    To Major General Artemas Ward, December 4
    Artillery officers. 140


  •    To the President of Congress, December 4
    Capture of vessels -- Inquiries as to disposition of ships and cargoes -- Scandalous conduct of Connecticut troops, and measures taken to remedy their leaving -- Enlistments proceed slowly -- Colonel Babcock -- Affairs of the Canada forces -- Defense of Cape Cod -- Howe sending out inhabitants -- Fears of smallpox. 141


  •    To Governor Nicholas Cooke, December 5
    Impracticability of recruiting new army by voluntary enlistments -- A bounty expected -- Desertion of troops looked for -- The militia not to be depended upon -- Vigorous measures necessary to complete army. 145


  •    To Major General Philip Schuyler, December 5
    Arnold's progress and merit -- Want of order among troops -- Trusts be will not resign. 147


  •    To Colonel Benedict Arnold, December 5
    Commends his spirit -- A command reserved for him -- Enos under arrest. 148


  •    To the Massachusetts Legislature, December 6
    Pay of Massachusetts Militia. 149


  •    To Governor Nicholas Cooke, December 6
    Aborn's vessel. 150


  •    General Orders, December 7 150


  •    To Governor Nicholas Cooke, December 7
    Captured British officers. 151


  •    To the Committee of Safety of Portsmouth, N.H., December 7
    Richard Emms. 151


  •    To the President of Congress, December 7
    Broughton and Selman's conduct -- James Anderson. 152


  •    To Brigadier General John Sullivan, December 8
    Arms of Connecticut troops. 152


  •    General Orders, December 9 153


  •    General Orders, December 10 153


  •    To the Massachusetts Legislature, December 10
    Smallpox from Boston. 154


  •    General Orders, December 11 155


  •    To the Committee of Simsbury, Conn., December 11
    Prisoners. 155


  •    To the President of Congress, December 11
    Prizes -- Slow enlistment -- Militia arriving in numbers -- Fear of smallpox -- Matters in Boston -- Colonel Enos's trial and acquittal. 156


  •    General Orders, December 12 158


  •    General Orders, December 13 158


  •    To Governor Nicholas Cooke, December 14
    Penet and Pliarne. 159


  •    To the President of Congress, December 14
    The marine battalions -- Appointment of surgeons -- Exchange of Allen proposed -- Smallpox in Boston. 160


  •    To the President of Congress, December 14
    Penet and Pliarne -- Their offer. 162


  •    General Orders, December 15 163


  •    To Governor Jonathan Trumbull, December 15
    Aid from Connecticut -- Abiel Leonard. 163


  •    To Joseph Reed, December 15
    Attentions to Mrs. Washington -- Political jealousies noticed, and explanations made -- Letters from camp disapproved -- Money and pay accounts -- Bounty for enlistments -- Inactivity of British -- Lord Dunmore's schemes -- Smallpox. 164


  •    To the Massachusetts Legislature, December 16
    Resolve of Congress. 168


  •    General Orders, December 17 168


  •    To Governor Nicholas Cooke, December 17
    Removal of stock from Block Island. 169


  •    To Major General Artemas Ward, December 17
    Passes to the lines. 170


  •    General Orders, December 18 170


  •    To Sir William Howe, December 18
    Treatment of American prisoners -- Allen's case noted, and retaliation on Prescott threatened -- Regret that Howe should appear against America. 170


  •    To the President of Congress, December 18
    Intercepted letters showing Dunmore's plans -- Also the situation at St. Augustine -- Progress of new works of fortification -- Letter to Howe -- Returns of enlistments -- Master Lovell's case. 172


  •    To Major General Philip Schuyler, December 18
    Escape of Carleton -- Allen's case -- Major Rogers said to have been in Canada. 174


  •    General Orders, December 20 176


  •    To Governor Nicholas Cooke, December 20
    Inability to detach troops to Rhode Island -- Militia. 176


  •    General Orders, December 23 177


  •    To the Massachusetts Legislature, December 23
    Need of blankets. 178


  •    To Major General Philip Schuyler, December 24
    On his intention to quit the service -- Clothing of the troops -- The British relations with the Indians. 178


  •    General Orders, December 24 180


  •    To the President of Congress, December 25
    The instructions to Connolly -- Howe's letter -- The pay of the Army -- Ordnance -- General Lee sent to Rhode Island. 181


  •    To Joseph Reed, December 25
    Fortifying Letchmores Point -- Letters of introduction -- A passage of a letter misunderstood -- Voluntary enlistments -- The Continental Fleet -- Mrs. Washington's journey. 184


  •    To Richard Henry Lee, December 26
    Demands for money -- Lord Dunmore's schemes and necessity of acting against him -- Determination of captures -- A brigadier general necessary. 186


  •    General Orders, December 26 187


  •    General Orders, December 27 189


  •    General Orders, December 28 189


  •    General Orders, December 29 191


  •    To the Massachusetts Legislature, December 29
    The independent companies and their pay -- On extending the guard. 192


  •    General Orders, December 30 193


  •    To the President of Congress, December 31
    Expenses of the Army -- Clothing -- Commissions for the officers in Canada Employment of free negroes in the Army -- Colonel Gridley -- Intelligence from Canada -- Prizes and prisoners -- Lee in Rhode Island -- Pay of chaplains. 194


  •    Estimate of expense of an army of 15,000 198


  •    To William Ramsay, December
    Fortifying the Potomac -- Captures by armed vessels. 200


  •    1776


  •    General Orders, January 1 202


  •    General Orders, January 2 204


  •    General Orders, January 3 206


  •    To the President of Congress, January 4
    An attack on Boston -- Situation of the Army -- The British forces and their operations -- Protecting New York -- His Majesty's speech. 208.


  •    To Joseph Reed, January 4
    Matters in Virginia -- The King's speech and its reception in camp -- Raising the colors -- The condition of the Army -- French troops in the West Indies -- A move by the British Fleet. 210


  •    General Orders, January 5 213


  •    To Governor Nicholas Cooke, January 6
    Blankets -- Supplying Captain Wallace with provisions -- Its pernicious consequences -- Acts of the Connecticut Assembly -- Impressing wagons. 214


  •    General Orders, January 6 217


  •    To Governor Jonathan Trumbull, January 7
    Supplies -- Embarkation of troops from Boston -- Probably for New York or Long Island -- Will detach General Lee to New York -- Tories to be disarmed -- Request for troops. 217


  •    To John Adams, January 7
    General Lee's transfer to New York. 219


  •    General Orders, January 7 220


  •    To the Committee of Safety of New York, January 8
    Coming of General Lee. 220


  •    Instructions to Major General Charles Lee, January 8 221


  •    General Orders, January 8 223


  •    General Orders, January 9 223


  •    General Orders, January 10 224


  •    To Brigadier General John Sullivan, January 10
    Officers appointed -- Returns. 225


  •    To Lord Stirling, January 10.
    General Lee ordered to New York -- New Jersey troops to assist him. 226


  •    To the Massachusetts Legislature, January 10
    The strength of the lines -- The new Army. 227


  •    To the President of Congress, January 11
    Embarkation of British troops -- Importance of defending New York -- Knowlton's exploit. 229


  •    General Orders, January 12 230


  •    To Major General Richard Montgomery, January 12
    Need of supplies from Quebec when captured. 231


  •    To Colonel Benedict Arnold, January 12
    Stores at Quebec -- A Canadian army proposed. 232


  •    Instructions to William Marony, January 12 232


  •    General Orders, January 13 234


  •    To Colonel Alexander McDougall, January 13
    Cannon, shells, and powder. 234


  •    To the Massachusetts Legislature, January 13
    Great deficiency of arms. 235


  •    To the New Hampshire Legislature, January 13
    Deficiency of arms -- Need of a supply. 236


  •    General Orders, January 14 237


  •    To the President of Congress, January 14
    Deficiency of arms, and the reasons for it -- Enlistments almost at an end -- Reenforcements from England -- Colonies applied to for arms. 237


  •    To Joseph Reed, January 14
    Criticisms on his conduct answered -- The Continental Fleet -- Enlistments at a stand -- Opposition of some officers -- Great want of arms -- His uneasy hours and anxieties -- Knowlton's exploit -- Lee sent to New York -- Intelligence from England -- The commitment of Sayre -- French forces in the West Indies -- Adjournment of Congress. 240


  •    General Orders, January 16 246


  •    To the Massachusetts Legislature, January 16
    Recruiting -- Draft -- Arms -- Loan from the colony. 246


  •    To Governor Jonathan Trumbull, January 16
    Council of officers' decision to call for 13 regiments -- Need of equipment. 248


  •    To Governor Nicholas Cooke, January 16
    Loss of arms. 249


  •    To the New Hampshire Legislature, January 16
    Raising of troops -- Need of arms, etc. 250


  •    To Major General Philip Schuyler, January 16
    On continuing to hold his commission -- Prescott and Rogers -- Montgomery and Arnold -- The Indians -- Parole of Mr. Gamble -- Wooster's furloughs criticized. 251


  •    General Orders, January 18 254


  •    To Major General Philip Schuyler, January 18
    Death of Montgomery -- Can spare no troops -- New regiments to be raised -- Route of new forces. 254


  •    General Orders, January 19 257


  •    To the Massachusetts Legislatures January 19
    Reenforcements for Canada. 257


  •    To the President of Congress, January 19
    Repulse in Canada -- Reenforcements from the eastern colonies -- Importance of supporting the Canada troops -- Replies from Connecticut and Rhode Island. 258


  •    Instructions to Captain Charles Dyar, January 20 261


  •    To Governor Jonathan Trumbull, January 20
    Anticipation of his requisition. 263


  •    General Orders, January 21 264


  •    To Governor Jonathan Trumbull, January 21
    Inducements for men to enlist for Canada service. 265


  •    General Orders, January 22 266


  •    To Major General Charles Lee, January 23
    Action of Congress regretted -- Troops should be disbanded -- Canadian affairs -- Slow recruiting -- Clinton gone on some expedition. 266


  •    General Orders, January 23 268


  •    To Joseph Reed, January 23
    Distress for a secretary -- Pressure of business -- Wooster's enterprise -- New troops -- Movements of the British -- -- Powder needed. 268


  •    To the President of Congress, January 24
    Commissary General and his accounts -- The accounts of the Army -- Purchase of arms -- Nothing decisive can be done without powder -- Clinton's expedition -- The battalions of marines -- Indians entertained. 271


  •    General Orders, January 24
    Brigading the Army. 275


  •    To Governor Jonathan Trumbull, January 25
    Militia regiments needed -- Arms. 276


  •    General Orders, January 26 277


  •    To Major General Philip Schuyler, January 27
    News of Arnold -- Reinforcements for Canada The Indians a cause of embarrassment -- The Tryon County expedition. 278


  •    To Colonel Benedict Arnold, January 27
    Montgomery's defeat -- Measures taken to send troops to Canada -- Importance of retaining a position in that country. 281


  •    General Orders, January 28 283


  •    To Commodore John Manley, January 28
    His conduct commended -- Promise of better vessel -- Appointed commodore. 284


  •    General Orders, January 29 285


  •    To the President of Congress, January 20
    Importance of Canada -- Reenforcements -- Exchange of Mr. Lovell to be proposed -- The rank of aides -- Connolly's instructions -- Need of powder -- Money -- A general for Canada -- Clinton's expedition -- Captain Cochran -- Prize captures -- Arms -- Concealment of Connolly's orders -- The commissioners returned from Nova Scotia -- Proposed attempt on Halifax. 286


  •    To Major General Charles Lee, January 30
    Clinton probably gone to New York -- Disarming the Tories -- Congress may send him to Canada. 293


  •    To Sir William Howe, January 30
    Exchange of Governor Skene for James Lovell. 294


  •    General Orders January 31 295


  •    To the Massachusetts Legislature, January 31
    Condemnation of prizes. 295


  •    To Joseph Reed, January 31
    Multiplying business -- The Continental Navy -- The ravages in Virginia and "Common-Sense" -- Arnold's ability -- Importance of supporting him -- Lee in New York -- Campbell's picture. 296


  •    To Joseph Reed, February 1
    Behavior of Montgomery's troops -- Evils of short enlistments -- A bounty should be given. 299


  •    To Major General Philip Schuyler, February 1
    Aid from Caughnawaga Indians. 301


  •    To Colonel Timothy Bedel, February 1
    Orders to raise a regiment and march to Canada -- Use of Caughnawaga Indians. 302


  •    To Captain William Burke, February 1
    Appointment to armed vessel. 303


  •    To Captain John Ayres, February 1 303


  •    List of captains of armed vessels 304


  •    To Timothy Pickering, jr., February 1
    Militia from Salem. 304


  •    General Orders, February 3 305


  •    General Orders, February 4 305


  •    General Orders, February 5 306


  •    General Orders, February 6 306


  •    General Orders, February 7 307


  •    To Governor Jonathan Trumbull, February 8
    Request for powder. 308


  •    To Governor Jonathan Trumbull, February 9
    Payment of colony for troops -- Powder very much wanted. 309


  •    General Orders, February 9 311


  •    To the President of Congress, February 9
    Pay of Connecticut troops. 311


  •    To the President of Congress, February 9
    Prizes -- Commissary of prisoners needed -- Loan from Massachusetts -- Procuring arms -- Expresses. 312


  •    To the President of Congress, February 9
    Disadvantages of short enlistments -- A cause of Montgomery's defeat -- Army can not be disciplined -- Consequent expense -- A bounty should be given. 315


  •    To Joseph Reed, February 10
    Expectations and fulfillment -- Enlistments and condition of regiments -- Character of the people -- Starving the cause -- Ideas of accommodation -- Zeal of chimney-corner heroes -- Admiralty cases -- Militia ordered in -- Arduous work at Letchmore's Point -- Miss Wheatley's poem -- Reed's election to the assembly. 318


  •    General Orders, February 10 324


  •    Instructions to Colonel Elisha Porter, February 10 324


  •    To the New York Committee, February 10
    Need of arms. 325


  •    To the Massachusetts Legislature, February 10
    Necessity of purchasing firelocks. 326


  •    General Orders, February 11 327


  •    General Orders, February 12 327


  •    General Orders, February 13 329


  •    General Orders, February 14 329


  •    To the President of Congress, February 14
    Lord Drummond's letter -- His intentions of dubious nature -- Conduct is premature and officious -- The Nova Scotia mission a failure -- British attack on Dorchester Neck -- Supplying prisoners. 330


  •    General Orders, February 15 332


  •    To Governor Jonathan Trumbull, February 15
    Money for troops going to Canada -- Pay for militia -- Powder. 333


  •    General Orders, February 16 334


  •    To the President of Congress, February 18
    Ice formed between Dorchester Point and Boston -- Attack on city proposed but negatived -- Irksomeness of his position -- Powder. 335


  •    General Orders, February 19 338


  •    To Governor Trumbull, February 19
    Situation as to powder -- A golden opportunity to attack city lost -- Cause, a want of powder -- Urges the forwarding' of supplies -- Town stocks inexpedient at this juncture. 338


  •    To Brigadier General John Sullivan, February 19
    Distance of his quarters from his troops. 340


  •    General Orders, February 20 341


  •    General Orders, February 20 342


  •    General Orders, February 22 342


  •    To Governor Jonathan Trumbull, February 22
    Powder. 343


  •    General Orders, February 23 343


  •    General Orders, February 24 344


  •    General Orders, February 25 345


  •    To Major General Philip Schuyler, February 25
    Deficiency of arms. 346


  •    General Orders, February 26 347


  •    To Joseph Reed, February 26
    Failure to attack Boston. 347


  •    To the President of Congress, February 26
    Preparations to take possession of Dorchester Heights -- Movements of British looking to an embarkation -- Conjectures as to destination -- His own operations in case of evacuation. 348


  •    To the Massachusetts Legislature, February 26
    Fortification of Dorchester Heights -- Militia. 350


  •    To Major General Charles Lee, February 26
    Captain Parker's threats -- British apparently preparing to move -- Dorchester Heights to be occupied -- Defense of New York -- The Canada expedition. 351


  •    To Major General Artemas Ward, February 27
    Directions to guard against surprise. 354


  •    General Orders, February 27 355


  •    To Major General Philip Schuyler, February 27
    Contusion in Canada, -- Artillery and stores -- Conditions at Boston -- Artillery from Canada and that at New York City. 356


  •    General Orders, February 28 358


  •    To Burwell Bassett, February 28
    Ohio lands -- Progress of siege. 359


  •    To Phillis Wheatley, February 28
    Acknowledgment of poem. 360


  •    General Orders, February 29 362


  •    General Orders, March 2 362


  •    To Major General Artemas Ward, March 2
    Notice of intention to fortify Dorchester Heights. 363


  •    General Orders, March 3 363


  •    To Joseph Reed, March 3
    Powder -- Dorchester Heights -- Lee's journey to New York -- Unlooked-for expense attending the Connecticut troops -- Promise of Sears -- Possible disapprobation of Congress -- Camp equipage wanted. 365


  •    General Orders, March 4 368


  •    General Orders, March 6 369


  •    To the President of Congress, March 7
    Bombardment of Boston -- Occupation of Dorchester Heights -- Nook's Hill to be taken possession of -- Mortars ordered -- Militia ordered in, an attack being anticipated -- Movements of the enemy -- A probable attack intended -- His preparations to meet it Militia discharged -- Three major generals needed -- Thomas and Thompson recommended -- Information from Boston by Captain Irvine -- Letter from the selectmen -- Its reception -- Move on Nook's Hill -- Enemy's operations to be watched by land and sea -- Conjectures as to their plans -- Money wanted. 370


  •    To Joseph Reed, March 7
    The recent events described -- Hopes for his return -- Patrick Henry -- Armstrong and Thompson -- To send Thompson to Virginia in the first command would be a grave mistake -- General Fry -- The rumored commission -- The embarkation confirmed. 379


  •    General Orders, March 8 384


  •    General Orders, March 9 385


  •    To Governor Jonathan Trumbull, March 9
    Seizure of Dorchester Heights -- Coming evacuation of Boston -- Manley's capture. 385


  •    General Orders, March 10 387


  •    General Orders, March 11 387


  •    General Orders, March 12 388


  •    General Orders, March 13 389


  •    To the President of Congress, March 13
    British still in the harbor -- Importance of defending New York -- Army to be sent to that place -- Temporary troops called for from Connecticut and New Jersey -- Nook's Hill not occupied -- Measures to hasten march to New York -- Promotions recommended. 390


  •    General Orders, March 14 394


  •    To the officer commanding at New York, March 14
    Urges importance of that post, and gives information of measures taken to strengthen the forces under him. 395


  •    To Major General Charles Lee, March 14
    Seizure of Dorchester Heights and evacuation of Boston -- Lee's altered destination -- Troops ordered to New York. 396


  •    To Governor Jonathan Trumbull, March 14
    Destination of the British -- Asks troops for New York. 398


  •    To the New Hampshire Legislature, March 14
    Inability to supply powder. 399


  •    General Orders, March 15 400


  •    General Orders, March 16 400


  •    General Orders, March 17 400


  •    To Governor Nicholas Cooke, March 17
    Evacuation of Boston -- British intentions. 401


  •    To Lord Stirling, March 17
    March of the army to New York. 401


  •    General Orders, March 19 402


  •    To the President of Congress, March 19
    Evacuation of the city by the British -- The causes -- Occupation of the city -- Its condition, and stores abandoned by the enemy. 403


  •    To Joseph Reed, March 19
    Evacuation of Boston -- Destruction of stores. 405


  •    To Major General Philip Schuyler, March 19
    Lack of arms for troops going to Canada -- Evacuation of Boston. 406


  •    Instructions and orders to Brigadier General William Heath, March 19 408


  •    To Lord Stirling, March 19
    Promotion -- Boston evacuated -- British Fleet. 409


  •    General Orders, March 20 411


  •    General Orders, March 21 411


  •    Proclamation, March 21 412


  •    To Governor Nicholas Cooke, March 21
    Militia -- Importance of New York City -- Troops to march via Rhode Island. 413


  •    To Governor Jonathan Trumbull, March 21
    Information on the situation -- Future movements. 415


  •    To the Massachusetts Legislature, March 21
    Necessity of throwing troops into the town -- Danger of smallpox -- Measures of defense -- Property of refugees -- Pay of field officers. 416


  •    General Orders, March 22 418


  •    To Samuel Adams, March 22
    Colonel Bayley's road to Canada. 419


  •    To Doctor John Morgan, March 22
    Returns his horse. 420


  •    General Orders, March 23 420


  •    To Josiah Quincy, March 24
    Appreciates his praise -- Opinion of British intentions -- British spies. 421


  •    General Orders, March 24 423


  •    To the President of Congress, March 24
    British still at Nantasket Road -- Abandoned property and questions of ownership -- Fortifications thrown up to prevent enemy's return -- Stores and number of rations drawn by the British -- Resignations of Ward and Fry -- Powder -- Queries as to receiving commissioners from England. 424


  •    To Lord Stirling, March 24
    Preparations at New York -- British Fleet. 428


  •    Orders and instructions to Colonel Thomas Mifflin, March 24 429


  •    General Orders, March 25 430


  •    To Joseph Reed, March 25
    Movements of the enemy -- Danger of an attack -- Mr. Webb. 430


  •    To Landon Carter, March 25
    Correspondence -- Need of powder and arms -- Evacuation of Boston-Next move of British. 432


  •    General Orders, March 27 435


  •    To the President of Congress, March 27
    Departure of the British Fleet -- March to New' York -- Petition from Nova Scotia. 436


  •    To Brigadier General William Thompson, March 27
    March of tile army to New York. 438


  •    To Joseph Reed, March 28
    March of the army to New York. 439


  •    To Governor Jonathan Trumbull, March 28
    Payment of account. 439


  •    General Orders, March 28 440


  •    Answer to an address from the Massachusetts Legislature 440


  •    General Orders, March 29 442


  •    Orders and instructions to Major General Israel Putnam, March 29 442


  •    General Orders, March 30 444


  •    General Orders, March 31 444


  •    To Governor Nicholas Cooke, March 31
    Lieut. Col Rufus Putnam. 445


  •    To John Augustine Washington, March 31
    Want of arms and powder -- Operations before Boston -- Condition of the town after the departure of the British -- The loyalists -- His own position -- Every person should be active at this time -- Commissioners -- General Lee 445


  •    To Lieutenant Colonel Rufus Putnam, March 31 452


  •    To Joseph Reed, April 1
    About to set, out for New York -- Conduct of General Wards -- Fry's record -- Affairs in Carolina -- Disposition of the ministry -- Tendency to independence -- Putnam to lead the attack on the British -- The Boston loyalist and their pitiful condition -- British vessels at Newport lead to Sullivan's being sent there. 452


  •    To the President of Congress, April 1
    Troops ordered to Rhode Island. 456


  •    To the President of Congress, April 1
    Intelligence from Nova Scotia. 457


  •    To Brigadier General John Sullivan, April 1
    Ordering him to Rhode Island. 457


  •    To Governor Nicholas Cooke, April 1
    Troops ordered to Rhode Island 458


  •    General Orders, April 2 459


  •    General Orders, April 3 459


  •    To Major General Philip Schuyler, April 3
    Departure of British Fleet -- Reenforcements for Canada. 459


  •    To Brigadier General Benedict Arnold, April 3
    Reenforcements -- Events near Boston -- Dissatisfaction of officers in Canadian army. 460


  •    Orders and instructions to Colonel Henry Knox, April 3 462


  •    Orders and instructions to Doctor John Morgan, April 3 464


  •    Orders and instructions to John Parke, April 3 465


  •    To Major General Artemas Ward, April 4
    To command in Massachusetts -- Detailed instructions. 467


  •    To the President of Congress, April 4
    Payment of militia -- Deficiency of arms -- British not at Newport -- Powder -- Howe's proclamation -- Paymaster General Warren unable to accompany army to New York -- Disadvantages -- Question of pay of militia. 470


  •    To Richard Henry Lee, April 4
    Reenforcements for Canada -- Flight of British from Boston. 474


  •    To Governor Nicholas Cooke, April 6
    Accepts invitation. 475


  •    To Captain Samuel McKay, April 11
    His exchange. 475


  •    To Commodore Esek Hopkins, April 14
    Sailing of British ships. 476


  •    General Orders, April 14 476


  •    General Orders, April 15 478


  •    To the President of Congress, April 15
    Arrival in New York -- Movement of troops -- Forces for Canada -- Cannon wanted. 479


  •    To Major General Philip Schuyler, April 15
    Regiments ordered to Canada. 481


  •    To Major General John Thomas, April 15
    Reenforcements for Canada. 482


  •    To Joseph Reed, April 15
    The question of independence -- Divisions and parties. 482


  •    To John Adams April 15
    No accommodation to be expected from Britain. 483


  •    General Orders, April 16 484


  •    General Orders, April 17 485


  •    To the Committee of Safety of New York, April 17
    Civil authority recognized -- Intercourse with the enemy's ships -- Its impolicy and dangers -- Necessity of terminating it -- He depends upon the efforts of the committee to effect this. 486


  •    To the President of Congress, April 18
    Returns thanks for the approbation of Congress -- Troops commended in general orders The medal. 488


  •    To Major General Artemas Ward, April 18
    Accounts of armed vessels -- Condition of certain ships. 490


  •    General Orders, April 18 491


  •    General Orders, April 19 491


  •    To the President of Congress, April 19
    Dispatches from General Schuyler -- Delay in march of the regiments -- Use of Indians -- Importance of Canada. 492


  •    To Major General Philip Schuyler, April 19
    Regiments sent forward -- Prospect of further reenforcements -- Policy of engaging the Indians. 495


  •    To Governor Jonathan Trumbull, April 20
    Musket balls and powder. 497


  •    To the Committee of Safety of New York, April 20
    Raising militia -- Lookouts on the heights. 497


  •    General Orders, April 20 499


  •    To the President of Congress, April 22
    Embarkation of regiments for Canada-Great want for arms -- The case of Mr. Baldwin -- Exchange of prisoners -- Payment of militia -- Service of riflemen about to expire -- Livingston and Trumbull as commissaries. 500


  •    To Benjamin Harrison, John Adams, and William Whipple, April 22
    Fortifications at Cape Ann and New London. 504


  •    To Governor Jonathan Trumbull, April 22
    Need of arms. 504


  •    General Orders, April 22 505


  •    General Orders, April 23 505


  •    To the President of Congress, April 23
    Rank of aides -- Nature of their duties -- No relaxation of work and inadequate pay. 505


  •    To Joseph Reed, April 23
    Jealousies in Congress -- His camp equipage. 507


  •    To the President of Congress, April 23
    Payment for camp equipage. 508


  •    To James, Lord Drummond, April 23
    His voyage. 509


  •    To the Legislature or Committee of New Jersey, April 24
    Delays in calling out the militia on a sudden emergency -- Rendezvous and signals should be appointed -- Suggestions in the matter. 509


  •    To the Committee of Safety of New York, April 24
    Requests report of troops raising, arms, etc. 510


  •    To Major General Philip Schuyler, April 24
    Pay for Wynkoop's men -- Regiments for Canada. 511


  •    General Orders, April 24
    Brigading of regiments. 512


  •    General Orders, April 25 514


  •    To the President of Congress, April 25
    Joshua Wentworth's letter -- No trials of prizes in Massachusetts -- Discouraging the manning of the fleet Distinction in pay between the New York and the eastern regiments -- Arms -- An army strong on paper only -- Troops sent to Canada -- Importance of holding New York -- His force smaller than is necessary for that purpose -- Defense of Cape May -- Doctor Potts. 521


  •    To Commodore Esek Hopkins, April 25
    British Fleet -- Regiments sent to Canada. 521


  •    To Josiah Quincy, April 25
    Regret if things have gone wrong in Massachusetts. 521


  •    To Governor Jonathan Trumbull, April 26
    The New York army weakened by detachments for Canada -- Requests measures to be taken for calling out the militia. 522


  •    To the Committee of New York, April 27
    Number of militia -- Signals -- Power over New York forces -- Money. 524


  •    General Orders, April 27 525


  •    General Orders, April 28 527


  •    To Governor Nicholas Cooke, April 28
    Defense of Rhode Island. 528


  •    To Colonel Richard Gridley, April 28
    Neglect of fortifications at Boston. 528


  •    To Major General Artemas Ward, April 29
    Delay in completing the defenses of Boston. 529


  •    To John Augustine Washington, April 29
    Transfer of army to New York -- Affairs in Canada -- Defenses at New York -- Personal. 529


  •    To Major General Philip Schuyler, April 29
    Reenforcements for Canada -- Powder, money, and arms. 531


  •    To Jacob Bayley, April 29
    Road to Canada. 532


  •    Proclamation, April 29
    Intercourse with British. 533


  •    To the Committee of Safety of New York, April 29
    Need of arms. 534


  •    General Orders, April 29
    Brigading of regiments. 535


  •    General Orders, April 30 537


  •    To the Committee of Safety of New York, April 30
    Status of New York battalions. 538


  •    To the President of Congress, April 30
    The address of Rhode Island. 539


  • LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

  •    Houdon's bust of Washington Frontispiece


  •    Resolve of Congress, December 7, 1775 Facing page 174


  •    Proclamation on occupation of Boston Facing page 412


  •    Washington's acknowledgment of thanks
    of Congress on the British evacuation of
    Boston, April 8, 1776 Facing page 488


  • TABLE OF SYMBOLS

        The following symbols have been used to denote the place of deposit of Washington letters not found in draft or letter-book form in the Washington Paper in the Library of Congress:

  •    Indicating that the letter is in Washington's own handwriting *


  •    Chicago Historical Society [CH.H.S.]


  •    Clements Library, University of Michigan [C.L.]


  •    Connecticut Historical Society [C.H.S.]


  •    Connecticut State Library [C.S.L.]


  •    Harvard College Library [HV.L.]


  •    Haverford College [ HD.C.]


  •    Historical Society of Pennsylvania [H.S.P.]


  •    Huntington Library [H.L.]


  •    John Carter Brown Library, Rhode Island [J.C.B.I


  •    Maine Historical Society [M.H.S.]


  •    Maryland Historical Society [MD.H.S]


  •    Massachusetts Historical Society [MS.H.S.]


  •    J.P. Morgan Library [M.L.]


  •    New Hampshire Historical Society [N.H.H.S.]


  •    New York Historical Society [N.Y.H.S.]


  •    New York Public Library [N.Y.P.L.]


  •    New York State Library [N.Y.S.L.]


  •    Rhode Island Historical Society [R.I.H.S.]


  •    Rhode Island Society of the Cincinnati [R.I.S.C]


  •    Society of the Cincinnati [S.C.]


  •    University of Chicago Library [U.C.L.]


  •    University of Pennsylvania Library [U.P.]


  •    Virginia Historical Society [V.H.S.]


  •    Virginia State Library [V.S.L.]




  • Page

    THE WRITINGS OF
    GEORGE WASHINGTON


    Page 1

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, October 1, 1775.

        Parole Hampton. Countersign Ireland.

        The Colonels and commanding Officers of Corps, are upon application from the Qr. M. General, immediately to employ under his direction, all the Carpenters in their several regiments to erect barracks for the Regiments and Corps they respectively belong to.

        Lieut. Cummings 1 of Capt. Dow's 2 Company in Col Prescot's 3 regiment, tried at a General Court martial, whereof Colo. Hitchock was presdt. for "misbehaviour in the action upon Bunkers-hill". The Court are unanimously of opinion, the prisoner is not guilty of the Charge; and the Complaint appears to the court, to be groundless and malicious. The General approves the proceedings of the court, and orders Lieut. Cummings to be immediately released from his arrest.

    [Note:Lieut. Thomas Cummings. ]
    [Note:Capt, Reuben Dow. ]
    [Note:Col. William Prescott. ]

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, October 3, 1775.

        Parole Malden. Countersign Norfolk.

        Any Officer; non Commission'd Officer, or Soldier, who shall hereafter be detected playing at Toss-up, pitch and hustle, or any other Games of chance, in, or near the Camp or Villages


    Page 2

    bordering on the encampments; shall without delay be confined and punished for disobedience of orders. 4

    [Note:Toss-up was played with a coin and heads or tails called while the coin was in the air; in pitch, coins were pitched at a mark; the player whose coin came nearest gathered all the coins and tossed them up, taking all those that fell heads up; the next nearest player did the same with the remaining coins and took all those that fell tails. Hustle seems to have been an older game than pitch, but was precisely the same, except that it seemed to have been played with halfpence. ]

        Doctor Isaac Foster, to take the direction and superintendency of the General Hospital, until further orders, and is to be obeyed as Director during that time. The General does not mean by the above Order, to discourage sports of exercise and recreation, he only means to discountenance and punish Gaming.

        Ensign Proctor 5 of Capt. Fletcher's 6 Company, in Colonel Doolittles regt. 7 tried at a late General Court Martial for "absenting himself from his regiment from the 9th of August, to the 27th of Sept. following". The Court find the prisoner guilty of the Crime, and orders him to be mulcted one months pay for his offence.

    [Note:Ensign Jonas Proctor. ]
    [Note:Capt. Joel Fletcher. ]
    [Note:Col. Ephraim Doolittle's Massachusetts regiment. ]

        John Gallop of Capt. Watkins 8 Company, in Col. Pattersons Regt. 9 tried at the above Court Martial, for "absenting himself from his regiment from the 27th June -- to the 27th of Septembr. following, and carrying off and disposing of a Colony Gun". The Court find the prisoner guilty of the Crimes wherewith he was accused and sentence him to be whipped on bare back, Fifteen Lashes, and order the Value of the Gun to be stop'd out of his pay.

    [Note:Capt. Nathan Watkins. ]
    [Note:Col. John Paterson's Massachusetts regiment. ]

    To CAPTAIN DANIEL MORGAN Camp at Cambridge, October 4, 1775.

        Sir: I write you in Consequence of Information I have received that you and the Captains of the Rifle Companies on


    Page 3

    the Detachment against Quebec, claim an Exemption from the Command of all the Field Officers except Colonel Arnold. I understand this Claim is founded upon some Expressions of mine; but if you understood me in this Way, you are much mistaken in my Meaning. My Intention is and ever was that every Officer should command according to his Rank. To do otherwise, would subvert all military Order and authority, which, I am sure, you could not wish or expect. Now the Mistake is rectified, I trust you will exert yourself to support my Intentions, ever remembering that by the same Rule that you claim an independant Command and break in upon military Authority, others will do the same by you; and of Consequence the Expedition must terminate in Shame and Disgrace to yourselves and the Reproach and Detriment of your Country. To a man of true Spirit and military Character farther Argument is unnecessary. I shall, therefore, recommend you to preserve the utmost Harmony among yourselves, to which a due subordination will much contribute and wishing you all Health and Success, I remain etc. 10

    [Note:The rifle companies were raised by an express order of the Continental Congress, and on this ground the captains had an impression that they were not to be commanded by officers in the provincial ranks. Benedict Arnold held a Continental commission. ]

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, October 4, 1775.

        Parole Oxford. Countersign Pittsburg.

        The General approves the sentence of the General Court Martial, inserted in Yesterday's Order, and directs that Ensign Proctor, be mulct'd one Month's pay, and the prisoner John Gallop of Capt Watkins' Company, in Col. Patterson's regiment, punished with Fifteen Lashes, on the bare-back, at the time and place the Colonel of the regiment shall think proper, and the Value of the Gun stopt out of the prisoners pay.


    Page 4

    To MAJOR GENERAL PHILIP SCHUYLER Camp at Cambridge, October 4, 1775.

        Sir: Your Favour of the 20th Ult. came safely to Hand, and I should have dispatched the Express much sooner, but Colonel Arnold's Expedition is so connected with your Operation, that I thought it most proper to detain him 'till I could give you the fullest Account of his Progress. This Morning the Express I sent him returned, and the Inclosure No I. is a Copy of his Letter to me. No 2. is a Copy also of a Paper sent me, being the Report of a reconnoitring Party sent out some Time ago. 11 You will certainly hear from him soon as I have given him the strongest Injunctions on this Head. Inclosed No 3. I send you a Copy of his Instructions. No 4. is a Manifesto, of which I have sent a Number with him, to disperse through Canada. He is supplied with £1000 Lawful Money in Specie, to answer his contingent Charges.

    [Note:This party consisted of two persons, named Getchell and Berry, who set off from Fort Weston, on the Kennebec, September 1. They advanced as far as the headwaters of the Dead River, where they met several Indians, who gave them such exaggerated accounts of the enemy on the Chaudière that they did not venture to proceed farther. Netanis, the last of the Norridgewocks, had a cabin in this quarter, and was in the interest of Governor Carleton. The intelligence brought back by these persons in regard to the carrying places and condition of the river was of some service to Arnold. -- Ford. ]

        About eighth Days ago a Brig from Quebec to Boston, was taken and brought into Cape Ann. By some intercepted Letters from Captain Gamble to General Gage and Major Sheriff, the Account of the Temper of the Canadians in the American Cause is fully confirmed. The Captain says, that if Quebec should be attacked before Carleton can throw himself into it, there will be a Surrender without firing a Shot. We most anxiously hope you will find sufficient Employ for Carleton, at St. Johns and its Neighbourhood. We at last have the Echo of Bunker Hill from England. The Number of killed and


    Page 5

    wounded by General Gage's Account nearly corresponds with what we had, vizt 1100. There does not seem the least Probability of a Change of Measures, or of Ministers. 12 General Gage is recalled from Boston and sails To-Morrow. His is succeeded by General Howe. 13 We have had no material Occurrences, since I had the Pleasure of writing you last. Our principal Employ for the present, is preparing for the Winter, as there seems to be no Probability of an Accommodation, or any such Decision as to make the present Army less necessary. 14

    [Note:The news of Bunker Hill was taken to England by the Cerberus and arrived in London on July 25 -- Ford. ]
    [Note:Gage was recalled temporarily, as he supposed, "for consultation," but it is probable that the frequent charges of incompetency made by Burgoyne, Howe, and Clinton were the real cause. He embarked on October 10 and arrived in London on November 14. Ford notes the Diary and Letters of Thomas Hutchinson (vol. 1, p. 364) to the effect that Lord Loudoun thought Gage had not courage sufficient for his position.

       "The king having required General Gage's presence at home to consult him upon the present state of America, I am invested in his absence with the command of the forces in North America on this side of the Atlantic; General Carleton having the same powers within his government and in the back country, and would take the command of the whole were we to meet. Our two commissions are to command in chief in our respective districts, wherein I shall be happy to render you every service in my power." -- Sir William Howe to Governor Legge, Sept. 28, 1775. ]

    [Note:Lord Dartmouth had early suggested to General Gage the importance of taking possession of Rhode Island as a means of keeping up a communication between Boston and New York City and as a place easy to be defended, and one from which, in any exigency, succor might be derived. He had also expressed an opinion that New York City should be occupied. General Gage replied: "As the King's forces are too weak to act in more than one point, New York is the most eligible situation to hold. The friends of government could rally there, and, from every account, numbers would join them. That city could be easily defended, and supplied by a water communication. But there is much difficulty in leaving Boston. It requires secrecy and is of great detail. It is too important a step to be put in execution without knowing his Majesty's pleasure. Preparations will however be made for it, not knowing but instructions to this effect may be given, in consequence of intimations in a former letter from me."

       Gage's views are fully shown in his letter to the Earl of Dartmouth in Force's American Archives, Fourth Series, vol. 3, 927.

       Lord Dartmouth wrote again on September 5, before he could have received the above letter, and recommended to General Gage to abandon Boston, dismantle Castle William, and repair with the troops either to New York or to some other port to the southward, where the ships could lie in safety, and carry on operations securely during the winter. Many advantages, he thought, would result from such a change. This was answered by General Howe with arguments similar to those already advanced by General Gage, and his reasons for not complying with the recommendation of the minister were approved. Another plan in agitation was to divide the forces and endeavor to hold New York and Boston at the same time. General Howe discouraged this scheme, as in his opinion impracticable; and he said that Gage, Clinton, and Burgoyne agreed with him. Such a movement would require an additional force of not less than 5,000 men to be left in Boston and 12,000 at New York City, the latter to be employed in opening a communication with Canada, leaving five battalions for the defense of New York City. Three thousand regulars would then remain for Quebec, who, with 3000 or 4,000 Canadians and some hundreds of Indians, would compose the army of Canada; but he could not say whether such a force would be sufficient in that quarter. The primary object of a communication with Canada by the Hudson being thus accomplished and secured by posts, troops might take separate routes into Massachusetts and other parts of New England, as circumstances should point out. Ford also notes from Howe's letter to Dartmouth (October 9) that Sir William thought that Boston should be evacuated and the force designed for that place removed to Rhode Island. The project of penetrating the country could more easily be executed from that point than from Boston, where little else could be done than to defend the post, The possession of Rhode Island would, moreover, put Connecticut in jeopardy and induce that colony to keep its army at home for self-defense. Boston Harbor might be blockaded, after the evacuation, by a small naval force, aided by a land party intrenched in the neighborhood of Nantasker Road. ]


    Page 6

        I also send you a Copy of the Letter given Col. Arnold to be communicated to the Officers and Soldiers.

        The accounts we have of your Health gives us great Concern, not only on your own Account, but that of the publick Service, which must suffer in Consequence. I shall most sincerely rejoice to hear of your perfect recovery; and now most fervently wishing you all possible Success, Honour and Safety, I am, etc.

    INSTRUCTIONS TO COLONEL JOHN GLOVER
    AND STEPHEN MOYLAN Camp at Cambridge, October 4, 1775.

        His Excellency having resolved to equip two armed Vessels, has impowered you to negotiate this Business, in which the following Directions are to be observed.

        1st. That the Vessels be approved Sailors and as well found as possible.

        2nd. That you have an Appraisement made of them, by indifferent People, to be returned to Head Quarters.

        3rd. That you agree, at as reasonable a rate as you can, for the Hire of the Vessels, and if possible procure the Cannon and Swivels on Loan; and if not, purchase them at the cheapest Rate per Month.


    Page 7

        4th. If you cannot equip them suitably at Salem or Marblehead, one of you to proceed to Newbury Port, where there are several Vessels and Sundry Cannon provided suitable for this Purpose.

        5th. You are as soon as possible, to send down proper Directions for the making of the Cartridges, and providing Ammunition, and a List of what will be wanted.

        6th. You are to nominate some suitable Person at Caper Ann, Marblehead and each other Place, where any Prizes may be sent, as an Agent, to take Care of such Prizes, instructing him to give as early Information as possible of all Captures and the List of the Cargoes, as far as he can do it from Papers. These Persons when nominated by you, to receive Instructions from Head Quarters. You are also to settle with them the Terms and let them be Persons of approved good Character, and known Substance. All agreements &c to be put in writing.

        7th. All Contracts entered into by you jointly when together, or separately, in Case one should go to Newbury, the General will ratify and confirm.

        8th. As soon as either of the vessels are in such Forwardness as to be ready to sail in a few Days, you are to send Notice to Head Quarters, that the Officers and Men may march down. I am, Gentn. etc., Joseph Reed 15

    [Note:These were Washington's orders, though signed by Reed. They are here printed so that the additional instructions to Col. John Glover and Stephen Moylan of October 16, q. v. , may be clearly understood. The two captains were Nicholas Broughton and John Selman, and the vessels were called the Lynch and the Franklin. ]

    *To THE GENERAL OFFICERS Headquarters, Cambridge, October 5, 1775.

        Sir: In a Letter from the Congress, dated 26th September, Information on the following points is required 16 :

    [Note:Washington submitted these queries, in writing, to the council of general officers on October 8. To the ration allowance query he added: "and for such small Articles as the Commissary at times cannot furnish, shall they be compensated in money or Provisions?" The council decided (October 8): First. Unanimously that the Army ought not to consist of less than 20,372 men, to be formed into 26 regiments (exclusive of riflemen and artillery); each regiment to consist of 728 men, officers included; each company to be officered with 1 captain, 2 lieutenants, 1 ensign, and to contain 4 sergeants, 4 corporals, 2 drums or fifes, and 76 privates. This army was deemed sufficient for offensive and defensive measures. Second. That the pay can not be reduced at present, the present allowance of provisions should stand, and compensation in money should be allowed for such articles as the commissary could not furnish. Third. The men should be engaged to Dec. 1, 1776, but to be sooner discharged if necessary. Fourth. That each general officer should clothe a man according to his own fancy and judgment, and a selection to be made from these models, the clothing to be supplied by the Continent and paid for by stoppages of to per cent per month. Fifth. As to manner of paying the troops the council was equally divided; Washington, Greene, Sullivan, Heath, and Lee were in favor of monthly payments, and Gates, Spencer, Thomas, Putnam, and Ward of payments every three months. On the questions of regulating the forces and the selection of officers more time was requested. An additional query was laid before the meeting: "Whether it will be advisable to enlist any negroes in the new army? or whether there be a distinction between such as are slaves and those that are free? Agreed unanimously, to reject all slaves, and, by a great majority, to reject negroes altogether." The letter of Congress of the 26th and the original proceedings of the council are in the Washington Papers. ]

    Page 8

        What number of men are sufficient for a Winters Campaign?

        Can the pay of the Privates be reduced and how much?

        What Rations should be allowed the Men?

        What Regulations are further necessary for the Government of the Forces?

        To the above queries of the Congress, I have to add several of my own, which I also request your Opinion upon viz.: --

        For how long a time ought the Men in the present Army (should we set about enlisting them) be Ingaged?

        What method would you recommend, as most eligable to Cloath a new raised Army with a degree of Decency and regularity? Would you advise it to be done by the Continent? In that case would you lower the Men's Wages, and make no deduction for Cloathing, or let it stand, and make stoppages? and how much a month?

        As there appears to be great irregularity in the manner of paying the Men, and much discontent has prevailed on that accot. in what manner, and at what fixed period would you advise it to be done under a new Establishment?

        What sized Regiments would you recommend under this Establishment; that is, how many men to a Company? how many Companies to a Regiment; and how officered?


    Page 9

        Is there any method by which the best of the present officers in this Army can be chosen, without impeding the Inlistment of the Men, by such choice, and preference. Under any compleat establishment, even if all the Privates in the Army were engaged again, many of the present Officers must be discharged, as there is an overproportion; of course we ought to retain the best.

        Your close attention to the foregoing points against Monday Ten o'clock, at which time I shall expect to see you at this place, will much oblige, Sir, &c.

    To THE PRESIDENT OF CONGRESS Camp at Cambridge, October 5, 1775.

        Sir: I was honored with your favor of the 26th Ulto. late the Night before last, and a meeting of the General Officers having been call'd upon a Business, which will make a considerable part of this Letter, I took the Opportunity of laying before them those parts of yours, which respect the Continuance and new Modelling the Army; the Fuel, Clothing and other preparations for the ensuing Winter, they have taken two or three days to consider, and as soon as I am possessed of their Opinions, I shall loose no time in transmitting the result not only on the above Subjects, but the number of Troops necessary to be kept up.

        I have also directed the Commissary General and the Quarter Master General to prepare estimates of the Expence of their Departments for a certain given number of Men, from which a judgement may be made, when the Number of Men to be kept in pay is determined; all which I shall do myself the Honor to lay before the Congress, as soon as they are ready. I have now a painful tho' a Necessary Duty to perform respecting Doctor Church, Director General of the Hospital. About a Week ago Mr. Secretary of Providence sent up to me one


    Page 10

    Wainwood 17 an Inhabitant of New Port with a Letter directed to Majr. Cane in Boston, in Characters, which he said had been left with Wainwood some time ago, by a Woman who was kept by Doctor Church; she had before press'd Wainwood to take her to Captain Wallace, 18 Mr. Dudley the Collector or George Rome, which he declined; she then gave him the Letter with a Strict Charge to deliver it to either of those Gentlemen. He suspecting some improper Correspondence kept the Letter and after some time open'd it, but not being able to read it laid it up, where it remained until he received an obscure Letter from the Woman, expressing an Anxiety after the Original Letter, he then Communicated the whole Matter to Mr. Ward who sent him up with the papers to me; I immediately secured the Woman, but for a long time she was proof against every threat and perswasion to discover the Author, however at length she was brought to a confession and named Doctor Church. I then immediately secured him and all his papers. Upon his first examination he readily acknowledged the Letter, said it was designed for his Brother Fleming and when decyphered wou'd be found to contain nothing Criminal. 19 He acknowledged his never having communicated the Correspondence to any person, here, but the Girl, and made many Protestations of the purity of his Intentions. 20 having found a person capable of decyphering the Letter, I in the mean time had all his Papers Searched but found nothing Criminal amongst them, but it appeared upon enquiry, that a Confident had been among the
    [Note:Godfrey Wainwood, or Wenwood, of Newport, R. I. ]
    [Note:Capt. James Wallace, of H. M. S. Rose, stationed at Newport, R. I. ]
    [Note:Doctor Church's cipher letter and its translation, which was worked out by Col. Elisha Porter, assisted by Elbridge Gerry, are in the Washington Papers. ]
    [Note:Doctor Church, in an undated letter to Washington, attempted to explain that "notwithstanding the evident Tendency to propose immediate Terms of Accommodation…I can honestly appeal to Heaven for the purity of my Intentions." These he described as a desire to impress the British with the strength of the American forces and to obtain intelligence valuable to the Americans. This letter is in the Washington Papers. ]

    Page 11

    Papers before my Messenger arrived. I then called the General Officers together for their Advice, the result of which you will find in the Inclosure No. 1. the decyphered Letter is in the Inclosure No. 2. The Army and Country are exceedingly irretated, and upon a free discussion of the Nature, Circumstances and Consequences of this Matter, it has been unanimously agreed to lay it before the Hon Congress for their Special Advice and direction. At the same time suggesting to their consideration, Whether an alteration of the 28th Article of War may not be necessary. 21 As I shall reserve all farther remarks upon the State of the Army until my next, I shall now beg leave to request the determination of Congress as to the Property and disposal of such Vessels and Cargoes as are designed for the Supply of the Enemy and may fall into our Hands. there has been an event of this kind, at Portsmouth; as by the Inclosure No. 3, 22 in which I have directed the Cargo to be brought hither for the use of the Army, reserving the Settlement of any Claims of Capture to the decision of the Congress. As there are many unfortunate Individuals also, whose property has been Confiscated by the Enemy, I would humbly suggest to the Consideration of Congress, the humanity of applying in part, or in the whole such Captures to the relief of those Sufferers, after Compensating any Expence of the Captors and for their Activity and Spirit. I am the more induced to request this determination may be speedy, as I have directed 3 Vessels to be equiped in order to cut off the Supplies, and from a Number of Vessels arriving, it may become an
    [Note:By the twenty-eighth article of war, whoever was convicted of holding correspondence with the enemy, or of giving intelligence, was to suffer such punishment as should be ordered by a general court-martial. There was no provision for referring such cases to Congress or other civil authorities. -- Ford.

       By the alteration of November 7 the death penalty could be inflicted for these offenses. ]

    [Note:The ship Prince George, which sailed from Bristol, England, July 19 with provisions for Gage's army. ]

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    Object of some Importance. In the disposal of these Captures for the Encouragement of the Officers and Men, I have allowed them ⅓ of the Cargo, except Military Stores, which with the Vessels are to be reserved for the Public Use. I hope my Plan as well as the Execution will be favoured with the Approbation of Congress One Mr. Fisk an intelligent Person came out of Boston the 3d Instant and gives us the following Advices, that a Fleet consisting of a 64 and 20 Gun Ships, 2 Sloops of 18 Guns, Two Transports with 600 Men, were to sail from Boston as Yesterday; that they took on Board 2 Mortars, 4 Howitzers and other Artillery calculated for the Bombardment of a Town. Their Destination was kept a perfound Secret; That an Express Sloop of War which left England the 8th August, arrived 4 days ago. That General Gage is recalled and last Sunday resigned his command to General Howe. That Lord Piercy, Col: Smith and other Officers who were at Lexington, are Ordered home with Gage.

        That 6 Ships of the Line and 2 Cutters were comming out under Sr. Peter Dennis. That 5 Regiments and 1000 Marines are ordered out and may be expected in 3 or 4 Weeks.

        No Prospect of Accommodation but the Ministry determined to push the War to the Utmost. I have an Express from Col: Arnold and herewith send a copy of his Letter and an Inclosure No 4 and 5. 23 I am happy in finding he meets with no Discouragement. The Claim of the Riffle Officers to be Independant of all the Superior Officers except Colonel Arnold, is without any Countenance or Authority from me, as I have Signified in my last Dispatch both to Col: Arnold and Capt: Morgan. The Capt of the Brig from Quebec for Boston, informs me, that there is no Suspicion of any such Expedition and that if Carlton is not drove from St. Johns, so as to be Obliged to throw himself into

    [Note:Arnold's letter, dated Sept. 25, 1775, is in the Washington Papers, A copy is filed with Washington's in the Papers of the Continental Congress ; also a copy of the inclosure, which was a report from Dennis Getchell and Samuel Berry. ]

    Page 13

    Quebec, it must fall into our Hands, as it is left without a Regular Soldier and many of the Inhabitants most favorably disposed to the American Cause. That there is the largest Stock of Ammunition ever Collected in America. In the above Vessel some Letters were also found from an Officer in Quebec to General Gage and Major Sheriff at Boston, containing such an Account of the Temper of the Canadians as cannot but afford the highest Satisfaction, I have thought it best to forward them, they are the Inclosures No. 7 and 8. 24 I am with the Greatest Respect and Regard, Sir, etc.

    [Note:The letter is in the writing of Joseph Reed; the inclosures are in the Washington Papers and copies are in the Papers of the Continental Congress.

       "No prospect yet of the militia being embodied here; nor do I think they will. General Carleton, I am apt to think, is afraid to give the order lest they should refuse to obey, and I believe this year will pass over without the Canadians doing anything in favor of government.…You must look for no diversion in favor the army immediately under your Excellency's command this year from Canada, the language here being only to defend the Province; and it's generally thought here that if the rebels were to push forward a body of four or five thousand men, the Canadians would lay down their arms, and not fire a shot." -- Thomas Gamble to General Gage, Quebec, Sept. 6, 1775.

       "Their minds [i.e. the Canadians] are all poisoned by emissaries from New England and the damned rascals of merchants here and at Montreal.…The Quebec bill is of no use; on the contrary the Canadians talk of that d -- d abused word liberty." -- Thomas Gamble to Major Sheriff, Sept. 6, 1775.

       General Gage wrote to Lord Dartmouth on August 20 that General Carleton did not find the Canadians so ready for war as he had hoped, and that some of the Indian tribes were backward. He said the minds of the Canadians had been poisoned by the enemy, but that a good force there would set them all in motion. He advised that General Carleton should be reinforced with 4,000 men, a supply of arms, military stores, and Indian goods. -- Ford. ]

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, October 5, 1775.

        Parole Quebec. Countersign Roxborough.

        Lieut. Zachariah Walker tried at a General Court martial whereof Col Varnum was presdt. for "Cowardice in the action upon Bunkers-hill the 17th of June last" -- The Court on Consideration of the Evidence, are unanimously of opinion, that the prisoner is not guilty of the charge against him -- The General commands the prisoner to be instantly released.


    Page 14

    To ROBERT CARTER NICHOLAS Camp at Cambridge, October 5, 1775.

        Dear Sir: Your favour of the 8th Ultimo came to my hands on the 2d. Instant by Mr. Byrd& 25 I return you my sincere thanks for your kind congratulation on my appointment to the honourable and important Post I now hold, by the suffrages of this great Continent. My heart will ever bear testimony of my gratitude for the distinguished mark of honour which has been conferred on me by this Appointment; as it also will of my wishes, that so important a trust had been placed in the hands of a Person of greater experience and abilities than mine. I feel the weight of my charge too sensibly not to make this declaration; at the same time, I must add, that I do not want to withdraw any services, within the compass of my power, from the Cause we are Nobly engaged in.

    [Note:Probably Otway Byrd, who was appointed aide-de-camp to General Lee on the 25th. ]

        Mr. Byrd shall not want for his pay whilst he is in this camp; although, as I have no Cash of my own here, and charge the public with my expenses only, I shall be a little at a loss to know in what manner to advance it with propriety. Bills of exchange would answer no end here, as we have not the means of negotiating them, but if you would place the Money in the hands of Messieurs Willing and Morris of Philadelphia (either in Specie, Continental, Maryland or Pennsylvania Paper) they could easily remit or draw for it: But, at any rate, make yourself easy, as Mr. Byrd shall not want to the amount of his pay.

        By an intelligent person out of Boston, the day before Yesterday, we are informed that a small Fleet, consisting of a 64 Gun Ship, a 20 Gun, 2 Sloops of 18 Guns, and 2 Transports with about 600 Men, were to sail on Yesterday from that Harbour: They took on board 2 Mortars, 4 Howitzers and other


    Page 15

    Artillery; from which we suspect they intend to bombard some Town on the Coast: He also informs us, that General Gage is recalled, that General Howe commands in his place, that the Account of the Action on Bunker's Hill, as transmitted by the former, is returned and corresponds pretty much with ours as to killed and Wounded; and that the last Accounts from England, by a Ship just arrived, leave no room to believe there will be an accommodation soon.

        The Enemy in Boston and on the heights of Charlestown (two Peninsulas surrounded in a manner by Ships of War and Floating Batteries) are so strongly fortified, as to render it almost impossible to force their Lines, which are thrown up at the Head of each Neck; without great Slaughter on our side, or cowardice on their, it is absolutely so. We, therefore, can do no more than keep them besieged, which they are, to all intents and purposes, as close as any Troops upon earth can be, that have an opening to the Sea. Our advanced Works and theirs are within Musket shot. We daily undergo a cannonade, which has done no injury to our Works and very little hurt to our Men. Those insults we are obliged to submit to for want of Powder, being obliged (except now and then giving them a Shot) to reserve what we have for closer Work than Cannon distance.

        My Respectful compliments to Mrs. Nicholas and the rest of your Fireside, and to any inquiring friends, conclude me, with grateful thanks for the Prayers and good wishes you have been pleased to offer on my account, Dear Sir, etc.

    To THE COMMITTEE OF PORTSMOUTH,
    NEW HAMPSHIRE October 5, 1775.

        Gentn: I am to acknowledge the Receipt of your favor of the 2d Inst.; informing me that the Ship Prince George Capt.


    Page 16

    Emms, from Bristol to Boston, with Flour for the Enemy, by a mistake of her Captain and the Spirited Conduct of some of the Inhabitants was now in your Possession.

        I cannot but consider this as a most Providential Event, the State of this Army being alone defective in that Article, it would therefore highly Conduce to the Public Interest and to our relief, to forward it hither as soon as possible, which I apprehend may be done with Safety and ease by Water as far as Salem or Marblehead; in the mean time I will communicate the Matter to the Continental Congress for their Direction: as to the Compensation to be made the Captors and the determination of what Property arises by the Capture, and in whom Vested.

        What ever Expenses may accrue in Complying with the above Request and whatever risque may be run by the Carriage by Water I will engage; but as I do not learn there are any of the Enemy's Ships on the Coast, I hope the Risque is very small. I am &c.

    To THE COMMITTEE OF THE CITY
    OF NEW YORK Camp at Cambridge, October 5, 1775.

        Gentn: By an Intelligent Person from Boston the 3d Inst. I am informed that a Fleet consisting of one 64, one 20 Gun Ship, 2 Sloops of 18 Guns, two Transports with 600 Men, were to sail from Boston as Yesterday, their Destination a profound secret; that they took on board 2 Mortars and 4 Howitzers with other Artillery, calculated for the Bombardment of a Town. I have thought proper to apprize every Considerable Town on the Coast of this Armament that they may be upon their guard.


    Page 17

        Should I receive any further Account of their Destination, it shall be forwarded. 26

    [Note:This news, in practically these same words, was sent to most of the seacoast towns. ]

        The same Person also informs that an Express Sloop arrived 4 Days before from England at Boston, which she left the 8th of August. Genl. Gage and most of the officers who were at Lexington, are recalled and Sail this day, General Howe succeeds to the Command, 6 Ships of the Line and 2 Cutters under Sir Peter Dennis are coming out, Five Regiments and 1000 Marines may be expected at Boston in 3 or 4 Weeks; No prospect of Accommodation, but on the other Hand every appearance of the War being pushed with the utmost Vigour. I am Gentn. etc.

    To THE MASSACHUSETTS LEGISLATURE Head Quarters, October 6, 1775.

        Gentn: On the 29th August I did myself the Honor of addressing you on the Complaint of the Quarter Master respecting Wood for the Army. The Recess of the House of Representatives prevented any Steps being taken upon it. I must now beg leave to recall your Attention to my Letter of that Date, as the Evil is increasing, and more alarming as the Winter approaches. Little or no Wood is brought in, and it is apprehended the Owners keep it back to impose an unreasonable Price.

        The Communication at Winnisimet Ferry, which was opened for the Relief of the unhappy Sufferers at Boston, is now turned into a Convenience for the Enemy; a whole week has some times elapsed, without a Boat being permitted to come out, and there have been many Irregularities there, which the Distance of my other Engagements, have prevented my attending


    Page 18

    to; before I gave any order upon the Subject, I thought proper to Communicate my Intentions to you, that if there were any Special Reasons against the proposed Alteration, you may have an opportunity of making me acquainted with them.

        By an Estimate laid before me by the Quarter Master General, I find it will be impracticable, to provide sufficient Barracks for the Troops before the Season is too far advanced, without appropriating many of the Houses in and about Cambridge to this use; Many of the Inhabitants who had deserted them, are now returning under the protection of the Army. I feel a great Repugnance to exclude them from what is their own, but Necessity in this case I fear will supercede all other Considerations. I must beg the Genl. Court to Act upon it. I am etc.

    To MAJOR GENERAL PHILIP SCHUYLER Camp at Cambridge, October 6, 1775.

        Dear Sir: I wrote you Yesterday, of which the inclosed is a Copy, since which I have been informed, that your Illness has obliged you to quit the Army, and General Wooster as the oldest Brigadier will take Rank and Command of Mr Montgomery. General Wooster, I am informed, is not of such Activity as to press through Difficulties, with which that Service is environed. I am, therefore, much alarmed for Arnold, whose Expedition was built upon yours, and who will infallibly perish, if the Invasion and Entry into Canada are abandoned by your Successor. 27 I hope by this Time the Penetration into

    [Note:Ford dates this letter October 5, but Washington's "Letter Book" dates it the 6th. Brig. Gen. David Wooster, because of length of military service, would, it was thought, have to rank Brig. Gen. Richard Montgomery on the Canadian expedition. Schuyler's method of handling the difficulty was an attempt to hold Wooster at Ticonderoga, N.Y., and forward his troops. The Connecticut soldiers refused to march without their commander, and Wooster settled the trouble by agreeing to take orders from Montgomery, who was considerably his junior. ]

    Page 19

    Canada by your Army is effected; but if it is not and there are any Intentions to lay it aside, I beg it may be done in such a Manner that Arnold may be saved by giving him Notice, and in the mean Time your Army to keep up such Appearances as may fix Carleton and prevent the Force of Canada being turned wholly upon Arnold. He expected to be at Quebec in twenty Days from the 26th September; so that, I hope, you will have no Difficulty in regulating your Motions with Respect to him. Should this find you at Albany, and General Wooster about taking the Command, I intreat you to impress him strongly with the Importance and Necessity of proceeding, or so to conduct, that Arnold may have Time to retreat.

        Nothing new has occurred since Yesterday deserving your Notice. Our next Accounts of your Health, I hope, will be more favourable. Ten Thousand good Wishes attend you from this Quarter. None more sincere and fervent than those of Dear Sir, etc.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, October 7, 1775.

        Parole Uxbridge. Countersign Williamsburg.

        Lieut Col Abijah Brown tried at a late General Court martial, whereof Col Hitchcock was presdt. -- for "endeavouring to defraud the Continent, in mustering two Soldiers, whom he at the same time employed in working upon his farm" -- The Court having duly considered the evidence, are of opinion that Lieut Col Brown is not guilty of any fraud, in endeavouring to have Harrington and Clarke muster'd, in the manner he did. But the Court are of opinion, that Col Brown is guilty of employing Harrington for fourteen days, and Clarke for eighteen days, out of Camp, upon his own business, yet are inclined to think it was done rather thro' Ignorance, than a fraudulent


    Page 20

    intent, and therefore adjudge that he be fin'd Four Pounds, lawful money, for the said offence.

        The General orders Lt Col Brown to be released, as soon as he has paid his fine to Dr Foster, Director of the hospital, who will apply it to the use of the sick, in the General hospital, under his care -- The General hopes, the Stigma fixed on Lieut. Col. Brown by the above sentence, will be a sufficient warning to all Officers, not to be guilty of the like offence, especially as the General is confident, no General Court martial will, for the future, admit a plea of Ignorance, in excuse of so atrocious a crime.

        His Excellency Governor Trumbull's commission being produced to the Commander in Chief, by Thomas Dyer Esqr., appointing him the said Dyer to be a Captain in the 34th. Regt. of foot, which regiment was raised in the Colony of Connecticut, and the Officers commissioned by the Legislative Authority thereof -- The General orders Thomas Dyer Esqr. immediately to join his company, to be received into the said regiment as a Captain, and to be obeyed as such.

        The General Court Martial of which Col Hitchcock was president is dissolved.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, October 8, 1775.

        Parole Yarmouth. Countersign Amboy.

        For the future the Adjutant General 28 will send the Parole and Countersign, under a sealed cover, by the orderly Adjutant at Head Quarters, to the Majors of brigade, Scammell, Box, Cary, and Henly 29 -- They at Gun-firing in the evening, and not before; are to deliver the parole and Countersign, to the Adjutants of their respective brigades -- The Adjutants are first to

    [Note:Brig. Gen. Horatio Gates, Adjutant General of the Continental Army. ]
    [Note:Majs. Alexander Scammell, Daniel Box, Richard Cary, and David Henly. ]

    Page 21

    deliver the parole and Countersign, to the Officers of the advanced Guards, then to the Officer of every Guard, in and about the Camp, and then to their commanding Officers, and Corps. The Roxbury Adjutant will receive every day, at Orderly Time, the parole and Countersign, in a Seal'd Cover, directed to the Commanding General at Roxbury, who will observe the same Order, and Time of delivering them to Officers, in his encampment, as is directed to be done here.

        A General Court Martial to sit to morrow, to try such prisoners as shall be brought before them. -- Col Bridge president.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, October 9, 1775.

        Parole Bedford. Countersign Corke.

        If any Negroe is found straggling after Taptoo beating about the Camp, or about any of the Roads or Villages, near the encampments at Roxbury, or Cambridge, they are to be seized and confined until Sun-rise, in the Guard, nearest to the place where such Negroe is taken up.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, October 11, 1775.

        Parole Falkland. Countersign Georgia.

        Capt Samuel Gridley of Col Gridley's Regiment of Artillery, tried at a late General Court Martial, whereof Colonel Bridge was president, for "Backwardness in the execution of his duty, and for Negligence in the care and discipline of his camp" -- The Court upon mature Consideration of the evidence, examined in support of the Charge, are unanimously of Opinion, that no part of the Charge is supported against Capt. Gridley, and dismiss the Complaint, as malicious, vexatious


    Page 22

    and groundless. The General approves the proceedings of the Court Martial, and orders Capt. Gridley to be immediately released.

    To THE PRESIDENT OF CONGRESS Camp at Cambridge, October 12, 1775.

        Sir: I am honored with your several Favors of the 26th and 30th. Septr. and 5th Oct. The contents of which I shall beg leave to notice in their respective order.

        Previous to the Direction of the Congress, to consult the General Officers on the best Method of continuing and providing for the Army during the Winter, I had desired their thoughts upon these Subjects and to favor me with the result by a particular Day, in Writing. In this Interval the Appointment of Doctor Franklin, Mr. Lynch and Col. Harrison was communicated: An Event which has given me the highest Satisfaction, as the Subject was too Weighty and complex for a Discussion by Letter. 30 This Appointment made any conclusion here unnecessary, as it is not probable any such arrangement would be agreed on, as would not be altered in some respects, in a full and free conferrence.

    [Note:Minutes of the proceedings of the committee, which sat from October 18 to 22, in the writing of Joseph Reed, are in the Washington Papers. The committee were Matthew Griswold and Nathaniel Wales, from Connecticut; Gov. Nicholas Cooke, from Rhode Island; Lynch, Franklin, and Harrison, as noted, from Congress; and James Bowdoin, James Otis, Walter Sever, and Walter Spooner, from Massachusetts. The organization of the Army, pay, clothing, arms, supplies, recruiting, and other matters were determined. The recommendations of the committee were confirmed, in part, by Congress. Force's American Archives, Fourth Series, vol. 3, 1155, prints the proceedings of the committee. ]

        This good Effect will arise from the step already taken, that every Officer will be prepared to give his Sentiments on these weighty and important Subjects.

        The Estimate of the Commissary and Quarter Master Generals I have now the Honor of inclosing. The first is the Inclosure No. 1, the other No. 2.


    Page 23

        With Respect to the Reduction of the Pay of the men, which may enter into the consideration of their Support; it is the unanimous Opinion of the General Officers, that it cannot be touched with Safety at present.

        I have procured an Account from Col. Thompson of the Expenditure of the 5000 Dollars which is inclosed No. 3.

        Upon the presumption of there being a vacancy in the Direction of the Hospital, Lt. Col. Hand 31 formerly a Surgeon in the 18th Regt. or Royal Irish, and Dr. Foster 32 late of Charles Town and one of the Surgeons of the Hospital under Dr. Church are candidates. I do not pretend to be acquainted with their respective merits, and therefore have given them no farther Expectation than that they should be mentioned as Candidates for the Department. I therefore need only to add on this Subject, that the Affairs of the Hospital require that the appointment should be made as soon as possible.

    [Note:Lieut. Col. Edward Hand. ]
    [Note:Dr. Isaac Foster. ]

        Before I was honored with your Favor of the 5th Instant, I had given Orders for the Equipment of some Armed Vessels to intercept the Enemy's Supplies of Provisions and Ammunition; 33 one of them was on a Cruize between Cape Ann and Cape Cod when the Express arrived. The others will be fitt for the Sea in a few Days, under the Command of Officers of the Continental Army, who are well recommend as Persons acquainted with the Sea, and capable of such Service. Two of them will be immediately dispatched on this Duty and every particular mentioned in your favor of the 5th instant literally complied with. 34

    [Note:These vessels are usually known as Washington's Fleet. They did good service until the Continental Congress established a regular naval force. ]
    [Note:Capts. Nicholson Broughton and John Selman, who "were ordered to the river St. Lawrence to intercept an ammunition vessel bound to Quebec, but missing her, they took ten other vessels and Gov. Wright of St. Johns, all of which were released, as we had waged a ministerial war and not one against our most gracious sovereign." -- E. Gerry to John Adams, Feb. 9, 1813. ]

    Page 24

        That the Hon: Congress may have a more complete Idea of the Plan on which these Vessels are equiped I enclose a Copy of the Instructions given to the Captain now out (No. 4) These with the Additional directed, will be given to the Captains who proceed to the mouth of the River St. Lawrence; As both Officers and Men chearfully engage in the Service, on the Terms mentioned and these Instructions, I fear that the proposed Increase will create some Difficulty, by making a Difference between Men engaged in Similar Service. I have therefore not communicated this Part of the Plan, but reserved the extra Bounty as a reward for extraordinary Activity. There are no Armed Vessels in this Province an Govr. Cooke informs me the Enterprize can receive no Assistance from him, as one of the Armed Vessels of Rhode Island is on a long Cruize and the other unfit for the Service. Nothing shall be Omitted to secure Success; a fortunate Capture of an Ordinance Ship would give new Life to the Camp and an immediate turn to the Issue of this Campaign.

        Our last Accounts from Col. Arnold are very favorable; he was proceeding with all Expedition, and I flatter myself, making all allowances, he will be at Quebec, the 20th instant, where a Gentleman from Canada (Mr. Price) 35 assures me he will meet with no Resistance. --

    [Note:James Price, a merchant of Montreal. When that place capitulated to General Montgomery, he wrote: "I have found Mr. Price so active and intelligent, and so warm a friend to the measures adopted by Congress, that I wish to have him mentioned in the strongest terms to Congress." He was appointed deputy commissary general of the army in Canada the spring following. ]

        In the Quarter Master's estimate there are some Articles omitted, of which he informs me he cannot pretend to furnish a computation such as Carting, Tools &ca. for which some general allowance must be made.

        >From the various Accounts received from Europe there may be reason to expect, Troops will be Landed at New York or


    Page 25

    some other middle Colony. I should be glad to know the Pleasure of the Congress whether upon such an Event it would be expected that a part of this Army should be detached, or the internal Force of such Colony and its Neighbourhood be deemed sufficient, or whether in such case I am to wait the particular Direction of Congress.

        The Fleet mentioned in my last has been seen standing N. N. E. so that we apprehend it is intended for some Part of this Province or New Hampshire, or possibly Quebec.

        The latest and best Accounts we have from the Enemy are, that they are engaged in their New Work across the South End of Boston. preparing their Barracks &ca. for Winter; That it is proposed to keep from 500 to 1000 Men on Bunker's Hill all Winter, who are to be relieved once a Week; The rest to be drawn into Boston. -- A Person who has lately been a Servant to Major Connolly a Tool of Lord Dunmore's, has given an Account of a Scheme to Distress the Southern Provinces, which appeared to me of Sufficient consequence to be immediately transmitted, I have therefore got it attested and do myself the Honor of inclosing it, No. 5. 36

    [Note:Dr. John Connolly. The information is in the form of a deposition from Connolly's servant, William Cowley, to the effect that Connolly was to stir up the western Indians against the Colonies and descend upon Fort Pitt from Detroit. ]

        The new Levies from Connecticut have lately marched into Camp and are a Body of as good Troops as any we have. So that we have now the same Strength as before the Detachment made under Colonel Arnold. I am Sir &ca. 37

    [Note:This letter is in the writing of Joseph Reed. All the inclosures are with it in the Papers of the Continental Congress. ]

    *To JOHN AUGUSTINE WASHINGTON Camp at Cambridge, October 13, 1775.

        Dear Brother: Your favour of the 12th. Ulto. came safe to hand a few days ago; by it I gladly learnt that your Family


    Page 26

    were recover'd of the two complaints which had seized many of them, and confind my Sister. 38 I am very glad to hear also, that the Convention had come to resolutions of Arming the People, and preparing vigorously for the defence of the Colony; which, by the latest accts. from England will prove a salutary Measure. 39 I am also pleasd to find that the Manufactury of Arms and Ammunition have been attended to with so much care; a plenty of these and unanimity and Fortitude among ourselves must defeat every attempt that a diabolical Ministry can Invent to Inslave this great Continent. In the Manufacturing of Arms for Publick use great care should be taken to make the bores of the same size, that the same Balls may answer, otherwise great disadvantages may arise from a mixture of Cartridges.

    [Note:Hannah Bushrod, wife of John Augustine Washington. ]
    [Note:An account of the convention is given in a letter from George Mason to Washington, Oct. 14, 1775. Mason's letter is in the Washington Papers. ]

        The Enemy by their not coming out, are, I suppose, afraid of us; whilst their Situation renders any attempts of ours upon them in a manner Impracticable. 40 Nothing new has happend

    [Note:On October 18 the officers were convened a second time to hold a council respecting an attack on Boston. There was a unanimous voice against it, but there is no record of what was Washington's opinion. The question of attacking Boston had come before the committee of conference, the subject being thus stated by Washington: "The council of war, having. in consequence of an intimation from Congress, deliberated on the expediency of an attack upon the troops in the town of Boston, and determined that at present it was not practicable; the General wishes to know how far it may be deemed proper and advisable to avail himself of the season to destroy the troops who propose to winter in Boston, by bombardment (when the harbor is blocked up), or in other words, whether the loss of the town, and the property therein, are so to be considered, as that an attack upon the troops there should be avoided, when it evidently appears that the town must, of consequence, be destroyed?" The committee thought this too important to be determined by them. They, therefore, referred it to Congress, where it hung fire for a long time.

       "I mean not to anticipate your determination, but only to approve your design to hover like an eagle over your prey, always ready to pounce upon it when the proper time comes. I have not forgot your proposition relative to that city; I try to pave the way for it, and wait for the season, as you do.: -- Lynch to Washington, Nov. 13, 1775.

       It was not until December 22 that a resolution was reached, which appears in the printed journals, although marked "secret" in the manuscript journals. "That if General Washington and his council of war should be of opinion, that a successful attack may be made on the troops in Boston, he do it in any manner he may think expedient, notwithstanding the town and property in it may be destroyed." In communicating this resolve, President Hancock wrote: "You will notice the resolution relative to an attack upon Boston. This passed after a most serious debate in a committee of the whole house, and the execution was referred to you. May God crown your attempt with success. I most heartily wish it, though individually I may be the greatest sufferer." (President Hancock possessed a valuable property in Boston.)

       It is a little remarkable that each party had conclusive reasons for avoiding to attack the other. "It is inadvisable," said General Gage in a letter to Lord Dartmouth (August 20), "to attempt penetrating the country from Boston. The enemy's forces are numerous, and such an attempt must be made under very great disadvantages; and even if successful. little would be gained by it, as neither horses, carriages, nor other means for moving forward could be procured. Our force is too small to be divided into detachments for this purpose, and success would answer no other end than to drive the rebels out of one strong-hold into another." General Howe used the same arguments on October 9 -- Ford. ]


    Page 27

    since my last worth communicating; since finishing of our own Lines of Defence we, as well as the Enemy, have been busily Imployed in putting our Men under proper cover for the Winter. Our advanced Works, and theirs, are within Musket Shott of each other; we are obliged to Submit to an almost daily Cannonade without returning a Shott from our scarcity of Powder, which we are necessitated to keep for closer Work than Cannon Distance whenever the red Coat gentry pleases to step out of their Intrenchments. Seeing no prospect of this I sent a Detachment, about a Month ago into Canada by the way of Kennebec River under the Command of a Colo. Arnold, this Detachment consisted of 1000 Men and was Order'd to possess themselves of Quebec if possible, but at any rate to make a diversion in favour of General Schuyler who by this is in possession I expect of Montreal and St. Johns, as I am not altogether without hopes Colo. Arnold may be [possessed] of the Capital. If so, what a pretty hand the Ministry have made of their Canada Bill, and the Diabolical Scheme which was constructed upon it. I have also, finding we were in no danger of a visit from our Neighbours, fitted, and am fitting out, several Privateers with Soldiers (who have been bred to the Sea) and have no doubt of making Captures of several of their Transports, some of which have already fallen into our hands laden with Provisions.


    Page 28

        I am obliged to you for your advice to My Wife, and for your Intention of visiting of her; seeing no great prospect of returning to my Family and Friends this Winter I have sent an Invitation to Mrs. Washington to come to me, altho' I fear the Season is too far advanced (especially if she should, when my Letters get home, be in New Kent, as I believe the case will be) to admit this with any tolerable degree of convenience. I have laid a state of the difficulties, however which must attend the journey before her and left it to her own choice. My Love to my Sister and the little ones are sincerely tenderd and I am with true regard Yr. Most Affecte. Brother.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, October 13, 1775.

        Parole Kenebec. Countersign Lebanon.

        Lieut. Richard Woodward of Capt Gridley's Company, in Col Gridleys Regiment of Artillery, tried at a late General Court martial, whereof Col Woodbridge was president, for "Cowardice in the action upon the 17th June last, and for mutiny" The Court were unanimously of opinion, that the Charge of Cowardice on the 17th of June last, is fully supported against the prisoner; and are also unanimously of opinion, that the prisoner is guilty of mutiny, and of a malicious, vexatious, and groundless accusation of Capt. Gridley, at a late General Court Martial: The Court therefore unanimously adjudge the prisoner Lieut. Woodward to be cashiered and rendered incapable of serving in the Continental army.

    To GOVERNOR JONATHAN TRUMBULL Camp at Cambridge, October 13, 1775.

        Sir: Your favor of the 9th. Instant has been duly received; The Fleet mentioned in mine of the 6th Inst., has been


    Page 29

    standing N, N, E., so that we presume it is destined against some Town of this Province, or New Hampshire, or possibly gone to Quebec.

        Our last Advices, were very favorable, from Colo. Arnold; by the 20th Inst. we expect he will be at Quebec, A Gentleman of Character from Canada assures me, he will meet with no opposition there.

        I am sorry other Avocations will deprive me of the pleasure of seeing you in Camp at the proposed Conference, I hope upon some other occasion you will do us the favor of a Visit, I shall be happy in every opportunity to manifest my Respect and Regard for the Government of Connecticut.

        No Occurrence of any Consequence in either Camp since my last.

        In my last Letter from the Congress, it is mentioned, that the Armed Vessels of Connecticut will be sent on a Special Service with which you are acquainted; In your next you will Please to inform me, whether they may be expected to proceed in that Enterprize. Two will proceed from hence with all Expedition. Govr. Cooke informs me he can give us no Assistance in it. I am etc.

    To GOVERNOR NICHOLAS COOKE [Cambridge, October 13, 1775.]

        Sir: I am favor'd with yours of the 10th and am sorry it so happened, that the proposed Scheme of Intercepting the Enemy's Ordnance Stores cannot have your Assistance. The Experience your Officers and Men have had, by an earlier attention to Sea Service, would have made them very acceptable on the proposed Enterprise.

        The Fleet which Sailed out of Boston a few Days ago and of which I apprized you the 6th Instant, has been seen standing N, N, E. From which we suppose they are destined against


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    some Town of this Province, or New Hampshire, or possibly to Quebec.

        We have no Occurrence of any Consequence in the Camp since I had the Pleasure of Writing you last.

        I find the Delegates did not expect to leave Philadelphia till the 6th. Instant, so that their Arrival here will be later than at first proposed. I expect the pleasure of seeing you shortly, and am etc.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, October 14, 1775.

        Parole Malden. Countersign Norfolk

        The General has seen, and approves the sentence of the General Court Martial, held upon Lieut. Woodward 41 of the Artillery; he orders it to take place immediately, and commands Lieut. Woodward to be dismissed the Camp.

    [Note:Lieut. Richard Woodward, of Gridley's artillery. ]

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, October 15, 1775.

        Parole Ostend. Countersign Plymouth.

        One Sub, one serjt. and twenty-five Rank and File from each of the four Brigades in the Lines, and in Cambridge, to parade to morrow morning at Sun-rise upon Cambridge Common to cut Fire-wood for the army. The Qr. Mr. General or his deputy, will attend upon the common in Cambridge to give directions to the Officer commanding the party.

        A General Court Martial to sit on Wednesday Morng: next, at Roxbury, to try Col David Brewer of the 9th Regt. of foot, upon an Accusation exhibited by a number of Officers of that Regiment. A Copy thereof having Yesterday been sent by


    Page 31

    the Adjutant General to Col Brewer. The Judge Advocate to be at Roxbury by nine 'OClock, Wednesday Morning, to sit in Court. All Evidences, and Persons concerned, to attend the Court at that time -- For Court martial Brigdr. Genl. Thomas president; four Colonels, four Lt. Colonels and four Majors, members. The members to be taken equally from the two Brigades now in Roxbury.

    To THE COMMITTEE OF SAFETY
    OF NEW HAMPSHIRE Camp at Cambridge, October 15, 1775.

        Gentn: I was yesterday favored with yours of the 11th Inst., wherein the Necessities of the Town of Portsmouth and the Garrison there, for some Part of the late Capture of Flour are represented; Had I known their Situation I should have made the Application unnecessary, by directing Mr. Moylan on the Subject, They have my Chearful Consent, to take what is necessary, but perhaps somewhat less than 600 Barrels may Answer the present Exigence; As our mutual Wants are now known to each other, I shall leave it to you to reserve what Quantity, you think indispensably Necessary.

        I do not see any Impropriety in paying the Seamen their Wages, out of the Sales of some part of the Cargo and make no doubt it will be approved in the Settlement of this Affair.

        With respect to the Transportation of it to Marblehead or Salem by Water, I apprehend it must depend upon Circumstances such as the Enemy being upon the Coast &c., of all which Mr Moylan was directed to inform himself and then Act as should be best, The Expence of Land Carriage would be very Considerable and I wish to use all possible Oeconomy so as to be consistent with our Safety. You will Please to favor


    Page 32

    Mr Moylan with your Opinion on the Subject, to which he will pay a Suitable Regard. I am etc.

    CERTIFICATE Head Quarters, Cambridge, October 15, 1775.

        These certify, that the bearer, Captain Michael Dowdle 42 [ sic ] has served with credit and reputation, during the course of this campaign, was the first Captain that brought a company of Rifle men to the army and the first of that corps, who did execution against the enemy, he was this day, at his own desire, discharged, as it is inconvenient, to his private affairs to remain longer in the army; his services meriting this certificate of his good conduct, and behaviour. I have accordingly granted him the same. 43

    [Note:Dowdie was from York County, Pa. This appears to be the earliest certificate of military service in the Revolutionary War granted by Washington that has yet come to light. Maj. Gen. Charles Lee added his certificate to the above, and the whole was published by Dowdie to counteract gossip as to his conduct. ]
    [Note:The text is from the Toner Transcripts in the Library of Congress. ]

    To COLONEL JOHN GLOVER
    AND STEPHEN MOYLAN Camp at Cambridge, October 16, 1775.

        Gentlemn: Colonel Glover's Letter of the 13th Inst. came safe to Hand. Captain Broughton and Captain Sellman have their Orders and must be immediately dispatched. The Price you mention for Bread is monstrous; but there must be no Delay. If the Flour is not come in from Portsmouth, you must do as well as you can; but if it is, we hope, you need not submit to such Terms. Let the Agent take Care to reserve a suitable


    Page 33

    Quantity for the Vessels, when it does arrive. Captain Glover will have the seventh Vessel fitted out; but the General fears he is too young. He has agreed to be second in Command under Manley for a little Time. The Experience he will gain, will enable him to take the first Command afterwards with more Honour. I am, etc.

    To CAPTAIN NICHOLSON BROUGHTON Head Quarters, October 16, 1775. 44

    [Note:Precisely the same instructions, with the necessary alteration in file third article, were given to Capt. John Selman this same date. These papers are in the Washington Papers. ]

        Sir: The Honble Continental Congress having received Intelligence, that two North Country Brigantines of no Force, sailed from England some Time ago for Quebec, laden with 6000 Stands of Arms, a large Quantity of Powder and other Stores; you are hereby directed to make all possible Dispatch for the River St. Lawrence, and there to take such a Station as will best enable you to intercept the above Vessels.

        2nd. You are also to seize and take any other Transports laden with Men, Ammunition, Clothing, or other Stores for the Use of the Ministerial Army or Navy, in America and secure them in such Places as may be most safe and convenient.

        3rd. The other armed Schooner named the Lynch and commanded by Captain Sellman, is to be under your general Command but you are to advise and concert with him the proper Stations and the proper Time to continue this Service.

        4th. You are to endeavour, if possible, to discover whether the above Vessels have passed by. If they have, you are not to return; but keep the Station as long as the Season will admit. As there is a great Probability that Quebec will fall into our Hands in a very short Time, it may be expected that not only


    Page 34

    the above Ordnance Vessels; but others from Quebec and Montreal may come down and fall into our Hands.

        5th. As there may be Men of War at Newfoundland, you are so to conduct as to prevent being discovered by them; or any Intelligence given of your Station.

        6th. Whatever Vessels you may meet, bound in or out of the River St. Lawrence, which you have Reason to believe are in the Service of the ministerial Army or convoying any Stores to them of Provision, or of any other Nature, you are to endeavour to seize, though they should not be Transports regularly engaged by Government.

        7th. For your Encouragement and that of the Officers and Men under your Command, you will receive one third Part of the Value of any Prizes you may take as well military Stores as the Hulls of such Vessels, nothing being excepted but the wearing Apparel and private Stock of the Captains, other Officers and Passengers of such Prizes.

        8th. Should you meet with any Vessel, the Property of the Inhabitants of Canada, not employed in any Respect in the Service of the ministerial army, you are to treat such Vessel with all Kindness and by no Means suffer them to be injured or molested. I am, Sir, etc.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, October 17, 1775.

        Parole Sawbridge. Countersign Townsend.

        The Quarter Master General will deliver to the Major of each Brigade, or his Order, Twenty great Coats for the use of the Centinels of each brigade: As the Brigade Major is to give his receipt for the same, he is to be answerable that they are regularly deliver'd from guard to guard.


    Page 35

        Lieut. Thomas Randell of the Regt. of Artillery, tried at a late General Court Martial for "stabbing a matross in the said regiment" -- The Court are of opinion, that the prisoner is guilty of a breach of the 49th Art. of the Rules and Regulations of the Massachusetts army. But in consideration of the very insulting behaviour of the Complainant, adjudge Lieut. Randall only, to receive a severe reprimand from the Colonel of the Regiment, at the head of the company, to which the prisoner belongs.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, October 18, 1775.

        Parole Wilkes. Countersign Cambden

        The General Court Martial ordered to sit this day, at Roxbury, is postponed until Friday morning next, at Nine 'OClock Brigadier Genl. Thomas being obliged to attend this forenoon at Headquarters.

    To MAJOR CHRISTOPHER FRENCH Camp Cambridge October 19, 1775.

        Sir: Your Letter of the instant was duly received. Doctor Franklin the chairman of the Committee of Safety of Philadelphia, is now in Camp, and when the necessary Attention to Matters of greater Importance will admit, I propose to make the proper Inquiries, and then will endeavour to settle the Matter in Question, in such a manner, as I hope will be final and Satisfactory. In the meantime, I must acquaint you, that those Gentlemen who came from Philadelphia, informed me, that the Liberty of Wearing your Swords was not made a Subject of Discussion, but passed wholly unnoticed, which induced me to say, I did not know whether the Liberty was


    Page 36

    given or taken. My Time and other Engagements does not admit my continuing this correspondence; but I shall have a real Pleasure in making your Situation as comfortable and convenient as my Duty will allow. I am Sir, etc.

    To MAJOR BENJAMIN TUPPER 45

    [Note:Tupper, who was of Fellows's Massachusetts regiment, was advanced to the rank of colonel and served throughout the war, being brevetted a brigadier general before his retirement. ]

        Whereas Information has been given to me, that two Vessels, the one belonging to Holmes and the other to Coffin, both Persons of known Enmity to the United Colonies, 46 are now laying at Martha's Vineyard, intending to proceed to Boston with their Cargoes, for the Benefit and Refreshment of the ministerial Troops there. These are, therefore, to require you, to seize the said Vessels with their Cargoes, and secure them in the safest and nearest Port to this Camp for the use of the United Colonies; and all Persons, Friends of their Country and the Cause of America, are desired to aid and assist you in the said Enterprize, for which they shall be reasonably rewarded out of the said Vessels.

    [Note:Benjamin M. Holmes and John Coffin were, probably, the individuals meant. ]

        Given under my Hand at Head Quarters, Cambridge, October the twentieth, Annoq. Domini 1775.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, October 21, 1775.

        Parole Franklin. Countersign Lynch.

        The Officers of Col Gridley's Regiment and Major Crane's Corps of Artillery, who are inclined to engage in the service of the United Colonies, for one Year from the day of the expiration of their present term of service, are to deliver in their


    Page 37

    Names and the Rank they now possess to the Adjutant General to morrow Morning at ten OClock; such as disincline to remain any longer in the service, to give in their names also, and the Reasons for their declining the service.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, October 22, 1775.

        Parole Harrison. Countersign Cooke.

        The Deputies from the Honorable Continental Congress, having arrived in this camp; in order to confer with the General, the several Governors, of Rhode Island, and Connecticut, the Council of massachusetts bay, and the president and Convention of New Hampshire; on the continuing an Army for the Defence and support of America, and its Liberties; all Officers, who decline the further Service of their country, and intend to retire from the Army, at the expiration of their present Term of service; are to signify their Intentions in writing to their Colonel, which he is to deliver with his own, to the Brigadier General, or commanding Officer of his brigade -- Those brave Men, and true Patriots, who are resolved to continue to serve and defend their Brethren, Priviliges and Property, are to consider themselves engaged to the last day of December 1776 unless sooner discharged by the Hon: the Continental Congress, and will in like manner signify their intentions -- This return to be made at orderly time, Wednesday next.

    INSTRUCTIONS TO CAPTAIN WILLIAM COIT Head Quarters, October 22, 1775.

        1. You being already appointed a Captain in the Army of the United Colonies of North America, are hereby directed to take


    Page 38

    the Command of a Detachment of said Army and proceed on board the army schooner Harrison; lately fitted out and equipped with Arms, Ammunition and Provisions at the Continental Expence.

        2. You are to proceed as Commander of said Schooner immediately on a Cruize against such Vessels as may be found on the High Seas or elswhere bound inwards or outwards to or from Boston in the Service of the ministirial Army and to take and Seize all such Vessels laden with Soldiers, Arms, Ammunition or Provisions for or from said Army or which you shall have good Reason to suspect are in such Service.

        3. If you should be so Successful as to take any of said Vessels you are immediately to send them to the nearest and Safest Port to this Camp under a Careful Prize Master directing him to notify me by Express immediately of such Capture with all Particulars, and there to wait my farther Directions.

        4. You are to be very particular and diligent in your Search after all Letters or other Papers tending to discover the Designs of the Enemy or of any other Kind and to forward all such to me as soon as possible.

        5. Whatever Prisoners you may take you are to treat with Kindness and Humanity as far as is Consistent with your own Safety; their pri [mutilated] after being duly Searched, and when they Arrive at any Port you are to apply to the Committee or to any Officer of the Continental Army Stationed at Such Port for a Guard to bring them up to Head Quarters.

        6. For your own encouragement and that of the other Officers and Men to Activity and Courage in this Service over and above your Pay in the Continental Army you shall be intitled to one third Part of the Cargo of every Vessel by you taken and sent into Port (military and naval Stores only excepted, which the Vessels and Apparel are reserved for the Public Service),


    Page 39

    which said Third Part is to be divided among the Officers and Men in the following Proportions: Shares, Captain 6, 1st. Lieutenant 5, 2nd. Lieutenant 4, Surgeon 4, Ship's Master 3, Steward 2, Mate 1½, Gunner 1½, Boatswain 1½, Gunners Mate and Sergeants 1½, Privates 1 each.

        7. You are particularly charged to avoid any Engagement with any Vessel of the Enemy, tho' you may be equal in Strength or may [mutilated] some small advantage. The Design of the Enterprise being to intercept the Supplies of the Enemy, which will be defeated by your running into unnecessary Engagements. In this your own Discretion and Prudence must Govern.

        8. As there may be other Vessels employed in this Same service with yourselves you are to fix upon proper Signals and your Stations being Settled so as to take the greatest Range avoid cruizing on the same Ground; if you should happen to take prizes in sight of each other the Rules which take Place among private Ships of War are to be observed in the Distribution of the Prize Money.

        9. In case of retaking the Vessel of any Friend to the American Cause, I will recommend it to Such Persons to make a suitable Compensation to those who have done such a Service, but [mutilated].

        10. You are to be extremely careful and frugal of your Ammunition, by no means to waste any of it in Salutes for any Purpose but what is absolutely necessary.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, October 23, 1775.

        Parole Hancock. Countersign Cushing.

        Col. David Brewer of the 9th. Regt. of Foot, tried at a General Court Martial, whereof Brigdr. Genl. Thomas was president,


    Page 40

    for "procuring a Lieutenant's Commission for his son, an unexperienced boy of 16, or 17 years of Age, and returning him as in the public service from the 24th of April, and drawing his pay for the month of August; during all which time the said boy, was at home, in his fathers service, contrary to the repeated Remonstrances of the Officers of the regiment; And also, For making a Return to the Committee of Supplies, for a larger Number of blankets, than were requisite for said regiment; And also, For taking the Men from the public service, in the army, and employing them in his own private business, in labour on his farm" -- The Court Martial on mature consideration are of opinion that the two last Articles of the accusation are supported fully against the prisoner and therefore unanimously adjudge that Col. David Brewer be dismissed the service. 47

    [Note:The General Orders for October 24 consisted solely of the approval of the above sentence. ]

    To THE NEW YORK LEGISLATURE Camp at Cambridge, October 24, 1775.

        Sir: Your Favor of the 12 Inst. I duly received and thank you for inclosing Captn. Thompson' 48 Information; the Contents of the Deposition, now transmitted to you are of such a Nature, that I thought no Time should be lost, in giving you the earliest Notice of them. I am etc.

    [Note:Captain Thompson, a sea captain of a ship from London, was subjected to an examination before the New York Congress. No copy of his information has been found in the Washington Papers. ]

    To THE PRESIDENT OF CONGRESS Camp Cambridge, October 24, 1775.

        Sir: My conjecture of the Destination of the late Squadron from Boston in my last, has been unhappily verified, by an outrage exceeding in Barbarity and cruelty every hostile Act practiced among civilized nations; I have inclosed the Account


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    given me by Mr. Jones 49 a Gentleman of the Town of Falmouth of the Destruction of that flourishing Village. He is a very great sufferer and informs me that the Time allowed for the removal of Effects was so small, that valuable Property of all kinds and to a great amount has been destroyed.

    [Note:Pearson Jones. His account of the destruction of Falmouth is in the Papers of the Continental Congress. Washington forwarded copies of it to Governors Cooke and Trumbull on October 24. Williamson's History of Maine (vol. 2, pp. 422 -- 434) has a detailed account of the burning of Falmouth, and Ford points out the curious entry in the Diary and Letters of Thomas Hutchinson (vol. 1, p. 583): "It is generally believed that Falmouth in Casco Bay, is burnt by Capt. Mowat, and 2 or 3 more ships. The last time I saw Lord G[eorge] G[ermain], he observed that Adm. Graves had been put in mind of his remissness: and he imagined he would run to the other extreme." ]

        The Orders shewn by the Captain for this horred proceedure, by which it appears the same desolation is meditated upon all the Towns on the Coast, made it my Duty to communicate it as quickly and extensively as possible. As Portsmouth was the next place to which he proposed to go, General Sullivan was permitted to go up and give them his Assistance and advice to ward off the Blow. I flatter myself the like Event will not happen there, as they have a Fortification of some strength and a Vessel has arrived at a place called Sheepscott with 1500 lb of Powder.

        The Gentlemen of the Congress have nearly finished their Business, but as they write by this Opportunity, I must beg leave to refer you to their Letters for what concerns their Commission.

        We have had no Occurrence of any Consequence in the Camp, since I had the Honor of Addressing you last. I am &ca.

    To THE COMMITTEE OF FALMOUTH Camp at Cambridge October 24, 1775.

        Gentn: The Desolation and Misery, which Ministerial Vengeance had Planned, in Contempt of every Principle of


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    Humanity, has been solately brought on the Town of Falmouth, I know not how Sufficiently to detest. Nor can my compassion for the General Suffering, be conceived beyond the true Measure of my Feelings. But my Readiness to relieve you, by complying with your Request, signified in your favor of the 21st Inst., is Circumscribed by my Inability; The immediate Necessities of the Army under my Command, require all the Powder and Ball that can be Collected with the utmost Industry and Trouble. 50 The Authority of my Station does not extend so far, as to impower me, to send a Detachment of Men down to your Assistance. Thus Circumstanced, I can only add my Wishes and Exhortations, that you may repel every future Attempt, to perpetrate the like Savage Cruelties.

    [Note:On October 24 Washington entered into an agreement with John Fisk for a supply of powder, to be furnished on or before Apr. 1, 1776, at the rate of 4 shillings a pound for any quantity up to 20 tons. ]

        I have given Liberty to several Officers, in Col. Phinney's Regiment, to Visit their Connections, which may now Stand in need of their presence and Assistance, by reason of this new exertion of Despotic Barbarity. I am, Gentn, etc.

    To MAJOR CHRISTOPHER FRENCH Head Quarters, Cambridge, October 25, 1775.

        Sir: I now set down to give a final Answer to your Application respecting your Swords. Dr Franklin confirms, what I before mentioned, that the Privilege claimed was no Part of the Stipulation made at Philadelphia, but passed without Discussion.

        Having made Inquiry, I find the rule with regard to the Indulgence in Question, is, that Prisoners do not wear their Swords. I therefore cannot approve of it, more especially as it gives such general Dissatisfaction to the good People of the country.


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        To your other request, of removing to some Place where you can have the Benefit of attending public Worship in the Church of England, I have not the least Objection, provided the Place is approved by Governor Trumbull, to whom, in this Case, you will be pleased to apply.

        Your Letters &ca. have been all sent into Boston and such as have been sent out, forwarded. The Select Men, at the Instance of Col. Robinson, have applied to have Mr McDermot sent in, to which I have agreed, upon Condition that a Gentleman of Boston, most injuriously confined in Gaol, be permitted to come out. To which Proposal I have yet received no Answer.

        I wish you all the Happiness consistent with your Situation and while the Inhabitants of America treat you with Humanity and Kindness, I trust you will make a Suitable Return. It is not grateful to me to hear the respectable citizens of any Town treated with Incivility or Contempt. I am sir, etc.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, October 25, 1775.

        Parole Rutledge. Countersign Gadsden.

        Otway Byrd Esqr. is appointed to act as Aid-de-Camp to Major Genl. Lee, during the Absence of Samuel Griffen Esqr. and is to be obeyed as such.

        For the future Peas and Beans are to be valued by the Commissary General at Six shillings, lawfull money a bushel.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, October 26, 1775.

        Parole Cambden. Countersign Burke.

        As several of the Officers have not yet signified their intentions respecting the requisitions contain'd in the orders of the


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    22nd Instant, and as the Nature of the Case will admit of no delay -- The General directs, that every Officer in the Army, do forthwith declare to his Colonel or Commanding Officer of the regt. to which he belongs, whether he will, or will not continue in the service, until the last day of December 1776 (if the Continental Congress shall think it expedient to retain him so long) This declaration, must be made in explicit terms, and not conditional; as the Congress are to be advised thereof immediately, in order that proper Steps may be taken to provide other Officers, and other Men if necessary. -- The times, and the Importance of the great Cause we are engaged in, allow no room for hesitation and delay -- When Life, Liberty, and Property are at stake, when our Country is in danger of being a melancholy Scene of bloodshed, and desolation, when our towns are laid in ashes, and innocent Women and Children driven from their peaceful habitations, exposed to the rigour of an inclement season, and to the hands of charity perhaps for a support. When Calamities like these are staring us in the face, and a brutal, savage enemy, (more so than was ever yet found in a civilized nation), are threatening us, and every thing we hold dear, with Destruction from foreign Troops, it little becomes the Character of a Soldier to shrink from danger, and condition for new terms. It is the General's intention to indulge both Officers, and Soldiers, who compose the New Army, with Furloughs, to be absent a reasonable time, but it must be done in such a manner, as not to injure the service, or weaken the Army too much at once. The General also thinks that he can take upon him to assure the Officers and Soldiers of the new army, that they will receive their pay once a Month regularly, after the term of their present Inlistments are expired. The Major of each Brigade is furnish'd with the Form of a Return, to be made to the Colonel, or commanding Officer of each regiment, of the determination of the Commissioned
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    Officers therein; and it is expected, that a return thereof, will be made on Saturday morning without fail, as no longer time can be allowed.

        The General is willing to grant one months pay to such Regiments and Corps, as are in want of money, for the purchase of Necessaries; and Abstracts are to be made out, for the Month of September accordingly.

    To MAJOR GENERAL PHILIP SCHUYLER Camp at Cambridge, October 26, 1775.

        Dear Sir: Your several Favors of the 12th. and 14th. Inst. came safely to Hand, though not in the proper Order of Time, with their several Inclosures. You do me Justice in believing that I feel the utmost Anxiety for your Situation, that I symphathize with you in all your Distresses, and shall most heartily share in the Joy of your Success. 51 My Anxiety extends itself to poor Arnold, whose Fate depends upon the Issue of your Campaign. Besides your other Difficulties, I fear, you have those of the Season added, which will increase every Day. In the Article of Powder, we are in Danger of suffering equally with you. Our Distresses on this Subject are mutual; but, we hope, they are short-lived, as every Measure of Relief has been pursued which human Invention could suggest. When you write General Montgomery, be pleased to convey my best Wishes

    [Note:Schuyler's letters of October 12 and 14 deal with his lack of powder and salt, his health, and other troubles. On September 26 he had written from Ticonderoga, N.Y.: "The vexation of spirit under which I labor, that a barbarous complication of disorders should prevent me from reaping those laurels for which I have unweariedly wrought since I was honored with this command; the anxiety I have suffered since my arrival here, lest the army should starve, occasioned by a scandalous want of subordination and inattention to my orders in some of the officers, that I left to command at the different posts; the vast variety of vexatious incidents, that almost every hour arise in some department or other; not only retard my cure, but have put me considerably back for some days past. If Job had been a general in my situation, his memory had not been so famous for patience. But the glorious end we have in view, and which I have a confident hope will be attained, will atone for all." The letters of October 12 and 14 are in the Washington Papers. ]

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    and Regards to him. It has been equally unfortunate for our Country and yourself, that your ill-Health has deprived the active Part of your Army of your Presence. God Almighty restore you and crown you with Happiness and Success.

        Colonel Allen's 52 Misfortune will, I hope, teach a Lesson of Prudence and Subordination to others, who may be too ambitious to outshine their General Officers, and regardless of Order and Duty, rush into Enterprizes, which have unfavorable Effects to the Publick, and are destructive to themselves. Dr. Franklin, Mr. Lynch, and Col. Harrison Delegates from the Congress, have been in the Camp for several Days, in Order to settle the Plan of continuing and supporting the Army. This Commission extended to your Department; but upon Consideration, it appeared so difficult to form any rational Plans that nothing was done upon that Head. If your Time and Health will admit I should think it highly proper to turn your Thoughts to this Subject, and communicate the Result to the Congress, as early as possible. We have had no Event of any Consequence in our Camp for some Time, our whole Attention being taken up with Preparations for the Winter, and forming the new Army, in which many Difficulties occur. The Enemy expect considerable Reinforcements this Winter and from all Accounts are garrisoning Gibralter and other Places with foreign Troops, in order to bring the former Garrisons to America. The Ministry have begun the Destruction of our Sea Port Towns, by burning a flourishing Town of about

    [Note:When a convention of the several townships of the New Hampshire Grants met at Dorset, on July 26, 1775, to elect field and other officers, Ethan Allen expected to obtain the chief command, but, to his great chagrin, was defeated by Seth Warner, of Bennington, the vote in the convention being 41 to 5. Allen then joined General Schuyler, without holding a commission, and raising a company of Canadians, crossed the St. Lawrence with a small party below Montreal, where he was defeated and taken prisoner, after maintaining for some time, and with great courage, a very unequal conflict. He was put in irons and sent to Quebec, and thence to England, where he arrived December 23. After being a prisoner for nearly three years, transported from place to place, he was exchanged. He published (1779) a narrative of the events of his capture and imprisonment. -- Ford. ]

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    300 Houses to the Eastward, called Falmouth. This they Effected with every Circumstance of Cruelty and Barbarity, which Revenge and Malice could suggest. We expect every Moment to hear other Places have been attempted and have been better prepared for their Reception.

        The more I reflect upon the Importance of your Expedition, the greater is my Concern, least it should sink under insuperable Difficulties. I look upon the Interests and Salvation of our bleeding Country in a great Degree to depend upon your Success. I know you feel it's Importance as connected not only with your own Honour and Happiness; but the publick Wellfare, so that you can want no Incitements to press on, if it be possible. My anxiety suggests some Doubts, which your better Acquaintance with the Country will enable you to remove. Would it not have been practicable to pass St John's, leaving Force enough for a Blockade; or if you could not spare the Men, passing it wholly, possessing yourselves of Montreal, and the surrounding Country? Would not St. John's have fallen of Course or what would have been the probable Consequence? Believe me, dear General, I do not mean to imply the smallest Doubt of the Propriety of your Operations, or of those of Mr. Montgomery, for whom I have a great Respect. -- I too well know the absurdity of judging upon a military Operation, when you are without the Knowledge of it's concomitant Circumstances. I only mean it as a matter of Curiosity, and to suggest to you my imperfect Idea on the subject. I am with the utmost truth and Regard, etc.

    To THE MASSACHUSETTS LEGISLATURE Head-Quarters, October 27, 1775.

        Gentlemen: The continued accumulation of price, and the scarcity which prevails throughout the camp, for the several


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    articles of wood, hay, &c., oblige me to address your honourable Houses again upon this subject.

        The distress of the Army for these necessaries, I fear, will be followed, with the most dreadful effects to the general cause in which we are engaged, unless some speedy and effectual remedy is provided. I have the utmost reason to think the scarcity is artificial; and, that the General Court may have full satisfaction on this subject, three gentlemen, who have been employed in endeavouring to procure these articles, now wait on your honourable Houses, to give you such information as their inquiries and opportunities enable them to do. The importance and necessity of making such provision as to enable the troops to keep their posts must be too obvious to make any argument necessary; and, as this Province has ever been among the foremost in its spirited exertions, I flatter myself that such measures will be adopted as will remove the apprehensions and anxieties under which we now labour.

        Messrs. Drew, Carthier, and Dunion, officers taken from some ship of war, and now closely confined in Taunton jail, have made me such an affecting representation of their distress, that I cannot refuse them any recommendation to the favour of the General Court for an enlargement on their parole of honour, when removed to some inland Town.

        I expect in a short time some regulation from the Continental Congress respecting the prisoners, which I shall do myself the honour of communicating as soon as received. I am, etc. 53

    [Note:The text is from the Toner Transcripts in the Library of Congress. ]

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, October 27, 1775.

        Parole Ward. Countersign Green.

        In making out the pay Abstracts for the Month of September; the Colonels and commanding Officers of Corps, are not


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    to include any Officer, or Soldier, on the Detachment with Col. Arnold; as he drew a full pay for that Month, for every Man under his command.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, October 28, 1775.

        Parole Putnam. Countersign Heath.

        The General Court Martial whereof Col Bridge was President is dissolved.

        It is recommended to the Non-Commissiond Officers and Soldiers, whose pay will be drawn in Consequence of last Thursday's orders (especially to those, whose Attachment to the glorious Cause in which they are engaged, and which will induce them to continue in the service another Year) to lay out their money in Shirts, Shoes, Stockings and a good pair of leather Breeches; and not in Coats, and Waistcoats, as it is intended that the new Army shall be cloathed in uniform. To effect which; The Congress will lay in Goods, upon the best terms they can be bought, anywhere for ready Money, and will sell them to the Soldiers without any profit, by which means, a Uniform Coat, and Waistcoat will come cheaper to them; than any other Cloathing of the like kind can be bought -- A number of Taylors will be immediately sett to work, to make Regimentals for those brave Men, who are willing at all hazards, to defend their invaluable rights and privileges.

        The undernam'd Men in Col Whitcomb's Regiment, to be sent directly, to the Q M General: viz: David Clark, Samuel Barrett, John Farmer, James Farmer, Daniel Fleman, Amos Brown, Joshua Holt, Philip Overlook, and Joseph Champman, to burn Charcoal for the use of the Army -- Five wood-cutters from each brigade, to be added to those already order'd to cut fire-wood, under the direction of the Quarter Master General.


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        A General Court Martial to sit Monday Morning at Nine 'OClock in Cambridge, to try such Prisoners as shall be brought before them -- Evidences and Persons concern'd to attend the Court.

    To ANTHONY WHITE 54

    [Note:Anthony Walton White. He became lieutenant colonel of the Third New Jersey Regiment Jan. 18, 1776; lieutenant colonel of the Fourth Continental Dragoons in February, 1777; and colonel of the First Continental Dragoons in 1780. He was captured at Lanneaus Ferry, May 6, 1780, and exchanged in October of that year; retired Nov. 9, 1782. ]

        Sir: I could not let Mr. White depart this camp without paying you the tribute of a letter. When I wrote to you last I thought it not at all unlikely that he might have been one of my Family before this, as I was not sanguine in my expectation of the Gentleman's (to whom I had written before I had spoke to y'r son on this Subject) coming this way. By the last Post I received a Letter from him, (that is Mr. Harrison,) informing me of his having received my Invitation, tho' long after date, and that he should immediately set out for this Camp; whereupon I advis'd Mr. White, as I learnt by a letter from a Member of Congress, that two Battalions were to be raised in the Jersey's to repair there without loss of time, being firmly persuaded that his merit would entitle him to an honorable appointment in one of the other of those Corps.

        For the occurrences of this Camp I must refer you to Mr. White, who can relate matters more circumstantially than my time, or the limit of a Letter, will enable me to do. With great esteem I remain, etc. 55

    [Note:The text is from the Historical Collections of the Essex Institute. ]

    To GOVERNOR JONATHAN TRUMBULL Camp at Cambridge, October 29, 1775.

        Sir: Since I had the Pleasure of Addressing you last, no material Occurrence has happened in our Camp.


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        Dy Governor Griswold was desirous of taking the Minutes of the Conference with the Delegates of the Continental Congress with him; but they were so lengthy the Time did not admit of it. As soon as they can be copied fair they shall be transmitted.

        I was somewhat Surprized to find that in one of the Regiments lately from Connecticut, a Doctor Chiney 56 had been Commissioned as a Surgeon. As I am persuaded he must have obtained this Appointment by some Misrepresentation, I think it proper to apprize you of his Conduct and Behaviour last Summer being suspected of fraudulent Draughts upon the Commissary Store and other Malpractices, it was proposed to bring him to a Trial, which he evaded by requesting a Dismission which was granted him. After which I am very Credibly informed he returned to his Colony, where he has propogated the most infamous Reports of some of the General Officers. Reports tending to impress the Minds of the Soldiery and Country with prejudices, which would dissolve that Confidence which ought to subsist between Troops and their Officers. Since he has returned to Camp, he has renewed his Draughts upon the Stores, but being immediately detected, I have ordered him under Arrest, and hope Sufficient Evidence may be had to convict him, so as to rid the Army of him intirely. -- But I beg leave to intimate to you, the Propriety of Observing some Caution in giving Commissions to Persons who have been discharged, before you are apprized of the Reasons of their leaving the Army.

    [Note:Dr. Penuel Cheeney, surgeon's mate, of the Third Connecticut Regiment. ]

        I am glad to hear the Commissary General 57 is in a fair way of Recovery; I hope it will not be long before we have the Pleasure of seeing him in the Camp. I am Sir etc.

    [Note:Col. Joseph Trumbull. ]

        P.S. have you heard anything of the Lead proposed to be sent from Albany in August, allow me to call your attention to this important article.


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    To RICHARD HENRY LEE Camp at Cambridge, October 29, 1775.

        Dear Sir: As you will be fully informed of every matter and thing relative to the army, by your own committee, I should not have given you the trouble of a letter at this time, were it not on Colonel Reed's 58 account. He is, as I presume you may have heard, concerned in many of the principal causes now depending in the courts of Pennsylvania; and should those causes be pressed for trial by his brethren of the profession, it will not only do him a manifest injury in his practice and future prospects, but afford room for complaint of his having neglected his business as a lawyer. This he thinks may be avoided, if some of you gentlemen of the Congress, in the course of conversation with the chief-justice and others, would represent the disadvantages, which must result to him, in case his causes should be hurried to trial.

    [Note:Lieut. Col. Joseph Reed. Later he was colonel of the Thirteenth Continental Infantry. ]

        That Colonel Reed is clever in his business and useful to me, is too apparent to mention. I should do equal injustice, therefore, to his abilities and merit, were I not to add, that his services here are too important to be lost, and that I could wish him considered in this point of view by your honorable body, when occasion shall favor.

        I shall take it kind of you to give me, from time to time, such authentic intelligence of the manoeeuvres of the ministry, as you think may be relied on. We get none but newspaper accounts here, and these very imperfect. I am, with sincere esteem and regard, dear Sir, your affectionate friend and countryman. 59

    [Note:The text is from Sparks, but no copy of this letter is found in the Washington Papers. ]

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    To GOVERNOR NICHOLAS COOKE Camp at Cambridge, October 29, 1775.

        Sir: Your Favor of the 25th Instant came safely to hand. Capt. Whipple's Voyage has been unfortunate, but it is not in our Power to Command Success, tho' it is always our duty to deserve it; I hope he will be more Successful in his intended Voyage, if it is proposed in consequence of the Direction of the Congress, I think it Proper you should apprize him, that two Schooners have Sail'd from hence to the Mouth of St. Lawrence River, upon the same Service Commanded by Capt. Broughton and Captain Sellman; The Signal which they have agreed on to distinguish each other and to be known to their Friends, is the Ensign up to the Main Topping Lift. I agree with you that the Attachment of our Bermudian Bretheren ought to recommend them to the favorable Regard of their Friends of America, and I doubt not it will, I shall certainly take a proper opp'y to make their Case known to the Honble. Continental Congress.

        I shall be happy in every opportunity to shew the Esteem and Regard with which I am etc.

    To THE MASSACHUSETTS LEGISLATURE Camp at Cambridge, October 30, 1775.

        Sir: At the Instance and request of the Committee of Cape Ann, I dispatch'd Major Mason to Survey and make a Report of such Works of Defence as were already constructed there and how far any New one might be Necessary. From his Observations and Account, I find that a Battery may be erected there to the great advantage, and Security of the Place; But the small Stock of Artillery, belonging to the Army prevents me


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    from Supplying the Materials for this Purpose. I have therefore thought proper to acquaint you, with the Circumstances of the Case, that you may make the best Provision for this Necessity, and have also sent Major Mason 60 down to you, that particular Enquiry, if desired may be made; Be pleased to communicate this Information to your Honorable House. I am Sir, etc.

    [Note:Maj. David Mason of Gridley's artillery. ]

    To JOSEPH REED Cambridge, October 30, 1775.

        Dear Sir: After you left this yesterday, Mr. Tudor 61 presented me with the enclosed. As there may be some observations worthy of notice, I forward it to you, that it may be presented to Congress; but I would have his remarks upon the frequency of general courts martial considered with some degree of caution, for although the nature of his office affords him the best opportunity of discovering the imperfections of the present Rules and Regulations for the Army, yet a desire of lessening his own trouble may induce him to transfer many matters from a general court martial, where he is the principal actor, to regimental courts where he has nothing to do. I do not know that this is the case, but as it may be, I think it ought not to be lost sight of.

    [Note:William Tudor, Judge Advocate General of the Continental Army. ]

        In your conference with Mr. Bache, 62 be so good as to ask him whether the two posts which leave Philadelphia for the southward, both go through Alexandria, and if only one, which of them it is, the Tuesday's or Saturday's, that I may know how to order my letters from this place.

    [Note:Richard Bache, Assistant Postmaster General. ]

        My letter to Colonel Harrison, 63 on the subject we were speaking of, is inclosed, and open for your perusal; put a wafer

    [Note:Benjamin Harrison, Virginia Delegate to the Continental Congress. ]

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    under it and make what use you please of it. Let me know by the post or *** what the world says of men and things. My compliments to Mrs. Reed, and with sincere regard, I remain, &c. 64

    [Note:The text is from Reed's Life and Correspondence of Joseph Reed. Sparks had the original letters in his possession, a loan from William B. Reed, at the time he was preparing his Writings of Washington. He wrote that these letters were "the most perfect I had ever seen from his [Washington's] pen. They were evidently written in great haste, in perfect confidence, and without any thought that they would ever be published." ]

    To THE PRESIDENT OF CONGRESS Camp at Cambridge, October 30, 1775.

        Sir: The Information, which the Gentlemen, who have lately gone from hence, can give the Congress of the State and Situation of the Army, would have made a Letter unnecessary, If I did not suppose, there would be some Anxiety to know the Intentions of the Army, on the Subject of their Reenlistment.

        Agreeable to the Advice of those Gentlemen, and my own Opinion, I immediately began by directing all such Officers, as proposed to continue to signify their Intentions, as soon as possible: a great number of the returns are come in, from which I find, that a very great Proportion of Officers of the Rank of Captains and under, will retire from present appearances I may say half, but at least one third. It is with some concern also, that I observe that many of the Officers, who retire, discourage the continuance of the Men, and I fear will communicate the Infection to them. Some have advised, that those Officers, who decline the Service, should be immediately dismissed: but this would be very dangerous and inconvenient. I confess, I have great Anxieties upon the Subject, tho' I still hope the Pay and Terms are so advantageous, that Interest, and I hope also, a regard to their country, will retain a greater Proportion of the Privates, than their Officers. In so important a matter, I


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    shall esteem it my indispensable Duty, not only to act with all possible Prudence, but to give the most early and constant Advice of my Progress. 65

    [Note:"I am happy to inform you that Congress has agreed to every recommendation of the Committee, and have gone beyond it, in allowing the additional pay to the officers. I rejoice at this, but cannot think with patience that pitiful wretches, who stood cavilling with you when entreated to serve the next campaign, should reap the benefit of this addition. They will now be ready enough, but hope you will be able to refuse them with the contempt they deserve, and to find better in their room. Could not some of the gentlemen at camp enlist the New England men who have been persuaded to leave you? Frazier told me he could. It would be a capital point to convince the world that it is not necessary to have bad officers of that country, in order to raise men there. I can scarce bear their tyranny." -- Lynch to Washington, Nov. 13, 1775. This letter is in the Washington Papers. ]

        A Supply of Clothing, equal to our necessities, would greatly contribute to the Encouragment and Satisfaction of the Men: In every Point of View it is so important, that I beg leave, to call the Attention of the Congress to it, in a particular manner.

        A Serjeant has just come in from Bunker's Hill, but brings no important News. I have the Honor to be etc.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, October 31, 1775.

        Parole Cambridge. Countersign Dedham.

        As many Officers, and others, have begun to inlist men for the Continental Army, without Orders from Head Quarters; The General desires, that an immediate Stop be put thereto; that the inlistments be return'd; and that no person for the future, presume to interfere in this matter, 'till there is a proper establishment of Officers, and those Officers authorised and instructed in what manner to proceed. Commissions in the new Army are not intended merely for those, who can inlist the most men; but for such Gentlemen as are most likely to deserve them. The General would therefore, not have it even supposed, nor our Enemies encouraged to believe, that there is a Man in this army (except a few under particular circumstances) who


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    will require to be twice asked to do what his Honour, his personal Liberty, the Welfare of his country, and the Safety of his Family so loudly demand of him: When motives powerful as these, conspire to call Men into service, and when that service is rewarded with higher pay, than private Soldiers ever yet met with in any former war: The General cannot, nor will not (until he is convinced to the contrary) harbour so despicable an Opinion of their understanding and zeal for the cause, as to believe they will desert it. As the Congress have been at so much pains to buy Goods, to cloath the Army, and the Quarter Master General, at great trouble to collect, upon the best terms he can, such Articles as are wanting for this purpose, he is directed to reserve those goods for those brave Soldiers, who are determined to stand forth in defence of their Country another year; and that he may be able to distinguish these, from such as mean to quit the Service, at the end of their present engagement, he will be furnished with the Inlistments. Any person therefore (Negroes excepted, which the Congress do not incline to inlist again) coming with a proper Order and will subscribe the Inlistment, shall be immediately supplied. That every non Commissioned Officer and Soldier may know upon what Terms it is he engages, he is hereby inform'd -- That he is to be paid by the Kalender Month, at the present Rates; to wit. -- Forty eight Shillings to the Serjeants, Forty-four to the Corporals, Drums and Fifes, and Forty to the privates, which pay it is expected will be regularly distributed every Month.

        That each man is to furnish his own Arms (and good ones) or, if Arms is found him he is to allow Six Shillings for the use thereof during the Campaign.

        That he is to pay for his Cloathing, which will be laid in for him, upon the best terms it can be bought; to do which, a Stoppage of Ten Shillings a month will be made, until the Cloathing is paid for.


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        That Two Dollars will be allowed every one of them, who brings a good Blanket of his own with him, and will have Liberty to carry it away at the end of the Campaign.

        That the present allowance of provisions will be continued; And every man who inlists shall be indulged in a reasonable time, to visit his family in the Course of the winter, to be regulated in such a manner, as not to weaken the Army or injure the service.

        The Quarter Master General in preparing Barracks for the Officers, is to assign one to each compleat Corps under the new establishment.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, November 1, 1775.

        Parole Dorchester. Countersign Epsom.

        The General recommends it to those Officers, who have signified their Intention to continue in the service of the United Colonies another Campaign, not to run themselves to any expence in procuring Coats and Waistcoats until they are arranged into proper Corps and the Uniforms of the Regiment they belong to ascertained; which will probably be in a few days.

    *To THE PRESIDENT OF CONGRESS Camp at Cambridge, November 2, 1775.

        Sir: I could not suffer Mr. Randolph 66 to quit this Camp without bearing some testimony of my duty to the Congress, although his sudden departure (occasioned by the death of his worthy relative, whose loss as a good Citizen, and valuable

    [Note:Edmund Randolph, an aide-de-camp to Washington. He had been compelled to return to Virginia on account of the death of his uncle, Peyton Randolph, President of the First Continental Congress, who died suddenly at Philadelphia on October 22. ]

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    Member of Society is much to be regretted) does not allow me time to be particular.

        The Inclosed return 67 shews at one view what reliance we have upon the Officers of this Army, and how difficient we are like to be in Subaltern Officers; a few days more will enable me to inform the Congress of what they have to expect from the Soldiery, as I shall Issue recruiting Orders for this purpose as soon as the Officers are appointed, which will be done this day, having sent for the Genl. Officers to consult them in the Choice.

    [Note:This return, dated Nov. 1, 1775, is in the "Continental Army Returns," vol. 99, part I. These returns were removed from the Washington Papers by Col. Frederick C. Ainsworth and are now in the custody of The Adjutant General, War Department, Washington, D.C. ]

        I must beg leave to recall the attention of the Congress to the Appointment of a Brigadier General, an Officer as necessary to a Brigade as a Colonel is to a Regiment, and will be exceedingly wanted in the new Arrangement. 68

    [Note:Washington's letter was read in Congress November 13, and the election of a brigadier general was appointed for November 23. The Journals of the Continental Congress, however, contain no mention of any action taken until January, 1776, when Joseph Frye was chosen for the army in Massachusetts, and Benedict Arnold for the army in the Northern Department. ]

        The Proclamation's and Association 69 herewith Inclosed, came to my hands on Monday last. I thought it my duty to send them to you. Nothing of moment has happened since my last. With respectful Compliments to the Members of Congress I have the honour to be etc. 70

    [Note:Proclamations issued by General Howe on October 28. The first, prohibiting any person from leaving Boston, recites: "I do, by virtue of the power and authority vested in me by his Majesty, forbid any person or persons whatever, not belonging to the navy, to pass from hence by water or otherwise without my order or permission given in writing. Any person or persons detected in the attempt, or who may be retaken upon sufficient proof thereof, shall be liable to military execution, and those who escape shall be treated as traitors by seizure of their goods and effects." The second proclamation prohibited from carrying more than £5 in specie away from the city. The association was for embodying the citizens to defend the town. (See Remembrancer, vol. 2, p. 191; Boston Gazette, Nov. 6, 1775. Washington also inclosed in his letter the royal proclamation of Aug. 23, 1775, "for Suppressing Rebellion and Sedition," a broadside of which is in the Papers of the Continental Congress. ]
    [Note:The original of this letter, in the Papers of the Continental Congress, is in Washington's handwriting and varies in a few minor details from the text of the Varick Transcripts in the Library of Congress, which was used by Sparks. ]

    Page 60

    To THE MASSACHUSETTS LEGISLATURE Cambridge, November 2, 1775.

        Sir: I Promised the Gentlemen who did me the Honor to call upon me yesterday, by order of your House, that I would enquire of the Quarter Master General and let them know to day, what Quantity of Wood and Hay would be necessary to supply the Army thro' the Winter, I accordingly did so and desired Genl. Gates this morning to inform you, that it was his (the Qur Master's) Opinion it would require ten thousand Cords of the first and two hundred Tons of the Latter to answer our demands; but the hurry in which we have been all day engaged, caused him to forget it, till a fresh Complaint brought it again to remembrance. When the Committee were here yesterday, I told them I did not believe that we had then more than four Days Stock of Wood before hand. I little thought that we had scarce four hours, and that different Regiments were upon the Point of cutting each others throats for a few Standing Locusts near their Encampments, to dress their victuals with. This however is the fact, and unless some expedient is adopted by your honorable Body to draw more Teams into the Service or the Qur M. Genl. impower'd to impress them, this Army, if their comes a Spell of Rainy or Cold weather, must inevitably disperse, the Consequence of which need no animadversion of Mine.

        It has been matter of great grief to me to see so many Valuable able Plantations of Trees destroyed. -- I endeavoured (whilst there appeared a Possibility of restraining it) to prevent the practice, but it is out of my power to do it, from Fences to Forrest Trees, and from Forrest Trees to fruit Trees, is a Natural advance to houses, which must next follow; this is not all, the distress of the Soldiers in the Article of Wood will I fear have an unhappy influence upon their enlisting again.


    Page 61

        In short Sir, if I did not apprehend every evil that can result from the want of these two Capital Articles, wood especially I should not be so importunate. my anxiety on this head must plead my excuse; at the same time I assure you that with great respect and esteem, etc.

    *To JOSEPH TRUMBULL Camp at Cambridge, November 2, 1775.

        Dr. Sir: The news of your recovery has given your friends a great deal of Joy. We had little hopes of seeing you again from some late Accts of your health. I have given Captn. Wadsworth a draft on the Treasury for 120,000 Dollars agreeable to your request, although the State of our Cash is by no means able to bear such a pull upon it. besides this, Mr Avery 71 on the 20th. Instr. got a Warrt. for 20, [ M ] Dollars and is now applying for Ten thousand more. So soon as you can travel with safety (and not before) I should be glad to see you at this Camp and am with sincere regard etc.

    [Note:Elisha Avery, deputy commissary general, Northern Department. ]

        [C.S.L.]

    To GOVERNOR JONATHAN TRUMBULL Camp at Cambridge, November 2, 1775.

        Sir: I have been honored with your favor of the 30th Ulto. by Mr. Trumbull 72 I sincerely wish this Camp could furnish a good Engineer. The Commissary General 73 can inform you, how exceedingly Deficient the Army is of Gentlemen skill'd in that branch of Business, and that most of the Works which have been thrown up for the Defence of our Several Incampments, have been planned by a few of the Principal officers of this Army, assisted by Mr. Knox 74 a Gentleman of Worcester.

    [Note:Probably Jonathan Trumbull, jr. ]
    [Note:Col. Joseph Trumbull. ]
    [Note:Brig. Gen. Henry Knox. ]

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    could I afford you the desired Assistance, in this way, I should do it with Pleasure.

        Herewith you will receive a Copy of the proceedings held with the Committe of Congress from Philadelphia, it ought to have been sent sooner; but I am at present without a Secretary. Colo Reed having a call at home, left this on Sunday last. I heartily Congratulate you on the recovery of the Commissary General, whose Return so soon as he can travel with Safety, is much wished for. I am etc.

    To GOVERNOR NICHOLAS COOKE Camp at Cambridge, November 2, 1775.

        Sir: I have your favor of the 20th Ulto. before me. Immediately upon receipt of it, I communicated the contents to the Dy Commissary (Mr Trumbull being Sick in Connecticut) as a business appertaining to his Department; but as Dep'y he wishes for the Direction of his Principal, to whom I could wish you to write, as he is at Lebanon and not expected back under three weeks. -- his intention I know, was to make both Beef and Pork bring itself to this Place; but as that cannot be in the case you mention, there is no doubt of his readiness to take the Beef, if delivered here in Barrels at the Price other Beef in Barrels stand him in here. -- perhaps (for an Encouragement) more, to get it out of the reach of the Enemy.

        I thank you for your order in favor of Mr. Bowen, 75 who I am informed after some trouble, got the Cannon wanted, somewhat more convenient. Herewith you will receive a Copy of the Proceedings of the Conference held at this Place with the Committee of Congress. Nothing new since my last. With much esteem etc.

    [Note:Ephraim Bowen, captain and agent for fitting out armed vessels at Plymouth, Mass. He was, later, a deputy quartermaster general. ]

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    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, November 3, 1775.

        Parole, Huntington. Countersign Ipswich.

        William Briant, Alexander Ingham, Francis Woobourn and Joseph Rockwood, tried at a late General Court martial, for "stealing Rum out of the Commissary General's Stores" The Court are of opinion that the prisoners Briant, Ingham and Woobourn are not guilty; but that the prisoner Rockwood alone is guilty of the Crime laid to his charge, and do therefore sentence him to receive Ten Lashes upon his bare back, at the head of the regiment to which he belongs -- The General approves the sentence and orders it to be executed, as soon as the weather will permit

    *To JOSIAH QUINCY 76 Cambridge, November 4, 1775.

    [Note:Josiah Quincy, of Braintree, Mass. He had suggested to Washington a plan for blocking Boston Harbor, and taking the whole British army and fleet. Being acquainted with tile islands in the harbor and the ship channels, he conceived it practicable to construct such works at suitable points as would prevent the egress of the shipping. He communicated his scheme to Doctor Franklin, who paid him a visit while attending the committee of conference at camp, and by whose advice he wrote at large on the subject to Washington. His letter, dated Oct. 31, 1775, is in the Washington Papers. ]

        Sir: Your favour of the 31st Ultimo was presented to me yesterday. I thank you (as I shall do every Gentleman) for suggesting any Measure which you conceive to be conducive to the publick Service; but in the adoption of a Plan, many things are to be considered to decide upon the utility of it. In the one proposed by you, I shall not undertake to determine, whether it be good, or whether it be bad; but thus much I can say, that if there is any spot upon the Main which has an equal Command of the Ship Channel to Boston harbour (and give me leave to add that Point Alderton is not without its advocates) in all


    Page 64

    other respects it must have infinitely the preference; because the expence of so many Batteries as you propose, with the necessary defences to secure the Channel, the Communication, and a retreat in the Dernier resort from the East end of Long Island, are Capitol objections; not I confess of such importance as to weigh against the object in view, if the scheme is practicable: But what Signifies Long Island, Point Alderton, Dorchester, &ca. whilst we are, in a manner, destitute of Cannon; and compelled to keep what little Powder we have, for the use of the Musquetry; the knowledge of this Fact is an unanswerable argument against every place and may serve to acct. for my not having viewed the several Spots which have been so advantageously spoken of. I am not without Intentions of making them a visit and shall assuredly do myself the honour of calling upon you. In the mean while, permit me to thank you most cordially for your polite Invitation, and to assure you, that I am, Sir,

        [MS.H.S.]

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, November 5, 1775.

        Parole Montgomery. Countersign Chamblee.

        Samuel Huntington, and John Englis, soldiers in the 34th Regt. of foot, tried at a late General Court Martial for " Mutiny " -- The Court upon mature consideration, are of opinion that the Evidence against the prisoners, is not sufficient to convict them of Mutiny, but they are each of them guilty of assisting and encouraging Mutiny, therefore adjudge that each of them pay a fine of fifteen Shillings, and suffer each of them fifteen days fatigue.

        The General approves the Sentence and orders it to be put in execution.


    Page 65

        As the Commander in Chief has been apprized of a design form'd for the observance of that ridiculous and childish custom of burning the Effigy of the pope -- He cannot help expressing his surprise that there should be Officers and Soldiers in this army so void of common sense, as not to see the impropriety of such a step at this Juncture; at a Time when we are solliciting, and have really obtain'd, the friendship and alliance of the people of Canada, whom we ought to consider as Brethren embarked in the same Cause. The defence of the general Liberty of America: At such a juncture, and in such Circumstances, to be insulting their Religion, is so monstrous, as not to be suffered or excused; indeed instead of offering the most remote insult, it is our duty to address public thanks to these our Brethren, as to them we are so much indebted for every late happy Success over the common Enemy in Canada.

    To MAJOR GENERAL PHILIP SCHUYLER Cambridge, November 5, 1775.

        Dear Sir: Your Favor of the 26th Ulto. with the Inclosures, containing an Acct. of the Surrender of Fort Chamblee was an excellent Repast, but somewhat incomplete for Want of Montgomery's Letter, which (a Copy) you omitted to inclose. On the Success of your Enterprize so far, I congratulate you, as the Acquisition of Canada is of unmeasureable Importance to the Cause we are engaged in. No Acct. of Arnold since my last. I am exceeding anxious to hear from him; but flatter myself that all goes well with him, as he was expressly ordered in Case of any discouraging Event to advertize me of it immediately. 77 I much approve your Conduct in Regard to Wooster.

    [Note:The situation of affairs in Canada at this time may be understood by the following extract from a letter, dated at Montreal, October 19, and written by Brook Watson, an eminent merchant of that city, to Governor Franklin, of New Jersey. The letter was intercepted by General Montgomery and forwarded by him to General Schuyler:

       "Such is the wretched state of this unhappy province," says the writer, "that Colonel Allen, with a few despicable wretches, would have taken this city on the 25th ultimo, had not its inhabitants marched out to give them battle. They fought, conquered, and thereby saved the province for a while. Allen and his banditti were mostly taken prisoners. He is now in chains on board the Gaspee. This little action has changed the face of things. The Canadians before were nine tenths for the Bostonians. They are now returned to their duty; many in arms for the King and the parishes, who had been otherwise, and daily demanding their pardon and taking arms for the crown." This Mr. Watson went over to England in the same vessel in which Allen and his associates were transported as prisoners and in irons. Allen's wrists and ankles were heavily manacled. In his narrative he speaks of having received much ill treatment from Watson during the voyage. Watson was afterwards Lord Mayor of London. -- Sparks. ]


    Page 66

    My Fears are at an End, as he acts in a subordinate Character. Intimate this to General Montgomery, with my Congratulations on his Success, the seasonable Supply of Powder, and wishes that his next Letter may be dated from Montreal. We laugh at his Idea of classing the royal Fuzileers with the Stores. Does he consider them as Inanimates, or as a Treasure? If you carry your Arms to Montreal, should not the Garrisons of Niagara, Detroit &c. be called upon to surrender, or threaten'd with the Consequences of a Refusal? They may indeed destroy their Stores, and if the Indians are aiding, escape to Fort Chartres; but it is not very probable.

        The inclosed Gazette exhibits sundry Specimens of the Skill of the new Commander in issuing Proclamations, and a Proof in the Destruction of Falmouth, of the barbarous Designs of an infernal Ministry. Nothing new hath happened in this Camp. Finding the ministerial Troops resolved to keep themselves close within their Lines, and that it was adjudged impracticable to get at them, I have fitted out six armed Vessels, with Design to pick up some of their Store Ships and Transports. The Rest of our Men are busily employed in erecting of Barracks &c I hope, as you have said nothing of the State of your Health, that it is much amended, and that the cold Weather will restore it perfectly. That it may do so, and you enjoy the


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    Fruit of your Summers Labour and Fatigue, is the sincere wish of, Dear Sir, etc. Generals Lee and Mifflin are well: Colonel Reed gone to Philadelphia.

    *To BRIGADIER GENERAL JOHN SULLIVAN Cambridge, November 5, 1775.

        Sir: At a time when some of our Seaport Towns are cruelly and Wantonly laid in Ashes; and ruin and Devastation denounced against others: when the Arms are demanded of the Inhabitants, and Hostages required (in effect) to surrender their Liberties. When General Howe by Proclamation, under the threat of Military Execution, has forbid the Inhabitants of Boston to leave the Town without his permission, first had and obtaind in Writing. When by another proclamation he strictly forbids any person's bringing out of that place more than Five pounds Sterlg. of their property in Specie, because truely the Ministerial Army under his Command may be injured by it; and when by a third Proclamation, (after leaving the Inhabitants no alternative) he calls upon them to take Arms, under Officers of his appointing; 'tis evident, that the most Tyrannical, and cruel system is adopted for the destruction of the rights, and liberties of this Continent, that ever disgraced the most despotick Ministry, and ought to be opposed by every Means in our Power.

        I therefore desire, that you will delay no time in causing the Seizure of every Officer of Government at Portsmouth who have given pregnant proofs of their unfriendly disposition to the Cause we are Ingaged In; and when you have secured them, take the opinion of the Provencial Congress, or Committee of Safety, in what Manner to dispose of them in that Government. I do not mean that they should be kept in close


    Page 68

    confinemt. If either of these bodies should incline to send them to any of the Interior Towns upon their Parole not to leave them 'till released, it will meet with my concurrence.

        For the present, I shall avoid giving you the like order in respect to the Tories in Portsmouth; but the day is not far of when they will meet with this, or a worse fate if there is not considerable reformation in their Conduct, of this may be assured Sir, Yr. etc. 78

    [Note:The same letter, with the necessary change to meet the geographical location, and minus the last paragraph, was dated November 12 and sent to Governor Trumbull, Governor Cooke, and William Palfrey, at Portsmouth, N.H. ]

        [N.H.H.S.]

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, November 6, 1775.

        Parole Arnold. Countersign Quebec.

        Robert Hanson Harrison Esqr 79 is appointed Aid-de-Camp to his Excellency the Commander in Chief, and all orders, whether written or verbal, coming from the General, through Mr. Harrison are to be punctually obeyed.

    [Note:Harrison was from Alexandria, Va. He succeeded Joseph Reed as secretary in May, 1776, and served into the year 1781. He was probably closer to Washington and as much in the Commander in Chief's confidence as any other aide. ]

        Although the men confined by Lieut. Col Reed of the 26th. Regt. were released upon Application to Head Quarters -- The General, so far from being displeased with Col. Reed, for his endeavours to prevent an infringement of the General Orders, that he thanks the Colonel; as he shall every Officer, who pays strict Obedience to orders, as without so doing, it is in vain to think of preserving order, and discipline, in an army -- The disagreeableness of the weather, scarcity of wood, &c. inclined the General to overlook the Offence committed at that time, but he hopes, and expects, the Officers and Soldiers, will for


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    the future, carefully avoid wantonly cutting the Trees, and committing waste upon the property of those, already but too much distressed by the depredations of the army.

    To THE COMMITTEE OF FALMOUTH Cambridge, November 6, 1775.

        Sir: I received your favor of the 2d Inst., and am very sorry it is not in my power to Supply the necessities of the Town of Falmouth; I have referr'd the Gentleman who brought me your Letter, to the General Court of this Province, who I hope will fall upon some method for your Assistance, the arrival of the Cerberus Man of War is very alarming; I do not apprehend they will attempt to penetrate into the Country, as you seem to be afraid of; if they should Attempt to Land any of their Men, I would have the good People of the Country, by all means to make every possible opposition in their Power, for it will be much easier to prevent their making a Lodgment, than to force them from it, when they have got Possession.

        I write by this Conveyance to Col. Phinney, who will give you every advice and Assistance in his Power. I Sincerely sympathize with the People in the distress they are drove to, but it is in such times, that they should exert themselves in the Noble Cause of Liberty and their Country. I am, Sir, &c.

    To COLONEL EDMOND PHINNEY 80 Cambridge, November 6, 1775.

    [Note:Phinney was colonel of a Massachusetts regiment, and, later, of the Eighteenth Continental Infantry. ]

        Sir: Having received a Letter from Mr Enoch Moody, Chairman of the Committee of Falmouth, that the Inhabitants of


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    that Town are greatly alarmed by the Arrival of the Cerberus Man of War, and are under great Apprehension that some of the King's Troops will be landed there. It is my Desire that you raise all the Force you can, and give the Town every Assistance in your Power. The Difficulty of removing Troops after they have made a Lodgment or got Possession of a Place, is too obvious to be mentioned. You will, therefore, use every possible Method to prevent their effecting that, or penetrating into the Country, until you have farther Orders. I am, Sir, etc.

    *INSTRUCTIONS TO
    BRIGADIER GENERAL JOHN SULLIVAN Head Quarters, November 7, 1775.

        You are to proceed immediately to Portsmouth in New Hampshire, 81 and complete the Works already began, to secure that and the other Towns at the Entrance of Piscataway River, from any Attacks by Ships of War. For this Purpose, you are to fix Ships and Fire Rafts in such Places as you find most convenient to prevent the Enemy from passing up the River. As great Calamities and Distress are brought upon our Sea Port Towns, through the malicious Endeavours and false Representations of many Persons, holding Commissions under the Crown, who, not content with bringing Destruction upon some of our principal Towns, are yet using every Art that Malice can devise to reduce others to the same unhappy State; in Hopes, by such diabolical and cruel Conduct to please an arbitrary and tyrannical Ministry, and to receive from them in Return, a Continuance of such Places and Pensions as they now hold at the Expence of the Blood and Treasure of this distressed Continent.

    [Note:General Sullivan was already at Portsmouth. ]

        You are, therefore, immediately upon your arrival in that Province, to seize such Persons as hold Commissions under the


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    Crown and are acting as open and avow'd Enemies to their Country, and hold them as Hostages for the Security of those Towns, which our ministerial Enemies threaten to invade. In Case any Attack should be made upon Portsmouth, or other Sea Ports in that Quarter, you are immediately to collect such Force as can be raised, to repel the Invasion; and at all Hazards prevent the Enemy from landing and taking Possession of any Posts in that Quarter. When you have compleated the Works at Portsmouth, and secured the Passage of the River there, you are to return without Delay to the Army, unless you find the Enemy are about to make an immediate Attack upon that or the neighbouring Towns; [the above is rather to be considerd as matters of advice than orders; as I do not conceive myself authorizd to Involve the Continent in any Expence for the defence of Portsmouth, or other place out of the Line of the great American defence; particular Colonies being called upon by the Congress to prepare for their own Internal Security. Given under my Hand etc.] 82

    [Note:The words in brackets are in Washington's writing. ]

    *To THE PRESIDENT OF CONGRESS Cambridge, November 8, 1775.

        Sir: The immediate occasion of my giving Congress the trouble of a Letter at this time, is to inform them, that in consequence of their order signified in your Letter of the 20 Ulto., I laid myself under a solemn tye of secrecy to Captn. McPherson, 83 and proceeded to examine his Plan for the destruction

    [Note:Capt. John Macpherson submitted his plan to Congress on October 16, and on October 19 it was forwarded to Washington. Like Josiah Quincy's scheme, it was impracticable under the then circumstances, and along with other suggestions resulted only in disappointment to the originators, which probably had some effect in preparing certain minds in Congress for receptivity of criticism of the Commander in Chief. (See Washington's letter to Josiah Quincy, Nov. 4, 1775, ante. ) ]

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    of the Fleet in the Harbour of Boston, with all that care and attention which the Importance of it deserved, and my Judgement could lead to: but not being happy enough to coincide in Opinion with that Gentleman, and finding that his Scheme would Involve greater expence, than (under my Doubts of its success), I thought myself justified in giving into, I prevaild upon him to communicate his plan to three Gentlemen of the Artillery (in this Army) well acquainted in the knowledge, and practice of gunnery; by them he has been convinced, that in as much as he set out upon wrong principles, the Scheme would prove abortive. unwilling however to relinquish his favourite project of reducing the Naval force of Great Britain, he is very desirous of building a number of Row-Gallies for this purpose; but as the Congress alone are competent to the adoption of this measure, I have advised him (altho' he offered to go on with the building of them at his own expence 'till the Congress should decide) to repair immediately to Philadelphia with his proposals; where, if they should be agreed to, or Vessels of Superior force, agreeable to the Wishes of most others, should be resolved on, he might set instantly about them, with all the materials upon the Spot; here they are to collect; to him therefore I refer for further information on this Head.

        A Vessel said to be from Philadelphia, and bound to Boston with 120 Pipes of Wine (118 of which are securd) stranded at a place calld Eastham, in a Gale of Wind on the 2d. Inst; another from Boston Hallifax with dry Goods &ca. (amounting pr. Invoice to about 240£ lawful) got disabled in the same Gale, near Beverly. These Cargoe's, with the Papers, I have orderd to this place, the Vessells to be taken care of 'till further Orders. I have also an Acct. of the taking of a Wood Sloop bound to Boston, and carried into Portsmouth, by one of our


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    Armed Vessels; particulars not yet come to hand, and this Instant of two others from Nova Scotia to Boston, with Hay, Wood, live Stock &ca. by another of our Armd Schooners, these are in Plymouth.

        These Accidents and Captures point out the necessity of establishing proper Courts without loss of time for the decision of Property and the legallity of Seizures: otherwise I may be Involved in inextricable difficulties.

        Our Prisoners, by the reduction of Fort Chamblee (on which happy Event, I most sincerely congratulate the Congress) being considerably Augmented and likely to be Increased, I submit it to the Wisdom of Congress, whether some convenient Inland Towns, remote from the Post Roads, ought not to be Assign'd them; the manner of their treatment, Subsistence &c defind, and a Commissary, or Agent appointed to see that Justice is one both to them and the Publick, proper Accts. render'd &ca; without a mode of this sort is adopted, I fear there will be sad confusion hereafter, as there are great Complaints at present. 84

    [Note:On November 25 Congress decided to recommend to the various Colonies the establishment of courts, or enlarging the powers of those already in existence, to take care of these sea captures. There is no mention in the Journals of the Continental Congress of a decision regarding the prisoners until November 17, when Reading, Lancaster, and York, in Pennsylvania, were designated as places to which to send prisoners taken in Canada. ]

        I reckon'd without my Host, when I informd the Congress in my last, that I should in a day or two, be able to acquaint them of the disposition of the Soldiery towards a new Inlistment. I have been in consultation with the Generals of this Army, ever since thursday last, endeavouring to establish New Corps of Officers, but find so many doubts and difficulties to reconcile, I cannot say when they are to end, or what may be the consequences, as 'there appears to be such an unwillingness in the Officers of one Government mixing in the same


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    Regiment with those of another; and without it, many must be dismissed, who are willing to serve, notwithstanding we are deficient in the whole. I am to have another meeting to day, upon this business and shall inform you of the Result.

        The Council of Officers are unanimously of opinion, That the Command of the Artillery should no longer continue in Col: Gridley, 85 and knowing of no person better qualified to supply his place, or whose Appointment will give more general satisfaction, have taken the liberty of recommending Henry Knox, Esqr to the consideration of the Congress. Thinking it indespensably necessary, at the same time, that this Regiment shoud consist of two Lieutt. Colos, two Majors, and twelve companies, agreeable to the Plan and estimate handed in, which differing from the last establishment, I should be glad to be Instructed on.

    [Note:Col. Richard Gridley had been appointed by the Provincial Congress of Massachusetts (April 26), chief engineer in the army then beginning to be organized, with a salary of £170 a year while in service; and after the army should be disbanded, he was to receive annually £ 123 for life. (See Manuscript Journals of Provincial Congress. ) The same provision of a life annuity was extended to the assistant engineer. On September 20 Colonel Gridley was commissioned to take command of the artillery of the Continental Army but was superseded by Colonel Knox in November. His advanced age was assigned by Congress as a reason for superseding him. At the Battle of Bunker Hill he fought with conspicuous bravery in the entrenchments, which he had planned under Prescott, and in which he was wounded. Colonel Gridley was a soldier of long experience, having served in the two last wars, and been present at the taking' of Louisburg, and in Wolfe's battle on the Plains of Abraham. (See Swett's Sketch of the Bunker Hill Battle, pp. 11, 44, 54.) Before the Revolution he received half pay as a British officer. When Colonel Knox was appointed to his place in the artillery (November 17) Congress voted to indemnify him for any loss of half pay which he might sustain in consequence of having been in the service of the United Colonies. -- Sparks. ]

        The Comy. Genl. not being returnd, will appologize I hope for my silence respecting a requisition of the Expence of his Clerks &ca. which I was to have Obtaind, together with others and forward.

        I have heard nothing of Colo. Arnold since the 13th Ulto. His Letter of and journal to that date, will convey all the Information I am able to give of him. I think he must be in Quebec.


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    If any mischance had happened to him, he would, as directed, have forwarded an Express.

        No Acct. yet of the Armd Vessels sent to St. Lawrence. I think they will meet with the Stores Inward or outward bound.

        Captn. Symons in the Cerberus lately sent from Boston to Falmouth, hath publish'd the Inclose'd Declaration 86 at that place, and it is suspected intends to make some kind of a lodgement there. I wrote immediately to a Colo. Finnie (of this Army) who went up there upon the last Alarm, to Spirit up the People, and oppose it at all Events. Falmouth is abt. 130 Miles from this Camp. I have the Honor etc.

    [Note:"Captain John Symons, commander of his Majesty's ship Cerberus, causeth it to be signified and made known to all persons whatever, in the town of Falmouth as well as the country adjacent; that, if after this public notice, any violences shall be offered to any officers of the crown, or other peaceably disposed subjects of his Majesty; or, if any bodies of men shall be raised and armed in the said town and country adjacent; or any military works erected, otherwise than by order of his Majesty, or those acting under his authority; or if any attempts shall be made to seize or destroy any public magazines of arms; ammunition, or other stores, it will be indispensably my duty to proceed with the most vigorous efforts against the said town, as in open rebellion against the King; and if after this signification the town shall persist in the rebellious acts above mentioned, they may depend on my proceeding accordingly." A copy of this declaration is in the Papers of the Continental Congress. ]

        P.S. I send a Genl. return of the Troops and manifest of the Cargo's and Vessels taken at Plymouth.

    To RICHARD HENRY LEE Cambridge, November 8, 1775.

        Dear Sir: I mean but to acknowledge the receipt of your obliging favour of the 22d ultimo; for, as I expect this letter will be handed to you in Philadelphia, to recite the contents of my letter to the Congress would be little more than idle repetition. I should be very glad if the Congress would, without delay, appoint some mode by which an examination into the captures made by our armed vessels may be had, as we are rather groping in the dark till this happens.


    Page 76

        I sincerely condole with you on the loss of our good old Speaker 87 and, with respectful compliments to the good family you are in, your brother, &c., I remain, etc.

    [Note:Peyton Randolph. ]

        P.S. Tell Doctor W. Shippen 88 that I was in hopes that his business would have permitted him to come here Director of the Hospital. Advices from England would be very agreeable; we have none here.

    [Note:Dr. William Shippen, jr., of Pennsylvania. He became chief physician of the Flying Camp July 15, 1776, and director general of the Continental Hospital Apr. 11, 1777. ]

    To JOSEPH REED Cambridge, November 8, 1775.

        Dear Sir: The shipwreck of a vessel, said to be from Philadelphia to Boston, near Plymouth, with one hundred and twenty pipes of wine, one hundred and eighteen of which are saved; another, from Boston to Halifax, near Beverly, with about two hundred and forty pounds' worth of dry goods; the taking of a wood-vessel bound to Boston by Captain Adams; and the sudden departure of Mr. Randolph, (occasioned by the death of his uncle,) are all the occurrences worth noticing, which have happened since you left this.

        I have ordered the wine and goods to this place for sale; as also the papers. The latter may unfold secrets, that may not be pleasing to some of your townsmen, and which, so soon as known, will be communicated.

        I have been happy enough to convince Captain Macpherson, as he says, of the propriety of returning to the Congress. He sets out this day, and I am happy in his having an opportunity of laying before them a scheme for the destruction of the naval force of Great Britain. A letter and journal of Colonel Arnold's, to the 13th ultimo, are come to hand, a copy of which I enclose


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    to the Congress, and by application to Mr. Thomson you can see. I think he is in Quebec. If I hear nothing more of him in five days, I shall be sure of it.

        I had like to have forgotten what sits heaviest upon my mind, the new arrangement of officers. Although we have not enough to constitute the new corps, it hath employed the general officers and myself ever since Thursday last, and we are nearly as we begun.

        Connecticut wants no Massachusetts man in their corps; Massachusetts thinks there is no necessity [for a Rhode-Islander] to be introduced amongst them; and New Hampshire says, it's very hard, that her valuable and experienced officers (who are willing to serve) should be discarded, because her own regiments, under the new establishment, cannot provide for them. In short, after a four days' labor, I expect that numbers of officers, who have given in their names to serve, must be discarded from Massachusetts, (where the regiments have been numerous, and the number in them small) and Connecticut, completed with a fresh recruit of officers from its own government. This will be departing, not only from the principles of common justice, but from the letter of the resolve agreed on at this place; but, at present, I see no help for it. We are to have another meeting upon the matter this day, when something must be hit upon, as time is slipping off. My compliments to Mrs. Reed and to all inquiring friends. I am, with sincerity and truth, dear Sir, your affectionate humble servant.

        P.S. I had just finished my letter when a blundering Lieutenant of the blundering Captain Colt, who had just blundered upon two vessels from Nova Scotia, came in with the account of it, and before I could rescue my letter, without knowing what he did, picked up a candle and sprinkled it with grease; but these are kind of blunders which one can readily excuse.


    Page 78

    The vessels contain hay, live-stock, poultry, &c., and are now safely moored in Plymouth harbour. 89

    [Note:The text is from Ford, who interpolates the phrase in brackets in the text printed in Reed's Life and Correspondence of Joseph Reed ; Sparks prints this letter without the P.S. No draft or copy has been found in the Washington Papers. ]

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, November 9, 1775.

        Parole Andover. Countersign Bedford.

        To prevent any false Alarm, Notice is hereby given, that the Riffle Battalion will discharge their Arms to morrow, at twelve at noon.

    To THE MASSACHUSETTS LEGISLATURE Cambridge, November 9, 1775.

        Sir: A Mr. Lewis, who left Boston yesterday afternoon, Informs me, that on Account of the Scarcity of Wood and Provisions in that Place, General Howe has Issued a Proclamation, desiring such of the Inhabitants as are Inclined to leave the Town to give in their Names and a list of their effects before 12 OClock this day.

        As the Caution necessary to be used with these People, to prevent a Communication of the Small Pox and the proper care of them when out, are objects of exceeding great importance; I submit them to the consideration of your honble. Body, before it's recess, and if the Honble. Council should likewise adjourn, I must also recommend to your Attention the Necessity there is of constituting some Court, before whom all Persons inimical or Suspected to be Inimical to America, should be brought for examination. my time is so much taken up with Military affairs that it is impossible for me to pay a proper attention to these


    Page 79

    matters. -- There will be sent to you amongst others a James Smithwiche, who from an intercepted Letter, appears to have resolved to get into Boston, there is a small Trunk belonging to him, now in my possession, which Contains in Gold and Silver about 500£ Lawful Money, which it is probable he intended to carry in with him. The owner and Capt. of a Small Coaster put into Beverly in distress, bound from Boston to Nova Scotia will appear before you; they have carried on a Trade of supplying Boston with Provisions &c for some time. I beg leave to refer them to your examination, and have the Honor to be Sir, etc.

        P.S. Smithwiche's Trunk will be sent to you with him.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, November 10, 1775.

        Parole Cumberland. Countersign Durham.

        The General thanks Col. Thompson, and the other gallant Officers and Soldiers (as well of other Regiments as the Riffles) for their alacrity yesterday, in pushing thro' the water, to get to the Enemy on Letchmore's point; 90 he is inform'd that there were some (names as yet unknown) who discover'd a backwardness in crossing the Causway -- these will be marked, if they can be discovered -- The General was much surprised and concerned, to see the order in which many of the Arms in several of the regiments appeared; he had not time to enquire the Names of the particular Officers to whose Companies they belonged, but desires that this hint may be received, as an Admonition, by such Officers as are conscious of their Neglect of this duty; as other methods will be fallen upon, if it is not …

    [Note:See Washington's letter to Congress, Nov. 11, 1775, post. ]

    Page 80

    To COLONEL WILLIAM WOODFORD 91 Cambridge, November 10, 1775.

    [Note:Woodford became colonel of the Second Virginia Regiment in 1776 and brigadier general the following year. He was wounded at Brandywine, Pa., taken prisoner at Charleston, S.C., in 1780, and died in captivity that same year. ]

        Dear Sir: Your favor of the 18th of September came to my hands on Wednesday last, through Boston, and open, as you may suppose. It might be well to recollect by whom you sent it, in order to discover if there has not been some treachery practised. 92

    [Note:On November 10 it was resolved by Congress "That all letters to and from the commander in chief in the continental army, or the chief commander in the army in the northern department, pass and be carried free of postage." ]

        I do not mean to flatter, when I assure you, that I highly approve of your appointment. The inexperience you complain of is a common case, and only to be remedied by practice and close attention. The best general advice I can give, and which I am sure you stand in no need of, is to be strict in your discipline; that is, to/require nothing unreasonable of your officers and men, but see that whatever is required be punctually complied with. Reward and punish every man according to his merit, without partiality or prejudice; hear his complaints; if well founded, redress them; if otherwise, discourage them, in order to prevent frivolous ones. Discourage vice in every shape, and impress upon the mind of every man, from the first to the lowest, the importance of the cause, and what it is they are contending for. For ever keep in view the necessity of guarding against surprises. In all your marches, at times, at least, even when there is no possible danger, move with front, rear, and flank guards, that they may be familiarized to the use; and be regular in your encampments, appointing necessary guards for the security of your camp. In short, whether you expect an enemy or not, this should be practised; otherwise your attempts will be confused and awkward, when necessary: Be plain and precise in your orders, and keep copies of them to refer to, that


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    no mistakes may happen. Be easy and condescending in your deportment to your officers, but not too familiar, \lest you subject yourself to a want of that respect, which is necessary to support a proper command. These, Sir, not because I think you need the advice, but because you have been condescending enough to ask it, I have presumed to give as the great outlines of your conduct.

        As to the manual exercise, the evolutions and manoeuvres of a regiment, with other knowledge necessary to a soldier, you will acquire them from those authors, who have treated upon these subjects, among whom Bland (the newest edition) stands foremost; also an Essay on the Art of War; Instructions for Officers, lately published at Philadelphia; the Partisan; Young; and others.

        My compliments to Mrs. Woodford; and that every success may attend you, in this glorious struggle, is the sincere and ardent wish of, dear Sir, your affectionate humble servant. 93

    [Note:The text is from Sparks, but no copy of this letter is found in the Washington Papers. ]

    To THE PRESIDENT OF CONGRESS Cambridge, November 11, 1775.

        Sir: I had the Honor to address my self to you the 8th. instant by Captain Macpherson, since which I have an Account of a Schooner laden chiefly with firewood, being brought into Marblehead, by the Armed Schooner Lee, Capt. Manly. 94

    [Note:Capt. John Manley. ]

        She had on board the Master, a Midshipman, two Marines and four Sailors from the Cerberus Man of War, who had made prize of this Schooner a few Days before and was sending her into Boston.

        Inclosed you have a copy of an Act passed this Session by the Honr. Council and House of Representatives this Province. 95

    [Note:Sparks states that this act was the first passed by any of the Colonies for fitting out letters of marque and reprisal and for establishing a court to try and condemn prizes. He refers to Austin's Life of Elbridge Gerry (vol. 1, pp. 92, 505), also to the Acts and Resolves of Massachusetts (vol. 5, PP. 436, 515). ]

    Page 82

    It respects such captures as may be made by vessels fitted out by the Province or by Individuals thereof. As the Armed Vessels fitted at the Continental expence, do not come under this Law, I would have it submitted to the consideration of Congress, to point out a more summary way of proceeding, to determine the property and mode of condemnation of such prizes as have been or hereafter may be made, than is specified in this Act. Should not a Court be established by Authority of Congress, to take cognizance of the Prizes made by the Continental Vessels? Whatever the mode is which they are pleased to adopt, there is an absolute necessity of its being speedily determined on, for I cannot spare Time from Military Affairs, to give proper attention to these matters. The Inhabitants of Plymouth have taken a Sloop laden with Provision &ca. from Hallifax bound to Boston, and the Inhabitants of Beverly have under cover of one of the Armed Schooners taken a Vessel from Ireland laden with Beef, Pork, Butter &ca for the same place. The latter brings Papers and Letters of a very Interesting nature, which are into the Hands of the Honr. Council who informed me, they will transmit them to you by this Conveyance, to the Contents of these Papers and Letters I must beg leave to refer you and the Honr. Congress, who will now see the absolute necessity there is, of exerting all their Wisdom to withstand the mighty efforts of our Enemies. The trouble in the Arrangement of the Army, is really Inconceivable, many of the Officers sent in their names to serve in expectation of Promotion, others stood aloof to see what advantage they could make for themselves, whilst a number who had declined, have again sent in their names to serve, so great has the confusion arising from these and many other perplexing circumstances been, that I found it impossible to fix this very interesting Business exactly on the Plan resolved on in Conference, tho I have kept up to the Spirit, as near as the nature
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    and the necessity of the case would admit of. The Difficulty with the Soldiers is as great, indeed more so if possible, than with the Officers. They will not inlist until they know their Colonel, Lt. Colonel, Major, Captain &ca, so that it was necessary to fix the Officers the first thing, which at last is in some manner done, and I have given out inlisting Orders; You Sir, can easier judge than I can express the anxiety of mind, I labour under on this Occasion, especially at this time when we may expect the Enemy will begin to Act, on the arrival of their Reinforcement, part of which is already come and the remainder daily dropping in. 96 I have other distresses of a very alarming nature,
    [Note:Ford prints the following notes at this point:

       "These N. England men are a strange composition. Their commonalty is undoubtedly good, but they are so defective in materials for officers that it must require time to make a real good army out of 'em. Enclosed I send you the address of the generals to the soldiers. You must know that some officers who are discarded from the service are suspected of exerting themselves to dissuade the soldiers from reenlisting. To counteract their machinations was the design of this paper." -- Charles Lee to Robert Morris, Nov. 22, 1775.

       "We were some time apprehensive of losing every thing from the backwardness of the men in enlisting. It is supposed that the discarded officers labored to render the soldiers disaffected; but the men really have public spirits and recruiting goes on most swimmingly." -- Charles Lee to Robert Morris, Dec. 9, 1775.

       "The zeal and alacrity of the militia who were summon'd on the supposition that our lines would be degarnished, prognosticate well, and do much honor to these Provinces. There is certainly much public spirit in the bulk of the people and I think they merit public eulogium. The N. England delegates I am told have lately received so many rubs that they want a cordial. I beg therefore that you will administer one to those who are of your acquaintance in my name. I never saw a finer body than this militia." -- Charles Lee to Benjamin Rush, Dec. 12, 1775.

       "The task [of disbanding army and forming new] was rendered very difficult by the reduction of eleven regiments and the discharge of such a number of officers who have done every thing to obstruct and retard the filling of the new army in hopes to ruin the establishment and bring themselves into place again." -- General Greene to Governor Ward.

       "By letters from camp I find there is infinite difficulty in reinlisting the army. The idea of making it wholly Continental has induced so many alterations disgusting to both officers and men, that very little success has attended our recruiting orders. I have often told the Congress, that, under the idea of new modelling, I was afraid we should destroy our army. Southern gentlemen wish to remove that attachment, which the officers and men have to their respective colonies, and make them look up to the continent at large for their support or promotion. I never thought that attachment injurious to the common cause, but the strongest inducement to people to risk every thing in defence of the whole, upon the preservation of which must depend the safety of each colony. I wish, therefore, not to eradicate, but to regulate it in such a manner, as may most conduce to the protection of the whole." -- Governor Ward to his brother, Nov. 21, 1775. ]


    Page 84

    the Arms of our Soldiery are so exceeding bad, that I assure you Sir, I cannot place a proper confidence in them. Our Powder is wasting fast, notwithstanding the strictest care, oeconomy and attention is paid to it; the long season of wet weather, we have had, renders the greater part of what has been served out to the men of no use. Yesterday I had a proof of it, as a party of the Enemy, about four or five hundred taking the advantage of the High Tide, landed at Leechmore's point, which at that time was in effect an Island, we were alarmed, and of course ordered every man to examine his cartouch Box, when the Melancholy Truth appeared, and we were Obliged to furnish the greater part of them with fresh ammunition. The Damage done at the point was the taking of a Man, who watched a few Horses and Cows, Ten of the latter they carried of. Colonel Thompson marched down with his Regiment of Riflemen and was joined by Colonel Woodbridge with a part of his and a part of Patterson's regiment, who gallantly waded through the water and soon obliged the Enemy to embark under cover of a Man of War, a Floating Battery and the Fire of a Battery on Charles Town Neck. We have two of our Men dangerously Wounded by grape shot from the Man of War and by a Flag out this day we are informed the Enemy lost two of their Men. I have the Honor to be etc.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, November 12, 1775.

        Parole America. Countersign Freedom.

        Each Colonel upon the new establishment, to come to Head Quarters, to morrow morning ten OClock, in order to receive from the Adjutant General, as many printed Inlistments, as there are commission'd Officers in his Regiment -- They will


    Page 85

    therefore without delay distribute One to each Officer, who is forthwith to proceed to inlist men for their respective Regiments in the Continental Army -- The Soldiers as the printed Inlistments express to be engaged to serve untill the last day of December 1776

        In the General Orders of the 31st of October, it is declared, that every Non Commission'd Officer and Soldier, shall be paid by the Kalender month, as follows, to a Serjeant forty-eight Shillings, to the Corporals forty-four, and forty to each private; which pay it is expected, will be regularly distributed, every month -- Each Non Commissioned Officer, and Soldier, (Drums and Fifes excepted) is to furnish his own Arms; if Arms are found him, he is to allow Six Shillings, at the end of the Campaign for the use thereof. New cloathing will forthwith be provided, for every Non Commission'd Officer and Soldier, for which an easy stoppage, of only ten Shillings a Month, will be made out of his pay, until the whole is paid. Two Dollars will be allowed to each Non Commission'd Officer, and Soldier, who provides himself with a good Blanket, and Liberty to take it away at the end of the campaign; the present ample allowance of provisions will be continued, and those who inlist, will be indulged in a reasonable time, to visit their familys, in the Course of the winter, this to be regulated in such a manner, as not to weaken the army, or injure the service.

        To prevent such contentions as have arisen, from the same person being inlisted by different Officers, and for different Regiments, it is possitively ordered; upon pain of being cashiered, That no Officer knowingly presume to inlist any Soldier, who has been previously inlisted by another Officer, where such a mistake happens undesignedly, the first Inlistment is to take place -- The Officers are to be careful not to inlist any person, suspected of being unfriendly to the Liberties of America,


    Page 86

    or any abandon'd vagabond to whom all Causes and Countries are equal and alike indifferent -- The Rights of mankind and the freedom of America, will have Numbers sufficient to support them, without resorting to such wretched assistance -- Let those who wish to put Shackles upon Freemen fill their Ranks, and place their confidence in such miscreants.

        Neither Negroes, Boys unable to bare Arms, nor old men unfit to endure the fatigues of the campaign, are to be inlisted; The preferrences being given to the present Army, The Officers are vigilantly to try, what number of men can be inlisted, in the Course of this week, and make report thereof to their Colonels, who will report it to the General -- This to be done every week, until the whole are compleated. The Regiments are to consist of eight Companies, each Company of a Captain, two Lieutenants, and an Ensign, four Serjeants, four Corporals, two Drums and Fifes and Seventy-six Privates; As the Regiments are compleated, they will be mustered, and then reviewed by the Commander in Chief; when a Roll of each Company, sign'd by the Captain, according to a form previously deliver'd by the Adjutant General; is to be delivered to his Excellency. The Colonel of each Regiment will receive a List of the Officers upon the New establishment from his Brigadier General. The Commissioned, non Commissioned Officers and Soldiers of the present Army are, (notwithstanding their new engagement) to continue in the Regiment and Company they now belong to, until further orders. Upon any Soldier being inlisted, from the present, into the New Establishment, the Regiment he now belongs to, with his Name, Town and Country, are to be enter'd in a Roll kept for that purpose, by each Officer: A Copy of this Roll sign'd, to be sent every Saturday morning, to the Colonel of each regiment -- When the new Regiments are compleated, the Colonels may upon Application, receive their Continental Commissions for themselves, and their Officers.


    Page 87

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, November 13, 1775.

        Parole Granby. Countersign Barre.

        The Colonels upon the new Establishment to settle, as soon as possible, with the Qr Mr General, the Uniform of their respective regiments; that the buttons maybe properly number'd, and the work finished without delay.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, November 14, 1775.

        Parole St. Johns. Countersign Montgomery.

        This moment a confirmation is arrived of the glorious Success of the Continental Arms, in the Reduction, and Surrender, of the Fortress of St. Johns; the Garrisons of that place and Chamblee being made Prisoners of war. The Commander in Chief is confident, the Army under his immediate direction, will shew their Gratitude to providence, for thus favouring the Cause of Freedom and America; and by their thankfulness to God, their zeal and perseverance in this righteous Cause, continue to deserve his future blessings.

        That no kind of Confusion, or Disorder may arise, between the old and new Appointments, in case the despair and malice of the enemy, should call us into action; it is again declared, that the Men who inlist into the new Army are to continue in the Regiments and Companies they at present belong to until further orders.

        It is earnestly recommended to all the Officers of the old Regiments, to see that their mens arms, are always in good order, and the men not suffered to straggle from Camp, nor on any Account, to quit their post when upon duty, but be ready


    Page 88

    to turn out at a moments warning; and they may rely upon it, they will be suddenly called upon, whenever it happens.

        Very pointed Complaints having this day been made against the Commissary General, from several Field Officers &c, of Genl. Sullivan's brigade -- he Commander in Chief assures the complainants, that the strictest examination shall be made, into the Conduct of the Commissary General, as soon as he arrives in Cambridge, which is expected this week.

        Whereas the General has been informed that the orders of the 6th of Septembr, have been construed to permit any approv'd Sutler, to sell spiritous Liquors, to the Soldiers belonging to other Regiments, without the permission of the Commanding Officer of the Regiment, to which such Soldier belongs; It is therefore ordered, that no Commanding Officer of a Regiment, shall authorise more than one Sutler to a Regiment, and such appointment shall be notified in Regimental Orders, and no person being authorised, shall presume to sell spiritous Liquors to any Soldiers belonging to any other Regiment, without leave in writing under the hand of the Commanding Officer to which such Soldier belongs.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, November 15, 1775.

        Parole Connecticut. Countersign Brown.

        Lieutt. Lyon 97 of Major Johnson's Company in the 34th Regt. tried at a late General Court Martial whereof Col Pattersons was president for "aiding and countenancing a mutiny in the Camp" -- There being no proof of the Charge; the Court unanimously acquit the prisoner.

    [Note:Lieut. Ephraim Lyon, of Col. Experience Storrs's regiment. ]

    Page 89

        Lieut. Soaper 98 and Ensign Parker, 99 tried at a Genl. Court Martial whereof Col Douglass was president, for "striking and abusing Lieuts. Hanshaw and Craig, 1 and keeping Lieut. Craig in the Meeting house Guard, all Night" -- The Court are of opinion that the prisoners are guilty of a breach of the 46th Article of the Rules and Regulations for the Massachusetts Army, and therefore unanimously adjudge the prisoners to be discharged the Continental Army.

    [Note:Lieut. Joseph Soper, of Stark's regiment. ]
    [Note:Ensign Jonas Parker, of Sargent's regiment. ]
    [Note:Lieut. Samuel Craig, of Thompson's rifle regiment. ]

        Lieut. John Bowker 2 tried at a late General Court Martial for "divers times leaving the Camp without leave, and for countenancing the Soldiers in disobedience of Orders" -- The Court are unanimously of opinion, that the prisoner is guilty of quitting the Camp without leave; but acquitted of the latter part of the Charge therefore only adjudge the prisoner to be mulcted Four Pounds of his pay, to be appropriated as directed by the 51st Article of war and be severly reprimanded by his Colonel at the head of the regiment.

    [Note:Lieut. John Bowker, of Col. Ephraim Doolittle's regiment. ]

        Serj't Jonathan Putney, Corporal Harwood, Thomas Rollins, Isaac Larriby, Samuel North and Ebenezer Williams, Soldiers of Capt. Hatches Company in the late Col Gerrish's Regiment tried at a late Genl Court Martial, whereof Col Patterson was President for " Mutiny ". The Court are of Opinion that the Prisoners, Serjt Putney, Corpl. Harwod, Rollins, North and Williams are Guilty of the Crime laid to their charge and adjudge the said Serjt to be reduced to the ranks and fined Forty-eight Shillings, to be appropriated as directed by the 51st Article of war -- The said Corporal to be reduced to a private and whipped with Thirty-nine Lashes -- The said Rollins to be whipped with Thirty-nine; The said North with


    Page 90

    Twenty-five; and the said Williams with Thirtynine Lashes upon their bare backs with a Cat o'Nine tails --

        The Commander in Chief approves all the above Sentences of the several Courts Martial mention'd in this day's orders and directs the execution of them accordingly.

    To GOVERNOR JONATHAN TRUMBULL Cambridge, November 15, 1775.

        Sir: I received your favor of the 6th Inst., in which you give a detail of Doctr. Chineys case, as it appeard before you and Council, in which nothing but the fair side of his Character appears, You may be assured Sir, that his Trial will be impartial, that no insiduous designs of his enemies will have weight, and that it will give me much pleasure to find he can acquit himself of the Crimes he is charged with: the evidences are hourly expected, on their Arrival the Trial will be no longer delayed. General Sullivan set out the 12th Inst. for Portsmouth New Hampshire. I enclose you a Copy of instructions given unto him.

        As it is now very apparent that we have nothing to depend on in the present Contest, but our own Strength, Care firmness and union; should not the same measures be adopted in yours and every other Government on the Continent? would it not be prudence to Seize on those Tories, who have been, are and that we know, will be active against us; why should persons who are preying upon the Vitals of their Country be suffered to stalk at large, whilst we know they will do us every mischief in their Power. these Sir, are points I beg to submit to your serious Consideration.

        I congratulate you on the Success of our Arms, by the surrender of St. Johns, which hope will be soon followed by the Reduction of Canada. I have the honor etc. 3

    [Note:The last two paragraphs of this letter were also sent, this date, to Governor Cooke, of Rhode Island. ]

    Page 91

        P. S by an express arrived from Philadelphia I received the following resolve of the Continental Congress.

        Resolved, that Doctor Church be close confined in some secure Goal in the Colony of Connecticut without the use of Pen Ink and Paper, and that no person be allowed to converse with him, except in the presence of a Magistrate or the Sherriff of the County, where he shall be confined, and in the English Language until further orders from this or a future Congress.

        Attest
    Charles Thomson Secy.

        By order of the Congress
    John Hancock President. 4

    [Note:This resolve was adopted on November 7. ]

        Sir in consequence of the above resolve I now transmit to your care Doctor Church under the Guard of Captain Israel Putnam a Sergeant and seven Men. You will please to comply in every particular with the above Resolution of Congress.

    To THE NEW YORK LEGISLATURE Cambridge, November 16, 1775.

        Sir: It was determined at a Conference held here in the last Month, that such Military Stores as could be spared from New York, Crown Point, Ticonderoga &c., should be sent here for the use of the Continental Army. As it was not clear to me, whether I was to send for or that they were to be sent to me, I desired Mr. Reed on his way to Philadelphia, to enquire into this matter; as I have not heard from him on the subject, and the Season advancing fast, I have thought it necessary to send Hen: Knox Esqr who will deliver you this. After he forwards what he can get at your Place, he will proceed to Genl Schuyler, on this very important business.

        I request the favor of you Sir, and the Gentlemen of your Congress, to give Mr. Knox all the assistance in your power, by so doing you will render infinite service to your Country and vastly oblige Sir, etc.


    Page 92

    To MAJOR GENERAL PHILIP SCHUYLER Cambridge, November 16, 1775.

        Dear Sir: My last to you was the 5th Instt. I have since received your most agreable Favour, and it's Inclosures of the 7th. The Surrender of St. John's is a pleasing Presage of the Reduction of Quebec, in effecting which, I hope, Colonel Arnold will cooperate. The last Account from him is dated the 13th. Octr., at the 2nd. Portage, from Kennebeck to the dead River, from whence he had dispatched an Express to you, and expected your Answer at Chaudiere Pond, where he expected to be in eight or ten Days. By your not mentioning to have heard from him, I apprehend the Express has been intercepted.

        I am in very great Want of Powder, Lead, Mortars, Cannon, indeed of most Sorts of military Stores. For Want of them we really cannot carry on any spirited Operation. I shall, therefore, be much obliged to you to send me all that can be spared from your Quarter. Mr. Henry Knox, an experienced Engineer will set out for your Place and inform you of those Articles that are most immediately necessary; but as this Gentleman goes first to New York, you will please to get in Readiness for Transportation, such Guns, Mortars, and Ammunition as you can, and Mr. Knox will on his Arrival send them forward. There is nothing of Consequence to acquaint you of from this Quarter, except the Arrival of a Train of Artillery, and Part of five Regiments from Ireland, to reinforce the ministerial Army at Boston. I am, etc.

    To MAJOR GENERAL PHILIP SCHUYLER Cambridge, November 16, 1775.

        Dear Sir: I wrote you this Day by Express and informed you therein the great Necessity I was in for Ordnance Stores


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    and Ammunition, and that I would send Henry Knox Esqr. to New York, to procure there, as much as can be spared; from thence to proceed to you. That Gentleman will deliver you this Letter. I recommend him and the Business he goes upon to your Attention. Should he find more Money than he carries with him, necessary, you will please to supply him. I am, etc.

    INSTRUCTIONS TO HENRY KNOX Head Quarters, Cambridge, November 16, 1775.

        You are immediately to examine into the State of the Artillery of this Army, and take an account of the Cannon, Motors, Shells, Lead and Ammunition, that are wanting. When you have done that, you are to proceed in the most expeditious Manner to New York; there apply to the President of the provisional Congress, and learn of him whether Colonel Reed did any Thing, or left any Orders respecting these Articles, and get him to procure such of them as can possibly be had there. The President, if he can, will have them immediately sent hither: If he cannot you must put them in a proper Channel for being transported to this Camp with Dispatch, before you leave New York. After you have procured as many of these Necessaries as you can there, you must go to Major General Schuyler, and get the Remainder from Ticonderoga, Crown Point, or St John's. If it should be necessary, from Quebec; if in our Hands. The Want of them is so great, that no Trouble or Expence must be spared to obtain them. I have wrote to General Schuyler, he will give every necessary assistance that they may be had and forwarded to this Place, with the utmost Dispatch. I have given you a Warrant to the Pay-Master General of the Continental Army, for a Thousand Dollars to defray the Expence attending your Journey, and


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    procuring these Articles; an Account of which you are to keep and render upon your Return. 5 Endeavour to procure what Flints you can.

    [Note:Knox's journal of his journey to the north is printed in the New England Histl. & Genealg. Register (July, 1876). His transportation of cannon from Ticonderoga and Crown Point, N.Y., through the woods to Cambridge, Mass., was an astonishing feat. ]

        [MS.H.S.]

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, November 16, 1775.

        Parole Canada. Countersign Montreal.

        Motives of Oeconomy rendering it indispensibly necessary, that many of the Regiments should be reduced, and the whole put upon a different establishment; several deserving Officers, not from any demerit, but pure necessity, have been excluded in the New Arrangement of the Army, among these was Col. Whitcomb; but the noble Sentiments disclosed by that Gentleman, upon this Occasion, the Zeal he has shewn in exhorting the Men, not to abandon the Interest of their country at this important crisis, 6 and his Determination to continue in the service, even as a private soldier, rather than by a bad example, when the Enemy are gathering Strength; put the public Affairs to hazzard. When an Example of this kind is set, it not only entitles a Gentleman to particular Thanks, but to particular rewards, in the bestowing of which, Colonel Jonathan Brewer is entitled to no small share of Credit, in readily giving up the Regiment, which he was appointed to command, to Col. Whitcomb -- Col Whitcomb therefore, is from henceforward to be consider'd, as Colonel of that Regiment, which was intended for Col Brewer; and Col. Brewer will be appointed Barrack Master, until something better worth his Acceptance can be provided.

    [Note:Whitcomb's soldiers had refused to reenlist or serve in any way except under his command. ]

    Page 95

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, November 17, 1775.

        Parole Nicholas. Countersign Hampton.

        Lieut Correy of Col Prescotts Regt. tried at a late General Court Martial, whereof Col Patterson was president, for "Forgery and defrauding his Men of their pay " -- The Court were unanimously of Opinion, that Lieut Correy was guilty of defrauding some of his men of their Blanket money, and of attempting to defraud others of their Coat Money, and therefore adjudge the prisoner to be cashiered -- The General approves and orders the sentence to take place immediately.

        Representations having been made to the Continental Congress, of the great inequality in the pay of the Officers and Soldiers of this Army; the first being lower than usual, and less than was ever given to Commission'd Officers, in any other service, whilst that of the Soldiers is higher -- The Congress have been pleased to increase the pay of Captain to Twenty six and ⅔ Dollars -- of a First Lieutenant to Eighteen Dollars, of a Second Lieutenant and Ensign, to thirteen and ⅓ Dollars pr Kalender Month each; to take place so soon as the New Regiments are compleated, to their full Compliment of men. The Congress have given this encouragement to the Captains, and Subalterns, (whose pay was lower in proportion) with a View to impress upon their minds, a due Sense of Gratitude; at the same time that it is intended to enable them to support the Character and Appearance of Gentlemen and Officers, which will add much to the reputation of the Regiments, and can-not but be pleasing to every man in it. -- It is expected, that the Officers of the new form'd Regiments, will exert themselves in the Recruiting Service, and that they do not fail to report the number they have recruited, to their Colonels to morrow, that they may


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    make returns thereof the day after, in Order, that the Recruiting parties may be sent into the Country, if any backwardness should appear here -- When this happens, the Colonels of the old Regiments are to be consulted, to prevent the Companies therein being left without Officers.

        As Furloughs have been promised to the New-inlisted men, none others can be indulged under any pretence whatsoever, and in Order that these Furloughs may be given with some degree of Regularity, none but the Colonels, or Commanding Officers of Regiments, upon the New Establishment, are to grant them, and they respectively, not to let more than fifty be absent at a time, beginning with those who inlisted first, and going on in a regular Rotation, until all are indulg'd allowing each Man ten days to be at home, and a sufficient time to go and return.

        The Colonels, or Commanding Officers of the new establish'd Regiments, are to meet at the Qr Mr General in Cambridge, to morrow at 11 'OClock, to fix upon the Uniform of their respective Regiments, that the making the Cloathing may not be interrupted; without all are present, this cannot be done; and the work must not be delayed.

    *To MAJOR GENERAL ARTEMAS WARD Cambridge, November 17, 1775.

        Sir: As the Season is fast approaching, when the Bay between us and Boston, will in all probability, be close shut up, thereby rendering any Movement upon the Ice, as easy as if no Water was there; and, as it is more than possible that General Howe, when he gets the expected Reinforcements, will endeavour to relieve himself from the disgraceful confinement, in which the Ministerial Troops have been all this Summer; common


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    prudence dictates the necessity of guarding our Camps, where ever they are most assailable; for this purpose, I wish you, General Thomas, Genl. Spencer, and Colonel Putnam, to meet me at your Quarters to-morrow at Ten 'O'Clock, that we may examine the Ground between your Work at the Mill and Sewel's Point, and direct such Batteries as shall appear necessary for the Security of your Camp, on that side, to be thrown up, without loss of time. I have long had it upon my Mind, that a successful attempt might be made, by way of surprise, on Castle William, from every Account there are not more than 300 Men in that Place; the Whale Boats, therefore, which you have, and such as could be sent to you, would easily transport 800 or 1000, which, with a very moderate Share of conduct and spirit, might, I should think, bring off the Garrison, if not some part of the Stores. I wish you to discuss this Matter (under the Rose) with Officers of whose judgment and conduct you can rely; some thing of this sort may shew how far the Men axe to be depended upon. I am with Respect, etc.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, November 18, 1775.

        Parole Amboy. Countersign Bristol.

        There was a mistake in the Entry of the General Orders of yesterday. The Hon: the Continental Congress have thought proper to allow the first and second Lieutenants, the same pay, viz: Eighteen Dollars a month to each and the Ensigns thirteen Dollars and ⅓ of a dollar.

        The Commissary General to order all the Horns of the Bullocks, that are killed for the Use of the Army, to be saved and sent to the Qr Mr General, who is also to provide as many


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    as he can get, and have the whole made into good powder horns, for the Use of the troops.

        The Honorable the Legislature of this Colony having thought fit to set apart Thursday the 23d of November Instant, as a day of public thanksgiving "to offer up our praises, and prayers to Almighty God, the Source and Benevolent Bestower of all good; That he would be pleased graciously to continue, to smile upon our Endeavours, to restore peace, preserve our Rights, and Privileges, to the latest posterity; prosper the American Arms, preserve and strengthen the Harmony of the United Colonies, and avert the Calamities of a civil war." The General therefore commands that day to be observed with all the Solemnity directed by the Legislative Proclamation, and all Officers, Soldiers and others, are hereby directed, with the most unfeigned Devotion, to obey the same.

        Any Non Commissioned Officers, or Soldiers, confin'd on Account of leaving the Detachment, commanded by Col Arnold, in any of the main, or quarter Guards of the Army, are to be immediately released.

    To GOVERNOR NICHOLAS COOKE Cambridge, November 18, 1775.

        Sir: Your favor of the 13th Inst. by Mr. Philips I received, in answer thereto you will be pleased to order the Officers and Men that have been Stationed at Block Island, to March to this Camp. Reinforcements are Wanting, and probably will be; when they are here, they will be incorporated into the Continental Army, if they choose it, the many Circumstances attending the new arrangement of which had in some measure occasioned me to forget these Men before. When an Account of the Wages and Subsistence due to them is transmitted. I


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    shall give necessary orders for their payment. I congratulate you upon your appointment to the Government of the Colony and am much obliged by the assurances you give me of such assistance as may be in your power. I am, etc.

    To THE PRESIDENT OF CONGRESS Camp Cambridge, November 19, 1775.

        Sir: I received your favors of the 7th and 10th instant with the Resolves of the Hon. Congress, to which I will pay all due attention. As soon as two capable Persons can be found, I will dispatch them to Nova Scotia, on the Service resolved on in Congress. 7 The Resolve to raise two Battalions of Marines, will (if practicable in the Army) entirely derange what has been done. It is therein mentioned, one Colonel for the two Battalions, of course a Colonel must be dismissed: One of the many difficulties which attended the New Arrangement, was in reconciling the different Interests and Judging of the merits of the different Colonels, in the dismission of this one, the same difficulties will occur.

    [Note:The resolve of Congress of November 10 to send two men to investigate conditions in Nova Scotia. The men sent were Aaron Willard and Moses Child. (See Washington's letter to the President of Congress, Feb. 14, 1776, post. ) ]

        The Officers and Men must be acquainted with the maritime Affairs, to comply with which, they must be picked out of the whole Army, one from this Corps, one from another, so as to break through the whole System, which has cost us so much Time, anxiety and pains to bring into any tolerable form. Notwithstanding any Difficulties which will arise, you may be assured Sir, that I will use every endeavour to comply with their Resolve. 8

    [Note:On November 30 Congress resolved "That the General be directed to suspend the raising of two battalions of Marines out of his present army," and that they be raised "independent of the army already ordered for the service in Massachusetts bay." ]

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        I beg leave to submit it to the consideration of Congress, If those two Battalions can be formed out of this Army, Whether this is a Time to weaken our Lines, by employing any of the forces appointed to defend them, on any other Service? The Gentlemen who were here from the Congress, know their vast extent, they must know that we shall have occasion for our whole Force for that purpose, more now than at any past time, as we may expect the Enemy will take the Advantage of the first hard weather, and attempt to make an impression somewhere; That this is their intention we have many reasons to suspect. We have had in the last Week, Six Deserters and took two Straggling Prisoners; they all agree that two companies with a Train of Artillery and one of the Regiments from Ireland were arrived at Boston; that fresh Ammunition and flints have been served out; That the Grenadiers and Light Infantry had Orders to hold themselves in readiness at a Moments Warning.

        As there is every Appearance that this Contest will not be soon decided and of course that there must be an augmentation of the Continental Army, would it not be eligible to raise two Battalions of Marines in New York and Philadelphia, where there must be now numbers of Sailors unemployed? This however is matter of Opinion, which I mention with all due deference to the Superior Judgment of the Congress. Inclosed you have Copies of two Letters, one from Col: Arnold, the other from Col: Enos, I can form no Judgment on the latter's Conduct, till I see him; 9 notwithstanding the great defection, I do not despair of Col: Arnold's success, he will have, in all probability, many more difficulties to encounter, than if he had

    [Note:Col. Roger Enos commanded the rear guard of Arnold's expedition into Canada. He returned unexpectedly from the expedition with all his troops, leaving Arnold to get along as best he could. He misinterpreted, or misunderstood, Arnold's orders and stripped his command of provisions. The entire matter is exhibited in Justin H. Smith's Arnold's March to Quebec. ]

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    been a fortnight sooner; as it is likely that Governor Carlton will with what forces he can collect after the Surrender of the rest of Canada, throw himself into Quebec and there make his last Effort. There is no late Account from Captains Broughton and Sellman, the other Cruizers have been chiefly confined to Harbour by the Badness of the weather; the same reason has caused great delay in building our Barracks, which with a most mortifying scarcity of fire Wood discourages the men from Enlisting. The last I am much afraid is an insuperable Obtacle, I have applied to the Honorable House of Representatives of this Province, who were pleased to appoint a Committee to Negotiate this Business, and notwithstanding all the pains they have been at and are taking, they find it impossible to supply our necessities; the want of a sufficient number of Teams I understand to be the Chief Impediment.

        I got returns this day from Eleven Colonels, of the numbers of enlisted in their Regiments, the whole amount to nine hundred and Sixty Six men; there must be some other stimulus besides love for their Country, to make men fond of the Service; It would be a great encouragement and no additional expence to the continent were they to receive pay for the months of October and November also a months pay advance; The present state of the military chest will not admit of this, the sooner it is enabled to do so, the better? 10

    [Note:On December 1 Congress resolved: "That the money [500,000 dollars] lately ordered, be forwarded, with all possible expedition, to General Washington, that he may be enabled to pay such soldiers as will re-inlist, for the succeeding year, their wages for the months of October, November, and December, and also advance them one month's pay." (See Journals of the Continental Congress. ) ]

        The Commissary General is daily expected in Camp. I cannot send you the estimate of the clerks in his Department until he arrives. I sincerely congratulate you upon the success of your Arms in the Surrender of St Johns, which I hope is a


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    happy presage of the reduction of the rest of Canada. I have the Honor to be, Sir, etc. 11

    [Note:This letter, in the writing of Stephen Moylan, was read in Congress November 27. ]

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, November 19, 1775.

        Parole Coventry. Countersign Danby.

        The Brigadier Generals to make Returns of the Number of Teams necessary, to furnish their respective divisions with wood, and the teams appointed for each division, to be continually employed in the service of that division, and not to be shifted, from one division to another, as great Confusion arises thereby, some Regiments having a double Stock of wood, while others, are suffering for want. The Qr Mr General to provide the Teams returned necessary for the above Service, and direct the Waggon Master General to continue them in that employ.

        All persons are strictly prohibited purchasing any Cloaths from the Non Commissioned Officers, and Soldiers -- Any person violating this Order, to be sent prisoner to the Main Guard, by the Colonel, or Officer commanding the Regiment, the Cloaths belong to, the Cloaths to be forthwith deliver'd up, and the loss sustained to fall upon the purchaser.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, November 20, 1775.

        Parole Essex. Countersign Falmouth.

        The Colonels and commanding Officers of Regiments, upon the new Establishment, are forthwith to send one Officer from each Company upon the recruiting Service into the Country,


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    they are to take with them a Copy of the recruiting Instructions as contain'd in General Orders of the 12th Instant, and comply strictly therewith; care to be taken not to leave any Company under the old establishment destitute of proper Officers.

        As the General is informed that this is the season, in which the people of the four New England Governments, lay in Provisions, Stores &c, for the use of their families; he has recommended (in the strongest manner he is capable) the Necessity of sending Money to Camp, for the immediate payment of the Troops for the Months of October and November, and in Order to enable those, who have again inlisted, and such others as are resolved to continue in service; to do this more effectually, he has also recommended them to the Congress, for one Months advanced pay, and has no doubt himself, of its being complied with, if Money can be forwarded in time.

        No Soldier whenever dismissed, is to carry away any Arms with him, that are good, and fit for service, if the Arms are his own private property, they will be appraised, and he will receive the full Value thereof: Proper persons when necessary, will be appointed to inspect, and value, the Arms, so detained.

    To JOSEPH REED Camp at Cambridge, November 20, 1775.

        Dear Sir: Your letters of the 4th from New York, 7th and from Philadelphia (the last by express), are all before me, and gave me the pleasure to hear of your happy meeting with Mrs. Reed, without any other accident than that of leaving a horse by the way.

        The hint contained in the last of your letters, respecting your continuance in my family, in other words, your wish that I


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    could dispense with it, gives me pain. You already, my dear Sir, knew my sentiments on this matter; you cannot but be sensible of your importance to me; at the same time I shall again repeat, what I have observed to you before, that I can never think of promoting my convenience at the expense of your interest and inclination. That I feel the want of you, yourself can judge, when I inform you, that the peculiar situation of Mr. Randolph's affairs obliged him to leave this soon after you did; that Mr. Baylor, 12 contrary to my expectation, is not in the slightest degree a penman, though spirited and willing; and that Mr. Harrison, though sensible, clever, and perfectly confidential, has never yet moved upon so large a scale, as to comprehend at one view the diversity of matter, which comes before me, so as to afford that ready assistance, which every man in my situation must stand more or less in need of. Mr. Moylan, 13 it is true, is very obliging; he gives me what assistance he can; but other business must necessarily deprive me of his aid in a very short time. This is my situation; judge you, therefore, how much I wish for your return, especially as the armed vessels, and the capital change (in the state of this army) about to take place, have added an additional weight to a burthen, before too great for me to stand under with the smallest degree of comfort to my own feelings. My mind is now fully disclosed to you, with this assurance sincerely and affectionately of accompanying it, that whilst you are disposed to continue with me, I shall think myself too fortunate and happy to wish for a change.

    [Note:George Baylor served as an aide until January, 1777, when he was appointed colonel of the Third Continental Dragoons. ]
    [Note:Stephen Moylan, who signed himself secretary pro tem., and whose duties as Mustermaster General of the Continental Army would soon be increased with the establishment of the new army. ]

        Dr. Morgan, (as director of the hospital,) is exceedingly wanted at this place, and ought not to delay his departure for


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    the camp a moment, many regulations being delayed, and accounts postponed, till his arrival. I have given G. S. and Col. P. a hint of the prevailing reports in Connecticut, without intimating from what quarter they came (for indeed I received them through different channels) in order to put them upon their guard; they both deny the charge roundly, and wish for an opportunity of vindication. I thought as this information had come to my ears in different ways, it was best to speak to these gentlemen in terms expressive of my abhorrence of such conduct, and of the consequences that might flow from it, and think it will have a good effect. The method you have suggested, of the advanced pay, I very much approve of, and would adopt, but for the unfortunate cramped state of our treasury, which keeps us for ever under the hatches. Pray urge the necessity of this measure to such members as you may converse with, and the want of cash to pay the troops for the months of October and November; as also to answer the demands of the commissary, quartermaster, and for contingencies. To do all this, a considerable sum will be necessary. Do not neglect to put that wheel in motion, which is to bring us the shirts, medicines, &c. from New York; they are much wanting here, and cannot be had, I should think, upon better terms than on a loan from the best of Kings, so anxiously disposed to promote the welfare of his American subjects.

        Dr. Church is gone to Governor Trumbull, to be disposed of in a Connecticut gaol, without the use of pen, ink, or paper, to be conversed with in the presence of a magistrate only, and in the English language. So much for indiscretion, the Doctor will say. Your accounts of our dependence upon the people of Great Britain, I religiously believe. It has long been my political creed, that the ministry durst not have gone on as they did, but under the firmest persuasion that the people were with


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    them. The weather has been unfavorable, however, for the arrival of their transports; only four companies of the seventeenth regiment and two of the artillery are yet arrived, by our last advices from Boston.

        Our rascally privateersmen go on at the old rate, mutinying if they cannot do as they please. 14 Those at Plymouth, Beverly, and Portsmouth, have done nothing worth mentioning in the prize way, and no accounts are yet received from those farther eastward.

    [Note:"The people on board the Brigantine Washington are, in general, discontented, and have agreed to do no Duty on board said Vessel; and say that they Inlisted to serve in the Army, and not as Marines.…[These] people really appear to me to be a sett of the most unprincipled, abandoned fellows I ever saw.…I am very apprehensive that little is to be expected from Fellows drawn promiscuously from the army for this Business; but that if people were Inlisted for the purpose of privateering, much might be expected from them." -- William Watson to Washington, Nov. 29, 1775. This letter is in the Washington Papers. ]

        Arnold, by a letter which left him the 27th ultimo, had then only got to the Chaudière Pond, and was scarce of provisions. His rear division, under the command of the noble Colonel Enos, had, without his privity or consent, left him with three companies; and his expedition, (inasmuch as it is to be apprehended, that Carleton, with the remains of such force as he had been able to raise, would get into Quebec before him,) I fear, in a bad way. For further particulars I refer you to Mr. Hancock who has enclosed to him copies of Arnold's and Enos's letters. The last-named person is not yet arrived at this camp.

        I thank you for your frequent mention of Mrs. Washington. I expect she will be in Philadelphia about the time this letter may reach you, on her way hither. As she and her conductor, (who I expect will be Mr. Custis, her son,) are perfect strangers to the road, the stages, and the proper place to cross Hudson's River, (by all means avoiding New York,) I shall be much


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    obliged in your particular instructions and advice to her. I do imagine, as the roads are bad and the weather cold, her stages must be short, especially as I expect her horses will be pretty much fatigued; as they will, by the time she gets to Philadelphia, have performed a journey of at least four hundred and fifty miles, my express finding of her among her friends near Williamsburg, one hundred and fifty miles below my own house.

        As you have mentioned nothing in your letters of the cannon, &c., to be had from New York, Ticonderoga, &c., I have, in order to reduce the matter to a certainty, employed Mr. Knox to go to those places, complete our wants, and to provide such military stores as St. John's can spare.

        My respectful compliments to Mrs. Reed, and be assured that I am, dear Sir, with affectionate regard, &c.

        Flints are greatly wanted here. 15

    [Note:The text is from Reed's Life and Correspondence of Joseph Reed. Sparks prints the letter with a minor omission, but no copy or draft is in the Washington Papers. ]

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, November 21, 1775.

        Parole Gloucester. Countersign Hampshire.

        The Court Martial of which Col. Cleveland 16 was president is dissolved. A General Court Martial to sit to morrow morning in General Sullivan's brigade to try such prisoners as shall be brought before them. All Evidences and Persons concern'd to attend the court.

    [Note:Lieut. Col. Aaron Cleveland, of Sargent's Massachusetts regiment. ]

        Mr Penuel Chiney, Surgeon to the 34th Regt. tried at a late General Court Martial of which Col Cleveland was president for "drawing more hospital Stores than he had a right to draw,


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    and for villifying the Characters of Majors General Lee and Putnam" The Court were of Opinion that the Prisoner is guilty of speaking words tending to the dishonour of the Character of Major Genl Putnam, and therefore adjudge him to be cashiered.

        John Davidson of Capt Bancrafts Company, and Thomas Knolton of Capt. Towns Company, Col Bridge's Regimt. tried at the above General Court Martial, for "quitting their post when upon duty." The Court were of opinion that the prisoners are guilty of the crime laid to their charge, and do adjudge them to be punish'd with Fifteen Lashes each, but on account of the Youth and Ignorance of their duty, the Court recommend the prisoners for mercy. The General is pleased, upon the recommendation of the Court, to pardon the prisoners, but at the same time desires, it may be noticed, that such a crime will not meet with Mercy in future.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, November 22, 1775.

        Parole Ipswich. Countersign Kingston.

        The General has been informed more than once or twice, that an Idea prevails amongst some of the First Lieutenants, upon the New establishment, that if their Captains do not recruit a Company, the Command of it will be taken away, and given to such First Lieutenant, provided he can fill it up; which makes the First Lieutenants indifferent and luke warm in the recruiting business; whence such an Opinion could arise is not easy to say, but if it be possible, that there are any Officers in this army actuated by such principles, the General


    Page 109

    most positively assures them, that they not only deceive themselves, but if proof can be given of such a charge; such guilty enemies to their country, will with disgrace be dismissed from the Continental Army and service for ever -- The General thought it his duty to give them this public notice.

        Whenever the Commanding Officer of one of the new regiments gives a Furlough to a recruit, he is previously to give Notice thereof, to the Commanding Officer of the regiment, the recruit then belongs to, in order that he may be apprized thereof and know in what manner to make his weekly return, the doing of which is by no means to be neglected.

        The men of the Artillery Regiment are not to be recruited into the other regiments.

        As fast as the Men move into Barracks, the Colonels are to take especial care that the Tents be immediately delivered into the hands of the Qr Mr General, who after the present hurry of business is a little over, is to have them washd, repaired and laid by.

        It is expected that the Colonels will frequently visit their Mens Barracks, and see that they are kept clean and decent; their Victuals properly cook'd &c. -- nothing contributes more to the health of the troops or can add more to the reputation of the Officers than Men to be seen healthy, clean and well dressed.

        Those Officers who have been all the summer in service, and recommended by the Honble. the Council of this colony, for commissions, may now apply for them, through their Colonels; it is expected that those who have given in their Names to stay, and are appointed to some of the New Regiments, will not apply, as those Commissions will be given out by Regiments, so soon as the New Establishment takes place.


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        The General approves the sentence of the General Court Martial held upon Dr. Chiney, and orders it to take place immediately.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, November 23, 1775.

        Parole Lebanon. Countersign Marshfield.

        The Colonels, or commanding Officers of each new established Regiment, may draw to the Amount of two Month's pay, for each Officer they send into the Country, (agreeable to the Orders of the 20th Instant) a recruiting, and furnish them therewith -- Abstracts to be made and given in accordingly.

        Men recruited out of the old Regiments will continue in pay after the term of their present Enlistments, as usual, and all new recruits, that is, Men who are not at present in the service, will enter upon pay so soon as they inlist, and will be allowed Six-pence a day for Subsistance, from the time they are recruited, until they march for the camp, and one-penny per mile from their usual place of abode, to their regiment, for subsistance and Expences afterwards; The Officers are not to keep the Recruits they raise in the country, a moment longer than they can help, but send them to their respective regiments, as fast as eight, or ten of them, are inlisted.

        The Colonels, or commanding Officers of Regiments, may relieve the Officers who are first sent into the Country upon the recruiting service, as they shall see occasion; and are expressly ordered, to recall every one, who is negligent and unsuccessful in this duty.

        The new inlisted men upon producing to the Colonel, or commanding Officers, of the Regiment they are inlisted into, a Blanket fit for use, will be entitled to the Two Dollars allowed


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    by the Continent therefor; and the Colonel, or commanding Officer, is to make out a List of the names of such men, that the money may be drawn for them -- The Colonel is to keep a Copy of such List, to prevent mistakes -- the list must specify the Company each Man belongs to.

        The Major General, with the Brigadier of his division, are to appoint three persons of character, and judgment, to value the Arms of discharged Soldiers, specifying to whom they belong, whether public or private property, and what they consist of -- They are to fix a reasonable and just price upon them, and to take none but such as are fit for service -- They are to enter into a Book such Valuation, and deliver the Arms so valued, to the Commissary of Artillery Stores, and take a receipt for the same.

        A General Court Martial to sit to morrow, in Cambridge, to try such prisoners as shall be brought before them. The General Court Martial of which Col. Poor was president is dissolved.

    To THE COMMITTEE OF THE COUNCIL
    OF MASSACHUSETTS Cambridge, November 24, 1775.

        Gentn: Capt. Aaron Willard recommends Ms. Moses Child to be his Colleague in the Journey to Nova Scotia; as I know nothing of this Gentleman, I cannot approve or disapprove of him. Mr. Willard informs me he is well known unto Doctr. Taylor, if you think him capable and trustworthy, you will please to fill up the Instructions with his Name, which Capt. Willard will give unto you. you will please to furnish Capt. Willard with Letters to Capt. Obryan and to Col Cargill to give every assistance to him and his Companion on their tour. I am with great respect Yours &c.


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    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, November 24, 1775.

        Parole Newport. Countersign Providence.

        Capt William Hubbel of Col Webbs Regiment, tried at a late General Court Martial for "behaving in a low, scandalous, and unofficerlike manner" -- The Court having acquitted the prisoner The General orders him to be released.

        Capt Gray of Col Brewers Regiment, tried at a General Court Martial, whereof Col Enoch Poor was president, for "dissuading the Soldiers from inlisting, therein acting the part of Tory& Enemy to his country" -- The Court thinking proper to acquit the prisoner -- The General orders him to be released.

    To AARON WILLARD November 24, 1775.

        The Honble Continental Congress having lately passed a Resolve, contained in the following Words, vizt.: "That two Persons be sent at the Expence of these Colonies to Nova Scotia to inquire into the State of that Colony the Disposition of the Inhabitants towards the American Cause, and the Condition of the Fortifications, Dock-Yards, the Quantity of Artillery and warlike Stores and the number of Soldiers, Sailors, and Ships of War there and transmit the earliest Intelligence to General Washington." I do hereby constitute and appoint you the said Aaron Willard Esqr. to be one of the Persons to undertake this Business, and as the Season is late, and this a Work of great Importance, I entreat and request that you will use the utmost Dispatch, Attention and Fidelity in the Execution of it. The necessity of acting with a proper Degree of Caution and


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    Secrecy, is too apparent to need Recommendation. You will keep an Account of your Expences, and upon your Return will be rewarded in a suitable Manner, for the Fatigue of your Journey and the Services you render your Country, by conducting and discharging this Business with Expedition and Fidelity 17 Given under my Hand, etc.

    [Note:The same instructions were sent to Moses Child, who went with Willard. They traveled overland to Nova Scotia, where they found two proclamations had been issued by the governor of that Province against spies. Willard and Child returned to Cambridge, Mass., and reported to Washington Feb. 14, 1776. Their report that the inhabitants of Nova Scotia were in favor of and would help America had no foundation in fact. It is in the Washington Papers. Nova Scotia and Halifax continued to be an object of attention for American spies throughout the war, but nothing was ever accomplished. ]

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, November 25, 1775.

        Parole Hampden. Countersign Pym.

        The Commissioned, Non Commission'd Officers and Soldiers, lately arrived in Camp from Kenebeck River, are to join their respective Corps -- A Return of them, signed by the commanding Officers of their respective regiments, to be sent to the Adjutant General, Monday morning.

        At the request of the Honble. the General Court of this colony; the General directs, that, the Colonels, or commanding Officers of the Massachusetts Regiments, do respectively order, each of their Captains, to make out a Muster and pay Roll of his Company, up to the 1st day of August last, from the time of each Mans Inlistment -- This to be done agreeable to the form of a Return, which is lodged with, and may be had of the Adjutant General. The Court desires these Rolls may be confirmed upon Oath, and lodged as soon as possible (with the original Certificates) in the Secretary's Office of the Colony; that all the Massachusetts Regiments may be paid up to the first of August


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    aforesaid: For further particulars relative to this resolution of the General Court; The General refers to their Resolve of the 3rd. Instant, it being too long to insert in these orders.

    To LUND WASHINGTON 18 November 26, 1775.

    [Note:Lund Washington, superintendent of Mount Vernon and its farms from 1775 to 1785, was the son of Townsend and Elizabeth (Lund) Washington. He was born in 1737 and died in 1796. His great-grandfather and George Washington's great-grandfather father were brothers. Lund married Elizabeth Foot. From the beginning to the end of the Revolution, Lund Washington wrote to the General several times a month, commonly every week, detailing minutely all the events that occurred on the plantations, his purchases, sales, and payments of money, the kinds and quantity of produce, occupations of the laborers, and whatever else could tend to explain the precise condition and progress of the business in his hands. The General's answers to these letters are said to have been destroyed, but a number of Lund Washington's letters were preserved, and copies of these are in the Library of Congress. (See Introductory Note, vol. I.) ]

        What follows is part of a Letter wrote to Mr. Lund Washington the 26th. day of November 1775. A Copy is taken to remind me of my engagements and the exact purport of them. These paragraphs follow an earnest request to employ good part of my force in cleaning up Swamps, H. Hole Ditching, Hedging, &c.

        "I well know where the difficulty of accomplishing these things will lie. Overseers are already engaged (upon shares) to look after my business. Remote advantages to me, however manifest and beneficial, are nothing to them; and to engage standing Wages, when I do not know that anything I have, or can raise, will command Cash, is attended with hazard; for which reason I hardly know what more to say than to discover my wishes. The same reason, although it may in appearance have the same tendency in respect to you, shall not be the same in its operation. For I will engage for the Year coming, and the year following, that if these troubles, and my absence continues, that your Wages shall be standing and certain, at the


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    highest amount that any one Year's Crop has produced to you yet. I do not offer this as any temptation to induce you to go on more chearfully in prosecuting these schemes of mine. I should do injustice to you, were I not to acknowledge that your conduct has ever appeared to me, above every thing sordid; but I offer it in consideration of the great charge you have upon your hands, and my entire dependance upon your fidelity and industry."

        "It is the greatest, indeed it is the only comfortable reflexion I enjoy on this score, to think that my business is in the hands of a person in whose integrity I have not a doubt, and on whose care I can rely. Was it not for this, I should feel very unhappy on Account of the situation of my affairs; but I am persuaded you will do for me as you would for yourself, and more than this I cannot expect."

        "Let the Hospitality of the House, with respect to the poor, be kept up; Let no one go hungry away. If any of these kind of People should be in want of Corn, supply their necessities, provided it does not encourage them in idleness; and I have no objection to your giving my Money in Charity, to the Amount of forty or fifty Pounds a Year, when you think it well bestowed stowed. What I mean, by having no objection, is, that it is my desire that it should be done. You are to consider that neither myself or Wife are now in the way to do these good Offices. In all other respects, I recommend it to you, and have no doubts, of your observing the greatest Oeconomy and frugality; as I suppose you know that I do not get a farthing for my services here more than my Expenses; It becomes necessary, therefore, for me to be saving at home."

        The above is copied, not only to remind myself of my promises, and requests; but others also, if any mischance happens to G. Washington.


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    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, November 26, 1775.

        Parole Wilks. Countersign Liberty.

        The Colonels and commanding Officers of Regiments upon the New Establishment, to order the Men to be recruited to be paraded every Monday, at Ten in the forenoon, before the Brigadier General of their respective Brigades, who will reject such as are unfit for service, or do not come within the discription, of the recruiting Orders. The Brigadier will sign a Certificate of the Recruits, he approves of, and deliver it to each of the Colonels, that the Blanket Money due, may be paid, and no more.

    To RICHARD HENRY LEE Camp at Cambridge, November 27, 1775.

        Dear Sir: Your favor of the 13th, with the enclosures, for which I thank you, came to this place on Wednesday evening; part of which, that is, the night, I was engaged with a party of men throwing up a work upon a hill, called Cobble Hill, which, in case we should ever be supplied with such things as we want, may prove useful to us, and could not be delayed, as the earth here is getting as hard as a rock. 19 This, and the early departure of the post, prevented my giving your letter an answer the next morning.

    [Note:These breastworks, forming one of the strongest points in the American lines, were thrown up on the night of November 22 by Putnam and Knox, with the support of the regiments of Cols. William Bond and Ebenezer Bridge. ]

        In answer to your inquiries respecting armed vessels, there are none of any tolerable force belonging to this government. I know of but two of any kind; those very small. At the Continental expense, I have fitted out six, as by the enclosed list, two of which are upon the cruise directed by Congress; the rest ply about Cape Cod and Cape Ann, as yet to very little purpose.


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    These vessels are all manned by officers and soldiers, except perhaps haps a master and pilots; but how far, as they are upon the old establishment, which has not more than a month to exist, they can be ordered off this station, I will not undertake to say, but suppose they might be engaged anew. Belonging to Providence there are two armed vessels; and I am told Connecticut has one, which, with one of those from Providence, is, I believe, upon the cruise you have directed.

        I have no idea that the troops can remove from Boston this winter to a place, where no provision is made for them; however ever, we shall keep the best lookout we can; and upon that, and every occasion where practicable, give them the best we have. But their situation in Boston gives them but little to apprehend from a parting blow, whilst their ships can move, and floating batteries surround the town.

        Nothing of importance has happened since my last. For God's sake hurry the signers of money, that our wants may be supplied. It is a very singular case, that their signing cannot keep pace with our demands. I heartily congratulate you and the Congress on the reduction of St. John's. I hope all Canada is in our possession before this. No accounts from Arnold since those mentioned in my last letter to the Congress. Would it not be politic to invite them to send members to Congress? Would it not be also politic to raise a regiment or two of Canadians, and bring them out of the country? They are good troops, and this would be entering them heartily in the cause. 20 My best regards to the good families you are with. I am, very affectionately, your obedient servant. 21

    [Note:Congress had already provided for these measures in the instructions given to a committee (Robert Treat Paine and John Langdon) appointed to proceed to the northern army for the purpose of conferring with General Schuyler on the affairs of his department. There were two regiments raised later -- the First Canadian, commanded by Col. James Livingston, and the Second by Col. Moses Hazen. ]
    [Note:The text is from Ford. ]

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    To JOSEPH REED Cambridge, November 27, 1775.

        Dear Sir: Your letter of the 16th by Post now lyes before me, and I thank you for the attention paid to my Memorandums; the arrival of Money will be an agreeable Circumstance.

        I recollect no occurrance of moment since my last, except the taking possession of Cobble Hill on Wednesday night. This to my great surprize we did, and have worked on ever since, without receiving a single shott from Bunkers Hill, -- the ship -- or Floating Batteries -- what all this means we know not unless some capitol strike is meditating -- I have caused two half Moon Batterries to be thrown up for occasional use, between Litchmore's more's Point and the mouth of Cambridge River; and another Work at the Causey going on to Litchmores point to command that pass and rake the little Rivulet which runs by it to Patterson's Fort. Besides these I have been, and mark'd three places between Sewall's point and our Lines on Roxbury Neck for Works to be thrown up and occasionally mann'd in case of a Sortee, when the Bay gets froze.

        By order of Genl. Howe, 300 of the poor Inhabitants of Boston were landed on Saturday last at point Shirley, destitute almost of every thing; the Instant I got notice of it, I informed a Committee of Council thereof, that proper care might be taken of them -- Yesterday in the evening I receive information that one of them was dead, and two more expiring; and the whole in the most miserable and piteous condition. -- I have order'd Provision to them till they can be remov'd, but am under dreadful apprehensions of their communicating the small Pox as it is Rief in Boston. I have forbid any of them coming to this place on that acct.


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        A Ship well fraught with Ordinance, Ordinance Stores, &c., is missing and gives great uneasiness in Boston, her Convoy has been in a fortnight -- I have order'd our Arm'd Vessels to keep a good look out for her. The same reasons which restrained you from writing fully, also prevent me. I shall therefore only add that I am, &c.

        If any waggon should be coming this way, Pray order a qty of good writing Paper to head Quarters, and Sea'g Wax. 22

    [Note:The text is from Ford. ]

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, November 27, 1775.

        Parole -- . Countersign -- .

        A Court of enquiry to sit to morrow Morning, to examine into the Conduct of Lieut. Col Enos, who appears to have left Col. Arnold his commanding Officer without leave. Major Genl. Lee President, Brigadier Genl. Green, Brigadier Genl Heath, Col Stark, Col Nixon, Major Durkee, Major Sherburne: Members.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, November 28, 1775.

        Parole Montgomery. Countersign Montreal.

        An Express last Night from General Montgomery, brings the joyful tidings of the Surrender of the City of Montreal, to the Continental Arms -- The General hopes Such frequent Favors from divine providence will animate every American to continue, to exert his utmost, in the defence of the Liberties of his Country, as it would now be the basest ingratitude to the Almighty, and to their Country, to shew any the least backwardness in the public cause.


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    To THE PRESIDENT OF CONGRESS Cambridge, November 28, 1775.

        Sir: I had the Honor of writing to you the 19th instant, I have now to inform you that Henry Knox Esqr. is gone to New York, with orders to forward to this place, what cannon and ordinance can be there procured. From thence he will proceed to General Schuyler on the same Business, as you will see by the inclosed Copy of Instructions, which I have given him. It would give me much satisfaction that this Gentleman, or any other whom you may think qualified, was appointed to the command of the Artillery Regiment. In my Letter to you of the 8th. Instant, I have expressed myself fully on this Subject, which I beg leave to recommend to your immediate attention, as the formation of that Corps will be at a stand, until I am honored with your Instructions thereon.

        The Vessel laden with wine, which I advised you was wrecked on this coast, proves to have been the property of a Thomas Salter of Philadelphia, the papers relative to her and cargo were sent to Robert Morris Esqr who can give you every information thereon. The Schooner with the Dry Goods from Boston to Halifax is given up to the Committee of Safety at Beverly, who will dispose of her and Cargo, agreeable to the decision of a Court of Admiralty and the Schooner carried into Portsmouth by Captain Adams proves to be a friends and of course is discharged.

        There are two persons engaged to go to Nova Scotia, on the Business recommended in your last, by the best information we have from thence, the Stores &c. have been withdrawn sometime; should this not be the case, It is next to an impossibility to attempt any thing there in the present unsetled and precarious state of the Army. Colonel Enos is arrived and


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    under arrest, he acknowledges he had no Orders for coming away, his Trial cannot come on, until I hear from Col. Arnold, from whom there is no Account since I wrote you last.

        >From what I can collect, by my inquiries amongst the Officers, It will be impossible to get the men to inlist for the continuance of the War, which will be an insuperable Obstruction to the formation of the two Battalions of Marines on the plan resolved on in Congress. As it can make no difference I propose to proceed on the new Arrangement of the Army and when completed, enquire out such Officers and Men as are best qualified for that service, and endeavor to form these Battalions out of the whole; This appears to me the best method and will I hope meet the approbation of Congress. As it will be very difficult for the Men to work when the hard frost sets in, I have thought it necessary (tho' of little use at present) to take possession of Cobble Hill, for the benefit of any future Operations. It was effected without the least opposition from the Enemy the 23d Instant: Their inactivity on this Occasion is what I can not account for; It is probable they are meditating a Blow some where. About 300 Men, Women and Children of the poor Inhabitants of Boston, came out to Point Shirley last Friday, they have brought their Household furniture, but unprovided of every other necessary of Life: I have recommended them to the attention of the Committee of the Honorable Council of this Province, now sitting at Water Town.

        The number inlisted since my last are 2540 men. I am very sorry to be necessitated to mention to you the egregious want of Public Spirit which reigns here; instead of pressing to be engaged in the cause of their Country, which I vainly flattered myself would be the case, I find we are likely to be deserted at a most critical time; Those that have Inlisted, must have a furlough, which I have been Obliged to grant to 50 at a time


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    from each Regiment. The Connecticut Troops upon whom I reckoned are as backward, indeed if possible more so than the people of this colony, our situation is truly Alarming, and of this General Howe is well apprized, It being the common topick of conversation when the People left Boston last Friday; no doubt when he is reinforced he will avail himself of the Information.

        I am making the best disposition I can for our defence having thrown up, besides the Works on Cobble Hill, several redoubts, Half Moons &ca. along the Bay; And I fear I shall be under the necessity of calling in the Militia and Minute Men of the Country to my Assistance. I say I fear it, because by what I can learn from the Officers in the Army belonging to this Colony, it will be next to an impossibility to keep them under any degree of Descipline, and that it will be very difficult to prevail on them to remain a moment longer than they chuse themselves; It is a mortifying reflection to be reduced to this dilemma, there has been nothing wanting on my part to infuse a proper Spirit amongst the Officers, that they may exert their Influence with the Soldiery. You see by a fortnights recruiting amongst men with Arms in their Hands, how little has been the success.

        As the small Pox is now in Boston, I have used the precaution of prohibiting such as lately came out from coming near our Camp. General Burgoyne I am informed will soon embark for England. I think the risque too great to write you by Post, whilst it continues to pass thro' New York, it is certain that a post has been intercepted the begining of last Month, as they sent out several Letters from Boston with the Post mark at Baltimore on them, this goes by Captain Joseph Blewer who promises to deliver it carefully unto you.

        You doubtless will have heard ere this reaches, of General Montgomery having got Possession of Montreal, I congratulate


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    you thereon, he has troubles with his Troops as well as I have -- all I can learn of Colo: Arnold is that he is near Quebec, I hope Montgomery will be able to proceed to his Assistance I shall be very uneasy until I hear they are joined. My best respects to Congress, etc. I have the Honor, etc. 23

    [Note:In the writing of Stephen Moylan. ]

    *To LIEUTENANT COLONEL GEORGE BAYLOR Cambridge, November 28, 1775.

        Dear Sir: I forgot to desire you to hire Horses if more than those you carried should be wanted, and therefore I mention it by Capt. Blewer. I should be glad if you could send on, and let me know a little before you come to town, the evening before if convenient. I wish you a pleasant and uninterrupted journey, and am, etc. 24

    [Note:Baylor had been sent from camp to meet and escort Mrs. Washington from Philadelphia to headquarters. This note was forwarded to Baylor by Capt. Joseph Blewer, of the Philadelphia militia. ]

        P.S. I forgot to give you money before you went away, but keep an account of your expenses and they shall be paid as soon as you return to Camp. 25

    [Note:The editor is indebted to Judge E. A. Armstrong, of Princeton, N.J., for the text of this letter. ]

    To JOSEPH REED Cambridge, November 28, 1775.

        Dear Sir: By post I wrote you yesterday in answer to your letter of the 16th, since which your favors of the 15th and 17th are come to hand. In one of these you justly observe, that the sudden departure of Mr. Randolph must cause your absence to be the more sensibly felt. I can truly assure you, that I miss you exceedingly, and if an express declaration of this be wanting to hasten your return, I make it most heartily; and with


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    some pleasure, as Mr. Lynch in a letter of the 13th (received with yours) gives the information. "In consequence of your letter by Colonel Reed, I applied to the chief justice, who tells me the Supreme Courts are lately held, and that it will be some time before their term will return; that he knows of no capital suit now depending, and that is very easy for Colonel Reed to manage matters so as not to let that prevent his return to you; I am sure Mr. Chew is so heartily disposed to oblige you, and serve the cause, that nothing in his power will be wanting." I could wish, my good friend, that these things may give a spur to your inclination to return; and that I may see you here as soon as convenient, as I fell the want of your ready pen, &c., greatly.

        What an astonishing thing it is, that those who are employed to sign the Continental bills should not be able, or inclined, to do it as fast as they are wanted. They will prove the destruction of the army, if they are not more attentive and diligent. Such a dearth of public spirit, and want of virtue, such stock-jobbing, and fertility in all the low arts to obtain advantages of one kind or another, in this great change of military arrangement, I never saw before, and pray God I may never be witness to again. What will be the ultimate end of these manoeuvres is beyond my scan. I tremble at the prospect. We have been till this time enlisting about three thousand five hundred men. To engage these I have been obliged to allow furloughs as far as fifty men a regiment, and the Officers I am persuaded indulge as many more. The Connecticut troops will not be prevailed upon to stay longer than their term (saving those who have enlisted for the next campaign, and mostly on furlough), and such a dirty, mercenary spirit pervades the whole, that I should not be at all surprised at any disaster that may happen. In short, after the last of this month


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    our lines will be so weakened, that the minute-men and militia must be called in for their defence; these, being under no kind of government themselves, will destroy the little subordination I have been laboring to establish, and run me into one evil whilst I am endeavoring to avoid another; but the lesser must be chosen. Could I have foreseen what I have, and am likely to experience, no consideration upon earth should have induced me to accept this command. A regiment or any subordinate department would have been accompanied with ten times the satisfaction, and perhaps the honor.

        I think I informed you in my letter of yesterday that we had taken possession of, and had fortified Cobble Hill, and several points round the Bay, between that and Roxbury. In a night or two more, we shall begin our work on Lechmore's Point; when doubtless we shall be honored with their notice, unless General Howe is waiting the favorable moment he has been told of, to aim a capital blow; which is my fixed opinion.

        The Congress already know, from the general estimate given in (for a month), what sum it will take to supply this army; and that little less than two hundred and seventy-five thousand dollars will answer the purpose.

        Pray impress this upon the members, and the necessity of forwarding the last sum voted, as one hundred thousand dollars will be but a flea-bite to our demands at this time. Did I not in one of my late letters inform you that I had sent Mr. Knox through New York to General Schuyler to see what artillery I could get from those places? He has been set out upon this business about ten days, and I hope will fall in with the Committee of Congress. Powder is also so much wanted, that nothing without it can be done.

        I wish that matter respecting the punctilio, hinted at by you, could come to some decision of Congress. I have done nothing


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    yet in respect to the proposed exchange of prisoners, nor shall I now, until I hear from them or you on this subject. I am sorry Mr. White met with a disappointment in the Jerseys; as I could wish not to be under the necessity, from any former encouragement given him, of taking him into my family. I find it is absolutely necessary that the aids to the Commander-in-chief should be ready at their pen, (which I believe he is not,) to give that ready assistance, that is expected of them. I shall make a lame hand therefore to have two of this kidney. It would give me singular pleasure to provide for those two gentlemen, mentioned in your letter; but, believe me, it is beyond the powers of conception to discover the absurdities and partiality of these people, and the trouble and vexation I have had in the new arrangement of officers. After five, I think, different meetings of the general officers, I have in a manner been obliged to give in to the humor and whimsies of the people, or get no army. The officers of one government would not serve in the regiments of another, (although there was to be an entire new creation;) a captain must be in this regiment, a subaltern in that company. In short, I can scarce tell at this moment in what manner they are fixed. Some time hence strangers may be brought in; but it could not be done now, except in an instance or two, without putting too much to the hazard.

        I have this instant by express received the agreeable news of the capitulation of Montreal. The account of it, you also undoubtedly have. Poor Arnold, I wonder where he is. Enos left him with the rear division of his army, and is now here under arrest.

        What can your brethren of the law mean, by saying your perquisites as secretary must be considerable? I am sure they have not amounted to one farthing. Captain Blewer waits, and


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    therefore I shall add no more than that I am, dear Sir, your most obedient and affectionate servant.

        P.S. Please to let Col. Lee 26 know that I answered his query by last post respecting the armed vessels of this Province, and those fitted out by the Continent. 27

    [Note:Richard Henry Lee. ]
    [Note:The text is from Ford. ]

    To MAJOR GENERAL PHILIP SCHUYLER Cambridge, November 28, 1775.

        Dear Sir: You may easily conceive that I had great Pleasure in perusing your Letter of the 18th Inst., which with the Inclosures, I received last Evening. It was much damp'd by my finding that General Montgomery had the same Difficulty to encounter with the Troops under your Command, that I have with these here. No Troops were ever better provided, or higher paid; yet their Backwardness to inlist for another Year is amazing. It grieves me to see so little of that patriotic Spirit, which I was taught to beleive, was characteristick of this People.

        Colonel Enos, who had the Command of Arnold's rear Division is returned with the greater Part of his Men, which must weaken him so much as to render him incapable of making a successful Attack on Quebec, without Assistance from General Montgomery. I hope he will be able to give it him, and by taking that City finish his glorious Campaign. I have nothing material to communicate to you from hence. I am making every Disposition for Defence, by throwing up Redoubts &c along the Bay; some of which have been constructed under the Enemy's Guns, but they have not given us the least Disturbance.

        I suppose Mr. Howe waits the Arrival of his Reinforcements, when probably he will attempt something. He has sent out


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    about 300 Men, Women, and Children last Week. They give shocking Accounts of the Want of Fuel and fresh Provisions. General Burgoyne is gone, or is going Home.

        Last Evening, I received, the agreeable Acct. of one of our arm'd Schooners having taken a large Brigantine laden with military Stores, the Inventory of which I have the Pleasure to inclose. 28 But let not this Acquisition prevent our sending what Stores you can spare. We shall want them all. Adieu, my dear General. I wish you a Return of your Health; and am, &c.

    [Note:This was the capture of the brig Nancy by the armed schooner Lee, commanded by Captain Manly, and taken to Cape Ann, Mass. The Nancy had on board, among other stores, 2,000 muskets, 100,000 flints, 30,000 round shot, more than 30 tons of musket shot, 11 mortar beds, and a brass mortar weighing nearly 3,000 pounds. ]

    To THE MASSACHUSETTS LEGISLATURE Cambridge, November 29, 1775.

        Gentn: The Necessity of giving furloughs to the Soldiers of the present, who Inlists into the new Army (by way of encouragement and to afford opportunity of providing necesaries for themselves and Families) was so strongly impress'd upon me, that I have consented to fifty of a Regiment being absent at a time: this will be a reduction of at least 1500 Men from the Strength of our Lines: to this I am to add, that contrary to my expectations and assurances given, I now find that the Connecticut Regiments cannot be induced to stay beyond their Limited term. Such a Considerable diminution of our force, at a time when so capitol a change is taking Place in the face of an Enemy, Increasing in Strength, cannot but be attended with extreme hazard, if some expedient is not fallen upon to supply the Deficiency.

        I have summoned the General Officers, to meet at Head Quarters at eleven OClock to morrow, to advise what is to be


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    done in this emergency, and should be glad to be aided by a Member or two of your Court, at the Consultation; as I think our Situation Critical and delays dangerous.

        In perusing a Resolve of your Honble. body, I perceive it to be determined, that your Troops are to be paid by the Lunar (or 28 Days to the Month) from the time of their enlisting to the first of August. -- upon which I cannot help observing as my opinion, that it will throw the rest of this Army into disorder and that as the Continental Congress have in explicit terms resolved, that it is the Kalender Month they mean to pay by; that the difference between the two must be considered as a Colonial not a Continental Charge.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, November 29, 1775.

        Parole Guilford. Countersign Allen.

        Capt. Towns 29 of Col Woodbridges regiment, tried at a late General Court Martial whereof Col Woodbridge was President for "behaving in an unofficerlike manner, in suffering a prisoner to escape who was charged with an Attempt to steal" -- The Court were unanimously of opinion, that the prisoner is guilty of behaving unbecoming an Officer, by declining to obey the orders of the Qr. Mr. General, in not assisting to seize a Soldier suspected of Theft, and for suffering the said Soldier,: grossly to abuse Col. Mifflin, and therefore adjudge the prisoner to be reprimanded by his Colonel, at the head of the Regiment, in the presence of Col Mifflin; and also adjudge that he pay a Fine of Three pounds to be appropriated according to the 51st Article of the Rules, and Regulations of the army.

    [Note:Capt. Archelaus Towns. ]

        Jonathan Wilkins, Soldier in the same Regiment, and in Capt. Town's Company tried at the same Court for "an Attempt to


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    steal, and for insolent language to the Qr. Mr. General -- The Court were of opinion that the prisoner was Guilty of abusive language to the Qr. Mr. Genl. and therefore adjudge him to be fined Twenty Shillings, to be appropriated according to the 51st Art. of the Rules and Regulations of the army.

    To JOSEPH REED Camp, November 30, 1775.

        Dear Sir: Two days ago I wrote fully to you by Captain Blewer, to this letter I refer, since which your favour of the 20th, with the agreeable postscript of the 21st, is come to hand, and demands my acknowledgments for the civility intended Mrs. Washington by you, &c.

        I have a very singular pleasure in informing you that by express last night from Cape Ann, I received the glad tidings of the capture of the Nancy storeship from London, by Capt. Manley, contents as per the enclosed copy, (taken by Mr. Pierce, to save me, you must know, the trouble of enumeration.) He unluckily miss'd the greatest prize in the world; their whole ordinance, the ship containing it being just ahead, but he could not have got both; and we must be thankful, as I truly am, for this instance of Divine favour; for nothing surely ever came more apropos; that no part of it may slip through my fingers, (for I have no doubt as this capture was made in sight of the other vessel, of there being some bold push to recover it) I instantly upon receiving the account, ordered four companies down to protect the stores; teams to be impress'd, to remove them without delay; and Col. Glover to assemble the minute men in the neighbourhood of Cape Ann, to secure the removal to places of safety.

        The colouring of that affair at Letchmore's Point has been rather too high. The alacrity of the riflemen and officers upon that occasion did them honour, to which Col. Patterson's


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    regiment and some others were equally entitled, except in a few instances; but the tide was at that time so exceedingly high as to compel a large circuit before our men could get to the causey, by which means the enemy, except a small covering party, (distant from the dry land on this side near four hundred yards,) had retreated, or were about to embark; all the shot therefore that pass'd were at a great distance; however, the men went to and over the causey, (except as before mentioned), spiritedly enough.

        This little maneouvre of the enemy is nothing more than a prelude. We have certain advice of a scoundrel from Marblehead, a man of property, having carried into General Howe a true statement of the temper and disposition of the troops towards the new enlistment; and having given him the strongest assurances of the practicability of making himself master of these lines in a very short time, from the disaffection of the soldiery to continue in service. I am endeavouring to counteract him, how effectually time alone can show.

        I began our bomb-battery on Letchmore's Point last night; the working party came off at day without having met with any interruption: the weather favoured our operation, the earth being clear of frost; not an officer in the army but looks for an attack. This has no effect upon the Connecticut regiments, they are resolved to go off. My best respects to Mrs. Reed and other friends. Be assured, I am, dear sir, yours affectionately. 30

    [Note:The text is from Reed's Life and Correspondence of Joseph Reed. ]

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, November 30, 1775.

        Parole -- . Countersign -- .

        A General Court Martial to sit to morrow morning at eleven 'OClock at Mr. Pomeroys in Cambridge, to try Lieut. Col. Enos


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    for "quitting his commanding Officer without leave" President -- Brigadier Genl Sullivan, with the twelve Field Officers next for Court Martial duty.

        Nathaniel Pattin of Capt. Dows Company in Col Prescotts Regiment, tried at a Genl Court Martial for "attempting to pass the lower Guards, and making a disturbance at Cobble-hill contrary to orders" -- The Court acquit the prisoner, who is to be immediately released.

    To THE PRESIDENT OF CONGRESS Cambridge, November 30, 1775.

        Sir: I had the Honor to write you the 28th. inst. by Captain Joseph Blewer. Last evening I received the Agreeable Account of the Schooner Lee, commanded by Capt. Manly having taken and carried into Cape Ann a large Brigantine bound from London to Boston laden with Military Stores, the Inventory of which I have the pleasure to enclose You. 31

    [Note:The Nancy. The inventory of her cargo is in the Washington Papers. ]

        Cape Ann is a very open Harbour and accessible to large Ships, which made me immediately send off, Col: Glover and Mr. Palfrey, with orders to raise the Minute Men and Militia of that part of the Country, to have the Cargo landed without Loss of Time and guarded up to this Camp; this I hope they will be able to effect, before it is known to the Enemy what port she is carried into, I sincerely congratulate you on this very great Acquisition and am, Sir, etc.

        P S: Manly has also taken a Sloop in the Ministerial Service and Capt. Adams in the Schooner Warren, a Schooner laden with Potatoes and Turnips for Boston and carried her to Portsmouth.


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    *To WILLIAM RAMSAY Cambridge, November 1775.

        Sir: By Mr. Harrison I have been favour'd with your Letter of the 16th. Ulto. and am glad to find that my address to the People of Canada, and Corrispondance with genl. Gage have Merited the approbation of the Publick. I am not without my hopes that Arnold, and his Detachment have got into good Quarters in Quebec, long before this. I have heard nothing (directly) from him since the 13th. Ulto. which, although it may be consider'd in a favourable point of view, keeps me in a very disagreeable state of Suspence.

        A Number of Transports are just arriv'd at Boston, and from our Acct. from thence, 2500 Troops are Landed; the truth, as yet, we know not. Our time of late hath been much taken up in building Barracks, and putting our Men undr. Cover; which, in ten or twelve days more I hope will be compleated. Whether Genl. How after receiving such a Reinforcement will remain quiet in his Quarters, is a matter to be determined; on thursday last about four or five hundred of them taking advantage of a very high Tide, landed at a place called Litchmores Point (opposite to Boston and then an Island) distant about ¾ of a Mile from our Lines on prospect Hill, but upon the appearance of two Regiments advancd towards them, over a Causey (waste deep in Water) they retreated having first killed and carrd. of 10 head of Cattle, but with the loss of two of their Men (so near were our Regiments to them). We had three Men wounded; two I fear mortally.

        The destruction of Falmouth, and the Inclination which has been shewn of bestowing the same favour on other Towns (which, by being prepard for their reception, have averted the blow) is evident proof of the diabolical designs of Administration to prosecute, with unrelenting Fury, the most cruel, and


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    Savage War that ever a Civilized Nation engagd in as it also is, of the necessity of adopting every means which can be devis'd for the preservation of property; this led me to hint to your part of the Country through Lund Washington, the expediency of stopping the Navigation of the Potomack without loss of time; conceiving that at an Expence, not amounting to one tenth of the damage which the Estates on the River may sustain in the course of next Summer, such obstruction's may be laid as to prevent any Armed Vessel from passing. I do not pretend to point out the place where or precise manner how, this is to be effected. In Delaware they have attempted it by sinking of Chevaux, de Frieze, and Row Gallies. In Potomack I think it might be done by Chevaux de Frieze (or sinking of Vessels) and Batteries on one, or both sides of the River as Circumstances might require. I have often heard, that some where below Quantico the Channel was so narrow as to [ 32 ] so, and the Land adjoining is proper, what [ ] the attempt? Highland is the [ ] these kind of Batteries; because [ ] from thence [ ] at the same time [ ] it [ ] receive no kind of Injury; where Batteries upon a Level are [ ] Silenced. Guns dismounted by the ships. If Such a Situation [ ] Colo. Fairfax could be found [ ] it would be impassible; because [ ] Vessel is Raked from Stern to Stern from the time she gets within reach) of your Guns, till she is directly under them; and from Stem to Stern till she is out of reach of them, after passing; and this without bringing more than one or two guns to bear on you, without heaving too which would protract her passage. I mention this matter, because I am very willing to have my property taxed to its proportionate amount to effect a Plan of defence to it, with sincere regard for Mrs. Ramsay, yr. Family, and all friends I remain Dr. Sir, etc. 33

    [Note:The spaces between brackets indicate mutilated manuscript. ]
    [Note:The editor is able to print this letter through the kindness of Mrs. Robert M. Reese, of Alexandria, Va., whose family possesses it. ]

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    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, December 1, 1775.

        Parole Exeter. Countersign Providence

        The fatal consequences which have at all times, and upon all Occasions, befallen Armies attacked at unawares, when Men are scattered and remote from their posts, or negligent whilst at them, are too well known, and very often too unhappily felt, to stand in need of description: Whereas, a handful of men, prepared for an Attack, are seldom defeated. It is therefore ordered, in the most express and peremptory terms, that no Non Commissioned Officer or Soldier, do presume, under any pretence whatsoever, day or night, to be out of Drum-call of his Alarm post, without leave of the Captain, or commanding Officer of the Company he belongs to, And it is also as expressly ordered, that no Non-Commission'd Officer, or Soldier, do pass from Cambridge, and the lines on this side the river to Roxbury, or come from thence hither, or go from either, to any other place in the Neighbourhood, without a written pass from the Captain or commanding Officer of the company he belongs to, although he should not mean to stay more than an hour or two --

        The Officers of each Regiment are to be subject to the same restraints, and to obtain leave in the same Manner, from the Colonel, or Commanding Officer of the Regiment, they respectively belong to; and it is expected that all Officers, and Soldiers, in this army, will pay the strictest attention to this Order, as they shall answer the consequence -- This Order is not intended to change the Mode of giving Furloughs, (already pointed out in past Orders) the sole design being to keep Men to their duty, that they may be always ready to meet their enemy, upon the shortest notice. --


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        It is again, and again, expressly ordered, that an Officer of each Company do, once a day, examine the Arms and Ammunition of the Company he belongs to, and see that they are fit for use -- This, and the foregoing Orders, are to be frequently read to the Men, and the usefulness of them strongly inculcated upon their minds; they are to be considered as standing Orders 'till countermanded.

        The Colonels, or commanding Officers, of the new established regiments, are to take especial care, that the new Recruits are put under proper drill Serjeants, as fast as they join, in order that they may, as quick as possible, be made acquainted with their duty. -- It is also recommended to these Gentlemen, to provide their Regiments with good Drummers and Fifers

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, December 2, 1775.

        Parole -- . Countersign -- .

        James McCormick of Capt Dibble's 34 Company, in Col. Woodridge Regt. tried at a General Court Martial, for "striking General Putnam's horse, and saying at the same time, d -- mn you! who is there? clear the road; and for repeatedly leaving the camp without orders" -- The Court are of Opinion that the Prisoner is Guilty of breach of the 3rd, 15th, 16th and 17th Articles of war, and adjudge him to receive thirty-nine Lashes on his bare back -- * The Court were of opinion that the prisoner is guilty of being absent from his regiment without leave, and of striking and abusing Sergt. Goodrich, when in the execution of his duty, and therefore adjudge the prisoner to be reduced to the Ranks and pay a fine of Twenty Shillings,

    [Note:Capt. Charles Dibble, of Paterson's Massachusetts regiment. ]

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    to be appropriated according to the 51st Article of the Rules and Regulations of the army.

        *Serjeant James King of Col Paterson's regt. tried at the same General, upon an appeal from a regimental Court Martial. --

    To GOVERNOR JONATHAN TRUMBULL Cambridge, December 2, 1775.

        Sir: The reason of my giving you the trouble of this, is the late extraordinary and reprehensible conduct of some of the Connecticut Troops. Sometime ago, apprehending that some of them might incline to go home when their time of enlistment should be up, I applied to the Officers of the several Regiments, to know whether it would be agreeable to the men, to continue till the 1st. of January, or until a sufficient number of other forces could be raised to supply their Place; who Informed me that they believed the whole of them would readily stay, till that could be effected. Having discovered last week, that they were very uneasy to leave the Service, and determined upon it; I thought it expedient, to summon the General Officers at Head Quarters, and Invited a Delegation of the General Court, to be present, that Suitable measures might be adopted for the defence and Support of our lines; the result was, that three thousand of the Minute Men and Militia of this Province, and two thousand men from New Hampshire, should be called in by the 10th. Instant for that purpose. With this determination the Connecticut Troops were made acquainted, and requested and ordered to remain here, as the time of most of them would not be out before the 10th., when they would be relieved. Notwithstanding this, yesterday morning, most of them resolved to leave the Camp; many went off, and the utmost Vigilance and


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    Industry were used to apprehend them; several got away with their Arms and Amunition. I have inclosed you a list of the names of some of them in Genl. Putnam's Regiment only who escaped; and submit to your judgment, whether some example should not be made of these men, who have basely deserted the Cause of their Country at this critical Juncture, when the Enemy are receiving Reinforcement. 35

    [Note:Ford quotes from the letter of Silas Deane to his wife (December 15): "The behavior of our soldiers has made me sick; but little better could be expected from men trained up with notions of their right of saying how, and when, and under whom, they will serve; and who have, for certain dirty political purposes been tampered with by their officers, among whom no less than a general has been busy."

       Gen. Charles Lee stated in a letter to Benjamin Rush that the Connecticut men "marched off bag and baggage, but in passing through the lines of other regiments they were so horribly hissed, groaned at and pelted, that I believed they wished their aunts, grandmothers and even sweethearts, to whom the day before they were so much attachd, at the Devil's own palace."

       This is a very different picture from that in Washington's letter to Trumbull. The latter, in his reply, expressed grief, surprise, and indignation, promised to furnish Connecticut's quota of men, and begged Washington not to judge of the temper and spirit of the colony by the conduct of these troops. ]

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, December 3, 1775.

        Parole Sawbridge. Countersign Hartley.

        It is with surprise and Astonishment The General learns, that notwithstanding the Information that was communicated to the Connecticut Troops, of the Relief being ordered to supply their places, by the 10th of this month; that many of them have taken their Arms with them and gone off, not only without leave, but contrary to express Orders; this is therefore to inform those who remain, that the General has sent an Express to the Governor of Connecticut, with the names of such men as have left the Camp, in Order, that they may be dealt with, in a manner suited to the Ignominy of their behaviour. The General also informs those who remain, that it is necessary for them to


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    obtain a written discharge, from the Commanding Officer of the Regt. they belong to, when they are dismissed on the 10th Instant; that they may be distinguished from, and not treated, as Deserters.

        The Colonels and commanding Officers of the Connecticut Regiments, are to give in the Names of all those of their respective regiments, for the purpose above mentioned.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, December 4, 1775.

        Parole Cushing. Countersign Payne.

        Lieut Col Enos, tried at a late General Court Martial whereof Brigadier Genl. Sullivan was president, for "leaving his Commanding Officer without permission, or orders, and returning to Cambridge" -- The Court after mature Consideration of the Evidence, are unanimously of Opinion, that the prisoner was by absolute necessity obliged to return with his division, and do therefore acquit him with honour -- The General orders Lieut Col Enos to be forthwith released from his arrest.

    To COLONEL ALEXANDER McDOUGALL Cambridge, December 4, 1775.

        Sir: Henry Knox Esqr. having informed me by Letter from New York of the 27th Ulto. that upon his application, you had been kind enough to promise your good Offices in Congress, to have 12 good Iron 4 Pounders with a Quantity of Shells and Shot, sent to this Camp; and also to spare two Brass 6 Pounders. I have now the Pleasure to acquaint you, that we are fully supplied with Shells and Shot from the Store Ship, which has fortunately fallen into our Hands, and there is no


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    necessity that these two Articles should be sent. The Cannon are much wanted, and I shall be much obliged by your having them forwarded, as expeditiously as possible. I am &c.

    *To BRIGADIER GENERAL JOHN THOMAS Cambridge, December 4, 1775.

        Sir: I recollect that when you were here last, you spoke to me in behalf of some Captn. who was desirous of raising a Company, and taking the chance of a Vacancy. The answer I then gave I am not positive, but think I rather declind accepting the offer, upon reflecting more maturely on the matter I am clearly against it; because I am satisfied that if one person is indulged in an application of this sort it will open a door to others, and the Recruiting Service greatly impeded by those who may want to come in, and who will expect to do so if they can have it thought that their success in the Recruiting Service exceeds those of the Officers already nominated. If a Measure of this sort was, in a single Instance, to be given into, it would instantly create different Interests and do more injury than can well be immagind, for which reason I beg of you to discourage every attempt of the kind. I am with esteem Sir, etc.

        [MS.H.S.]

    *To MAJOR GENERAL ARTEMAS WARD Cambridge, December 4, 1775.

        Sir: The Officers for the Regiment of Artillery 36 still remaining unfixed, and of consequence the Inlisting men for it greatly

    [Note:The First Regiment of Artillery was commanded by Col. Richard Gridley from May 19 to Nov. 17, 1775. Col. Henry Knox took command on November 17 and continued until Dec. 27, 1776, when he was commissioned brigadier general and Chief of Continental Artillery. The First Regiment went out of existence as an organization, Dec. 31, 1776. The First, Second, and Third Continental Artillery Regiments were organized at the beginning of 1777. Lieut. Col. William Burbeck was dismissed May 25, 1776, but served subsequently at the laboratory at Springfield, Mass., from 1777 to the end of the war. Lieut. Col. David Mason became Deputy Commissary General of Military Stores at Springfield, Mass., in February, 1777. ]

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    impeded, I should be glad as I am a perfect stranger to that Corps if you, with Genls. Thomas and Spencer would assist me in Scrutinizing a list given In by Colos. Burbeck and Mason at my desire.

        For this purpose you will please to be here to-morrow at 11 Oclock. I am, etc 37

    [Note:This text was obtained through the kindness of Dr. Charles Moore and Mrs. A. B. White, Parkersburg, W. Va., who furnished a photographic copy of the original. ]

    To THE PRESIDENT OF CONGRESS Cambridge, December 4, 1775.

        Sir: I had the Honor of writing to you the 30th. Ulto. inclosing an Inventory of the Military Stores taken on board the Brigantine Nancy by Capt. Manly of the Armed Schooner Lee. -- I have now to inform you that he has since sent into Beverly a Ship named the Concord, James Lowrie Master from Greenock in Scotland bound to Boston she has on board Dry Goods and Coals to the value of £3606,,9,,7, shiped by Crawford Anderson & Co. and consigned to James Anderson Merchant chant in Boston. -- it is mentioned in the Letters found on Board, that this Cargo was for the use of the Army, but on a Strict examination I find it is the Property of the Shipper's and the Person to whom consigned. Pray what is to be done with this Ship and Cargoe? and what with the Brigantine that brought the Military Stores? It was agreed in the conference last October, that all Vessels employed merely as transports and unarmed with their crews be set at Liberty, upon giving security to return to Europe, but that this Indulgence be not extended longer than 'till the first of April next. In the Shippers Letter they mention -- "You must procure a certificate from the General and Admiral, of the Concords being in the Government Service, such as the Glasgow Packet brought with her, which


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    was of great service, procured a Liberty to Arm her which was refused us, also gave her a prefference for some recruits that went out in her." In another part of this Letter they say, "Captain Lowrie will deliver you the contract for the Coals, we gave it to him as perhaps it might be of use as a certificate of his Ship being employed in the Government Service." Every Letter on board breaths nothing but emmity to this Country, and a vast number of them there are.

        It is some time since I recommended to the Congress, that they would institute a Court for the Trial of Prizes made by the Continental Armed Vessel, which I hope they have ere now taken into their consideration, otherwise I should again take the Liberty of urging it in the most pressing manner.

        The Scandalous Conduct of a great Number of the Connecticut Troops has laid me under the Necessity of calling in a Body of the Militia much sooner than I apprehended there would be an Occasion for such a Step. I was affraid some time ago that they would incline to go home when the time of their Inlistments expired; I called upon the Officers of the several Regiments to know whether they could prevail on the Men to remain until the first of January, or 'till a sufficient Number of other Forces could be raised to supply their place: I suppose they were deceived themselves, I know they deceived me, by assurances that I need be under no apprehension on that score, for the Men would not leave the Lines. Last Friday shewed how much they were mistaken, as the Major part of the Troops of that Colony were going away with their Arms and Ammunition, we have however by threats, persuasion and the Activity of the People of the Country who sent back many of them that had set out, prevailed upon the most part to stay. There are about 80 of them missing.

        I have called in 3000 Men from this Province and General Sullivan who lately returned from the Province of New


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    Hampshire, having informed me that a Number of Men were there ready at the shortest Notice, I have demanded 2000 from that Province, these two Bodies I expect will be in by the 10th. instant to make up the defficiency of the Connecticut Men, whom I have promised to dismiss on that day, as well as the Numbers to whom I was obliged to grant Furloughs before any would inlist. As the same defection is much to be apprehended when the time of the Massachusetts Bay, New Hampshire and Rhode Island Forces are expired I beg the attention of Congress to this important Affair. 38

    [Note:Thomas Lynch, Delegate from South Carolina and one of the committee of conference in camp, wrote to Washington (November 13) after returning to Congress: "Providence favors us everywhere; our success in every operation exceeds our most sanguine expectations; and yet, when God is ready to deliver our oppressors into our hands, that men cannot be found willing to receive them, is truly surprising. With grief and shame it must be confessed, that the whole blame hes not with the army. You will find your hands straightened instead of strengthened.…Be this as it may, resolution and firmness ought to rule our councils. A step yielded to improper and intemperate demands may be irretrievable." This letter is in the Washington Papers. ]

        I am informed that it has been the Custom of these Provinces in the last War for the Legislative power to order every Town to provide a certain Quota of men for the Campaign. This or some other mode should be at present adopted, as I am satisfied the men cannot be had without. this the Congress will please to take into their immediate consideration. My suspicions on this Head I shall also communicate to the Governors Trumbull and Cooke as well as to the New Hampshire Convention.

        The Number inlisted in the last Week are about 1300 Men, by this you see how slow this important Work goes on.

        Inclosed is a Letter wrote to me by General Putnam recommending Col: Babcock 39 to the Brigadier Generalship now vacant in this Army. I know nothing of this Gentleman, but I wish the vacancy was filled, as the want of one is attended with very great inconveniences. An express is just come in

    [Note:Henry Babcock. "He has this day been very serviceable in assisting me in quelling a mutiny and bringing back a number of deserters." -- Putnam to Washington, Dec. 1, 1775. This letter is in the Washington Papers. ]

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    from General Schuyler with Letters from Colonel Arnold and General Montgomery, copies of which I have the Honor to inclose you. 40

    [Note:Schuyler's letter of November 22, inclosing Arnold's of November 8 and Montgomery's of November 17, all three of which are in the Washington Papers. They describe the progress of affairs in Canada. ]

        Upon the whole I think, Affairs carry a pleasing aspect in that Quarter, the reduction of Quebec is an Object of such great importance, that I doubt not the Congress will give every Assistance in their power for the accomplishing it this Winter.

        By the last accounts from the Armed Schooners sent to the River St. Lawrence, I fear we have but little to expect from them, they were falling short of Provision and mention that they would be obliged to return, which at this Time is particulary unfortunate; as if they chose a proper station, all the Vessells coming down that River must fall into their hands. The plague, trouble and vexation I have had with the Crews of all the armed Vessels is inexpressible; I do believe there is not on Earth a more disorderly set; every time they come into Port, we hear of nothing but mutinous Complaints Manley's success has lately and but lately quitted his People the Crews of the Washington and Harrison have Actually deserted them, so that I have been under the necessity of ordering the Agent to lay the latter up and get hands for the other on the best Terms he could. The House of Representative and the Honr. Board have sent me a vote of theirs relative to the Harbour of Cape Cod, copy of which you have herewith, I shall send an Officer thither to examine what can be done for its defence, tho' I do not think I shall be able to give them such Assistance as may be requisite, for I have at present neither Men Powder or Cannon to spare. The great want of Powder is what the attention Of Congress should be particularly applied to. I dare not attempt any thing


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    offensive, let the temptation or advantage be ever so great, as I have not more of that most essential Article than will be absolutely necessary to defend our Lines, should the Enemy attempt to Attack them. By recent information from Boston, General Howe is going to send out a number of the Inhabitants, in order as it is thought to make more room for his expected reinforcements; there is one part of the information that I can hardly give Credit to, A Sailor says that a Number of these coming out have been inoculated with design of Spreading the Small pox through this Country and Camp. I have communicated this to the General Court and recommended their attention thereto.

        They are Arming one of the Transports in Boston with which they mean to decoy some of our Vessels, as we are apprized of their design, I hope they will be disappointed. My best respects wait on the Gentlemen in Congress I am, etc. 41

    [Note:On December 19 it was resolved that all transports carrying cargoes to the British Army or Navy were liable to seizure and confiscation. ]

        P.S. near 300 persons are landed at Point Shirley from Boston I was misinformed when I mentioned that one Regt. had arrived at Boston, a few Companies of the 17th. and Artillery were all that are come. 42

    [Note:This letter, in the writing of Stephen Moylan, was read in Congress December 13. ]

    To GOVERNOR NICHOLAS COOKE Cambridge, December 5, 1775.

        Sir: I have of late met with abundant reason, to be convinced of the impracticability of Recruiting this Army to the New establishment, in any reasonable time by voluntary Inlistments. The causes of such exceeding great lukewarmness, I shall not undertake to point out; sufficient it is to know, that the fact is so. Many reasons are Assigned; one only I shall mention,


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    and that is, that the present Soldiery are in expectation of drawing from the landed Interest and Farmers, a bounty equal to the Commencement of this Army, and that therefore they play off. Be this as it may, I am satisfied that this is not a time for trifling and that the Exigency of our affairs calls aloud for vigorous exertions.

        By sad experience it is found, that the Connecticut Regiments have deserted and are about to desert the noble cause we are engaged in. Nor have I any reason to believe, that the Forces of New Hampshire, this Government or Rhode Island, will give stronger proofs of their Attachment to it, when the period arrives, when they may Claim their dismission. For after every stimulus in my power to throw in their way, and near a month's close endeavour, we have Inlisted men, 1500 of which are to be absent at a time on Furlough, until all have gone home in order to Visit and provide for their Families.

        Five thousand Militia from this Government and the Colony of New Hampshire, are ordered to be at this Place by the 10th Instant, to relieve the Connecticut Regiments and Supply the deficiency which will be occasioned by their departure and of those on furlough. These men, I am told by officers who have been Eye witnesses to their behaviour are not to be depended upon for more than a few days; as they soon get tired, grow impatient, ungovernable and of course leave the Service. what will be the consequences then, If the greatest part of the Army is to be composed of such Men? Upon the new Establishment 26 Regiments were ordered to be raised, besides those of the Artillery and Riflemen. -- of these, New Hampshire has 3, Massachusetts 16, Rhode Island 2, and Connecticut 5. A mode of appointing the Officers was also recommended, and as strictly adhered to as circumstances would admit of. These officers are now recruiting, with the success I have mentioned.


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        Thus Sir, have I given you a true and impartial State of our Situation, and Submit it to the Wisdom of your and the other three New England Colonies, whether some vigorous measures, If the powers of Government are adequate ought not to be adopted, to facilitate the Completion of this army without offering a bounty from the public, which Congress have declared against, thinking the terms exclusive thereof, greater than ever Soldiers had. I have by this conveyance, laid the Matter before Congress, but the critical Situation of our affairs will not Await their deliberation and Recommendation. Something must be done without further delay. I am Sir, &c. 43

    [Note:The same letter was sent to Governor Trumbull and the Legislatures of Massachusetts and New Hampshire. ]

    To MAJOR GENERAL PHILIP SCHUYLER Cambridge, December 5, 1775.

        Dear Sir: Your much esteemed Favour of the 22nd Ulto., covering Colonel Arnolds Letter, with a Copy of one to General Montgomery and his to you, I received yesterday Morning. It gave me the highest Satisfaction to hear of Colonel Arnold's being at Point Levi, with his Men in great Spirits, after their long and fatiguing March, attended with almost insuperable Difficulties, and the discouraging Circumstances of being left by near one Third of the Troops that went on the Expedition. The Merit of this Gentleman is certainly great, and I heartily wish that Fortune may distinguish him as one of her Favourites. I am convinced that he will do every Thing that Prudence and Valour shall suggest, to add to the Success of our Arms, and for reducing Quebec to our Possession. -- Should he not be able to accomplish so desirable a Work with the Forces he has, I flatter myself that it will be effected, when General Montgomerie joins him, and our Conquest of Canada be compleat.


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    I am exceedingly sorry to find you so much plagued and embarrassed by the Disregard of Discipline, Confusion and Want of Order among the Troops, as to have occasioned you to mention to Congress, an Inclination to retire. I know that your Complaints are too well founded; but I would willingly hope that nothing will induce you to quit the Service, and that in Time, Order and Subordination will take Place of Confusion, and Command be rendered more agreeable. -- I have met with Difficulties of the same sort, and such as I never expected; but they must be borne with. The Cause we are engaged in is so just and righteous, that we must try to rise superior to every Obstacle in it's Support; and, therefore, I beg that you will not think of resigning, unless you have carried your Application to Congress too far to recede. 44 I am, etc.

    [Note:Schuyler had written to Washington (November 22): "Nothing can surpass the impatience of the troops from the New England Colonies to get to their firesides. Near three hundred of them arrived a few days ago, unable to do any duty; but as soon as I administered that grand specific, a discharge, they instantly acquired health, and rather than be detained a few days to cross Lake George, they undertook a march from here of two hundred miles with the greatest alacrity. Our army requires to be put on a different footing, Habituated to order, I cannot, without the most extreme pain, see that disregard of discipline, confusion, and inattention, which reign so generally in this quarter, and I am therefore determined to retire. Of this resolution I have advised Congress." Schuyler's letter to Congress is dated November 18. Both of these letters are in the Washington Papers. ]

    To COLONEL BENEDICT ARNOLD Cambridge, December 5, 1775.

        Dear Sir: Your Letter of the 8th. Ulto. with a Postscript of the 14th. from Point Levi, I have had the Pleasure to receive. It is not in the Power of any Man to command Success; but you have done more -- you have deserved it, and before this, I hope, have met with the Laurels which are due to your Toils, in the Possession of Quebec. My Thanks are due, and sincerely offered to you, for your enterprizing and persevering Spirit. To your brave Followers I likewise present them. I was not unmindful of you or them in the Establishment of a new Army.


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    One out of 26 Regiments (lately General Putnam's) you are appointed to the Command of and I have ordered all the Officers with you, to the one or the other, of these Regiments, in the Rank they now bear that in Case they choose to continue in Service, and no Appointments take Place, where they now are, no Disappointment may follow. Nothing very material has happened in this Camp since you left it. Finding we were not likely to do much in the Land Way, I fitted out several Privateers, or rather armed Vessels, in Behalf of the Continent, with which we have taken several Prizes to the Amount, it is supposed, of £15,000 Sterling. One of them a valuable Store-Ship (but no Powder in it) containing a fine Brass Mortar 13 Inch, 2000 Stands of Arms, Shot &c., &c.

        I have no Doubt but a Junction of your Detachment with the Army under General Montgomery, is effected before this. If so, you will put yourself under his Command and will, I am persuaded, give him all the Assistance in your Power, to finish the glorious Work you have begun. That the Almighty may preserve and prosper you in it, is the sincere and fervent Prayer of, Dr. Sir, &c.

        P.S. You could not be more surprised than I was at Enos's Return with the Division under his Command. I immediately put him under Arrest, and had him tried for quitting the Detachment without your Orders. He is acquitted, on the Score of Provision.

    To THE MASSACHUSETTS LEGISLATURE Cambridge, December 6, 1775.

        Sir' Copies of the inclosed Letters I have already written to the Governors of Rhode Island and Connecticut and shall do the same to the president of the Congress in New Hampshire; as I conceive our affairs are in a very Critical situation. It was mentioned to me yesterday in conversation, that the Militia of


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    this Government, who were ordered in to supply the places of the Connecticut troops, are allowed in to Month of 28 days. The first I highly approved of, because I was unwilling to see any inviduous distinction in pay, the never failing consequence of which is, jealousy and discord. But Sir, if the Genl. Court of this Colony have resolved on the latter, you must give me leave to add, that it aims the most fatal stab to the peace of this Army, that ever was given; and that Lord North himself could not have devised a more effectual blow to the recruiting Service. Excuse me Sir, for the Strength of these expressions. If my information is wrong, (I had it from Genl Heath, who says he had it from a Member of your Court) they are altogether Improper, and I crave your Pardon for them: if right, my zeal in the American Cause must plead my Excuse. I am, etc.

    To GOVERNOR NICHOLAS COOKE Cambridge, December 6, 1775.

        Sir: Your favors of the 25th and 30th Ulto. I received, and am to inform you, that from the good Character you gave of Mr. Aborn, I ordered the Agent in whose care his Vessel was, to deliver her up to him. There were other Circumstances too, that were favorable to Mr. Aborn and induced a belief that he was not inimical to our Cause. I am much obliged, by your kind attention to my two Letters of the 15th and 18th of Novr., and for your promise to lay the matters mention'd in the first before the General Committee and ordering the Troops, which were on Block Island, to this Camp. I am &c.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, December 7, 1775.

        Parole Sydney. Countersign Brutus.

        The Connecticut Regiments are to be under arms, upon their Regimental parades; on Saturday at eleven in the forenoon,


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    in order to be reviewed -- They are to have their arms in good order; the Rolls to be called over, and no man to be absent, every one that is able must appear; for this purpose they are to be exempt from all other duty upon that day.

        The Qr. Mr. General is strictly enjoined to pay proper attention to the Order of the 23rd. of Novr. respecting the quartering officers &c -- and is to prevent Boards, and other Materials being applied, to the building any houses without his Orders, as none such will be allowed for, by the public. All Officers are to pay due obedience to this order.

    *To GOVERNOR NICHOLAS COOKE Cambridge, December 7, 1775.

        Sir: Your favour of the 4th Instant, I this moment Received, advising of the taking of a Captain and Midshipman of one of the King's Armed Schooners. You will be pleased to take their Parole, not to leave Northampton until they are properly discharged, they will be sent there where there are several other Officers prisoners. I am Sir &c.

        As soon as the deficiency can be ascertained I will inform you; at present, I refer you to the other Letters, which will be handed you by favor of Col. Babcock.

    To THE COMMITTEE OF SAFETY
    AT PORTSMOUTH, NEW HAMPSHIRE Cambridge, December 7, 1775.

        Gentn.: Richard Emms a prisoner at Portsmouth, having expressed a strong desire to go to his family and friends in the West Indies, in a Schooner which is about to go there; you will be pleased to grant him a permit for that purpose, unless there be objections against it, which I am not apprized of. -- I am &c.


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    To THE PRESIDENT OF CONGRESS Camp Cambridge, December 7, 1775.

        Sir: I wrote you the 4th instant by express to which I beg you will be referred. My fears that Broughton and Sellman would not effect any good purpose were too well founded, They are returned and brought with them, three of the Principal Inhabitants from the Island of St. Johns, Mr. Collbuck as President of the Council acted as Governor; They brought the Governors Commission, the Province Seal &ca. &ca. As the Captains acted without any Warrant for such Conduct, I have thought it but Justice to discharge these Gentlemen whose Families were left in the greatest distress.

        I am credibly informed that James Anderson the Consignee and part Owner of the Ship Concord and Cargo, is not only unfriendly to American Liberty, but actually in Arms against us, being Captain of the Scotch Company in Boston. Whether your being acquainted with this Circumstance or not, will operate against the Vessel and Cargo, I will not take upon me to say, but there are many Articles on board Absolutely necessary for this Army, which whether a prize or not, they must have. I have the Honor to be, Sir, &ca.

    *To BRIGADIER GENERAL JOHN SULLIVAN Cambridge, December 8, 1775.

        Sir: The Intention of yesterday's order, respecting the Review of the Connecticut Troops, is only to afford a good oppertunity of making choice of such of their Arms as shall be found fit for the use of the New Army.

        I am not without my fear that if they are appriz'd of the Intention, some of the best Arms will be Secreted; for this reason I desire you will say nothing of the matter till the Regiment (in


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    your Brigade) is paraded, and then, in Company with the Field Officers of it, make choice of all the Arms that are good, taking the names of the Proprietors of them that they may be lodged, valued, and paid for agreeable to the General Order of the 23d. Ulto. I am Sir, etc.

        [N.H.H.S.]

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, December 9, 1775.

        Parole London. Countersign Granby.

        Serjt. Lane of Col Whitcomb's Regiment, with nineteen men of different Regiments, whose Names, Corps and Companies are delivered to Brigade Major Carey, 45 are immediately to be draughted, and sent to the Quarter Master General to receive his orders.

    [Note:Richard Cary. Later he became an aide to Washington. ]

        The Court Martial whereof Col. Woodbridge was president is dissolved.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, December 10, 1775.

        Parole Burke. Countersign Barre.

        The General has great pleasure in thanking Col. Bridge and the Officers of the 27th. Regt. (who from a peculiarity of circumstances, or want of vacancies, have no appointment in the new established Army) for their polite address to him; he considers the assurances which they have given, of their determination to continue in service (if required) until the new Regiments are compleated, in a very favourable light; especially, as it is accompanied with further assurances, that the men of the 27th. Regt., are consenting thereto; such a Conduct, at this important Crisis, cannot fail of giving pleasure to every


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    well-wisher to his Country, and next to engaging for another Year, is the highest proof they can give of their Attachment to the noble cause of Liberty, at the same time that it reflects honor upon themselves, it may under Providence give Posterity reason to bless them, as the happy Instruments of their delivery from those Chains which were actually forging for them.

        Four Companies of the New Hampshire Militia, are to march to Roxbury for the Reinforcement of that division; The Captain will receive Genl. Ward's Orders what Regiments they are to be attached to; The rest of the New Hampshire Militia are to join the Brigades on Winter and Prospect hills, in Cambridge&c, and together with the Companies of Militia from Massachusetts, which are ordered to join Prescot's, Greaton's and Nixons Regiments are to be appointed to the new established Regiments, as the Majors and Brigadier General shall think fit for the most equal distribution of them.

        The Captains of the several Militia Companies from the Massachusetts and New Hampshire Governments, are to make exact Rolls of their Companies, and return them signed without delay to the Adjutant General.

    To THE MASSACHUSETTS LEGISLATURE Cambridge, December 10, 1775.

        Sirs: I this moment received from Mr. Thomas Crafts the Letter you have inclosed, from which it will appear, that some of the People who came out of Boston, are infected with the Small Pox. as this disorder should it spread may prove very disastrous and fatal to our Army and the Country around it, I should hope that you will have such necessary Steps taken, as will prevent the infection's being farther communicated. I am Sir, etc.


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    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, December 11, 1775.

        Parole Otis. Countersign Warren.

        The Majors of Brigade, to be more exact, in obliging the Adjutants to deliver to them every Saturday at Orderly time, an exact return signed by the Commanding Officers of the new establish'd Regiments, of the Number of men, weekly inlisted in each of those Regiments; The Majors of Brigade will for the future, be answerable for any neglect in executing this order

        To reward and encourage military Merit, The Congress thought proper to increase the pay of the Captains and Subalterns of the Continental Army; and as uniformity and decency in dress, are essentially necessary in the Appearance and regularity of an army, his Excellency recommends it earnestly to the Officers to put themselves in a proper uniform -- The Field Officers of each of the new Corps, will set the example, by cloathing themselves in a Regimental of their respective Corps; and it is not doubted but the Captains and Subalterns, will immediately follow the example: The General by no means recommends, or desires Officers to run into costly, or expensive Regimentals, no matter how plain, or coarse, so they are but uniforms in their Colour, Cut and Fashion: The Officers belonging to those Regiments whose uniforms are not yet fixed upon, had better delay making their Regimentals until they are. --

    To THE COMMITTEE OF SIMSBURY,
    CONNECTICUT Cambridge, December 11, 1775.

        Gentn.: The Prisoners which will be delivered you with this, having been tried by a Court Martial, and deem'd to be such flagrant and attrocious villains, that they cannot by any


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    means be set at large or confined in any Place near this Camp, were sentenced to be sent to Symsbury in Connecticut; you will therefore be pleased, to have them secured in your Jail, or in such other Manner as to you shall seem Necessary, so that they Cannot possibly make their escape. the charges of their imprisonment will be at the Continental expence. I am &c.

    To THE PRESIDENT OF CONGRESS Cambridge, December 11, 1775.

        Sir: Captain Manly of the Lee Armed Schooner has taken and sent into Beverly two prizes since I wrote you last, which was the 7th. instant; one of them is the Ship Jenny Capt: Foster who left London late in October, he has very unfortunately thrown all his papers overboard, is not yet arrived at Camp; If he does, before I close this, I will let you know what Information I get from him, his Vessel is loaded with Coal and porter, of the Latter he has about 100 Butts. The other is a Brigantine from Antigua, called the Little Hannah, Robert Adams Master, her Cargoe consists of 139 Hogsheads of Rum, 100 Cases of Geneva and some other trifling Articles, both Cargoes were for the Army and Navy at Boston. I have great pleasure in Congratulating you on this Success. The Numbers Inlisted last Week are Men; If they go on at this Slow rate, It will be a long time before this Army is complete. I have Wrote to the Governors of Connecticut and Rhode Island, also to the Convention of New Hampshire on this Subject, a Copy of my Letter I have the Honor to inclose herewith. A Letter to the same purport I sent to the Legislature of this Province.

        The Militia are coming fast, I am much pleased with the Alacrity which the good People of this province as well, as those of New Hampshire, have shewn upon this occasion; I expect the whole will be in this day and to Morrow, when what


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    remains of the Connecticut Gentry, who have not Inlisted will have liberty to go to their Firesides.

        The Commissary General is still by his Indisposition detained from Camp, he committed an error when making out the Ration list, for he was then serving out and has continued to do, six Ounces pr man pr Week of Butter tho' it is not included in the List approved of by Congress. I do not think It would be expedient to put a stop thereto, as every thing that would have a tendency to give the Soldiery room for Complaints must be avoided.

        The Information I received that the Enemy intended spreading the small Pox amongst us, I could not suppose them capable of; I now must give some credit to it, as it has made its appearance on several of those who last came out of Boston, every necessary precaution has been taken to prevent its being communicated to this Army, and the General Court will take care that it does not spread through the Country.

        I have not heard that any more Troops are arrived at Boston, which is a luckly circumstance, as the Connecticut Troops I now find are for the most part gone of. The Houses in Boston are lessening every day, they are pulled down either for firewood, or to prevent the effects of fire, should we attempt a Bombardment, or an Attack upon the Town. 46 Cobble Hill is strongly fortifyed without any Interruption from the Enemy. Col: Enos has been tryed and acquited, upon what Principles you will see by the process of his Trial, which I now send you. As the time of Col: Enos's engagement was near expired, a doubt arose whether he could then be tryed by a Court Martial, this it was which occasioned his Trial to come on before Col:

    [Note:General Howe's orderly book (December 5) shows the following: "The frequent depredations committed by the soldiers in pulling down houses and fences, in defiance of repeated orders, have induced the Commander in Chief to direct the Provost to go his rounds attended by the executioners, with orders to hang up upon the spot, the first man he shall detect in the act, without waiting for further proof by trial." ]

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    Arnolds Evidence could be had. 47 This is what at present occur from Sir, your &ca.

    [Note:The proceedings of the court-martial are given in Force's American Archives, Fourth Series, vol. 3, 1709. ]

        P. S. The Weekly returns of Inlistments not being yet received for more than 10 Regiments amounting to 275 Men, I can not fill up the Blank in this Letter, but this added to the former makes in the whole 5253. 48

    [Note:The letter sent is in the writing of Stephen Moylan; the postscript is in that of Washington. ]

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, December 12, 1775. 49

    [Note:Washington made a memorandum (December 12) of having written to Dr. Eleazer Wheelock, thanking him for information respecting Maj. Robert Rogers. Also Robert Hanson Harrison thanked Dr. Ezra Stiles for the loan of his History of America which contained "several useful and necessary maps." ]

        Parole Effingham. Countersign, Fuller

        The Honorable the Continental Congress having been pleased to appoint Henry Knox Esqr. Colonel of the Regiment of Artillery, upon the new establishment; he is to be obeyed as such.

        The Colonels or commanding Officers of the five Connecticut Regiments, upon the new establishment; to deliver to the Adjutant General to morrow at Orderly time, an exact List of the Commissioned Officers of their respective Corps, together with a Return of the men they have each of them inlisted for the above Regiments; As an Express is immediately to set out to Governor Trumbull, who has demanded the same, to lay them before the Assembly of the colony.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, December 13, 1775.

        Parole Camden. Countersign Chatham.

        The Major Generals are to order the Militia Companies to be joined to the different Brigades and Regiments, in their


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    respective Divisions in such a manner, as to supply the dificiency of the Connecticut Troops, and to prevent disorder and confusion, in case we should be called to action; and make a report thereof as soon as it is done. As the Companies have an Inclination to join particular Regiments, the General has no objection to it, in every Instance where it can be done, consistent with the good of the service, and the allotment to the different encampments. The Adjutants of every Regiment to which any of these Companies are joined, are to acquaint them with all General, and Brigade Orders, that they may not unknowingly disobey them.

        The Colonels of the several Regiments upon the new establishment, may respectively apply to the Commissary of the Ordnance Stores, for seventy-five Stands of Arms, lately taken in the Store Ship from London; These Arms, the Colonels will be careful to put into the hands of the Soldiers most approved for their Care and Bravery, and such only as are enlisted for the next Campaign -- Exact Lists of their Names to be returned to the respective Colonels -- The Carbines taken in the said Ship, are not to be delivered without especial orders.

    To GOVERNOR NICHOLAS COOKE Cambridge, December 14, 1775.

        Sir: Your favor of the 11th. Inst. was handed me by the two french Gentlemen, Monsieurs Penet and De pleurne, 50 for which I am exceedingly obliged to you. I have heard their proposals and plan, for supplying the Continent with Arms and

    [Note:Pierre Penet and Emanuel de Pliarne, merchants from Nantes, France. They arrived in Rhode Island from Cape François. This seems to have been the first outside assistance received by the Colonies, but this venture does not appear to have been connected in any way with Beaumarchais or the French Government. The precise quantity of supplies furnished by Penet and Pliarne is not easily discovered. Penet has the unique distinction of having been made a brevet aide-de-camp to Washington before his return to France. Pliarne remained in America and was accidentally drowned while crossing the Potomac at Georgetown (now a part of Washington, D. C.). ]

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    Amunition, which appear plausible and to promise Success; But not thinking myself Authorised to Enter into any contract respecting the same and being not fully acquainted with the Measures Congress have adopted for procuring these Articles; I have prevailed upon them to go to Philadelphia and Recommended them and the Consideration of their plan to that Body, where the Matter will be finally agreed upon or rejected.

        I must request the favor of you, to furnish every Necessary for accomodating them and Carriages with all expedition, for Carrying them as far as Governor Trumbull's. They are to travel at the Continental Expence, and whatever charge you may be at on their Account, you will be pleased to transmit to me, and it shall be immediately Reimbursed. 51 Yours &c.

    [Note:Practically this same letter was written this same day to Governor Trumbull. ]

    To THE PRESIDENT OF CONGRESS Cambridge, December 14, 1775.

        Sir: I received your favor of the 2d instant with the several Resolves of Congress therein inclosed. 52 -- The Resolves relative to Captures made by Continental Armed Vessels only want a Court Established for Trial to make them complete. This I hope will be soon done, as I have taken the Liberty to urge it often to Congress.

    [Note:"A letter from General Washington dated 14th December being delivered by two strangers was read. Resolved that the same be committed to the Secret Committee, who are directed to confer with the bearers, and pursue such measures as they may think proper for the interest of the United Colonies." (See Journals of the Continental Congress, Dec. 30, 1775,) ]

        I am some what at a loss to know whether I am to raise the two Battalions of Marines here or not, as the delay can be attended with little Inconvenience, I will wait a further explanation from Congress before I take any Steps thereon.

        I am much pleased that the money will be forwarded with all possible expedition, as it is much wanted, also that Conolly


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    and his Associates are taken. It has been a very fortunate Discovery. I make no doubt, but that the Congress will take every necessary measure to disposses Lord Dunmore of his hold in Virginia, the sooner steps are taken for that purpose, the more probability there will be of their being effectual. 53

    [Note:Congress had determined (December 2) to assemble a small squadron of armed vessels to proceed against Lord Dunmore. Captain Stone and his vessel were engaged for the venture; Benjamin Harrison was directed to proceed to Maryland and procure two or three armed vessels to operate in Chesapeake Bay; and Capt. Abraham Whipple, as soon as he arrived in Philadelphia, was to be sent to that bay to cooperate. Ford notes that Richard Henry Lee wrote to Arthur Lee (July 6, 1783) his recollection that the appearance of two British ships in the bay put an end to the attempt. ]

        Mr. Wm. Aspinwall and Mr. Lemuel Haywood were appointed Surgeons at Roxbury in the first formation of the Army, they were confirmed by Doctor Church, who promised to write to Congress in their behalf, they applied to me during his confinement here, at a time that I had notice of Doctor Morgan's appointment, I referred them to his arrival, and inclosed you have his Sentiments relative to them, also of Doctor Rand, Surgeon to the Small Pox Hospital, and his Mate; I have to remark to you, that when we had some time past, got the better of the small pox, Doctor Rand applied to me for a continuance of him in that Department, which from a principle of not multiplying Offices I declined; he is at present wanted and says that by only attending occasionally, he looses his country practice, of course his Livelyhood. You will please to lay these matters before Congress for their consideration. I was happy enough to anticipate the desire of Congress respecting Mr. Crafts and Mr. Trot, 54 they both declined; the latter did not chuse to serve, the former's ambition was not fully gratified by the offer made him of a Majority. I hope Col. Knox will soon finish the Business he is upon and appear here to take the Honorable command conferred on him by Congress. 55

    [Note:Thomas Crafts, jr., and George Trott. (See Journals of the Continental Congress, Dec. 2, 1775.) ]
    [Note:Henry Knox was elected colonel of the regiment of artillery by Congress on November 17. ]

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        I will make application to Genl. Howe and propose an Exchange for Mr. Ethan Allen. I am much afraid I shall have a like proposal to make for Captain Martindale of the Armed Brigantine Washington and his Men, who it is reported was taken a few days past by a Man of War and carried into Boston. We cannot expect to be allways successfull.

        You will doubtless here of the Barbarity of Capt. Wallace on Cananicut Island, 'ere this reaches your hands. 56

    [Note:Connanicut is a small island opposite Newport, in Narragansett Bay, Capt. Hugh Wallace, with a body of British sailors and marines, landed on the island, burned several houses, plundered the people, and drove off their cattle. ]

        About 150 more of the poor Inhabitants are come out of Boston, the small pox rages all over the Town, such of the Military as had it not before, are now under inoculation. This I apprehend is a weapon of defence, they are using against us, what confirms me in this Opinion is, that I have Information that they are tearing up the pavements, to be provided against a Bombardment. I wrote you this day by Messieurs Pennet and De Plierne, who will lay before the Congress or a Committee thereof, proposals for furnishing the Continent with Arms and Ammunition, I refer you to themselves for further particulars. I have the Honor, etc.

    To THE PRESIDENT OF CONGRESS Cambridge, December 14, 1775.

        Sir: The two French Gentlemen, who will appear before you with this, brought recommendations to me from Governor Cooke of Providence, their names are, Messieurs Pennet and De Pliarne.

        They purpose a plan for supplying this Continent with Arms and Ammunition, which appears to me very eligible; as I am not acquainted with the extent of Schemes already formed


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    by Congress for the attaintment of these necessary Articles, I have declined entering into any Engagements with them, but have prevailed with them to proceed, at the public expence to Philadelphia and there through you to lay their proposals before Congress, or a Committee of Congress, to whose attention I beg leave to recommend them and the important Business they come upon. 57 I am &ca.

    [Note:Penet and Pliarne presented Washington's letter December 30, and Congress resolved "That the same be referred to the Secret Committee, who are directed to confer with the bearers, and pursue such measures as they may think proper for the interest of the United Colonies." (See Journals of the Continental Congress. ) ]

        P. S: I have given these Gentlemen reason to expect that they can get back to the Cape as commodiously and speedily from Philadelphia as they could from Providence, in which I should be very sorry they were disappointed.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, December 15, 1775.

        Parole Rockingham, Countersign Richmond.

        The Quarter Masters of all the Regiments, are as soon as possible, to deliver to the Deputy Commissary General Mr. Elisha Avery, all the Cyder Barrels, Butter Firkins and Candle-Boxes, in the possession of their respective Corps; as those Articles are very much wanted for the public service.

    To GOVERNOR JONATHAN TRUMBULL Cambridge, December 15, 1775.

        Sir: Your favors of the 7th and 9th Inst. I received and was much pleased to hear of the Zeal of the people of Connecticut and the readiness of the Inhabitants of the several Towns, to march to this Camp upon their being acquainted with the behaviour and desertion of their Troops. I have nothing to


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    suggest for the consideration of your Assembly; I am confident they will not be wanting in their exertions, for supporting the just and constitutional rights of the Colonies.

        Inclosed I send you a list of the Officers and Companies under the New establishment, with the number of the Men Inlisted; the Return only came in to day, or I would have transmitted it before.

        Having heard that It's doubtful, whether the Reverend Mr. Leonard 58 from your Colony, will have it in his power to Continue here as a Chaplain, I cannot but express some Concern, as I think his departure will be a loss. His General Conduct has been exemplary and praiseworthy: In discharging the duties of his Office, active and industrious; he has discovered himself warm and steady friend to his Country, and taken great pains to animate the Soldiery and Impress them with a knowledge of the important rights we are contending for. Upon the late desertion of the Troops, he gave a Sensible and judicious discourse, holding forth the Necessity of courage and bravery and at the same time of Obedience and Subordination to those in Command.

    [Note:Abiel Leonard, chaplain of the Third Connecticut Regiment; chaplain of Knox's Continental artillery through the year 1776. He became insane in 1777 and died in 1778. ]

        In justice to the merits of this Gentleman, I thought it only right to give you this Testimonial of my Opinion of him and to mention him to you, as a person worthy of your esteem and that of the Public. I am Sir, &c.

    To JOSEPH REED Cambridge, December 15, 1775.

        Dear Sir: Since my last, I have had the pleasure of receiving your favours of the 28th ultimo, and the 2d instant. I must again


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    express my gratitude for the attention shown Mrs. Washington at Philadelphia. It cannot but be pleasing, although it did, in some measure, impede the progress of her journey on the road. 59 I am much obliged to you for the hints contained in both of the above letters, respecting the jealousies which you say are gone abroad. 60 I have studiously avoided in all letters intended for the public eye, I mean for that of the Congress, every expression that could give pain or uneasiness; and I shall observe the same rule with respect to private letters, further than appears absolutely necessary for the elucidation of facts. I cannot charge myself with incivility, or, what in my opinion is tantamount, ceremonious civility, to the gentlemen of this colony; but if such my conduct appears, I will endeavor at a reformation, as I can assure you, my dear Reed, that I wish to walk in such a line as will give most general satisfaction. You know, that it was my wish at first to invite a certain number of gentlemen of this colony every day to dinner, but unintentionally I believe by anybody, we somehow or other missed of it. If this has given rise to the jealousy, I can only say that I am sorry for it; at the same time I add, that it was rather owing to inattention, or, more properly, too much attention to other matters, which caused me to neglect it. The extracts of letters from this
    [Note:Description of Mrs. Washington's arrival and departure from Philadelphia were published in the Pennsylvania Gazette of November 22 and 29. She arrived at Cambridge on December 11. Accompanying her were Mrs. Horatio Gates, John Parke Custis and his wife, and Warner Lewis and his wife. ]
    [Note:Thus early the antagonisms in Congress were apparent to an outsider. The jealousies between the New England and southern Delegates had grown. The New England opposition to Schuyler had its roots in the Massachusetts-Connecticut feud over Silas Deane and the Ticonderoga expedition. Gates was even then unconsciously grooming, or being groomed, for New England support in the Burgoyne campaign and the Conway Cabal. But another line of cleavage was that of the group who clung to the hope of reconciliation with Britain and those who wanted complete severance from the mother country. John Adams, with his strange mixture of keen, intelligent insight and unexpected dumbness, only skimmed the surface when he wrote ( Works, vol. 2, p. 448): "It is almost impossible to move anything [in Congress], but you instantly see private friendships and enmities, and provincial views and prejudices intermingle in the consultation." Joseph Reed speedily became involved in the very situation of which he warned Washington. ]

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    camp, which so frequently appear in the Pennsylvania papers, are not only written without my knowledge, but without my approbation, as I have always thought they must have a disagreeable tendency; but there is no restraining men's tongues, or pens, when charged with a little vanity, as in the accounts given of, or rather by, the riflemen.

        With respect to what you have said of yourself, and your situation, to what I have before said on this subject I can only add, that whilst you leave the door open to my expectation of your return, I shall not think of supplying your place. If ultimately you resolve against coming, I should be glad to know it, as soon as you have determined upon it. The Congress have resolved well in respect to the pay of and advance to the men; but if they cannot get the money-signers to despatch their business, it is of very little avail; for we have not at this time money enough in camp to answer the commissary's and quartermaster's accounts, much less to pay and advance to the troops. Strange conduct this!

        The accounts which you have given of the sentiments of the people respecting my conduct, is extremely flattering. Pray God, I may continue to deserve them, in the perplexed and intricate situation I stand in. Our enlistment goes on slow. By the returns last Monday, only five thousand nine hundred and seventeen men are engaged for the ensuing campaign; and yet we are told, that we shall get the number wanted, as they are only playing off to see what advantages are to be made, and whether a bounty cannot be extorted either from the public at large, or individuals, in case of a draft. Time only can discover this. I doubt the measure exceedingly. The fortunate capture of the store-ship has supplied us with flints, and many other articles we stood in need of; but we still have our wants. We are securing our approach to Letchmore's Point, unable upon any principle whatever to account for their silence, unless it be to lull us


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    into a fatal security to favour some attempt they may have in view about the time of the great change they expect will take place the last of this month. If this be the drift, they deceive themselves, for, if possible, it has increased my vigilance, and induced me to fortify all the avenues to our camps, to guard against any approaches upon the ice.

        If the Virginians are wise, that arch-traitor to the rights of humanity, Lord Dunmore, should be instantly crushed, if it takes the force of the whole colony to do it; otherwise, like a snow ball, in rolling, his army will get size, some through fear some through promises, and some from inclination, joining his standard. But that which renders the measure indispensably necessary is the negroes. For if he gets formidable, numbers will be tempted to join, who will be afraid to do it without. 61 I am exceeding happy to find that that villain Connolly is seized; I hope if there is any thing to convict him, that he will meet with the punishment due to his demerit and treachery.

    [Note:Dunmore had issued a proclamation (November 7) declaring the colony to be under martial law and summoning every person capable of bearing arms to resort to his Majesty's standard, or be looked upon as traitors to his Majesty's crown and government. But the part that gave the most offense to the colonists was the promise of freedom to all indented servants, negroes, and others "appertaining to rebels" who should join his troops. Congress interpreted this proclamation as one "tearing up the foundations of civil authority and government" within the colony of Virginia, and advised that such a form of government should be established as should best produce the happiness of the people and most effectually secure peace and good order in the colony during the continuance of the dispute with Britain. (See Journals of the Continental Congress, Dec. 4, 1775.) A month before the proclamation was issued Dunmore had sworn, "by the living God, that if any injury or insult was offered to himself, he would declare freedom to the slaves." (See John Adams's Works, vol. 2, p. 458.) ]

        We impatiently wait for accounts from Arnold. Would to God we may hear he is in Quebec, and that all Canada is in our possession. My best respects to Mrs. Reed. I am, &c.

        P.S. The smallpox is in every part of Boston. 62 The soldiers there who have never had it, are, we are told, under

    [Note:Robert Hanson Harrison, by direction of Washington (December 15), forwarded £53.13.3 by John Parke Custis to the Massachusetts Legislature for the deserving poor of Boston. This amount had been subscribed by the people of Fairfax County, Va., and young Custis had brought it with him, bearing also a letter from John Dalton and William Ramsay, of the Fairfax committee. ]

    Page 168

    innoculation, and considered as a security against any attempt of ours. A third shipload of people is come out to Point Shirley. If we escape the smallpox in this camp, and the country around about, it will be miraculous. Every precaution that can be is taken, to guard against this evil, both by the General Court and myself. 63

    [Note:The text is from Reed's Life and Correspondence of Joseph Reed ; Sparks printed this with unnoted omissions. ]

    To THE MASSACHUSETTS LEGISLATURE Cambridge, December 16, 1775. 64

    [Note:On this day Washington wrote a short note to Congress informing that body of the sailing of 10 vessels from Boston, with one regiment of foot and three of light horse, said to be bound for Halifax. He also wrote practically the same note to the New Hampshire Legislature. ]

        Gentn.: Among many Resolves of Congress which were forwarded to me the other day, are the inclosed.

        Not being able to discover from the Resolves themselves, or the Letter which accompanied them, whether a Copy had been transmitted to you by the president, or to be handed in by me, I thought it best to err on the safe side; especially as the Qr M Genl. has just informed me, that he is exceeding scarce of Hay and can get none under Six Pounds lawful a Ton; and that he is fearful, if he should even consent to offer this, (enormous as it is), the price will be further advanced upon him, as heretofore and in the Article of Wood. I am &c.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, December 17, 1775.

        Parole Thanet. Countersign Dorset.

        When fresh Recruits from the Country join the new established Regiments, The Colonels, or commanding Officers of those Regiments, are to discharge the like number of old


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    Soldiers, who have not engaged for the next Campaign, taking care to part with the most indifferent first --

        A General Court Martial to sit to morrow Morning in Cambridge, at Ten in the fore-noon, to try such prisoners as shall be brought before them -- All Evidences and Persons concern'd to attend the Court.

    To GOVERNOR NICHOLAS COOKE Cambridge, December 17, 1775.

        Sir: By Sundry persons and Accounts just from Boston, I am informed, that the Minesterial Army is in very great distress for want of fresh Provisions and having received intelligence that there are 200 fat Cattle on Block Island and some Transport Vessels cruizing that way, in quest of Necessaries for the Army, I must request you to have the Cattle &c. removed from thence immediately, and from every other place where their Ships can come and take them of; It is a matter of the utmost importance, to prevent their getting a Supply; If they can be hindered now, the advanced Season of the year and the Inclement Weather, which we may expect ere long, will put it out of their power.

        I yesterday received the inclosed information from several persons who lately came out from Boston, which I thought my duty to transmit to you. It is more than probable, that the destination of the Troops may be very different from what they have given out; they may have made use of that to deceive in another Quarter? 65 I am &c.

    [Note:The information in the last paragraph was also sent to Governor Trumbull, this date, with an additional sentence: "Brig. Genl Prescott as it is said, having treated Col. Allen with Severity, I beg your particular attention, least he should escape." Brig. Gen. Richard Prescott had surrendered at Montreal. This was the same officer captured two years later by the daring of Col. William Barton, of the Rhode Island Militia. ]

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    To MAJOR GENERAL ARTEMAS WARD Cambridge, December 17, 1775.

        Sir: The aplications for liberty to go to the lines are so frequent that they cause much trouble. You will, therefore, Sir, grant passes to such as you may think proper. At the same time I would recommend to you that the officer who will attend upon these occasions be a person of sense, and one who will carefully attend to the conversation of those who meet on the lines. I am, etc. 66

    [Note:The text is from the Toner Transcripts in the Library of Congress. ]

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, December 18, 1775.

        Parole Letchmore. Countersign Sears.

        The Colonels and commanding Officers of Regiments and Corps, are to deliver to the Adjutant General at Orderly time next Saturday -- Their Pay Abstracts for the Months of October, November and December; Also an Abstract for the month of January next, for each of the new-established Corps, The Honorable the Continental Congress having been pleased to order all those, who have bravely resolved to serve their Country another Year, shall be rewarded with one Months pay advance.

    To SIR WILLIAM HOWE Camp Cambridge, December 18, 1775.

        Sir: We have just been informed of a Circumstance, which, were it not so well Authenticated, I should scarcely think credible; It is that Col: Allen, who with his small party, was defeated and taken Prisoner near Montreal, has been treated, without regard to decency, humanity, or the Rules of War; That he has


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    been thrown into Irons and suffers all the Hardships inflicted upon common Felons.

        I think it my Duty Sir, to demand and do expect from you an Ecclaireissement on this Subject; at the same Time I flatter myself, from the Character which Mr. Howe bears, as a man of Honor, Gentleman and Soldier, that my demand will meet with his Approbation: I must take the Liberty also of Informing you, that I shall consider your silence, as a confirmation of the Truth of the report; And further assuring you that whatever Treatment Colonel Allen receives; whatever fate he undergoes, such exactly shall be the Treatment and Fate of Brigadier Prescot, now in our Hands.

        The Law of Retaliation, is not only justifiable, in the Eyes of God and Man, but absolutely a duty, which in our present circumstances we owe to our Relations, Friends and Fellow Citizens.

        Permit me to add Sir, that we have all here the highest regard and reference for your great personal, Qualities and Attainments, and that the Americans in general esteem it not as the least of their Misfortunes, that the name of Howe; a name so dear to them, should appear at the Head of the Catalogue of the Instruments, employed by a wicked Ministry for their destruction.

        With due Respect I have the Honor to be, etc.

        P.S.: If an Exchange of Prisoners taken on each Side, in this unnatural Contest, is agreeable to General Howe, he will please to Signify as much, to his Most Obedient. 67

    [Note:Congress by a resolve (December 2) had directed Washington to obtain the exchange of Allen. Howe did not feel himself authorized to hold exchange negotiations without directions from England. Washington's words apparently touched a tender spot, for Howe replied (December 25): "It is with regret, considering the character you have always maintained among your friends, as a gentleman of the strictest honor and delicacy, that I find cause to resent a sentence in the conclusion of your letter, big with invective against my superiors, and insulting to myself, which should obstruct any further intercourse between us." This letter is in the Washington Papers. ]

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    To THE PRESIDENT OF CONGRESS Cambridge, December 18, 1775.

        Sir: Captain Manly of the Lee Armed Schooner took and sent into Beverly, the Sloop Betsey, A. Atkinson, master; she is an Armed Vessel, dispatched by Lord Dunmore with Indian corn, potatoes and oats, for the Army in Boston. The Pacquets of Letters found on board, I have the Honor to send you with this, by Captain Chambers. 68 They being of so much Importance that I do not think it would be prudent to trust them by a common express. As Lord Dunmore's Schemes are fully laid open in these Letters, I need not point out to the Congress the necessity there is of a vigorous exertion being adopted by them to dispossess his Lordship of the strong hold he has got in Virginia; I do not mean to dictate, I am sure they will pardon me for freely giving them my Opinion, which is, that the fate of America a good deal depends on his being obliged to evacuate Norfolk this winter or not. I have Kirkland, 69 well secured and think I will send him to you for examination, by most of the Letters relative to him, he is a dangerous fellow; John Stewards papers are of a very Interesting nature. Governor Tonyn's and many other Letters from Augustine, 70 shew the

    [Note:Capt. James Chambers, of Thompson's rifle regiment, Only a few of the Dunmore letters have survived in the Papers of the Continental Congress, and these particular ones are difficult to identify. ]
    [Note:Colonel Kirkland was described by Lord Dunmore as an American "truly well-disposed to his Majesty's service," a man of "real worth and spirit." -- Ford. ]
    [Note:The committee of Congress to which this Washington letter was referred reported Jan. 1, 1776, and their report was adopted as follows:

       "Resolved, That the seizing and securing the barracks and castle of St. Augustine will greatly contribute to the safety of these colonies, therefore, it is earnestly recommended to the colonies of South Carolina, North Carolina and Georgia to undertake the reduction of St. Augustine, if it be thought practicable."

       "Resolved, That the first resolution together with copies or extracts of such of the intercepted letters as tend to show the state of the forts and garrison at St. Augustine be transmitted by express to Henry Middleton and John Rutledge Esqrs members of Congress to be by them laid before the committees directed to meet [at Charleston] in consequence of the above resolution and in case the enterprize be judged practicable that immediate preparations be made by the joint force of the said colonies (viz South Carolina, North Carolina and Georgia) and the expedition be undertaken without delay at the expence of the united colonies." ]


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    Weakness of the place, at the same time of what vast consequence It would be for us to possess ourselves of it, and the great quantity of Ammunition contained in the forts. Indeed, these papers are of so great consequence, that I think this but little Inferior to any prize our famous Manly has taken. We now Work at our ease on Leechmore's Hill; on discovering our Party there Yesterday the Ship, which lay opposite, began a cannonade, to which Mount Horem added some shells. One of our men was wounded, we fired a few Shot from 2 Eighteen pounders on Cobble Hill and soon Obliged the Ship to shift her station, she now lies in the ferryway, and except a few Shells from the Mount in Boston, which do no Execution, we have no Interruption in prosecuting our Works, which in a very short time will be compleated. When that is done: when we have powder to sport with, I think if the Congress resolve on the proposal made relative to the Town of Boston, It can be done.

        I have sent a Letter in this day to General Howe of which a Copy goes with this: my reason for pointing out Brigadier General Prescott as the object who is to suffer Mr. Allen's fate, is, that by Letters from General Schuyler and Copies of Letters from General Montgomery to Schuyler, I am given to under stand that Prescot is the cause of Allen's sufferings. I thought it best to be decisive on the Occasion, as did the Generals whom 1 consulted thereon. The returns of men inlisted since my last, amount to about 1800, making in the whole 7,140. The Militia that are come in from this Province and New Hampshire, are very fine looking men and go through their duty with great alacrity; the dispatch made both by the people in marching and by the Legislative Powers in complying with my requisition, has given me infinite satisfaction. Your Letter of the 8th instant with the Explanatory resolves, respecting my calling


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    forth the Militia and Minute Men, is come to hand, to which I shall pay all due Attention. You have removed all the difficulties which I laboured under about the two Battalions of Marines; I shall obey the Orders of Congress in looking out for proper Officers to command that Corps. I make no doubt but when the Money arrives, to pay of the arrears and the month's advance, that it will be a great encouragement for the men to Inlist. Inclosed is a Letter I lately received from Mr. James Lovell, 71 his case is truly pitiable, I wish some mode could be fallen upon to relieve him from the cruel Situation he is now in. I am sensible of the impropriety of exchanging a Soldier for a Citizen, but there is something so cruelly distressing in regard to this Gentleman, that I dare say you will take in under your consideration. 72 I am &ca. 73

    [Note:Lovell was, later, a Delegate from Massachusetts to the Continental Congress. He ill requited Washington's efforts by a display of enmity throughout his service in Congress. ]
    [Note:See Journals of the Continental Congress, Jan. 5, 1776. ]
    [Note:This letter was read in Congress (December 30) and referred to Thomas Lynch, William Hooper, George Wythe, Silas Deane, and John Adams. On December 19 Washington wrote again to Congress, a mere forwarding letter inclosing one that had just reached him disclosing further the views of Lord Dunmore. (See Washington's letter to Congress, Jan. 30, 1776, post. ) ]

    To MAJOR GENERAL PHILIP SCHUYLER Cambridge, December 18, 1775.

        Dear Sir: Your Favours, the first of the 28th. Ulto. and the two last of the 9th. Inst., with their Inclosures, I received. I am happy to hear of your being better and heartily wish that you may soon be perfectly recovered from your Indisposition. 74

    [Note:These letters are in the Washington Papers. Schuyler's of November 18 describes General Carleton's escape: "The Evening before General Montgomery landed on the Island of Montreal, Mr. Carleton embarked his Garrison on Board of some Vessels and small Craft, and made two Attempts to pass our Batteries near the Mouth of Sorel, but was driven back by Colo. Easton, who has behaved with Bravery and much Alertness: On the 19th Mr. Carleton, disguised as En Canadien, and accompanied by six Pea ants, found Means to make his Escape, Brigadier-General Prescott surrendered next Day by Capitulation." ]

    Page

       

    Resolve of Congress, December 7, 1775, Limiting Washington's Authority
    to Call Out the New England Militia


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        I should have been very glad, if Mr. Carleton had not made his Escape. I trust e'er long he will be in our Hands, as I think we shall get Possession of Quebec, from whence he will not easily get away.

        I am much concerned for Mr. Allen, and that he should be treated with such Severity. I beg that you will have the Matter and Manner of his Treatment strictly inquired into, and transmit me an Account of the same, and whether General Prescot was active and instrumental in occasioning it. From your Letter, and General Montgomery's to you, I am led to think he was. If so, he is deserving of our particular Notice, and should experience some Marks of our Resentment for his Cruelty to this Gentleman, and his Violation of the Rights of Humanity.

        As some of the Prisoners have attempted to escape, I doubt not of your giving necessary Orders, that they may be prevented. It is a Matter that should be attended to.

        In a Letter from the Reverend Doctor Wheelock of Dartmouth College, of the 2nd. Instt., I had the following Intelligence. "That the Day before, two Soldiers returning from Montreal, informed him, that our Officers were assured by a Frenchman, (a Captain of the Artillery whom they had taken Captive) that Major Rogers 75 was second in Command under General Carl ton, and that he had been in an Indian Habit through our Encampment at St. John's; had given a Plan to them to the Generals, and supposed that he made his Escape with the Indians that were at St. John's." You will be pleased to have this Report examined into, and acquaint me as to the Authenticity or Probity of the Truth of it. If any Circumstances can be discovered to induce a Belief that he was there, he should be apprehended. He is now in this Government.

    [Note:Maj. Robert Rogers, of Rogers Rangers, the famous frontier corps of the British Army in the French and Indian War. By the time of the American Revolution he was advanced in years, and though he sided with the British he accomplished nothing in an active way. ]

    Page 176

        The Congress have sent me several Accounts against the Rifle Companies, one of which is against Captain Morgan, which I inclose you, and desire it may be transmitted to Colo. Arnold, who will have proper Steps taken for the Payment of it, as Captain Morgan is with him.

        I flatter myself that your next Favour will give me an Account of General Montgomery's joining Colo. Arnold and that Quebec is or soon will be reduced to our Possession. Should our Arms be crowned with such Success, to me it appears, that Administration will be much embarrrassed and stand in a very disagreeable Predicament. I am, &c.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, December 20, 1775.

        Parole Fairfax. Countersign Woodford.

        In Consequence of a Complaint exhibited by the Colonels and commanding Officers of Corps, in the Brigade upon Winter hill, on the 20th. of October last, against Commissary Genl. Trumbull; His Excellency is pleased to order a Court of enquiry to sit to morrow at Eleven in the fore-noon, to examine into the Cause thereof -- Major General Putnam, with the Brigadiers Sullivan, Green and Heath, to compose the Court of enquiry -- All Evidences and Persons concerned to attend the Court -- The Court will sit at Genl. Putnam's house, the Judge Advocate to attend.

    To GOVERNOR NICHOLAS COOKE Cambridge, December 20, 1775.

        Sir: The Letter accompanying this was wrote before your favor of the 19th. pr. Express came to hand. Under my present Instructions, and more especially in my present situation, I could not justify the Sending a Regiment from these lines to


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    you; unless there was an apparent design of Landing a body of Ministerial Troops on Rhode Island; at present I do not think this is to be apprehended, as a deserter out of Boston since my last, is particular in declaring that only four Companies, amounting to little more than 100 Men, Embarked as was said for Halifax; agreeing with others that Invalids and the Officers of the 18th and 59th Regts. who are going home to recruit, had sailed for England.

        The intention of my last, containing the Information as it was received, was only designed to put you upon your guard, not that I expected a Visit was intended you. If any small body of Troops move from hence, Southerly, I have no expectation of their Stopping short of Virginia; unless it should be on a Pillaging party. To conclude Sir, when I inform you, that I have been obliged to call in 5000 Militia, to supply the deficiency of the Connecticut Regiments and those absent upon Furlough, you will do me the justice to believe, that not a want of inclination but of ability, prevents me from complying with your request; unless as is before observed, I had some obvious reasons to believe, the Visit of more men, than we are well assured are embarked, was intended for your Government. I am with very great esteem and Regard, Sir &c.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, December 23, 1775.

        Parole London. Countersign Livery.

        The Colonels and commanding Officers of the new established Regiments, will each of them receive on Monday next from the Adjt. Genl. a Warrant for Eight hundred Dollars, to pay their men for their Blankets; an exact Account of the distribution of this money is to be kept, and render'd when called for, particularizing the mens names, the Companies they belong to, and the towns they come from.


    Page 178

        The Captains of the Militia Companies are again called upon to make out exact return Rolls of their men specifying the towns they come from, and the Regiment they are joined to.

        The General expects from the Officers, and Soldiers, a strict obedience to the general standing Orders, forbidding rambling from Camp without leave, and hopes every person will exert himself in his particular station, to preserve Order, and that alertness, so necessary in an Army within Cannon Shot of their enemy.

    To THE MASSACHUSETTS LEGISLATURE Cambridge, December 23, 1775.

        Sir: Notwithstanding the great pains taken by the Quarter Master General, to procure Blankets for the Army, he finds it impossible to procure a number sufficient. he has tried the different places to the Southward without success, as what were there, are engaged to supply the wants of the Troops in each place.

        Our Soldiers are in great distress and I know of no way to remedy the evil, than applying to you, cannot some be got from the different Towns; most houses could spare one, some of them many. If your Honble. House will please to take this affair under your immediate consideration and by some means or other procure as many as can be spared from the House Keepers, you will do infinite Service to this Army and very much oblige. 76 Your etc.

    [Note:The same letter was sent to the New Hampshire Legislature, Gov. Jonathan Trumbull, and Gov. Nicholas Cooke. Cooke succeeded in collecting 180 blankets. ]

    To MAJOR GENERAL PHILIP SCHUYLER Cambridge, December 24, 1775.

        Dear Sir: Your Favour of the 15th. Instt. came Yesterday to Hand, with Copies and Extracts of your late Letters to Congress. I have with great Attention perused them. I am very


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    sorry to find by several Paragraphs, that both you and General Montgomery incline to quit the Service. Let me ask you, Sir, when is the Time for brave Men to exert themselves in the Cause of Liberty and their Country, if this is not? Should any Difficulties that they may have to encounter, at this important Crisis, deter them? God knows, there is not a Difficulty that you both very justly complain of, that I have not in an eminent Degree experienced, that I am not every Day experiencing; but we must bear up against them, and make the best of Mankind as they are, since we cannot have them as we wish. Let me, therefore, conjure you and Mr. Montgomery, to lay aside such Thoughts, Thoughts injurious to yourselves, excessively so to your Country, which calls aloud for Gentlemen of your Abilities.

        You mention in your Letter to Congress of the 20th. Ulto. that the Cloathing was to remain at Albany, as General Montgomery would provide the Troops in Canada. I wish they could be spared for this Army, for we cannot get Clothing for half of our Troops. Let me hear from you on this Subject as soon as possible.

        The Proofs you have of the Ministry's Intention to engage the Savages against us, are incontrovertable. 77 We have other Confirmations of it, by several Dispatches from John Stuart, the Superintend ant for the Southern District, which luckily fell into my Hands, being found on Board a Sloop, sent by Lord Dunmore, bound to Boston. She was taken by one of our armed Vessels. These, with many Letters of Consequence from his Lordship, I have lately sent to the Congress.

    [Note:Schuyler wrote to Washington (December 15) informing him of Guy Johnson's efforts to rouse the Six Nations against the Colonies. Schuyler had written to Congress (December 14) to the same effect. ]

        I hope soon to hear that Colonel Knox has made good Progress in forwarding the Artillery. It is much wanting for the Works we have lately thrown up. I have wrote a Letter the 18th. Instt. to General Howe respecting Mr. Allen, of which,


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    and the Answer you have Copies inclosed. I am, With great Regard, Sir, Yours, &c.

    GENERAL ORDERS Headquarters, Cambridge, December 24, 1775.

        Parole Alfred. Countersign Hopkins.

        By order of his Excellency General Washington, a Board of General Officers sat yesterday in Cambridge, and unanimously recommended the following Rations to be delivered in the manner hereby directed -- Viz: Corn'd Beef and Pork, four days in a week. Salt Fish one day, and fresh Beef two days. As Milk cannot be procured during the Winter Season, the Men are to have one pound and a half of Beef, or eighteen Ounces of Pork pr. day. Half pint of Rice, or a pint of Indian Meal pr Week -- One Quart of Spruce Beer pr day, or nine Gallons of Molasses to one hundred Men pr week. Six pounds of Candles to one hundred Men pr week, for guards. Six Ounces of Butter, or nine Ounces of Hogs-Lard pr week. Three pints of Pease, or Beans pr man pr week, or Vegetables equivalent, allowing Six Shillings pr Bushel for Beans, or Pease -- two and eight pence pr Bushel for Onions -- One and four pence pr Bushel for Potatoes and Turnips -- One pound of Flour pr man each day -- Hard Bread to be dealt out one day in a week, in lieu of Flour.

        The above allowance is ordered to be issued by the Commissary General to all the Troops of the United Colonies, serving in this department; until the Honble. the Continental Congress, or the Commander in Chief thinks proper to alter it.

        Capt. Wentworth Stewart of Col Phinney's Regt. tried at a General Court Martial whereof Col. Bricket was president, for "disobedience of Orders, and gross abuse to Lieut. Col. March, of the said Regiment" -- The Court are unanimously of opinion that Capt. Stewart is guilty of repeated abuse to Lieut. Col. March, and therefore adjudge that he ask pardon of Col.


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    March; before all the Officers of the Regiment, and at the same time receive a severe reprimand from Col Phinney --

        John Wales in Capt. Williams Company, Col. Greaton's Regiment, tried at the above Court Martial for "robbing the Qr. Master General's Store"; The Court find the Prisoner guilty of a Breach of the 49th. Article for regulating the Massachusetts Army, and therefore adjudge him to receive Ten Lashes upon the bare back, with a Cat o' Nine-tails.

        The General approves the above Sentences and Orders them to be executed the first fair day.

    To THE PRESIDENT OF CONGRESS Cambridge, December 25, 1775.

        Sir: I had the Honor to address myself to you the 19th instant; since which I have received undoubted Information, that the genuine instructions given to Conolly, have not reached your hands, that they are very artfully concealed in the tree of his Saddle and covered with canvass so nicely that they are scarcely discerned, that those which were found upon him, are intended to deceive if he should be caught; you will certainly have his Saddle taken to peices in order to discover this deep laid plot. 78 Inclosed is a Copy of General Howe's Letter in Answer to the one I wrote him the 18th instant; The Conduct I am to observe towards Brigadier Prescott, in consequence of these Letters, the Congress will Oblige me by determining for me. The Gentlemen by whom you sent the Money are arrived; the sum they brought tho' large, is not sufficient to answer the demands for

    [Note:Ford notes that Allen Cameron, Dr. John Smith (or Smyth), and John Connolly were apprehended at Hagerstown, Md., by the committee of Frederick County, Md., and some incriminating documents found on them. Connolly had been commissioned by Gage to raise a company in the back country and Canada and was arrested when on his way to the Delaware Indians bearing a speech from Dunmore to enlist their efforts against the colonists. Cameron was to be appointed a lieutenant and Smith a surgeon in the new company. Both were Scotchmen. Connolly was kept a prisoner till the end of the war. A narrative of his experience is printed in the Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography (1888 -- 89). ]

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    the Army, which at this time are remarkably heavy. There is three months pay due; one month advance; Two Dollars for each Blanket; The Arms which are left by those who are dismissed, to be paid for, besides the demands on the Commissary and Quarter Master Generals. You will therefore see the necessity of another remittance, which I beg may be soon as you conveniently can.

        I will take the Opportunity of the return of these Gentlemen to send Col: Kirkland to you for examination and that you may dispose of him, as to you may seem proper.

        A Committee from the General Court of this Province called on me the other day, Informing me, that they were in great want of Ordinance for the defence of the Colony. That if what belonged to them, now in use here, was kept for the Continent, they will be under the necessity of providing themselves with others. Of course what is kept, must be paid for. There are many of the Cannon, of very little use, But such of them as are good, I cannot at present part with; perhaps when I receive the supply from New York and Canada, It may be in my power. Mr. Wadsworth 79 has sent in his report respecting Cape Cod Harbour, Copy of which you will receive herewith; also a Letter which Colonel Little put into my hands from a Mr. Jacob Bailey to him, It contains some things that may be worthy the consideration of Congress.

    [Note:Peleg Wadsworth. ]

        We have made good Progress in the Works on Leechmore's Point, they would have been er'e this finished, but for the severity of the Weather, which prevents our people from Working.

        I received a Letter from Governor Cooke, which expresses the fears of the People of Rhode Island, least the Ships which we had Information were sailed with some Troops on Board were destined for Newport; I sent Major General Lee there,


    Page 183

    to point out to them, such defence as he may think the place capable of, I sincerely wish he may be able to do it with effect, as that place in its present State is an Asylum for such as are disaffected to America Liberty 80 Our return of Inlistments to this day amount to 8500 men. I have the Honor &ca.

    [Note:Intelligence had been received from Boston that eight large ships and two small ones sailed out of the harbor on the 16th. Four days afterwards General Lee set off for Newport, attended by a guard and a party of riflemen. He went and returned through Providence, and was absent from camp 10 days. Besides giving directions respecting the fortifications and other means of defense at Newport, he called before him several obnoxious persons, and tendered to them the oath of fidelity to the country. Two customhouse officers and another person, refusing to take the oath. were put under guard and sent to Providence -- Sparks. ]

        P.S. Inclosed is an Estimate of the demands of the Army. 81

    [Note:In the writing of Stephen Moylan. ]

        A gross calculation of the sum wanted to pay off the army upon the old establishment and to pay one month's pay advance to the new established regiments, with the other necessary contingent and incidental charges.

  •    To the pay of 34 old regiments for the months of
    October, November and December, averaged at
    £3500 each regiment £119,000


  •    To the regiment of artillery for the same time 3,960


  •    To the pay of 27 regiments, new establishment, for
    the month of January, at 1618.12 each, 43,502


  •    To the regiments of artillery for January 1,979: 16


  •    To 1376 dollars advanced each of the new corps to
    purchase blankets 11,145: 15


  •    To a company of artificers for 4 months 880: 8


  •    To purchase of arms for the new regiments 15,500


  •    To the pay of 5000 militia for six weeks 20,000


  •    To the demands of the commissary general 50,000


  •    To ditto of the quartermaster general 5,000


  •    To 4 months' expence of general Hospital estimated at 4,000


  •    To do. of the General and Staff Officers, estimated at 3,260: 16


  •    Lawful money £278,228: 15


  •    reduced to dollars amount to 927,429⅙


  •     N. B. The five Connecticut regiments upon the old establishment are not included in the above account, they being gone home, and will be cleared off by the colony. The above and foregoing Estimate sent to the Hon. John Hancock in the letter which is entered before it.


    Page 184

    To JOSEPH REED Cambridge, December 25, 1775.

        Dear Sir: Since my last your favors of the 7th and 11th are come to hand, as also the 8th; the first last night, the second by Wednesday's post. For the several pieces of information therein contained, I thank you.

        Nothing new has happened in this quarter since my last, except the setting in of a severe spell of cold weather, and a considerable fall of snow; which together have interrupted our work on Lechmere's Point; which otherwise, would have been compleated before this. At first we only intended a bomb battery there, but afterwards constructed two redoubts, in one of which a mortar will be placed at a proper season. A line of communication extends from the point of wood this side the causey, leading on to Lechmere's Point, quite up to the redoubt. From Boston and Bunker's Hill both, we have received (with out injury, except from the first case shot) an irregular fire from cannon and mortars ever since the 17th, but have re turned none except upon the ship; which we soon obliged to move off. At the same time that I thank you for stopping visitors in search of preferment, it will give me pleasure to show civilities to others of your recommendation. Indeed no gentleman, that is not well known, ought to come here without letters of introduction, as it puts me in an awkward situation with respect to my conduct towards them.

        I do not well understand a paragraph in your letter, which seems to be taken from mine to Colonel Hancock, expressive of the unwillingness of the Connecticut troops to be deemed Continental. If you did not misconceive what Col. Hancock read, he read what I never wrote; as there is no expression in any of my letters, that I can either recollect or find, that has a tendency that way; further than their unwillingness to have officers of


    Page 185

    other governments mixed in their corps, in which they are not singular, as the same partiality runs through the whole. I have in some measure anticipated the desires of the Connecticut delegates, by a kind of representation to each of the New England governments of the impracticability (in my eye) of raising our complement of men by voluntary enlistments, and submitting it to their consideration, whether, (if the powers of government are sufficiently coercive,) each town should not be called upon for a proportionate number of recruits. What they will do in the matter remains to be known. The militia, which have supplied the places of the Connecticut regiments, behave much better than I expected under our want of wood, barracks (for they are not yet done), and blankets, &c. With these, and such men as are reenlisted, I shall hope, if they will be vigilant and spirited, to give the enemy a warm reception, if they think proper to come out. Our want of powder is inconceivable. A daily waste and no supply administers a gloomy prospect.

        I fear the destination of the vessels from your port is so generally known, as to defeat the end. Two men-of-war (forty guns), it is said, put into New York the other day, and were instantly ordered out, supposed to be for Virginia.

        I am so much indebted for the civilities shown to Mrs. Washington on her journey hither, that I hardly know how to go about to acknowledge them. Some of the enclosed (all of which I beg the favor of you to put into the post-office) are directed to that end, and I shall be obliged to you for presenting my thanks to the commanding officers of the two battalions of Philadelphia for the honors done to her and me, as also to any others, equally entitled. I very sincerely offer you the compliments of the season, and wish you and Mrs. Reed, and your fireside, the happy return of a great many of them, being, dear Sir, yours, &c. 82

    [Note:The text is from Reed's Life and Correspondence of Joseph Reed. Sparks printed this letter, but no copy of it is now found in the Washington Papers. ]

    Page 186

    To RICHARD HENRY LEE Cambridge, December 26, 1775.

        Dear Sir: Your favor of the 6th instant did not reach this place till Saturday afternoon. The money, which accompanied it, came seasonably, but not, as it was so long delayed, quantum sufficit, our demands at this time being peculiarly great for pay and advance to the troops; pay for their arms and blanketing, independent of the demands of the commissary and quartermaster general.

        Lord Dunmore's letters to General Howe, which very fortunately fell into my hands, and were enclosed by me to Congress, will let you pretty fully into his diabolical schemes. If, my dear Sir, that man is not crushed before spring, he will become the most formidable enemy America has; his strength will increase as a snow ball by rolling; and faster, if some expedient cannot be hit upon to convince the slaves and servants of the impotency of his designs. You will see by his letters, what pains he is taking to invite a reinforcement at all events there, and to transplant the war to the southern colonies. I do not think, that forcing his Lordship on shipboard is sufficient; nothing less than depriving him of life or liberty will secure peace to Virginia, as motives of resentment actuate his conduct, to a degree equal to the total destruction of the colony. I fear the destination of the naval armament at Philadelphia is too well known to answer the design. I have heard it spoken of in common conversation, at this place, near a fortnight ago; and the other day was told, that two men-of-war, going into the harbor of New York, supposed to be those for the relief of the Asia, were ordered and accordingly sailed immediately out, as it is imagined for Virginia.

        My letters to Congress will give you the occurrences of this place. I need not repeat them, but I must beg of you, my good


    Page 187

    Sir, to use your influence in having a court of admiralty, or some power appointed to hear and determine all matters relative to captures; you cannot conceive how I am plagued on this head, and how impossible it is for me to hear and determine upon matters of this sort, when the facts, perhaps, are only to be ascertained at ports, forty, fifty, or more miles distant, without bringing the parties here at great trouble and expense. At any rate, my time will not allow me to be a competent judge of this business. I must also beg the favor of you, to urge the necessity of appointing a brigadier-general to the vacant brigade in this army. The inconvenience we daily experience for want of one is very great; much more than the want of a colonel to a regiment, for then the next officer in command does the duty; in a brigade this may not with propriety happen, and seldom or never is done with any kind of regularity. Perfectly indifferent is it to me, whom the Congress shall please to appoint to these offices; I only want it done, that business may go regularly on. My best respects to the good family you are in, and to your brothers of the delegation; and be assured, that I am, dear Sir, your most obedient and affectionate servant. 83

    [Note:Sparks printed this letter, but no copy of it is now found in the Washington Papers. ]

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, December 26, 1775.

        Parole Baltimore. Countersign Lux.

        A Court of enquiry, consisting of Major Genl. Putnam, President, and Brigadiers Genl. Heath, Sullivan, and Greene members, held by Order of His Excellency the General, to examine into the Cause of a Complaint exhibited by a number of Field Officers, and others in Genl. Sullivan's Brigade, against the Commissary General, Joseph Trumbull Esqr. The Articles in the Complaint were --


    Page 188

        First, "For not delivering out the back allowance of Peas, or the value thereof in money, to the Officers and Men."

        Second. "For taking in Onions at 2 s /8 d and delivering them out at 4 Shillings." And

        Third. "For taking in Potatoes at 1 s /4 d and delivering them out at 2 Shillings."

        The Court on mature Consideration beg leave to report to his Excellency, that the first Article of the Charge is groundless; that the Second and third Articles are confess'd by the Commissary General, and though the Court are fully satisfied, there was not the least design of Fraud in Mr. Trumbull, they are unanimously of Opinion, that the measure was pernicious and injudicious.

        The General approves of the proceedings of the above Court of enquiry.

        At a Court of enquiry held at Roxbury to examine into the Conduct of Major Parke 84 D: Q: M: Genl. whereof Col Jedediah Huntington was President, for "forcibly quartering Troops in the house of Major Thompson" -- The Court were of Opinion that Major Parke conducted himself in obedience to his Orders, and as the Necessity of the Case required.

    [Note:Maj. John Parke, Deputy Quartermaster General of the Continental Army; his majority was a staff rank. He became an ensign in the Second Pennsylvania Battalion in May, 1776; was advanced to first lieutenant in 1779; died of wounds received at the Block House, Toms River, N. J., in July, 1780. ]

        Thomas Trefry of Capt. Glovers Company, in Col. Glovers Regiment, tried at a General Court Martial for "Desertion" is found guilty and order'd to pay Twenty Shillings Lawful Money, to be appropriated according to the Rules and Regulations of the Massachusetts Army --

        The General approves the proceedings of the Court of enquiry, held on Major Parke, and of the Sentence of the General Court Martial above mentioned, and orders it to take place accordingly --


    Page 189

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, December 27, 1775.

        Parole Annapolis. Countersign Chace.

        The Regimental Quarter Masters are forthwith to settle with and give receipts to the Commissary General, or his deputies, the day they next draw, they are to take the whole of the Provisions and weekly allowance, then due.

        The Colonels, who have purchased Cloathing at the Qr Mr. General's Store, for the Use of their Men, are directed to discharge their respective Debts, out of the Monies they are about to receive, in behalf of their respective Corps.

        The Colonels of the New established Regiments, to order their Recruiting Officers to send all the Recruits, they have raised, to their respective Regiments at Roxbury, and Cambridge, by the first day of January next.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, December 28, 1775.

        Parole Jamaica. Countersign Price.

        As the time is just at hand, when the Massachusetts, New Hampshire and Rhode Island Troops (not again inlisted) will be released from their present Engagement, the General recommends to them to consider, what may be the Consequence of their abrupt departure from the lines; should any Accident happen to them, before the New Army gets greater Strength, they not only fix eternal disgrace upon themselves as Soldiers, but inevitable Ruin perhaps upon their Country and families.

        It is from no dislike to the Conduct of the Officers that the General requests the Men to stay without them, but in the first place, because it is unnecessary to burthen the Continent with


    Page 190

    a greater number of Officers than are requisite to the men; and in the next, because it retards the forming and the proper Government of the new regiments. Those Non-Commissioned Officers and Soldiers therefore, who have their Country's welfare so much at heart, as to stay 'till the last of January, if necessary, may join any Company in any of the new established Regiments they please, provided they do not increase the Number of Rank and File in such Company, to more than Seventy-six Men, more than which no Company is to exceed -- All the Officers and Soldiers at present of other Regiments, but appointed to, or inlisted in Cols. Learned's, Parsons, Joseph Reads, Huntingtons, Wards, Wyllys and Bailey's Regiments, are to join them to morrow, at which time any Officer or Soldier, in either of those Regiments which belongeth to other Regiments under the new Establishment are to join: In like manner all the Officers and Soldiers (under the New establishment) who belong to Colonels, Prescot, Glover's, Patterson's, Sergeants, Phinney's, Arnolds, Greatons and Baldwin's Regiments, are to join on Saturday next; when any Officers, or Soldiers, in either of those Regiments, belonging to other Regiments, are also to remove to them -- On Sunday the same Change is to take place with respect to Colonels, James Read, Nixon's, Stark's, Whitcomb's, Poors, Varnum's, Hitchcocks, Littles, Webbs, Bonds, and Huchinson's Regiment.

        It is recommended to the Colonels of each of the above nam'd Regiments, to send Officers at the time appointed, to receive and march the Men from the Regiments they are inlisted out of, to those they are to join, that it may be effected with more regularity and ease, and the change made with as little confusion as possible.

        It is expected of such Men as are determin'd not to continue in the Service, another Campaign, that they will sell their


    Page 191

    Blankets to those who do, and are in want of them, the same thing is also recommended to the Militia.

        In appraising the Arms, the General expects, that they be number'd and mark'd, in such manner, as the Owners of them and the prices, may at any time be ascertain'd upon the delivery of them by the Commissary of the Stores -- All Arms thus appraised, and taken for the Use of the Public, must be delivered into the Care of the Commissary of the Ordnance Stores, but may be redrawn immediately, if the Colonel will pass his Receipt for them and account for the delivery to his men.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, December 29, 1775.

        Parole Providence. Countersign Salem.

        The Commissary General having estimated the value of the different Species of Provisions, which constitute a Ration under the Continental Allowance, and finding it to amount to seven pence, half-penny lawful Money -- The General having seen the said Estimate, approves of it, and orders that they be settled with accordingly.

        The General was in great hopes that a sufficient Sum of money, would have been sent from Philadelphia, to have paid the troops for the Month of October, November and December, but is sorry to inform them, that there is no more yet arrived than will allow one Months pay -- The advanced-pay to the New Army and Blanket Money -- furnishing at the same time the Commissary and Qr. Mr. Generals, with such sums as are necessary for conducting business -- The General has already wrote express to Congress for more money, and hopes speedily to be furnish'd with a sufficient Sum to pay them in full.

        Particular Care is to be taken, by the Colonels and commanding Officers of Corps, not to suffer any Ammunition to


    Page 192

    be carried off, by the discharged Men, but that the same be collected and delivered, to the new Recruits if necessary, if not, to the Commissary of stores.

    To THE MASSACHUSETTS LEGISLATURE Cambridge, December 29, 1775.

        Gentn.: Having never considered the four independent Companies, which have been doing duty at Braintree, Weymouth and Hingham, in the same point of view, as the rest of the Army; altho some orders may have gone to or for them, Thro' the hurry of business, nor Included them in my returns to Congress, according to the Brigade Major's report from Roxbury; I do not think myself authorised to direct pay for them, without first laying the matter before Congress, which I shall do, by inclosing an exact transcript of your representation of the case, with this single remark, that is they were not Regimented, and were doing duty at some distance from these Camps; I did not know whether to consider them, as part of the Continental Army, and therefore had not ordered them payment heretofore. 85

    [Note:Ford notes Samuel Adams's letter to John Adams (Jan. 15 -- 16, 1776) on this point: "I have the opportunity of acquainting you that Congress has just received a letter from General Washington enclosing a copy of an application of our General Assembly to him to order payment to four companies stationed at Braintree, Weymouth and Hingham. The General says they were never regimented, and he cannot comply with the request of the Assembly without the direction of Congress: A committee is appointed to consider the letter, of which I am one. I fear there will be a difficulty, and therefore I shall endeavor to prevent a report on this part of the letter, unless I see a prospect of justice being done to the Colony, fill I can receive from you authentic evidence of those companies having been actually employed by the Continental officers, as I conceive they have been in the service of the Continent. I wish you would inform me whether the two companies stationed at Chelsea and Malden were paid out of the Continent's chest. I suppose they were; and if so, I cannot see reason for any hesitation about the payment of these." ]

        With respect to the other requisition, contained in your Resolve of the 20, I do not think myself at Liberty to extend the guards of this Camp, beyond Squantum and Chelsea, both fit


    Page 193

    places for Observation. This was my Sentiment of the matter, when the Committee did me the honor to call yesterday; But as it appeared to be of some importance to this Government, I did not care to determine upon it, without asking the opinion of some of the Principal Officers in this Army, whose sentiments I am happy to find, coincide with my own.

        This might be assigned as one among other reasons, to shew that I did not consider these four Companies as part of the Continental Troops; That there were times, in the course of the past Summer, when I should not have Suffered them to have remained at the places they were posted, If I had conceived myself vested with Power to have withdrawn them.

        I would not have it inferred from hence, that I do not think it my duty and with the greatest chearfullness, shall undertake to March Troops, If these Lines are not be exposed by it, to any Place in this or the Neighbouring Governments, to oppose an Invasion; But whilst the body of the Ministerial Troops continue in Boston, and the Circumstances of this Army remain as they are, It must be my first object to guard these Lines. I am with great respect. Gentn. &c.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, December 30, 1775.

        Parole Marblehead. Countersign Manly.

        As the want of a timely supply of Cash, has prevented the discharged Men, from receiving more than one Months pay at this time, the Qr Mr. General may withold his Accounts until the next payment, when his Charges against the several Regiments must be paid.

        The Commissary General is to serve provisions, or the Value thereof, to the discharged Men to carry them home, allowing one Ration for every twenty Miles, they have to march.


    Page 194

        As the General is informed, that Numbers of Free Negroes are desirous of inlisting, he gives leave to the recruiting Officers to entertain them, and promises to lay the matter before the Congress, who he doubts not will approve of it.

        The Massachusetts, Rhode Island and New Hampshire Regiments upon the old establishment, to parade to morrow morning at ten OClock upon their respective Regimental parades, where they will hear and receive the Commander in Chief's directions.

        Such of the Non-commissioned Officers and Soldiers, who presume to carry off their Arms, contrary to the express Orders of the General, and to the most pressing demand of their Country, may depend upon it they will be mulcted all the pay and Ration Money now due to them.

    To THE PRESIDENT OF CONGRESS Cambridge, December 31, 1775.

        Sir: I wrote you the 25th. instant, since which I am not honored with any your favors. The estimate I then inclosed you was calculated to pay the Troops &ca. up to the 1st. of January: that cannot be done for want of funds in the Pay Master General's hands, which causes a great murmuring amongst those who are going off. The Monthly expences of this Army amount to near 275,000 Dollars, which I take the Liberty of recommending to the Observation of Congress, that their future remittances may be Governed thereby.

        It sometimes happens that persons would wish to deposit money in the Hands of the Paymaster General for his Bills on the Treasury in Philadelphia: he has hitherto declined such Offers, not having authority from Congress to draw; would it not be proper to give this Power? If it should be approved of, you will be pleased to point out the mode; that the Congress


    Page 195

    would chuse to have it done in. 86 The Clothing sent the Quarter Master General, is not sufficient to put half of our Army into Regimentals, nor is there a possibility of getting any Quantity here, I have wrote to Genl. Schuyler that I wish what was lodged at Albany, could be spared for these Troops, as General Montgomery would cloth the Men under his Command, at Montreal. If this can be done, It will be of infinite service, and no time should be lost in forwarding them to this Camp. In forming the Regiments for the New Establishment, I thought it but Justice to appoint the Officers detached under Col: Arnold, to commissions in them. Their absence at present is of very great detriment, especially in recruiting. I would therefore wish if the Congress intend raising Troops in or for Canada, that they could be taken in there: The sooner I have their Opinion of this matter, the better; That if they can be commissioned in Canada, I may appoint Officers here to replace them. Inclosed you have a Copy of a Representation sent to me by the Legislative Body of this Province, respecting four companies stationed at Braintree, Weymouth and Hingham; as they were never Regimented and were doing duty at a distance from the rest of the Army, I did not know whether to consider them as part of it, nor do I think myself authorized to direct payment for them without the approbation of Congress.

    [Note:See Journals of the Continental Congress, Jan. 16, 1776. ]

        It has been represented to me, that the free Negroes who have served in this Army, are very much disatisfied at being discarded. As it is to be apprehended that they may seek employ in the Ministerial Army, I have presumed to depart from the Resolution respecting them and have given licence for their being enlisted, If this is disapproved by Congress I shall put a stop to it. 87

    [Note:Congress resolved (January 16): "That the free negroes who have served faithfully in the army at Cambridge, may be re-inlisted therein, but no others." ]

    Page 196

        I believe Colonel Gridly expects to be continued as Chief Engineer in this Army. It is very certain we have no one here better Qualified, he has done very little hitherto in that department, But if the Congress chuse to appoint him, I will take care that he pays a proper attention to it. Before I quit this Subject I must remark, that the pay of the Assistant Engineers is so very small, that we cannot expect Men of Science will engage in it, those Gentlemen who are in that station, remained under the expectation that an Additional allowance would be made them by the respective provinces in which they were appointed, to that allowed by Congress.

        Capt: Freeman 88 arrived this day at Camp from Canada, he left Quebec the 24th. Ulto. in consequence of General Carleton's proclamation, which I have the Honor to send you herewith. 89 he saw Col: Arnold the 26th. and says that he was joined by General Montgomery at point Aux Tremble the 1st. instant; that they were about 2000 strong, and were making every preparation for attacking Quebec. That General Carleton had with him about 1200 men, the majority Sailors.

    [Note:Capt. Edmund Freeman(?), of the New Hampshire Militia. ]
    [Note:A copy of Carleton's proclamation, a broadside, printed in English and French, is in the Papers of the Continental Congress. ]

        That it was his Opinion the French would give up the place, If they get the same conditions granted to the Inhabitants of Montreal.

        Capt: Adams of the Warren Armed Schooner sent into Marblehead, the Sloop Sally bound from Lisbon to New York, laden with 2 pipes and 126 Quarter Casks of Wine, the Sloop was made a prize by the Niger Man of War, some where near Bermuda, the Captain of which put his mate and five hands on Board with Orders to proceed to Boston, the Sloop and Cargoe belong to Mr. Peter Barberie of Perth Amboy in New Jersey.


    Page 197

        Captains Simple and Harbison take under then care Mr. Kirkland who appears to be a more illiterate and simple man, than his strong recommendations bespoke him.

        Captain Mathews and Mr. Robinson will accompany them, the two latter were prisoners taken by Lord Dunmore, who was sending them to Boston, from whence there is little doubt but that they would be forwarded to England, to which place I am credibly informed Captain Martindale and the crew of the Washington are sent, also Col. Allen and the Prisoners taken with him in Canada; this may account for General Howe's silence on the Subject of an Exchange of Prisoners mentioned in my Letter to him.

        General Lee is just returned from his excursion to Rhode Island, he has pointed out the best method the Island would admit of for its defence, he has endeavoured all in his power, to make friends of those that were our Enemies; you have inclosed a specimen of his Abilities in that way for your perusal, I am of opinion that if the same plan was pursued through every Province, It would have a very good effect. 90

    [Note:"He [Lee] has taken the Tories in hand and sworn them by a very solemn oath that they would not, for the future, grant any supplies to the enemy, directly or indirectly, nor give them any kind of intelligence, nor suffer it to be done by others, without giving information." (See Greene's Life of Nathanael Greene, vol. 1, p. 125.) ]

        I have long had it on my mind to mention to Congress, that frequent applications had been made to me respecting the Chaplain's pay, which is too small to encourage men of Abilities. Some of them who have left their Flocks, are Obliged to pay the parson acting for them more than they receive. I need not point out the great utility of Gentlemen whose lives and conversation are unexceptionable, being employed for that service in this Army. There are two ways of making it worth the Attention of such; one is, an advancement of their pay, the other, that one Chaplain be appointed to two regiments; this last


    Page 198

    I think may be done without Inconvenience, 91 I beg leave to recommend this matter to Congress whose sentiments thereon I shall impatiently expect.

    [Note:Congress resolved (January 16) that there should be one chaplain to every two regiments, and that his pay should be $33⅓ a month. ]

        Upon a further conversation with Captain Freeman, he is of Opinion that General Montgomery has with him near 3000 men including Col. Arnolds; he says that Lord Pitt had received repeated orders from his father to return Home; in consequence of which he had embarked some time in October, with a Captain Greene, who was Master of a Vessel belonging to Philadelphia.

        By a number of Salutes in Boston Harbour yesterday, I fancy Admiral Shuldham is arrived; two large Ships were seen coming in. Our Inlistments now amount to 9,650. The Gentlemen who were made Prisoners of by Lord Dunmore being left destitute of Money and necessaries, I have advanced them one hundred Pounds lawful money, belonging to the Public, for which I have taken Captain Mathew's draft on the Treasury of Virginia, which goes inclosed. I am &ca. 92

    [Note:In the writing of Stephen Moylan. The letter sent inclosed the estimate printed following the letter ]

        *AN ESTIMATE OF THE CHARGE AND EXPENCE OF AN
    ARMY COMPOSED OF 15,000 PRIVATE MEN, WITH THE
    GENERAL, AND STAFF OFFICERS NECESSARY FOR
    SUCH A BODY OF INFANTRY

  •    1 General in Chief, pr Month Allowance for his Table and
    Expences £90.0 .0


  •    2 Maj. Genl. each 60 120


  •    Allowance for the Maj. Genl. in separate Department 60


  •    5 Brigadier Generals each £45 225


  •    1 Adjutant General 30.10


  •    1 Quarter Master General 30


  •    1 Commissary General 30


  •    1 Pay master General 37 10



  • Page 199

  •    1 Deputy Pay master Genl. 20


  •    1 Chief Engineer and 2 Assistants at the Grand Camp; the
    Chief at £20 the Assistants at £8 each 26 0 .0


  •    1 Chief Engineer and 1 assistant on the New York Department 28.0 .0


  •    3 Aid de Camps for the two Armies at £10 30


  •    5 Brigade Majors at 10 50


  •    1 Secretary for the Commr. in Chief 20 20


  •    24 Battalions of 554 private men each -- each Battalion coming
    to £1551.18 37245.12.0


  •    24 Companies of Rifle men or light Infantry at £181.2 each 2346.8


  •    10 Companies of Artillery, consisting of 57 Men each, Officers
    Included, at £143 19 each Compa. 1439.10


  •    1 Superintendant of Artillery 10 0


  •    20,000 Ration's of Provision's a 6d. each for one Month 15000


  •    Transportation of them, Stores, &ca., will
    at a gross calculation, probably amount to
    one half the Expence of the Provision's,
    but this must be governd by Circumstances, so
    cannot, at present, be more exactly estimated 7500


  •    One Month's Expences £66427.10


  •    For Months 464992.10


  •    200 Barrls. of Powder a £12 24000


  •    140 Tons of Lead a 30 42000


  •    Shott, and shells with the necessary Atraile and repairs to
    be made to Artillery, for the two Armies 5000


  •    Tents, Drums, and Colours, for the whole of the Troops 15000


  •    Intrenching and Pioneers Tools 2000


  •    Hospital, Medicines, Physician, Surgeons, Apothecary,
    with their necessary Attendants &ca. 6000


  •    Unavoidable and Contingent Expences, which
    cannot be estimated, or foreseen; together
    with the Charge of Expresses, Building Boats
    and Batteaux Bridges, &ca. and the possibility of the
    Estimate falling short of the real expens. suppose
    the gross Sum of 28807.10 0



  • Page 200

    *To WILLIAM RAMSAY Cambridge, December 1775.

        Dear Sir: I am sorry to find by your favour of the 14th. Ulto. that there is so little prospect of stopping the Navigation of the Potomack, by sinking of Vessels, or Cheveaux de Frieze; the Channel being not only deep but wide in those places which you judged most likely to admit of these obstructions. What ever plan you adopt, if executed at the expence of Individuals, should be as extensive as possible in its operation; for you will not be able to get Men to contribute to a Work of defence, from which they derive no advantage, immediate or remote; this is, my objection to Colo. Fairfax's, otherwise I do not know a more advantageous Situation, as a Battery up on the Hill, in Front of the House, 93 could never be hurt by any Ship in the World and would sink any Ship before she could pass it, having the full rake of a Vessel from the time it comes within reach of its Guns, till it had got out of shot above.

    [Note:Belvoir, in Virginia, on the Potomac River, just below Mount Vernon. Fort Humphreys, a World War post, now occupies this ground. ]

        I am not acquainted with the Situation of the Ground, or bearings of the River at the Indian highlands, 94 so that I can give no opinion of that particular spot; but think the Method you propose of fitting out two Privateers under the Conduct of those Gentlemen you have named aided by a couple of Row-Gallies (upon the Philadelphia plan) not a bad one; but then, I would have these again supported by Land Batteries in some advantageous spot, where the whole might co-operate against any considerable Force, if need be; this stand of defence I would have as low down the River as a convenient Situation could be found on account of the number of Inhabitants it will

    [Note:Now known as Indianhead and the site of an important gun-proving ground of the United States Navy. It is on the Maryland shore of the Potomac, about 4 miles below Mount Vernon. ]

    Page 201

    cover, and the benefits that will result from it; for I have no expectation that the Committee of Safety will take this matter up, upon a contracted Plan; if they give in to it at all, it must be upon a larger Scale.

        If you could get Guns, the cost of such a defence as is above describd could not be much; Men's wages and Provisions would be the chief, the Vessels might, I should presume (Insuring them) be hired cheap, and the building of the Batteries, in a manner nothing, as a few Men would throw them up in a day or two, the Row Gallies would be the principal cost, and perhaps another Privateer might answer the Purpose of them.

        I think as you do, that it is high time a test Act was prepared and every man called upon to declare himself; that we may distinguish Friends from Foes; nor have I any Idea of a Set of Men being exempt from the common duties of Society in any Country, or Community where they have been Foster'd in the sweet Injoyment of its liberties.

        Finding we had no great prospect of coming to close Quarters with the Ministerial Troops in Boston, I fitted out at the Continental Expence, several Privateers; chiefly with design to Intercept their Fresh Provision Vessels from Nova Scotia and Canada, in which we have succeeded [ 95 ] this few days, have taken a Store Ship from London with a fine brass Mortar, 2000 stand of Arms, Shot, Shells, etc. to the amount, it is supposed, of £16,000 Stg. but no Powder; also a Ship of Dry Goods [ ] a Compy. in Greenoch, Scotland [ ] Tory in Boston, worth £3,600 Stg., what [ ] Congress will do with the latter I know not [ ] matter is now before them.

    [Note:The spaces between brackets indicate mutilated manuscript. ]

        I am very glad to find that a firm Peace is made with the Western Indian's; I hope in God it will be lasting. The Ministry are sadly disappointed in their Expectation's from Canada


    Page 202

    and that Quarter; the good Wishes which accompanied Mrs. Washington from her once peaceful and happy abode, cannot but be most pleasing and flattering to me, and lays claim to my warmest thanks, she is not yet arrived; fresh Horses are gone on to meet her. My sincere good wishes attend your Family, and all our Friends, I am Dr. Sir, etc. 96

    [Note:The editor is indebted to Mrs. Robert M. Reese, of Alexandria, Va., for the text of this letter. ]

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, January 1, 1776.

        Parole The Congress. Countersign America.

        This day giving commencement to the new army, which, in every point of View is entirely Continental, The General flatters himself, that a laudable Spirit of emulation, will now take place, and pervade the whole of it; without such a Spirit, few Officers have ever arrived to any degree of Reputation, nor did any Army ever become formidable: His Excellency hopes that the Importance of the great Cause we are engaged in, will be deeply impressed upon every Man's mind, and wishes it to be considered, that an Army without Order, Regularity and Discipline, is no better than a Commission'd Mob; Let us there fore, when every thing dear and valuable to Freemen is at stake; when our unnatural Parent is threat'ning of us with destruction from every quarter, endeavour by all the Skill and Discipline in our power, to acquire that knowledge, and conduct, which is necessary in War -- Our Men are brave and good; Men who with pleasure it is observed, are addicted to fewer Vices than are commonly found in Armies; but it is Subordination and Discipline (the Life and Soul of an Army) which next under providence, is to make us formidable to our enemies,


    Page 203

    honorable in ourselves, and respected in the world; and herein is to be shewn the Goodness of the Officer --

        In vain is it for a General to issue Orders, if Orders are not attended to, equally vain is it for a few Officers to exert them selves, if the same Spirit does not animate the whole; it is there fore expected, (it is not insisted upon) that each Brigadier, will be attentive to the discipline of his Brigade, to the exercise of, and the Conduct observed in it, calling the Colonels, and Field Officers of every Regiment, to severe Account for Neglect, or Disobedience of orders -- The same attention is to be paid by the Field Officers to the respective Companies of their Regiments -- by the Captains to their Subalterns, and so on: And that the plea of Ignorance, which is no excuse for the Neglect of Orders (but rather an Aggravation) may not be offer'd, It is order'd, and directed, that not only every regiment, but every Company, do keep an Orderly-book, to which frequent recourse is to be had, it being expected that all standing orders be rigidly obeyed, until alter'd or countermanded -- It is also expected, that all Orders which are necessary to be communicated to the Men, be regularly read, and carefully explained to them. -- As it is the first wish of the General to have the business of the Army conducted without punishment, to accomplish which, he assures every Officer, and Soldier, that as far as it is in his power, he will reward such as particularly distinguish themselves; at the same time, he declares that he will punish every kind of neglect, or misbehaviour, in an exemplary manner.

        As the great Variety of occurrences, and the multiplicity of business, in which the General is necessarily engaged, may withdraw his attention from many objects and things which might be improved to Advantage; He takes this Opportunity of declaring, that he will thank any Officer, of whatsoever


    Page 204

    Rank, for any useful hints, or profitable Informations, but to avoid trivial matters; as his time is very much engrossed, he requires that it may be introduced through the channel of a General Officer, who is to weigh the importance before he communicates it.

        All standing Orders heretofore issued for the Government of the late Army, of which every Regiment has, or ought to have Copies; are to be strictly complied with, until changed, or countermanded.

        Every Regiment now upon the new establishment, is to give in signed by the Colonel, or commanding Officer, an exact List of the Commissioned Officers, in order that they may receive Commissions -- particular Care to be taken that no person is included as an Officer, but such as have been appointed by proper authority; any Attempt of that kind in the New-Army, will bring severe punishment upon the author. The General will, upon any Vacancies that may happen, receive recommendations, and give them proper Consideration, but the Congress alone are competent to the appointment.

        An exact Return of the strength of each Regiment, is to be given in, as soon as possible, distinguishing the Number of Militia, and such of the old Regiments, as have joined for a Month only, from the established men of the Regiment.

        This being the day of the Commencement of the New-establishment, The General pardons all the Offences of the old, and commands all Prisoners (except Prisoners of war) to be immediately released.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, January 2, 1776.

        Parole Holland. Countersign William.

        That every Officer may be perfectly well acquainted with the establishment of the present Army, in Order that they may


    Page 205

    be govern'd by it, and make the Returns agreeable thereto -- The General informs them, that each Regiment is to consist of a Colonel, a Lieut. Colonel, a Major, eight Companies, an Adjutant, a Quarter Master, Surgeon and a Surgeon's Mate; whether a Chaplain will be allowed to each Regiment, or one to two Regiments is yet to be determined; each Company is to consist of a Captain, a first and Second Lieutenant, an Ensign, four Serjeants, four Corporals, a Drummer and Fifer, and Seventy-six Privates, and no more, under any pretence, or plea whatsoever.

        As the weekly Returns which are order'd to be given in every Saturday are very irregularly made, oftentimes, not before Monday, the General desires that the Commanding Officer of every Corps, will be exact in delivering them to the respective Brigade Major, every Saturday at Orderly time, who is to be answerable to the Adjutant General for any neglect, or breach of this Order -- For the last time it is strongly recommended to those Officers, to examine the Returns thoroughly before they sign, and deliver them to the Major of Brigade, whether Pay Rolls, Muster Rolls, Weekly Returns, or Returns of any other kind, that are demanded; as Negligences will not be overlooked, and false Returns punished with the utmost severity.

        The General is apprehensive, that more Men are absent upon Furlough, than are allowed by the General Orders, if so, he desires the Colonels, and commanding Officers, of such Regiments, to rectify the mistake without Loss of time, and for a due Regulation of this matter, in future no Soldier is to be absent without leave in writing, signed by the Commanding Officer of the Regiment he belongs to, and a Register thereof made in the Regimental Book, which Furlough is to be delivered to the said Commanding Officers, so soon as he returns; and if it should appear that any Soldier has overstay'd his time,


    Page 206

    without just Reason, a Note thereof is to be made in said book, and a Furlough denied him upon a future application, besides suffering such punishment, as may by a Regimental Court Martial be inflicted.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, January 3, 1776. 97

    [Note:On January 3 Washington wrote to Jonathan Glover, Continental agent at Marblehead, William Bartlett, agent at Beverly, and William Watson, at Plymouth, directing them to comply with the resolves of Congress governing the libel of prizes and to push the trial of all cases that prize money might be distributed to the captors. ]

        Parole Woodford. Countersign Norfolk.

        The Continental Rules and Articles (as lately amended) for the better Government of the Troops of the Thirteen United Colonies, are now to take place; all Trials are therefore to be under those Articles; and in Compliance with the first, all Officers are to subscribe them. -- Each Colonel, or Commanding Officer of a Regiment, or Corps is to send to the Adjutant General for a set for each Company, and one for himself, and Officers to subscribe, which last, is to be returned in, when the Commissions are given out -- These Articles are to be read to the men by an Officer of a Company, at least once a week; This to be considered as a standing order.

        The Commissary of Stores, is immediately to make a General Return of all the Stores, under his care here, and at Roxbury, in doing which, he is to be very exact -- An Account of the Arms, is wanted without delay.

        It was with no small degree of Surprise, that the General Yesterday saw, after the repeated Orders, that had been given for having the Tents (so soon as the Barracks were fit to be enter'd) returned to the Qt. Mr. General, several of them


    Page 207

    standing uninhabited, and in a disgraceful, ruinous Situation, and moreover, hears, that others serve only for bedding -- The Officers who have suffered this Neglect, are informed, that this is the last admonition, that will be given on this head.

        It is expected that the Commanding Officers of Regiments, will be exceedingly attentive to the training, exercising and disciplining their men; bringing them as soon as possible acquainted with the different Evolutions and Manoeuvres, necessary to be practiced; and as nothing reflects more disgrace upon an Officer, or is more pernicious and dangerous in itself, than suffering Arms to be in bad order; the General assures the Officers and Men, that he will never overlook, or pardon, a neglect of this kind -- There are many practices in Regular Service, highly worthy of Imitation, but none more essential than this, and keeping Soldiers always clean and neat: The first, is absolutely necessary for self-preservation; the other, for health and appearance; for if a Soldier cannot be induced to take pride in his person, he will soon become a Sloven, and indifferent to every thing else -- Whilst we have Men therefore who in every respect are superior to mercenary Troops, that are fighting for two pence or three pence a day: Why cannot we in appearance also be superior to them, when we fight for Life, Liberty, Property and our Country?

        The Companies now stationed in Cambridge belonging to Col Prescots Regiment, are to march immediately and join their respective Regiment at Sewall's-point --

        The Companies now stationed at Sewall's-point, under the Command of Major Wesson, 98 are forthwith to march, and take post at Fort No. 1 --

    [Note:Maj. James Wesson, of Gerrish's Massachusetts regiment. He became lieutenant colonel of the Twenty-sixth Continental Infantry, his commission dating back to Jan. 1, 1776, and colonel of the Ninth Massachusetts in November of that year. He was wounded at Monmouth, N.J., and retired in 1781. ]

    Page 208

    To THE PRESIDENT OF CONGRESS Cambridge, January 4, 1776.

        Sir: Since my last of the 31st. ulto. I have been Honored with your favor of the 22d., inclosing sundry resolves, which shall in matters they respect, be made the rule of my conduct.

        The Resolution relative to the Troops in Boston, I beg the favor of you Sir to assure Congress, shall be attempted to be put in execution, the first moment I see a probability of success, and in such a way as a Council of Officers shall think most likely to produce it, but if this should not happen as soon as you may expect or my wishes prompt to, I request that Congress will be pleased to advert to my situation, and do me the justice to believe, that circumstances and not want of Inclination are the cause of delay. 99 It is not in the pages of History perhaps to furnish a case like ours. To maintain a post within musket shot of the Enemy for six months together [without powder] 1 and at the same time to disband one Army and recruit another within that distance of twenty odd British regiments, is more than probably ever was attempted: But if we succeed as well in the latter, as we have hitherto in the former, I shall think it the most fortunate event of my whole Life.

    [Note:As far back as October Congress bad been considering the idea of an attack on Boston. 'The committee of conference that visited Washington at his camp had submitted a report on the matter, and on Dec. 22, 1775, Congress debated the question in the Committee of the Whole. The resolve adopted that day was: "That if General Washington and his council of war should be of opinion, that a successful attack may be made on the troops in Boston, he may do it in any manner he may think expedient, notwithstanding the town and the property in it may thereby be destroyed." ]
    [Note:Left blank in the original to guard against the danger of miscarriage. ]

        By a very Intelligent Gentleman a Mr. Hutchinson from Boston, I learn, that it was Admiral Shuldham, that came into the Harbour on Saturday last; That two of the five regiments from Cork are arrived at Halifax. Two others have sailed for Quebec (but what was become of them could not be told) and


    Page 209

    the other, the 55th had just got into Boston. certain It is also, that the greatest part of the 17th. regiment is arrived there, whether we are to conclude from hence, that more than five Regiments have been sent out, or that the Companies of the 17th arrived at Boston are part of the regiments destined for Halifax, and Quebec, I know not.

        We also learn from this Gentleman and others that the Troops embarked for Halifax as mentioned in my Letter of the 16th. were really designed for that place, but recalled from Nantasker road upon advice being received of the arrival of the above Regiments there. I am informed of a Fleet now getting ready, under convoy of the Scarborough and Fowey Men of War, consisting of 5 Transports and 2 Bomb Vessels, with about 300 marines and several flatt Bottom'd Boats. It is whispered that they are designed for Newport, but generally thought in Boston, that they are ment for Long Island; and that it is probable they will be followed by more Troops, as the other Transports are taking in Water and lay, as others say in Nantasker road, to be out of the Ice.

        A large Quantity of Biscuit is also baking.

        As their real design cannot with certainty be known, I submit it with all due deference to the Superior Judgment of Congress, whether it would not be consistent with prudence to have some of the Jersey Troops, thrown into New York, to prevent an evil, which may be almost irremediable, if it should happen. I mean the landing of Troops at that place or upon long Island near it.

        As it is possible you may not yet have received his Majesty's most gracious Speech, I do myself the Honor to enclose one of many, sent out of Boston Yesterday. 2 It is full of rancour and

    [Note:No copy of the King's speech of October 27 has been found in either the Papers of the Continental Congress or the Washington Papers. A contemporary text, apparently a clipping, is among the Great Britain broadsides in the Library of Congress. ]

    Page 210

    resentment against us, and explicitly holds forth his Royal Will to be, that vigorous measures are to be pursued for depriving us of our Constitutional Rights and Liberties. These Measures however Vigorous, I hope will be opposed by more vigorous ones, and rendered fruitless and unavailing, tho' Authorized and sanctified by the Name of Majesty, which ought to promote the happiness of his People and not their Oppression. I am &ca. 3

    [Note:In the writing of Robert Hanson Harrison, Through inadvertence it was not signed. ]

    To JOSEPH REED Cambridge, January 4, 1776.

        Dear Sir: Since my last I have received your obliging favours of the 19th and 23d ulto., and thank you for the articles of intelligence therein contained, as I also do for the buttons which accompanied the last letter, although I had got a set better, I think, made at Concord. I am exceeding glad to find that things wear a better face in Virginia than they did some time ago; but I do not think that any thing less than the life or liberty will free the colony from the effects of Lord Dunmore's resentments and villainies.

        We are at length favored with a sight of his Majesty's most gracious speech, breathing sentiments of tenderness and compassion for his deluded American subjects; the echo is not yet come to hand; but we know what it must be, and as Lord North said, and we ought to have believed (and acted accordingly,) we now know the ultimatum of British justice. The speech I send you. A volume of them was sent out by the Boston gentry, and, farcical enough, we gave great joy to them, (the red coats I mean,) without knowing or intending it; for on that day, the day which gave being to the new army, (but before the proclamation came to hand,) we had hoisted the union flag in


    Page 211

    compliment to the United Colonies. But, behold, it was received in Boston as a token of the deep impression the speech had made upon us, and as a signal of submission. So we learn by a person out of Boston last night. By this time I presume they begin to think it strange, that we have not made a formal surrender of our lines. Admiral Shuldham is arrived at Boston. The 55th and the greatest part, if not all, of the 17th regiment, are also got in there. The rest of the 5 regiments from Ireland were intended for Halifax and Quebec; those for the first, have arrived there, the others we know not where they are got to.

        It is easier to conceive than to describe the situation of my mind for some time past, and my feelings under our present circumstances. Search the vast volumes of history through, and I much question whether a case similar to ours is to be found; to wit, to maintain a post against the flower of the British troops for six months together, without -- , and at the end of them to have one army disbanded and another to raise within the same distance of a reinforced enemy. It is too much to attempt. What may be the final issue of the last manoeuvre, time only can tell. I wish this month was well over our heads. The same desire of retiring into a chimney-corner seized the troops of New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Massachusetts, (so soon as their time expired,) as had worked upon those of Connecticut, notwithstanding many of them made a tender of their services to continue, till the lines could be sufficiently strengthened. We are now left with a good deal less than half raised regiments, and about five thousand militia, who only stand ingaged to the middle of this month; when, according to custom, they will depart, let the necessity of their stay be never so urgent. Thus it is, that for more than two months past, I have scarcely immerged from one difficulty before I have [been] plunged into another. How it will end, God in


    Page 212

    his great goodness will direct. I am thankful for his protection to this time. We are told that we shall soon get the army completed, but I have been told so many things which have never come to pass, that I distrust every thing.

        I fear your fleet has been so long in fitting, and the destination of it so well known, that the end will be defeated, if the vessels escape. How is the arrival of French troops in the West Indies, and the hostile appearance there, to be reconciled with that part of the King's speech, wherein he assures Parliament, "that as well from the assurances I have received, as from the general appearance of affairs in Europe, I see no probability that the measures, which you may adopt, will be interrupted by disputes with any foreign power"? I hope the Congress will not think of adjourning at so important and critical a juncture as this. I wish they would keep a watchful eye to New York. From Captain Sears' account, (now here,) much is to be apprehended from that quarter.

        A fleet is now fitting out at Boston, consisting of five transports and two bomb-vessels, under convoy of the Scarborough and Fowey men-of-war. Three hundred, some say, others more, troops are on board, with flat-bottomed boats. It is whispered, as if designedly, that they are intended for Newport; but it is generally believed that they are bound either to Long Island or Virginia; the other transports are taking in water and a good deal of bisquet is baking, some say for the shipping to lay in Nantasket Road, to be out of the way of ice, whilst others think a more important move is in agitation. All, however, is conjecture. I heartily wish you, Mrs Reed and family, the compliments of the season, in which the ladies here and family join. 4

    [Note:The text is from Ford. ]

    Page 213

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, January 5, 1776

        Parole Hancock. Countersign Adams.

        The Majors of Brigade, to order the Adjutants to be exact, and punctual, in making their Weekly Returns of the Strenght of each regiment; Also a seperate Return of the Numbers inlisted in the course of last week, at Orderly time to morrow -- The weekly Returns to be according to the Form lately sent by the Adjutant General.

        The Regimentals, which have been made up, and drawn for, may be delivered to the respective Colonels by the Qr. Mr. General, to the Order of those Colonels, who drew them at such prices, as they have cost the Continent, which is much cheaper than could otherwise be obtained -- As nothing adds more to the Appearance of a man, than dress, and a proper degree of cleanliness in his person, the General hopes and expects, that each Regiment will contend for the most Soldier-like appearance: He is also very desirous of having the Men instructed, as speedily as possible in all parts of their duty, and recommends it to all the Colonels, to be very careful in the choice of their Non-Commissioned Officers, and to their Captains, to divide their Companies into small Squads, appointing a Serjeant and Corporal to each, from whom the utmost diligence is expected -- Those Serjeants and Corporals are by no means to suffer the Arms, and Accoutrements of any man in their Squads, to be dirty, or unfit for use, and as far as in them lies, to make the men appear neat, clean, and soldier-like -- Neglect of duty in these Instances, they may rely upon it will reduce them to the Ranks -- These Orders are not intended to exempt the commissioned Officers of the Companies from the strictest attention to these things; on the contrary, as it serves to shew the


    Page 214

    General's Sollicitude in having the men, and their Arms appear in the best order, it is hoped they will double their diligence.

        If Col Brewer 5 inclines to accept the appointment of BarrackMaster, he is to proceed directly to discharge the duty of that Office; and as the first business to be done in an Army, is with the Quarter Master of each Regiment, he is to see that the number of men, for which each Barrack was designed; are immediately quartered therein, keeping the Regiments together as much as possible, that every Tent may be delivered into the Quarter Master General's Store.

    [Note:Col Jonathan Brewer. He commanded a State regiment of Massachusetts artificers in 1776. ]

        The Regimental Quarter Masters, and their Serjeants, are to cause proper Necessarys to be erected at convenient distances from the Barracks, in which their men are lodged, and see that those necessarys are frequently filled up, any person who shall be discovered easing himself elsewhere, is to be instantly confined and brought before a Regimental Court Martial -- They are to cause also the Filth, and Garbage, about the Barracks, to be removed and buried, In short, it is in a particular manner the duty of the Quarter Master, to see that the Barracks are kept clean and sweet; the Victuals properly prepared &c -- and although it is the particular business of the Qr Masters, and their Serjeants, to see this done, it is equally necessary, and the duty of the other Officers, to look into this business, as too much care cannot be used in a matter, where the health of the Men so much depends upon it.

    To GOVERNOR NICHOLAS COOKE Cambridge, January 6, 1776.

        Sir: I received your favor of the 1st. Instant, and return you my thanks for the Blankets, and your promise of having more procured, as they are much wanted; I did not see Mr. Hale,


    Page 215

    who brought them, nor the account, or the money should have been transmitted you by his return. You will be pleased to draw on the Qr. Mr. General, and it shall be immediately paid. I have seen General Lee since his expedition, and hope that Rhode Island will derive some advantage from it.

        I am told that Capt. Wallace's 6 Ships have been Supplied for some time with provisions by the Town of New Port, on certain conditions stipulated between him and the Committee. When this truce first obtained, perhaps it was right; then there might have been hopes of an accommodation taking Place; But now, when every prospect of it seems to be cut off by his Majesty's late speech, when the Throne, from which we had supplicated redress, breathes forth vengeance and indignation, and a firm determination to remain unalterable in its purposes, and to prosecute the System and plan of ruin formed by the Ministry against us; should not an end be put to it, and every possible method be fallen upon, to prevent their getting necessaries of any kind? We need not expect to Conquer our Enemies by good Offices; and I know not what pernicious consequences may result, from a precedent of this Sort; other places, circumstanced as New Port is, may follow the example, and by that means, their whole Fleet and Army will be furnished, with what it highly concerns us to keep from them.

    [Note:The inhabitants of Rhode Island furnished Capt. John Wallace with supplies in a similar fashion to that of New York citizens in supplying Governor Tryon and the British ships in New York Harbor. In Rhode Island, however, the matter had, for protection, taken on an aspect of a truce.

       As Wallace might "cannonade, and even burn the town, a discretionary power, by a private vote, which it is designed should be kept a profound secret, is given to the commander of the forces on Rhode Island, to permit supplies, in cases of imminent danger, until the next session." (See Governor Cooke's letter to Washington,/Jan. 21, 1776, in the Washington Papers. ) ]

        I received a Letter from Governor Trumbull, of the 1st. Inst., by which I am informed, that the Connecticut Assembly are very unanimous in the Common cause, and, among others,


    Page 216

    have passed an Act for raising and equipping a fourth of their Militia, to be immediately Selected by voluntary Inlistments; with such other able effective men, as are not included in their Militia Rolls, who incline to inlist, to act as Minute Men for their own, or the defence of any of the United Colonies, and this under proper encouragements. Another Act for restraining and Punishing persons Inimical to us and directing proceedings therein. No person to supply the Ministerial Army or Navy; to give them Intelligence; to Inlist or procure others to inlist in their Service, to pilot their Vessels, or in any way assist them; under pain of forfeiting his Estate, and an Imprisonment not exceeding three years. None to write, speak or Act against the proceedings of Congress, or their Acts of Assembly, under penalty of being disarmed and disqualified from holding any office, and be further punished by Imprisonment &c. For Seizing and Confiscating, for the use of the Colony, the Estates of those putting, or continuing to shelter, themselves under the protection of the Ministerial Fleet or Army, or assist in carrying on their measures against us. A Resolve to provide 2 armed Vessels, of 16 and 14 Guns, with a Spy Schooner of 4, and four Row Galleys; an Act exempting the polls of Soldiers from taxes, for the last and ensuing Campaigns. another for encouraging the making of Salt Petre and Gunpowder. A Considerable Quantity of both Mr. Trumbull hopes to make early in the Spring, he says the furnace at Middletown is smelting Lead, and likely to turn out 20. or 30. Tons, and that ore is plenty. They have also passed an Act, impowring the Commander in Chief of the Continental Army, or officers commanding a Detachment, or out Posts, to administer an oath and swear any person or persons to the truth of matters relative to the public Service. The situation of our affairs seems to call for regulations like these, and I should think the other Colonies ought to adopt similar ones, or such of them as they have not
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    already made; vigorous and such as at another time would appear extraordinary, are now become absolutely necessary, for preserving our Country, against the strides of Tyranny making against it.

        Governor Trumbull, in his list, has not mentioned an Act for Impressing Carriages &c., agreeable to the recommendation of Congress; this I hope, they have not forgot, It is highly necessary that such an Authority should be given, under proper restrictions, or we shall be greatly Embarrassed, when ever the army, or any detachment from it, should find it necessary to march from hence. I am, etc.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, January 6, 1776.

        Parole Gerry. Countersign Chace.

        The General is informed, that a Custom hath prevailed, at the Main Guard, in Cambridge, of permitting prisoners to be absent, upon their parole; he therefore orders a total Stop be put to this practice for the future; Any Officer offending herein, will be immediately put in Arrest, and tried for disobedience of orders.

        The frequent Application for Flags at Roxbury, having been found troublesome, and at the same time attended with Inconveniencies; Major Genl. Ward is requested to suffer, no more than one a week to go in, unless it be on special Occasions; and this to happen on Tuesdays; at which time he will appoint a proper Officer always to attend.

    To GOVERNOR JONATHAN TRUMBULL Cambridge, January 7, 1776.

        Sir: Your favor of the 1st Inst., I received and heartily thank you for your kind salutations. I was happy to hear of the great


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    unanimity in your Assembly and of the several salutary Laws they passed, which shew them to be well attached to the common cause and to have taken proper measures, for supporting it.

        Inclosed you have the Amount of the Lead from Crown point, agreeable to your request. The account of the Smelting furnace and your expectations to make a considerable Quantity of Salt Petre and powder pleases me much; I wish your most Sanguine endeavours may be more than answered.

        As to Gun locks, it is not in my power to furnish any; the information you had was groundless, for there were no spare ones in the Ordnance Stores which fell into our hands, none were ever found that I have heard of, nor is there mention of them in the Invoice.

        Having undoubted intelligence, of the fitting out a Fleet at Boston and of the embarkation of Troops from thence, which from the Season of the year and other circumstances must be destined for some expedition South of this; and having such information as I can depend upon, that the Inhabitants of Long Island in the Colony of New York, or a great part of them, are Inimical to the rights and Liberties of America, and from their conduct and professions, have discovered an apparent Inclination, to assist in subjugating their fellow Citizens to ministerial tyranny: There is the greatest reason to believe, that this Armament, if not immediately design'd against the City of New York, is nevertheless intended against Long Island; and as it is of the utmost importance, to prevent the Enemy from possessing themselves of the City of New York and the North River, which would give them the Command of the Country and the Communication with Canada; I shall dispatch Major Genl Lee with orders to repair thither with such Volunteers, as are willing to join and can be expeditiously raised, (having no troops to spare from hence) to put the City and Fortifications


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    on the North River, in the best posture of defence the Season and circumstances will admit of; and for disarming all such persons upon long Island or elsewhere, whose conduct and declarations, have rendered them justly suspected of designs unfriendly to the views of Congress. I have directed him to call upon the Commanding Officer of the Jersey Troops, for such Assistance as he can afford, and being informed by Capt. Sears and Mr. Woodward, who will deliver you this, and whom Genl Lee will follow in a day or two; that he apprehends 1000. or 1500. Volunteers, may be readily raised in your Government, in the Towns thro which Mr. Lee will pass; I beg the favor of you to Interpose your good offices and Interest in the Matter, to encourage men to go on this Important Service and as expeditiously as possible, for counteracting any designs our Enemies may have against us in that Quarter. Every necessary expence attending their March and Stay, will be borne by the public. I just received advice from Chelsea, about 9 or 10 Miles from this, that several Ships have sailed from Nantasket Road, that were lying there. I shall write to the Honorable the Convention of New York, by General Lee and direct his Instructions to be laid before them; praying their Assistance to facilitate the purposes of his going. I am Sir, etc.

        Boxes of Lead 19½ abt. 270 each.

    To JOHN ADAMS Cambridge, January 7, 1776.

        Sir: You will excuse me for reminding you of our conversation the other Evening, when I inform'd you that General Lee's departure for New York is advisable upon the Plan of his Letter, and under the circumstances I then mentioned, ought not to be delayed. In giving me your opinion of this matter I have no doubt of your taking a comprehensive view of it.


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    That is, you will not only consider the propriety of the measure, but of the execution. Whether such a step, tho' right in itself may not be looked upon as beyond my Line &ca. &ca.

        If it could be made convenient and agreeable to you to take Pott Luck with me to day. I shall be very glad of your Company and we can then talk the matter over at large. Please to forward General Lee's Letter to me. I am &ca.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, January 7, 1776.

        Parole Lynch. Countersign Morris.

        The Adjutant General will this day deliver to the Brigade Majors, the number of the new Articles of war, necessary for each Regiment, in their respective Brigades; and that no mistake, in regard to the said Articles may possibly happen; each Book is signed by the Honorable John Hancock Esqr: President of the Continental Congress; and countersign'd upon the Title page by William Tudor Esqr: Judge Advocate of the army of the United Colonies.

    To THE COMMITTEE OF SAFETY OF NEW YORK Cambridge, January 8, 1776.

        Sir: Having undoubted intelligence of the fitting out of a fleet at Boston *** 7 there is the greatest reason to believe that this Armament, if not designed immediately against the City of New York, is, nevertheless, Intended for Long Island. I have, therefore, thought it expedient to dispatch Major Genl. Lee, with such Volunteers as he can quickly Assemble on his March, (for I have not Troops to spare from hence, if the distance and Time would admit of it), to put the

    [Note:The omitted portion is the same as that in Instructions to Maj. Gen. Charles Lee, this same date. ]

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    City of New York in the best posture of defence, the season and circumstances will admit of.

        To his Instructions, which I have desired him to lay before you, I beg leave to refer; firmly persuaded that your Honorable body, will give every assistance in their power, to facilitate the end of his coming, as there needs no other Argument, than a retrospect view of the Conduct of the Ministerial Troops in Boston and the consequences resulting from it, to prove what a fatal stab it would give to the Interests of America, to suffer the City of New York to fall into the Hands of our Enemies. I am &c.

    *INSTRUCTIONS TO
    MAJOR GENERAL CHARLES LEE 8 Head Quarters at Cambridge, January 8, 1776.

    [Note:General Lee had just returned from Newport, R. I., and had written to the Commander in Chief (January 5): "New York must be secured, but it will never, I am afraid, be secured by direct order of the Congress, for obvious reasons. They find themselves awkwardly situated on this head. You must step in to their relief. I am sensible that no men can be spared from the lines, in our present circumstances; but I would propose that you shoud detach me into Connecticut and lend your name for collecting a body of Volunteers. I am assured that I shall find no difficulty in assembling a sufficient number for the purposes wanted. This body, in conjunction (if there should appear occasion to summon them) with the Jersey Regiment, under the Command of Lord Stirling now at Elizabeth Town, will effect the security of New York, and the expulsion or suppression of that dangerous banditti of Tories, who have appeared on Long Island with the professed intention of acting against the authority of the Congress. Not to crush these Serpents, before their rattles are grown, woud be ruinous.…this manoeuvre I not only think prudent and right, but absolutely necessary to our salvation; and if it meets, as I ardently hope it will, with your approbation, the sooner it is enter'd upon the better; indeed, the delay of a single day may be fatal." Lee's letter is in the Washington Papers. ]

        Having undoubted Intelligence of the fitting out of a Fleet at Boston, and of the Imbarkation of Troops from thence, which from the Season of the year and other Circumstances, must be destined for a Southern Expedition. And having such Information as I can rely on, that the Inhabitants, (or great part of them) on Long Island in the Colony of New York, are not only Inemical to the Rights and Liberties of America; but


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    by their Conduct and Publick professions, have discoverd a disposition to aid and assist in the reduction of that Colony to Ministerial Tyranny: And as it is a matter of the utmost Importance to prevent the Enemy from taking Possession of the City of New York and the North River, as they will thereby Command the Country, and the communication with Canada; it is of too much consequence (since we find by his Majesty's Speech to Parliament, that, disregarding the Petition from the United Voice of America, nothing less than the total Subversion of her Rights, will satisfie him) to hazard such a Post at so alarming a crisis

        You will, therefore, with such Volunteers as are willing to join you, and can be expeditiously raised, repair to the City of New York, and calling upon the Commanding Officer of the Forces of New Jersey for such Assistance as he can afford, and you shall require, you are to put that City into the best Posture of Defence which the Season and Circumstances will admit of. Disarming all such persons upon long Island and elsewhere (and if necessary otherwise securing them), whose conduct, and declarations have renderd them justly suspected of Designs unfriendly to the Views of Congress.

        You are also to enquire into the State and Condition of the Fortifications up the North River, and, as far as shall be consistent with the Orders of Congress, or not repugnant to them, to have the Works guarded against Surprizes from a body of Men which might be transported by Water near the place, and then March'd in upon the back of them.

        You will also Indeavour to have the Medicines, Shirts, and Blankets (now at New York) &c belonging to the Ministerial Troops secured, and forwarded to this Army. Captn. Sears 9 can give you particular Information concerning them.

    [Note:Possibly Thomas Sears, who was a lieutenant colonel of New York Militia in 1778 -- 79. ]

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        In all other Matters relative to the execution of the general Plan you are going upon, your own judgment (as it is impossible with propriety to give particular direction) and the advice of those whom you have reasons to believe are hearty in the cause, must direct; keeping always in view the declar'd Intention's of Congress.

        I am perswaded, I need not recommend dispatch in the Prosecution of this business; the Importance alone is a sufficient excitement. I would advise a dismission of the Volunteers (whose necessary Expences will be borne) so soon as the Service will admit of it; and, that you endeavour as much as possible, at all times, to be in readiness to join the Army if the exigency of our Affairs here, should call for it.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, January 8, 1776.

        Parole Harrison. Countersign Johnson.

        It is exceedingly astonishing to the General, that he is yet without those Returns, which were called for on the first and third Instants; it is impossible that the business of an Army can be conducted with any degree of regularity, or propriety, where so much inattention prevails, and he desires that the commanding Officers of such regiments, as are conscious of their neglect, in the instances now referred to, will take Notice, and be fully persuaded, that if those Returns are not made at, or before orderly time to morrow, that they will be ordered under an Arrest, and tried for disobedience of Orders.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, January 9, 1776.

        Parole Knolton. Countersign Charlestown.

        The General thanks Major Knolton, and the Officers and Soldiers, who were under his command last night; for the


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    Spirit, Conduct and Secrecy, with which they burnt the Houses, near the Enemy's works, upon Bunkers-hill 10 -- The General was in a more particular manner pleased, with the resolution the party discover'd in not firing a Shot; as nothing betrays greater signs of fear, and less of the soldier, than to begin a loose, undirected and unmeaning Fire, from whence no good can result, nor any valuable purposes answer'd.

    [Note:Maj. Thomas Knowlton, of the Twentieth Continental Infantry. He was killed at Harlem Heights, N.Y., Sept. 16, 1776. ]

        It is almost certain, that the enemy will attempt to revenge the Insult, which was cast upon them last Night; for which Reason the greatest Vigilance, and Care, is recommended; as it also is, that the out-posts be always guarded by experienced Officers, and good Soldiers, who are to be considered in other duties: It is also again, and again ordered, that the men are not suffered to ramble from, or lie out of their quarters, contrary to repeated Orders on this head, and that their Arms, and Accoutrements, be always in order.

        To remove present doubts and prevent future Mistakes, it is hereby expressly order'd and directed, that no persons do proceed to discharge the duty of any Office, without a regular Appointment, by Commission from the Congress, Warrant or General Order from the Commander in Chief; no allowance will be made to any one, who acts contrary to this order: All Persons therefore for their own sakes are desired to take notice of it, and govern themselves accordingly, that no Complaints may hereafter be exhibited for services unwarranted.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, January 10, 1776.

        Parole Neilson. Countersign Langdon.

        His Excellency General Washington, has been pleased to appoint Mr. William Marony, Provost Marshal to the Army


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    of the United Colonies, serving in the Massachusetts bay; he is therefore in all things appertaining to his Office, to be considered and obeyed as such.

    *To BRIGADIER GENERAL JOHN SULLIVAN Cambridge, January to, 1776.

        Dr. Sir: In looking over the list of Officers in your Brigade, I find the whole compleated, except in one Instance, without paying the least regard to the order wch. directed, that no Person son should be Inserted that was not in the first arrangement, otherwise than by recommendation.

        I also find, in the Regimental returns of our strength, in your Brigade, several matters that need explanation, to wit; a number of Men on Command and in Colo. Poor's last return, the whole number of his Regiment consists but of 277 Men whereas by the different weekly returns which he has given there appears to have been Inlisted 511 Men. In like manner, by the different Weekly returns our whole number of Recruits ought to amt. to about 10,500 Men, whereas by the Regimental Returns of Saturday (which were only compleated last Night) they stand at 8212, and but 5582 of these returnd present, fit for duty. These things are so alarming, and stand so much in need of explanation that I must desire you to take a ride to head Quarters and see if they can be accounted for. Major Scammell 11 and Colo. Poor 12 may be necessary also in the illucidation of some of these points.

    [Note:Maj. Alexander Scammell was brigade major of the New Hampshire Brigade. Later he was aide to Sullivan; then colonel of the Third New Hampshire Regiment; and after that Adjutant General of the Continental Army. He resigned this post to command the First New Hampshire Regiment and died of wounds received at York town, Va., in 1781. He served under Lafayette and gained the sobriquet of "Light Infantry Scammell." ]
    [Note:Enoch Poor was colonel of the Eighth Continental Infantry. He, later, rose to the rank of brigadier general. ]

        If you were to come to Dinner, I should be glad of your Company and am etc.

        [N.H.H.S.]


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    To LORD STIRLING 13 Cambridge, January 10, 1776.

    [Note:Col. William Alexander, called Lord Stirling. His claim to the earldom of Stirling was denied by the House of Lords. He was a native of New Jersey and at this time colonel of the First New Jersey Battalion. In March, 1776, he was raised to the rank of brigadier general. ]

        My Lord: Having received undoubted Intelligence of the fitting out of a Fleet from Boston, and of the Embarkation of Troops from thence, which from the Season of the Year and other Circumstances must be destined for some Expedition south of this; and having such Information as I can rely on, that the Inhabitants of Long Island or a great Part of them, are inimical to the Rights and Liberties of America, and by their Conduct and Professions have discovered an apparent Inclination to assist in subjugating their Countrymen and Fellow Citizens, to the System of Tyranny, Administration are attempting to establish; there is the greatest Reason to apprehend, that this Armament, if not immediately designed against the City of New York, is nevertheless intended for Long Island. Knowing it to be of the last Importance to the Interest of America, to prevent the Enemy from getting Possession of these Places, and the North River, which would give them the Command of the Country and a free Communication with Canada, I have dispatched Major General Lee with Orders to repair to New York, with such Volunteers as he can raise on his Way (having no Troops to spare from hence) to put the City and the Fortifications up the River in the best Posture of Defence, the season and Situation of Affairs will admit of; and for taking proper Steps against such Persons on Long Island and elsewhere, whose Conduct hath rendered them suspected of Designs unfriendly to the Views of Congress. I have directed him to apply to you for the Troops of New Jersey under


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    your command in the Continental Pay or such of them as he may think necessary for effecting the Purposes of his going. I beg and am assured that you will afford him every Assistance in your Power, for facilitating this Business, as far as may be consistent or not repugnant to the Orders you shall have received from Congress, and with all possible Expedition. I am, My Lord, etc.

    To THE MASSACHUSETTS LEGISLATURE Cambridge, January 10, 1776.

        Gentn: In the confused and disordered state of this Army, occasioned by such Capital changes, as have taken place of late, I have found it almost impossible to come at exact returns of the strength of our lines. -- Not till last night, was I able to get in the whole since the dissolution of the old Army; by these I find myself weaker than I had any Idea of, and under the necessity of requesting an exertion of your Influence and Interest, to prevail upon the Militia of this Government, now in the pay of the Continent, to continue till the last of the Month and longer if requisite. I am assured, that those of New Hampshire will not stay any longer than they engaged for; notwithstanding our weak state and the slow progress we make in recruiting, which, by the last week's report, amounts to but little more than half our usual compliment, owing, it is said, to the number of men going or expecting to go into the provincial Service, at or near their own homes.

        I am more and more Covinced, that we shall never raise the Army to the New Establishment by Voluntary Inlistments; It is therefore necessary that this and the neighbouring Governments should consider in time and adopt some other expedient for effecting it.


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        The Hurry I was in the other day, when your Committee did me the honor to present a petition from a person (whose name I have forgot) wanting to be employ'd in the Continental Army, prevented me from being as full on the subject as I wished.

        I shall beg leave therefore, at this time to add, that I hope your Honorable Board will do me the justice to believe, that it will give me pleasure, at all times, to pay a proper respect to any recommendation coming from them, and that the reason why I do not now Encourage such kind of applications as was made, is, That the New Army was arranged, as near the plan and agreeable to the orders of Congress, (altho' some unavoidable departures and changes have taken place) as it was in my power to comply with; and the officers thus constituted ordered to recruit. Every attempt therefore of others, not of this appointment, must counteract and has been of infinite prejudice to the Service. They infuse Ideas into the minds of the Men, they have any influence over, that my engaging with them, or which is tantamount, not engaging with others, they shall be able to force themselves into the Service; of this we have numberless Instances; I am therefore Anxious to discourage every attempt of the kind, by Convincing such persons, that their engaging a Company will not bring them in. If such persons could be once convinced of this, the business of the Army would go on more smoothly and with much more regularity and order. In short Gentlemen, It is scarce possible for me to convey to you, a perfect Idea of the Trouble and vexation I have met with, in getting this matter fixed upon some setled footing. One day an officer would serve, another he would not, and so on, that I have hardly known what steps to pursue, for preserving consistency and advancing the good of the Service,


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    which are the only Objects I have in view; I have no friend I want to bring in, nor any person with whom I am the least connected, that I wish to promote. I am Gentlemen, etc.

    To THE PRESIDENT OF CONGRESS Cambridge, January 11, 1776.

        Sir: Every Account I have out of Boston, confirms the Embarkation of Troops as mentioned in my last, which from the Season of the Year and other circumstances must be destined for some expedition to the Southward of this. I have therefore thought it prudent to send Major General Lee to New York, I have given him Letters recommentory to Governor Trumbull, and to the Committee of Safety of New York, there are good hopes that in Connecticut he will get many Volunteers, who I have some reason to think, will accompany him on this expedition, without more expence to the Continent than their maintenance, but should it be otherwise and that they will expect pay, I think it is a trifling consideration when put in competition with the importance of the object, which is to put the City of New York such parts of the North River and long Island as to him shall seem proper, in that state of defence, which the Season of the Year and circumstances will admit of so as, if possible to prevent the Enemy forming a lodgment in that Government, which I am afraid contains too many persons disaffected to the cause of Liberty and America. -- I have also wrote to Lord Stirling to give all the Assistance that he can with the Troops under his Command in the Continental Service, provided it does not interfere with any Orders, he may receive from Congress relative to them.

        I hope the Congress will approve of my Conduct in sending General Lee upon this Expedition. I am sure I mean it well as


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    experience teaches us, that it is much easier to prevent an Enemy from posting themselves, than it is to dislodge them after they have got possession.

        The Evening of the 8th. instant a party of our men under the command of Major Knowlton were ordered to go and burn some houses which lay at the foot of Bunkers Hill and at the head of Charles Town they were also ordered to bring of the Guard which we expected consisted of an officer and thirty men. they crossed the Mill dam about half after eight O'Clock, and gallantly executed their design having burnt eight Houses, and brought with them a Serjeant and 4 privates of the 10th regiment, there was but one man more there, who making some resistance they were obliged to dispatch. The Gun that killed him was the only one, that was discharged by our men, tho' several hundred were fired by the Enemy from within their Works; but in so confused a manner, that not one of our people was hurt. Our Inlistments go on very heavyly. I am &ca. 14

    [Note:In the writing of Stephen Moylan. ]

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, January 12, 1776.

        Parole Pendleton. Countersign Deane.

        His Excellency the Commander in Chief, having been pleased to order an Advertisement in the several Newspapers of this, and the adjoining Colonies, commanding "All Officers, Noncommissioned Officers and Soldiers now absent upon any leave, or pretence whatsoever, to join their respective Regiments, at Roxbury and Cambridge, by the first day of February next, and all Officers neglecting to pay due obedience thereto, will be forthwith cashiered, and every Non-Commissioned Officer, or Soldier, failing therein to be tryed and punished as Deserters."


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    The Colonels, and commanding Officers of Regiments, and Corps, are now positively ordered, not to grant any more Furloughs, or leaves of absence, to any Officer, non-Commissioned Officer, or Soldier, any former Order, or permission heretofore given notwithstanding: His Excellency therefore expects every Colonel, and Commanding Officer of Regiments and Corps, will direct all those absent from their Regiments, or Corps, to pay strict Obedience to this Order, that no person may plead, or be allowed to plead Ignorance thereof.

    To MAJOR GENERAL RICHARD MONTGOMERY Cambridge, January 12, 1776.

        Dear Sir: Every Account from your Quarter serves to confirm our Hopes that you will get Possession of Quebec if not already in your Hands. I must beg, therefore, your Attention to the Wants of the Army here, which are not few, and if they cannot in some Part be supplied by you, I do not know where else I can apply. After Powder, the principal Deficiency is that of Arms. Those brought in by the Soldiers are so very indifferent that I cannot place Confidence in them. Blankets and Cloathing we are very deficient in. Of these and other Necessaries, I am taught to beleive, there is Abundance in Canada. Quebec is, I suppose, the great Magazine for them, and all Kind of military Stores. I hope it will be in your Power to forward to this Place from thence a sufficient Quantity to relieve our Wants. Whatever you can spare we shall have Occasion for, and your sending them as expeditiously as possible, will be doing vast Service to this Army, and very much oblige, Sir, Yrs.

        P.S. Arms we are exceedingly in Want of. These I could wish to receive without Delay, if you can supply them from the King's Stores in Quebec.


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    To COLONEL BENEDICT ARNOLD Cambridge, January 12, 1776.

        Sir: Your Favour of the 5th. Ulto. from before Quebec inclosing the Returns of your Detachment, is come to Hand. From the Account you give of the Garrison, and State of the Walls, I expect soon to hear from you, within them, which will give me vast Pleasure.

        I am informed that there are large Quantities of Arms, Blanketts, Cloathing, and other military Stores in that City. These are Articles which we are in great Want of here; I have, therefore, wrote to General Montgomery, or whoever is commanding Officer in that Quarter, to send me as much as can be spared from thence. If you can assist in expediting their Dispatch, you will much oblige me.

        I understand that the Congress have it under their Consideration to raise an Army for the Defence of Canada on a new Establishment. When I received this Information I applied to Congress to know, whether it was their Intention that you and the Officers in your Department, were to be appointed there, or remain as you were appointed in this Army, as newly arranged, to which I have not yet received their Answer.

        The Want of so many good Officers is felt here, especially in the recruiting service, which does not go on so brisk as I could wish. I think it will be best for you, to settle for the Arrearages due to your Men since October last, with the PayMaster of the Army at your Place. I don't know any better Way for you or them to receive it. I am, Sir, etc.

    INSTRUCTIONS TO WILLIAM MARONY Head Quarters, January 12, 1776.

        All Persons guilty of capital Crimes, and Crimes not triable by a regimental Court Martial are to be sent to the Provost.


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        The Provost is not to receive any Prisoner without a Crime specified in Writing, and signed by the Person committing him. No Prisoner is to be suffered to be absent from his Confinement untill released by proper Authority.

        The Provost Marshal is to provide a suitable Person, when necessary, to execute the Sentences of General Courts Martial approved of and directed to be enforced by the Commander in Chief.

        When any Men are sent to the Provost, the Provost Marshal is to send a Report of them immediately to the Regiment they belong to; and no Man is to be received by the Provost unless his Crime is sent with him.

        The Provost is to make a Return every Morning by ten O'Clock, to the Adjutant General, of the Number of Prisoners under Guard, specifying the Regiments they belong to, their Crimes, by whom and how long confined.

        The Provost is to take due Care, that all Orders from the Judge Advocate respecting the Trials of Prisoners be punctually executed, and is to post proper Centries from his Guard, at such Times and in such Places as a General Court Martial may sit.

        The Provost is frequently to take a Party from his Guard and patrole the Avenues and Environs of the Camp, is to take up and confine all disorderly and suspicious Persons, to suppress Riots and Disturbances and to inform the Quarter Master General of all Persons who keep unwarranted and destructive Dram Shops, and all other pernicious and Camp Nusances.

        The Provost is to receive and obey all such Orders and Instructions as may at any Time be given him by his Excellency the Commander in Chief, the Adjutant General, the Quarter Master General, and the Judge Advocate of the Army of the United Colonies.


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    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, January 13, 1776.

        Parole Conway. Countersign Grafton.

        To prevent any misconception of the Order of Yesterday, it is declared, that the Commanding Officers of Regiments, are not restrained from sending out as many recruiting Officers, as can be spared from the duties of their respective regiments; but that those Officers, together with such as are now out with their Recruits, be possitively order'd to be in Camp by the last of this month, that our real strenght may be fully and clearly ascertained.

        The Colonels, and commanding Officers of Corps, to recommend it immediately to their recruiting Officers, to get all their Recruits armed in the Country; or at least as many, as it is possible to have supplied with arms from thence.

    To COLONEL ALEXANDER McDOUGALL Cambridge, January 13, 1776.

        Sir: I received your Favour of the 2nd. Inst. last Evening and note what you mention of the Cannon. 15 I am in daily Expectation of Colonel Knox's Arrival and until he comes I cannot with Certainty inform you, whether I shall want the Iron Cannon or not.

    [Note:McDougall was at New York City. ]

        Upon Examination of the Stores that were on Board the Brigantine, I find we stand in great Need of Shells, and shall esteem it a particular Favour, if you will immediately on Receipt hereof, forward the 1100. specified at the Foot of your Letter. I am told there is a Vessel arrived with you, that brought 20 Tons of Powder. I need not inform you of the great


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    Necessity I am in for that Article. If it is true that this Quantity has arrived, it would be of infinite Service to the great Cause we are engaged in, that the whole or such Part thereof, as can be spared, was sent with the utmost Dispatch to this Camp. If it belongs to private Persons, I request you will purchase it; if to the Publick, your exerting your Influence with the Committee of Safety to effect this good Purpose, will very much oblige, Sir, etc.

    To THE MASSACHUSETTS LEGISLATURE Cambridge, January 13, 1776.

        Gentn: It is exceedingly painful to me, to give you so much trouble as I have, and am like to do, in the support of our Lines and arrangement of the New Army. But my difficulties, must in their consequences, devolve trouble on you.

        To my very great surprize, I find that the whole number of Arms, which have been stopped from the discharged Soldiers, amount to no more than 1620; and of that number, no more than 120 are in store, the rest being redelivered to the Recruits which have come in. I also find, from the Report of the recruiting officers, that few Men are to be Inlisted, who have Arms in their hands, and that they are reduced to the Alternative, of either getting no Men, or Men without Arms. Unhappy Situation; what is to be done, unless these Governments will exert themselves in providing Arms from the Several Towns, or in such other manner, as to them shall seem speedy and effectual.

        To account for this great deficiency, would be tedious and not much to the purpose, -- Suffice it generally to say, that it has arisen from two causes; -- the badness of the Arms of the old Army, which the Inspectors and Valuers of, did not think fit to detain; and to the disobedient Regiments, which in spite


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    of every order I could Issue to the Contrary, (even to solemn threat of stopping the pay for the Months of November and December, of all those who should carry away their Arms) have, in a manner by stealth borne them away.

        I am glad to hear, by a Gentn. of your Honble. Body, who does me the Honor to be the bearer of this Letter, that you have for sometime past been Collecting Arms at Watertown, whilst a good deal of dispatch has been used in making them elsewhere. I beg to know how many I can rely upon, as the recruits now coing in from the Country, will be useless without. It is to no purpose I find, to depend upon Imported Arms; what you can furnish, I must take in behalf of the Continent, and will upon Notice, send some Gentleman to receive them. Will it be prudent to apply to such of the Militia, as are going away, for their Arms? leaving It optional in them, cannot be amiss, but will the Necessity of the case Justify the policy of detaining them; I ask for Information. being with great truth etc.

    TO THE NEW HAMPSHIRE LEGISLATURE Cambridge, January 13, 1776.

        Sir: I am sorry, that I should have so often troubled you respecting this Army, and that I am under the necessity of applying to you again.

        To my great surprise Sir, I find, that notwithstanding I have taken the utmost pains to prevent the soldiers that would not reenlist in the New Army from carrying away their Arms, or such of them as were good, that the whole number collected amounts only to 1620, of which there are no more than 120 now in store; the rest being delivered to the Recruits, which have come in.

        I also find from the Report of the recruiting officers, that few men are to be inlisted, who have Arms in their Hands, and that they are reduced to the disagreeable alternative, of getting men


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    without any, or no men at all. Unhappy situation! What is to be done? Must not these Governments exert themselves in procuring them from the several Towns, or in such other manner, as to them shall seem most effectual and Speedy.*** 16

    [Note:The omission is the same as the third paragraph in the letter to the Massachusetts Legislature of this same date. ]

        The prospect of getting Imported Arms, is so remote and uncertain that I cannot depend upon it. I therefore request the favor of you, to inform me, whether you have any and what number belonging to the Government, as also If you will be able to procure more and in what time. If you have any or can get' them, I shall be glad to take them on account of the United Colonies. They must be had if possible. I have wrote to the Honble. Genl. Court of this province about the same, but have not received their Answer. Should any of your Militia be here, when I get your Answer, will it be prudent to apply to them for their Arms; leaving it optional in them cannot be amiss. -- But will the necessity of the case justify an Involuntary detention of them? I ask for Information. I am Sir, &c.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, January 14, 1776.

        Parole Petersborough. Countersign London.

        A General Court Martial to sit to morrow Morning, in Cambridge, to try such prisoners as shall be brought before them -- All Evidences and Persons concern'd to attend the Court -- The Court to assemble at Mr. Pomeroy's at Ten in the forenoon.

    To THE PRESIDENT OF CONGRESS Cambridge, January 14, 1776.

        Sir: I am exceedingly sorry, that I am under the necessity of applying to you, and calling the attention of Congress to the


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    state of our Arms, which is truly alarming; Upon the dissolution of the old Army, I was apprehensive that the New would be deficient in this instance, and that the want might be as inconsiderable as possible, I gave it in Orders that the Arms of such men as did not reinlist, should be (or such of them as were good) retained at the prices which should be affixed by persons appointed to Inspect and value them: And that we might be sure of them, I added, that there would be a stoppage of pay for the Months of Novr. and Decr. from those, that should carry their Firelocks away, without there being first examined.

        By these precautions I hoped to have procured a considerable Number: But Sir, I find with much concern, that from the badness of the Arms, and the disobedience of too many in bearing them off without a previous inspection, that a very few were collected; neither are we to expect that many will be brought in by the New Recruits: the Officers who are out inlisting, having reported, that few 17 men who have Arms will engage in the Service, and that they are under the disagreable alternative of taking men without Arms, or of getting none. Unhappy situation Indeed and much to be deplored! especially when we know, that we have to contend with a formidable Army, well provided of every necessary, and that there will be a most vigorous exertion of Ministerial vengence against us, as soon as they think themselves in a condition for it. I hope it is in the power of Congress to afford us relief; If it is not, what must, what can be done?

    [Note:This word is in the writing of Washington. ]

        Our Treasury is almost exhausted, and the demands against it, very considerable; a constant supply of money to answer every claim and exigency, would much promote the good of the Service; in the common affairs of Life, it is useful: In War, it is absolutely necessary and essential. I would beg leave too,


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    to remind you of Tents and of their importance; hoping if an opportunity has offered, you have procured them.

        I fear that our Army will not be raised to the New Establishment in any reasonable time, if ever; the Inlistments go on so very slow, that they seem almost at an end.

        In my Letter of the 4th. instant I wrote you that I had received certain Intelligence from a Mr. Hutchinson and others, that 2 of the 5 regiments from Cork were arrived at Halifax, one at Boston and the other 2 had sailed for Quebec, and had not been heard of. I am now Assured as a matter to be relied on, by four Captains of Ships (who left England about the 2d of Novemr. and who appear to be men of veracity, that the whole of these regiments (except the three Companies, which arrived at Boston some time ago) when they sailed, were at Milford Haven where they had been Obliged to put in by a violent Storm the 19th of October; That they would not be able to leave it for a considerable time, being under the necessity of repairing their Vessels and taking some new ones up; such is the uncertainty and contradiction in what I now hear, that it is not possible to know, what to believe or disbelieve.

        I wrote to the General Court yesterday and to the Convention of New Hampshire immediately on being acquainted with the great deficiency in our Arms, praying that they would Interest themselves in the matter, and furnish me with all in their power. Whether I shall get any or what quantity, I cannot determine, having not received their Answers. The same Application will be made to the Governments of Connecticut and Rhode Island.

        I do myself the Honor to send you sundry news papers, I received from the above mentioned Captains as they may be later than any you have seen, and contain some Interesting Intelligence. I have the Honor to be etc. 18

    [Note:In the writing of Robert Hanson Harrison. ]

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    TO JOSEPH REED Cambridge, January 14, 1776.

        Dear Sir: The bearer presents an opportunity to me of acknowledging the receipt of your favor of the 30th ultimo, (which never came to my hands till last night,) and, if I have not done it before, of your other of the 23d preceding.

        The hints you have communicated from time to time not only deserve, but do most sincerely and cordially meet with my thanks. You cannot render a more acceptable service, nor in my estimation give a more convincing proof of your friendship, than by a free, open, and undisguised account of every matter relative to myself or conduct. I can bear to hear of imputed or real errors. The man, who wishes to stand well in the opinion of others, must do this; because he is thereby enabled to correct his faults, or remove prejudices which are imbibed against him. For this reason, I shall thank you for giving me the opinions of the world, upon such points as you know me to be interested in; for, as I have but one capital object in view, I could wish to make my conduct coincide with the wishes of mankind, as far as I can consistently; I mean, without departing from that great line of duty, which, though hid under a cloud for some time, from a peculiarity of circumstances, may nevertheless bear a scrutiny. My constant attention to the great and perplexing objects, which continually rise to my view, absorbs all lesser considerations, and indeed scarcely allows me time to reflect, that there is such a body in existence as the General Court of this colony, but when I am reminded of it by a committee; nor can I, upon recollection, discover in what instances (I wish they would be more explicit) I have been inattentive to, or slighted them. They could not, surely, conceive that there was a propriety in unbosoming the secrets of an army


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    to them; that it was necessary to ask their opinion of throwing up an intrenchment, forming a battalion, &c., &c. It must, therefore, be what I before hinted to you; and how to remedy it I hardly know, as I am acquainted with few of the members, never go out of my own lines, or see any of them in them.

        I am exceeding sorry to hear, that your little fleet has been shut in by the frost. 19 I hope it has sailed ere this, and given you some proof of the utility of it, and enabled the Congress to bestow a little more attention to the affairs of this army, which suffers exceedingly by their overmuch business, or too little attention to it. We are now without any money in our treasury, powder in our magazines, arms in our stores. We are without a brigadier (the want of which has been twenty times urged), engineers, expresses (though a committee has been appointed these two months to establish them), and by and by, when we shall be called upon to take the field, shall not have a tent to lie in. Apropos, what is doing with mine? 20

    [Note:Pennsylvania, like New Jersey, South Carolina, and some of the other Colonies, had a small navy of her own. ]
    [Note:This was probably the tent outfit made by Plunket Fleeson, of Philadelphia. It consisted of a large dining marquee and a living tent with an arched chamber, a baggage tent, various camp stools, etc. Fleeson's account, £51:6 was paid May 11, 1776. One of these marquees is now deposited at Valley Forge. ]

        These are evils, but small in comparison of those, which disturb my present repose. Our enlistments are at a stand; the fears I ever entertained are realized; that is, the discontented officers (for I do not know how else to account for it) have thrown such difficulties or stumbling-blocks in the way of recruiting, that I no longer entertain a hope of completing the army by voluntary enlistments, and I see no move or likelihood of one, to do it by other means. In the last two weeks we have enlisted but about one thousand men; whereas I was confidently led to believe, by all the officers I conversed with, that we should by this time have had the regiments nearly completed. Our


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    total number upon paper amounts to about ten thousand five hundred; but as a large portion of these are returned not joined, I never expect to receive them, as an ineffectual order has once issued to call them in. Another is now gone forth peremptorily requiring all officers under pain of being cashiered, and recruits as being treated as deserters, to join their respective regiments by the 1st day of next month, that I may know my real strength; but if my fears are not imaginary, I shall have a dreadful account of the advanced month's pay. In consequence of the assurances given, and my expectation of having at least men enough enlisted to defend our lines, to which may be added my unwillingness of burthening the cause with unnecessary expense, no relief of militia has been ordered in, to supply the places of those, who are released from their engagements tomorrow, and on whom, though many have promised to continue out the month, there is no security for their stay.

        Thus am I situated with respect to men. With regard to arms I am yet worse off. Before the dissolution of the old army, I issued an order directing three judicious men of each brigade to attend, review, and appraise the good arms of every regiment; and finding a very great unwillingness in the men to part with their arms, at the same time not having it in my power to pay them for the months of November and December, I threatened severely, that every soldier, who carried away his firelock without leave, should never receive pay for those months; yet so many have been carried off, partly by stealth, but chiefly as condemned, that we have not at this time one hundred guns in the stores, of all that have been taken in the prize-ship and from the soldiery, notwithstanding our regiments are not half completed. At the same time I am told, and believe it, that to restrain the enlistment to men with arms, you will get but few of the former, and still fewer of the latter, which would be good for any thing.


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        How to get furnished I know not. I have applied to this and the neighbouring colonies, but with what success time only can tell. The reflection on my situation, and that of this army, produces many an uneasy hour when all around me are wrapped in sleep. Few people know the predicament we are in, on a thousand accounts; fewer still will believe, if any disaster happens to these lines, from what cause it flows. I have often thought how much happier I should have been, if, instead of accepting of a command under such circumstances, I had taken my musket on my shoulder and entered the ranks, or, if I could have justified the measure to posterity and my own conscience, had retired to the back country, and lived in a wigwam. If I shall be able to rise superior to these and many other difficulties, which might be enumerated, I shall most religiously believe, that the finger of Providence is in it, to blind the eyes of our enemies; for surely if we get well through this month, it must be for want of their knowing the disadvantages we labour under.

        Could I have foreseen the difficulties, which have come upon us; could I have known, that such a backwardness would have been discovered in the old soldiers to the service, all the generals upon earth should not have convinced me of the propriety of delaying an attack upon Boston till this time. When it can now be attempted, I will not undertake to say; but this much I will answer for, that no opportunity can present itself earlier than my wishes. But as this letter discloses some interesting truths, I shall be somewhat uneasy until I hear it gets to your hands, although the conveyance is thought safe.

        We made a successful attempt a few nights ago upon the houses near Bunker's Hill. A party under Major Knowlton crossed upon the mill-dam, the night being dark, and set fire to and burnt down eight out of fourteen which were standing, and which we found they were daily pulling down for fuel. Five


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    soldiers, and the wife of one of them, inhabiting one of the houses, were brought off prisoners; another soldier was killed; none of ours hurt.

        Having undoubted information of the embarkation of troops, somewhere from three to five hundred, at Boston, and being convinced they are designed either for New York Government, (from whence we have some very disagreeable accounts of the conduct of the Tories) or Virginia, I despatched General Lee a few days ago, in order to secure the city of New York from falling into their hands, as the consequences of such a blow might prove fatal to our interests. He is also to inquire a little into the conduct of the Long-Islanders, and such others as have, by their conduct and declarations, proved themselves inimical to the common cause. To effect these purposes, he is to raise volunteers in Connecticut, and call upon the troops of New Jersey, if not contrary to any order of Congress.

        By a ship just arrived at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, we have London prints to the 2d of November, containing the addresses of Parliament, which contain little more than a repetition of the speech, with assurances of standing by his Majesty with lives and fortunes. The captains (for there were three or four of them passengers) say, that we have nothing to expect but the most vigorous exertions of administration, who have a dead majority upon all questions, although the Duke of Grafton and General Conway have joined the minority, as also the Bishop of Peterborough. These captains affirm confidently, that the five regiments from Ireland cannot any of them have arrived at Halifax, inasmuch as that by a violent storm on the 19th of October, the transports were forced, in a very distressful condition, into Milford Haven (Wales) and were not in a condition to put to sea when they left London, and the weather


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    has been such since, as to prevent heavy loaded ships from making a passage by this time. One or two transports, they add, were thought to be lost; but these arrived some considerable time ago at Boston, with three companies of the 17th regiment.

        Mr. Sayre has been committed to the Tower, upon the information of a certain Lieutenant or Adjutant Richardson (formerly of your city) for treasonable practices; an intention of seizing his Majesty, and possessing himself of the Tower, it is said in the crisis, 21 but he is admitted to bail himself in five hundred pounds, and two sureties in two hundred and fifty pounds each.

    [Note:Walpole's Journal of the Reign of King George III (vol. I, pp. 508 -- 515) gives the gossip of this hysteria. It appears to have been the usual story of perjured information, the saving of official face, and a venal justice. Sparks notes that Sayre was released, as the charges were found to he groundless. ]

        What are the conjectures of the wise ones with you, of the French armament in the West Indies? But previous to this, is there any certainty of such an armament? The captains, who are sensible men, heard nothing of this when they left England; nor does there appear any apprehensions on this score in any of the measures or speeches of administration. I should think the Congress will not, ought not, to adjourn at this important crisis.

        But it is highly necessary, when I am at the end of a second sheet of paper, that I should adjourn my account of matters to another letter. I shall, therefore, in Mrs. Washington's name, thank you for your good wishes towards her, and with her compliments, added to mine, to Mrs. Reed, conclude, dear Sir, your sincere and affectionate servant. 22

    [Note:The text is from Reed's Life and Correspondence of Joseph Reed. Sparks prints this letter, as he does most of those of Washington to Reed. but no copy of any of them is now found in the Washington Papers. It is quite possible that these early letters to Reed are examples of Washington's practice of not keeping a record of what he considered his private correspondence. It should be noted that his letters to Reed after 1776 were not always considered as being in this private class. ]

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    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, January 16, 1776.

        Parole Sayre. Countersign Lewis.

        Notwithstanding the repeated Orders Issued, in the course of last Campaign, forbiding all Officers commanding Guards, to suffer any of their Guard to be absent, Day or Night, from their Guard, until regularly relieved; yet it is with Surprise, the General hears, that it is a common practice, even at the advanced posts next the enemy -- Any Officer commanding at any of the Guards, or out posts, who shall for the future suffer any of their Officers, or Men, to be absent until regularly relieved, will be put in Arrest, and tried for disobedience of orders.

    To THE MASSACHUSETTS LEGISLATURE Cambridge, January 16, 1776.

        Genl.: Your several Resolves, in consequence of my Letters of the 10th and 15th inst., have been presented to me by a Committee of your Honble. Body. 23 I thank you for the assurances, of being zealously disposed to do every thing in your power to facilitate the recruiting the American Army, and at the same time that I assure you, I do not entertain a doubt of the truth of it, I must beg leave to add, that I conceive you have mistaken the meaning of my Letter of the 10th., if you suppose it ever was my Idea, that you should offer a bounty at the seperate expence of this Colony.

    [Note:See Washington's letter to The Massachusetts Legislature, Jan. 10, 1776, ante. The letter of January 15 merely referred an expense account to the legislature for payment. ]

        It was not clear to me, but that some coercive measures might be used on this, as on former occasions, to draft men to compleat the Regiments upon the Continental Establishment: But


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    as this is thought unadviseable, I shall rely on your recommending to the selectmen and committees of Correspondence &c. to exert themselves in their several Towns, to promote the Inlistments for the American Army. 24

    [Note:Ford quotes from James Warren's letter to Samuel Adams (January 14): "I think the service has suffered and the enlistments been embarrassed, by the low state in which you keep your treasury here. Had the general been able to have paid off the old army to the last of December, when their term expired, and to give assurances for the pay of the militia when their continuance in the army should end, it might have produced many good effects -- among others added some thousands to the army. You will be surprised, perhaps, when I tell you there is but about 10,000 dollars here; and that left by the necessary parsimony of the general, not knowing what occasion there might be for a little. The time for which our militia came in, ends to-morrow. We have presumed so much on the public spirit of our countrymen as to make no other provision, though everything depends on their staying, and they wish to be at home. Our house adjourned yesterday morning, and the members went down among them to use their influence. I flatter myself most of them will stay to the last of this month." (See Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society, vol. 14, p. 277.) ]

        In the mean while, as there is an appearance of this service going on but slowly, and it is necessary to have a respectable Body of Troops here as soon as possible, to act as circumstances shall require; I must beg that you will order in, with as much expedition as the Nature of the Case will admit of, Seven Regts. agreeable to the establishment of this Army, to continue in Service till the 1st of April, If required. You will be pleased to direct, that the Men come provided with good Arms, Blankets, Kettles for cooking, and if possible, with Twenty rounds of Powder and Ball.

        With respect to your other resolve relative to arms, I am quite ready to make an absolute purchase, of such as shall be furnished either by the Colony or Individuals. I am also ready to engage payment for all the Arms, which shall be furnished by the Recruits, if lost in the Public Service; but I do not know how far I could be justified in allowing for the use of them; when I know it to be the opinion of Congress, that every Man shall furnish his own Arms, or pay for the use of them, if put in his hands. To do otherwise, is an Indirect way of raising the


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    pay. I again wish that the Honble: Court could devise some method of purchasing.

        I beg leave to return my thanks for the kind offer of Fifty thousand Pounds for the Continental use. I will accept of a Loan upon the terms mentioned, of half that sum; to secure payment of the Militia, whose time of Service will be up the last of this Month; till when I shall not have occasion to make use of the Money. I am etc.

    To GOVERNOR JONATHAN TRUMBULL Cambridge, January 16, 1776.

        Sir: The alarming and almost defenceless state of our Lines, occasioned by the slow progress in raising recruits for the New Army, and the departure of a great number of Militia, which had been called in for their support, till the 15th. Inst., from this and New Hampshire Governments, rendered it necessary for us to summon the General Officers in Council, to determine on proper measures to be adopted for their maintainance and preservation. For this purpose they metat HeadQuarters yesterday and to day and finding that it was with the utmost difficulty and persuasion, that such part of the latter as are now here, had been prevail'd on to continue till the last of the Month; after which there is not the remotest probability of their staying one moment; they have judged it expedient and absolutely necessary that thirteen Regiments should be forthwith raised, equal to those of the New Establishment, to be officered according to the usual mode of their respective Governments, which are to repair to this Camp by the last instant if possible; to be in readiness to Act in such manner and till the 1st April, as Circumstances may require. Of this number, they apprehend the


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    Massachusetts should furnish seven, your Government four and New Hampshire two, being agreeable to the proportion settled by Congress.

        In order that each Regiment may consist of a proper number of officers and men, I herewith send you a list for their regulation, as also of the Continental pay.

        I must earnestly solicit your regard to Arms, Amunition, Blankets, Cloathing and Kettles, that they may come as well provided with these necessary articles as they can, particularly the first, of which I find to my great surprise and concern there is an amazing deficiency; notwithstanding I have used every precaution my Judgment could point out to procure them. Besides the Arms which these Regiments will bring with them I shall be particularly obliged by your furnishing me for the use of the Continent with such others, as you have or can Collect. If you have any, or can get them made, you will please to inform me of the Quantity. These Governments I hope will exert themselves in this instance. they must be had, or what can, what will be done.

        The great and constant attention Sir, which you have shewn on all occasions to promote the public cause, affords me the strongest assurance, that your every exertion and Interest will be employed, to comply with these several requisitions. I am Sir, &c.

    To GOVERNOR NICHOLAS COOKE Cambridge, January 16, 1776.

        Sir: It is exceedingly painful to me, that I should have so often troubled you respecting this Army, and that I am under the necessity of applying to you again; but you must in some measure be Involved in whatever dificulties attend me, in this instance.


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        To my great surprise Sir, I find that notwithstanding I have taken the greatest care to prevent the Soldiers that would not reinlist in the New Army, from carrying away their Arms or such of them as were good; that the Number collected is trifeling and inconsiderable, of which there are but few, if any, now in store, they being delivered to the Recruits that have come in. *** 25 The prospect of getting Imported Arms is so remote and uncertain, that I cannot depend upon it: I therefore fore request the favor of you to inform me, whether you have any, and what number belonging to the Government; and also whether you will be able to procure more and in what time. If you have any or can get them, I shall be glad to take them on account of the Continent. They must be had if possible. I have wrote to the other New England Governments upon the same subject. I am Sir, etc.

    [Note:The omission is, practically, the first paragraph of Washington's letter to Congress, Jan. 14, 1776, q. v. ]

    To THE NEW HAMPSHIRE LEGISLATURE Cambridge, January 16, 1776.

        The alarming and almost defenceless state of our Lines, occasioned by the slow progress of raising recruits for the New Army and the departure of a great number of the Militia, which had been called in for their Support, till the 15th Instant, from this and New Hampshire Governments; rendered it necessary for me to Summon the General Officers in Council, to determine on proper measures to be adopted for their maintenance and preservation.

        For this purpose, they met at Head Quarters yesterday and to day and finding that it was with the utmost difficulty and persuasion that such part of the latter, as are now here, had been prevailed on to continue till the last of the Month; after which there is not the remotest probability of their staying one


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    moment; they have judged it expedient and absolutely necessary, that thirteen Regiments should be forthwith raised, equal to those of the New Establishment, to be officered according to the usual mode of their respective Governments, which are to repair to this Camp by the last Instant, if possible, to be in readiness to act in such manner and till the 1st of April, as circumstances may require; of this Number they apprehend the Massachusetts should furnish seven, Connecticut four, and your Government two, being agreeable to the proportion settled by Congress.

        In order that each Regiment may consist of a proper number of officers and men, I herewith send you a list for their regulation, as also of the Continental Pay.

        I must earnestly solicit your regard to Arms, Amunition, Blankets, Clothing and Kettles, that they may come as well provided with these necessary Articles as they can, particularly the first; of which I find, to my great surprize and concern, there is an amazing deficiency; notwithstanding, I have used every precaution my judgment could point out, to procure them.

        The great and constant attention Sir, which you have shewn upon all occasions to promote the public cause, affords me the strongest assurance, that your every exertion and Interest will be employed, to comply with these several requisitions. I am Sir &c.

    To MAJOR GENERAL PHILIP SCHUYLER Cambridge, January 16, 1776.

        Dear Sir: Your Favour of the 5th. Inst. inclosing Copies of General Montgomery's and General Wooster's Letters, I received; for which I return you my Thanks. 26

    [Note:Schuyler's letter of January 5 is in the Washington Papers. In it he stated his conviction that the jealousy of the Connecticut officers and troops was the deciding factor in his retirement. When Congress considered the Canadian situation (January 20) it ordered "That General Washington be desired to despatch a general officer, if he can be spared from the service at Cambridge, to command the army in Canada." ]

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        It was from a full Conviction of your zealous Attachment to the Cause of our Country, and Abilities to serve it, that I repeatedly pressed your Continuance in Command; and it is with much Concern, Sir, that I find you have Reason to think your holding the Place you do, will be of Prejudice and incompatible with it's Interest. As you are of this Opinion, the Part you are inclined to take is certainly generous and noble: but will the good Consequences you intend be derived from it? I greatly fear they will not. -- I shall leave the Matter to yourself, in full Confidence, that in whatever Sphere you move, your Exertions for your Country's Weal, will not be wanting.

        Whatever Proof you may obtain, fixing, or tending to support the Charge, against Mr. Prescot, you will please to transmit me by the first Opportunity. 27

    [Note:General Prescott was considered responsible for the harsh treatment of Ethan Alien and the prisoners taken with him at Montreal. ]

        I am apt to believe the Intelligence given Doctr. Wheelock respecting Major Rogers, was not true; 28 but being much suspected of unfriendly Views to this Country, his Conduct should be attended to with some Degree of Vigilance and Circumspection.

    [Note:Rogers was believed to have been with the British troops in Canada and to have given information as to the strength of till American forces. ]

        I confess I am much concerned for General Montgomery, and Col. Arnold; and the Consequences which will result from their Miscarriage, should it happen, will be very alarming. I fear no less fatal than you mention. However, I trust, that their distinguished Conduct, Bravery, and Perseverance will meet with the Smile of Fortune, and put them in Possession of this important Fortress. I wish their Force was greater, the Reduction would then be certain.

        I am sorry that Ticonderoga, and Fort George should be left by the Garrisons, and that your recruiting Officers meet with


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    such ill Success. It is too much the Case in this Quarter, and from the slow Progress made in inlisting, I despair of raising an Army to the new Establishment. -- Should it be effected, it will be a long Time first.

        Our Caghnawaga Friends are not arrived yet; I will try to make suitable Provision for them during their Stay, and use every Means in my Power to confirm their favourable Disposition towards us. They will not, I am fearful, have such Ideas of our Strength, as I could wish. This, however, shall be strongly inculcated. 29

    [Note:The Caughnawaga Tribe were located a few miles above Montreal, on the St. Lawrence River. Some chiefs had visited General Schuyler and wished to visit the main American camp at Cambridge. ]

        If Quebec is in our Possession, I do not see that any Inconvenience will result from Mr. Gamble's going there upon his Parole; 30 but if it is not, however hurtful it may be to him, however disagreeable to me, to prejudice the Interest of an Individual, I cannot consent to his Return. I am much distressed by other Applications of a like Nature. If Mr. Gamble's Request is granted, others in the same Situation will claim the same Indulgence. Further, I think a particular Exchange should not be made, and my Proposition for a general one, was rejected by Mr. Howe, or what is the same, it was unnoticed. I could wish that his Application had been to Congress. They might have complied with it, had they thought it reasonable.

    [Note:Mr. Thomas Gamble was a deputy quartermaster general in the British Army. He was taken prisoner with General Prescott after the capitulation of Montreal. ]

        I shall be much obliged by your sending, as expeditiously as you can, such Cloathing as you are able to spare. It's not being made up, is rather an Advantage, as it may be done here with some saving.

        I am much pleased that the Artillery was like to be got over the River, and am in Hopes that Colonel Knox will arrive with it in a few Days. It is much wanted.


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        On reading the Copy of Genl. Wooster's Letter I was much surprised to find, that he had granted Furloughs to the Connecticut Troops under his Command, in Preference of Discharges. What Advantage could he imagine they would be of to the Continent, when they were at their own Homes? If he could not continue them in the Service they were upon, their Discharges would certainly have eased the Country of a considerable Expence. Giving you in Return the Compliments of the Season, and wishing you every Happiness, I am, etc.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, January 18, 1776.

        Parole Worcester. Countersign Cambridge.

        Samuel Neason, Quarter Master to Col. Prescot's Regiment, tried at a General Court Martial whereof Col. Patterson was President for "defrauding the Soldiers of their allowance of bread" is acquitted by the Court -- The General orders Qr. Master Neason to be released from his arrest.

    To MAJOR GENERAL PHILIP SCHUYLER Cambridge, January 18, 1776.

        Dear Sir: I received your Favour of the 13th. Inst., with it's Inclosures, and am heartily sorry and most sincerely condole with you upon the Fall of the brave and worthy Montgomery and those gallant Officers and Men who have experienced a like Fate. In the Death of this Gentleman, America has sustained a heavy Loss, having approved himself a steady Friend to her Rights, and of Ability to render her the most essential Services, I am much concerned for the intrepid and enterprising Arnold and greatly fear, that Consequences of the most alarming


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    Nature will result from this well intended, but unfortunate Attempt. It would give me the greatest Pleasure, if I could be the happy Means of releiving our Fellow Citizens now in Canada, and preventing the ministerial Troops from exulting long and availing themselves of the Advantages arising from this Repulse. But it is not in my Power. Since the Dissolution of the old Army, the Progress in raising Recruits for the new, has been so very slow and inconsiderable, that five Thousand Militia have been called in for the Defence of our Lines. A great Part of these are gone Home again, and the rest induced to stay with the utmost Difficulty and Persuasion, though their going would render the holding of them truly precarious and hazardous, in Case of an Attack. In short I have not a Man to spare.

        In Order that proper Measures might be adopted, I called a Council of General Officers, and upon Mr. John Adams and other Members of Influence, of the General Court, and laid before them your Letter and Proposition. 31 After due Consideration of their Importance, they determind that the Colonies of Massachusetts, New Hampshire and Connecticut, should each immediately raise, a Regiment, to continue in Service for one Year, and to march forthwith to Canada, agreeable to the Rout proposed in your Letter to Congress. This Determination with a Copy of your Letter, and the several Inclosures, will be immediately transmitted to the different Governments, for

    [Note:Schuyler's letter is in the Washington Papers. It announced Montgomery's death, the wounding of Arnold, and suggested a speedy reenforcement of the troops in Canada. Schuyler also postponed his intended retirement.

       Congress had already resolved, before the news of the failure of the attack on Quebec reached them, that nine battalions should be kept up and maintained the present year for the defense of Canada. The First Canadian Regiment, to be commanded by Col. James Livingston, was among these, and the Second Canadian Regiment, to be commanded by Col. Moses Hazen, had been authorized. The repulse of the American forces in Canada aroused a little more energy in considering the needs and situation of the Army, and, among other results, a committee was appointed to consider the advisability of establishing a war office. (See Journals of the Continental Congress, June 12, 1776.) ]


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    raising these Regiments, which, I have Reason to beleive will be directly complied with, from the Assurances I have received, from such of the Members of Court as attended in Council, and the General Officers promising to exert their utmost Interest and Influence in their respective Colonies.

        If these Regiments should not be raised so soon as I could wish; yet I would willingly hope, from the Accounts we have received, that Colonel Arnold and his Corps will be joined by a Number of Men under Colonel Warner, and from Connecticut, who, it is said, marched immediately on getting Intelligence of this melancholy Affair. If this Account be true, I trust, they will be in a Situation to oppose, and prevent Mr. Carlton from regaining Possession of what he has lost, and that upon the Arrival of the Reinforcement, to be sent from these Colonies, the City of Quebec will be reduced to our Possession. This must be effected before the Winter is entirely over, otherwise it will be exceedingly difficult if not impracticable, as the Enemy will undoubtedly place a strong Garrison there. Should this desirable Work be accomplished, our Conquest in that Quarter will be compleat; but yet, the Loss of the brave Montgomery will ever be remembered.

        It gives me Pleasure to find that you will continue in Service, and afford your Assistance to relieve your Country from the Distress which at present threatens her in the North.

        I am much obliged by your sending the Cloathing; but they are not yet arrived.

        None of the Letters give an Account how this unfortunate Affair ended. In Colo. Campbell's Letter of the 31st. Ulto. the Division which Colonel Green was in, he seems to think was in a very disagreable Situation, and drawing it off at Night or throwing in a Party to sustain it, was an Object he had much


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    in View. Here he stops. In his Letter of the 2nd. Inst. he says nothing about it; but I dread further Intelligence in the Matter.

        Genl. Putnam is of Opinion, that it will be better for the Troops which may be raised in the western Part of Connecticut to go to Albany than the Rout you have mentioned, by Number Four, 32 and that you pointed out this Way upon a Supposition that the Reinforcement would be detached from this Army. If you concur in Sentiments with him, please to inform Governor Trumbull of it, by Letter, that he may give the necessary Orders. I am, etc.

    [Note:Now Charlestown, in New Hampshire, on the Connecticut River. ]

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, January 19, 1776.

        Parole New Haven. Countersign Lee.

        One Serjeant, one Corporal and twelve Men, from General Putnams division, to mount to morrow Morning for the Provost Guard, at the old School house, on Cambridge common; to this Guard all Prisoners accused of Crimes cognizable by a General Court Martial, are to be sent; all suspected spies, and all Strollers and Stragglers, who cannot give a proper account of themselves -- The Guard is to be under the immediate command of the Provost, and he is only to receive Orders from Head Quarters, the General in Chief, the Adjutant and Quarter Master Generals for the time being.

    To THE MASSACHUSETTS LEGISLATURE Cambridge, January 19, 1776.

        Gentn.: The inclosures, herewith sent, convey such full Accounts, of the sad reverse of our affairs in Canada, as to render


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    it unnecessary for me, in my present hurry, to add ought to the Tale.

        Your spirited Colony will, I have no doubt, be sufficiently Impressed with the expediency of a vigorous exertion, to prevent the evils which must follow from the repulse of our Troops. It does not admit of a doubt, but that Genl. Carlton will improve this advantage to the utmost; And, if he should be able to give another Current of Sentiments to the Canadians and Indians, than those they seemed Inclined to adopt, words are unnecessary, to describe the Melancholly effect, that must Inevitably follow.

        I am persuaded, therefore, that you will exert yourselves to the utmost, to throw in the reinforcement, by the Route mentioned in General Schuyler's Letter, that is now required of your Colony; as the doing of it expeditiously, may prove a Matter of the utmost Importance.

        You will perceive, by the Minutes of the Council of War Inclosed, that the Regiment, asked of you for Canada, is one of the Seven applied for in my Letter of the 16th Inst., and that the only difference, with respect to the requisition, is the length of time and place of Service; as no good would result from sending Troops to Canada, for a shorter period than the Continental Army is raised for, to wit, till the first of January 1777. I am, Gentn. &c. 33

    [Note:Copies of the same letter were sent to the New Hampshire Legislature and to Gov. Jonathan Trumbull. They are in the writing of George Baylor. ]

    *To THE PRESIDENT OF CONGRESS Cambridge, January 19, 1776.

        Sir: Taking it for Granted that Genl. Schuyler has not only informed you of the fall of the brave, and much to be lamented Genl. Montgomerie, but of the Situation of our affairs in Canada


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    (as related by Genl. Wooster, Colo. Arnold, Colo. Campbell and others) I shall not take up much more of your time on this subject, than is necessary to Inclose you a Copy of his Letter to me, with the result thereon, as appears by the Council of War, which I immediately summoned on the Occasion; and at which Mr. Adams, by my particular desire, was good enough to attend.

        It may appear strange Sir, as I had not Men to Spare from these Lines that I should presume without first sending to Congress and obtaining an express direction, to recommend to the Governments of Massachusetts, Connecticut, and New Hampshire, to raise each a Regiment on the Continental Acc't. for this Service. I wish most ardently that the urgency of the case would have admitted of the delay. I wish also, that the purport of General Schuylers Letter had not, unavoidably as it were, laid me under an indespensable obligation to do it.

        For having inform'd you in his Letter (copy of which he Inclosed me) of his dependance on this Quarter for Men, I thought you might also have some reliance on my exertions, this consideration added to my fears of the fatal consequences of delay; to an information of your having designed 3000 men for Canada; to a belief founded chiefly on General Schuyler's Letter, that few or none of them are raised; and to my apprehensions for New York, which led me to think that no Troops could be spared from that Quarter, induced me to loose not a moments time in throwing in a force there being well assured that General Carlton will improve to the utmost the advantages gain'd; leaving no Artifices untried, to fix the Canadians and Indians (who we find too well disposed to take part with the strongest) in his Interest.

        If these reasons are not sufficient to justify my conduct in the opinion of Congress; If the measure contravenes any resolution of theirs, they will please to countermand the levying and


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    marching of the Regiments as soon as possible and do me the justice to believe that, my intentions were good, If my judgment has erred. 34

    [Note:When the Congress took this letter into consideration, it was resolved that the conduct of the General in calling for these troops "was prudent, consistent with his duty, and a farther manifestation of his commendable zeal for the good of his country." (See Journals of the Continental Congress, January 29.) ]

        The Congress will please also to observe, that the Measure of Supporting our Posts in Canada appear'd of such exceeding great Importance that the General Officers (agreeing with me in Sentiment and unwilling to lay any burthen which can possibly be avoided, although it may turn out an ill-timed piece of parsimony) have Resolved, that the three Regiments for Canada shall be part of the thirteen Militia Regiments which were requested to Reinforce this Army, as appears by the Minutes of another Council of War held on the 16th. Inst't. 35 I shall, being much hurried and fatigued, add to more in this Letter than my duty to Congress, and that I have the honour etc.

    [Note:The proceedings of the council of war are in the Washington Papers, as are those of the other council held on January 15, at which it was decided that the present force of the Continental Army was inadequate for an attack on Boston, and that the Commander in Chief should call on the neighboring colonies of Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Connecticut for 13 militia regiments to serve until April 1. ]

        P. S. I Inclose you a Copy of my Letter to the Governments of Massachusetts, Connecticut, and New Hampshire also a Copy of a Resolution of this Colony in answer to an application of mine for Arms.

        Since writing the above I have been informed by a Message from the Gen'l Court of Massachusetts that they have resolved upon the Raising of a Regiment for Canada, and appointed the Field Officers for it in the Western parts of this Government.

        I am also informd by Express from Governor Trumbull, that he and his Council of Safety had agreed upon the Raising of a Regiment for the same purpose, which was anticipating my application to that Government.


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        If Commissions (and they are applied for) are to be given by Congress to the three Regiments going to Canada you will please to have them forwarded as I have none by me for the purpose.

    INSTRUCTIONS TO CAPTAIN CHARLES DYAR Head Quarters Cambridge, January 20, 1776.

        Sir: You being appointed Captain and Commander of the armed schooner Harrison in the Service of the United Colonies are to pay all Attention and Obedience to the following Instructions.

        1st. You are to proceed immediately on a Cruize, against such Vessels as may be found on the high Seas or elsewhere, bound inwards or outwards to or from Boston, in the Service of the ministerial Army, and to take and seize all such Vessels, laden with Soldiers, Arms, Ammunition, or Provisions, going to or from said Town of Boston, or which you shall have good Reason to suspect, are employed for the Purpose of aiding, or assisting the ministerial Troops or Navy.

        2nd. If you should be so successful as to take any of said Vessels, you are immediately to send them to the nearest and safest Port, to this Camp, under a careful Prize-Master, directing him to deliver said Prize unto the Agent by me appointed for the Port into which a Prize is carried (if any there). If none should be in that Port, Notice is to be given to the nearest Agent thereto; at same Time an Account of such Capture to be transmitted to Head Quarters, with all Particulars thereto belonging, by Express.

        3rd. You are to be very particular and diligent in your Search after all Letters or other Papers tending to discover the Designs of the Enemy, or of any other kind, and to forward all such to me as soon as possible.


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        4th. Whatever Prisoners you take, must be treated with Kindness and Humanity. Their private Stock of Money and Apparel to be given them, after being strictly searched, and when they arrive at any Port, they are to be delivered up to the Agent, if any there; if not, to the Committee of Safety of such Port.

        5th. For your Encouragement, and that of the other Officers and Men to Diligence and Activity, over and above their Pay, which will be the same as in the Army of the United Colonies; you shall be entitled to one third Part of every Vessel and Cargo, (after Condemnation in the Court of Admiralty) which shall be by you taken and sent into Port. If she is an arm'd Vessel that resists, as an Inducement for you, your Officers and Men to act courageously, one half of Vessel and Cargo will be allotted to you, which Parts are to be divided in the following Proportion, vizt: Shares: Captain, 6; 1st. Lieutt., 5; 2nd. Lieutt.,4; Ships Master, 3; Steward, 2; Mate, 1½; Gunner, 1½; Gunners Mate, 1½; Privates, 1 each.

        6th. As Captain Manley is appointed Commodore of the four Schooners now fitted out, he will fix upon proper Signals by which you may know each other, and you are to obey him as such in all Cases. If it should so happen that a Prize is taken in sight of other Vessels, fitted out at the continental Expense or at the Charge of Individuals, the Rules which take Place among private Ships of War, to be observed in the Distribution of the Prize Money.

        7th. You are to be extremely careful and frugal of your Ammunition and other Stores; by no Means to waste any of it in Salutes, or for any Purpose but what is absolutely necessary.

        8th. You, your Officers and Men are, from the Date hereof, to consider yourselves as engaged in the Service of the United Colonies, and in every Respect subject to the Rules and Regulations formed by the Congress, for the Government of the


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    Army raised for the Defence of American Liberty; or as near as possible, consistent with the Difference of the Land and Sea Service. A Book of the Rules and Articles, you will receive herewith, at the End, of which you, your Officers, and Men must subscribe your Names.

        9th. As it is very apparent, that the ill Success which attended the major Part of the armed Vessels in former Cruizes, was owing to the Want of Industry, and the Inactivity of the Officers who commanded; you will, therefore, take Notice, that a Fondness to be on Shore, Indolence, and Inactivity, will meet with their just Deserts. For, if it appears, that the Captain or any of the Officers, do not exert themselves, and do all that they possibly can for their own and the publick Good, they shall be dismissed the Service, and rendered incapable of serving their Country in any honourable Station hereafter in the Army or Navy. 36

    [Note:See Instructions to Capt. Nicholson Broughton, Oct. 16, 1775, ante. ]

    To GOVERNOR JONATHAN TRUMBULL Cambridge, January 20, 1776.

        Sir: Your favor of the 18th. Inst., I received this day for which I return you my thanks.

        Upon receiving the Melancholy Intelligence of the fall of the brave Montgomery and the repulse of our Troops, in their attempt against the City of Quebec; I called a Council of Genl. Officers to determine upon the necessary steps to be taken upon the alarming occasion; of their determination, I wrote you yesterday, to which I beg leave to refer you.

        The early attention, which you and your Honorable Council have paid to this Important business, has anticipated my requisition and claims in a particular manner the thanks of every well wishing American.


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        I am in hopes by this time, that several are on their March, and that with the Troops which will follow from your Government, this and New Hampshire; that our affairs in a little time in that Quarter, will wear a more promising aspect, than what they now do. I am Sir &ca.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, January 21, 1776.

        Parole Granby. Countersign Monckton.

        The Colonel, or commanding Officer of each Regiment, is forthwith to send out one, or two, prudent and sensible Officers, to buy up such Arms as are wanted for his Regiment, These Officers to be also good Judges of arms, and they are directed to purchase none, but such as are proper and in the best repair, and if possible to get them with Bayonets, but not to refuse a good Firelock without -- The Officers going upon this duty, are to be furnish'd with Cash, from their respective Colonels, or Commanding Officers, out of the Money designed for the Month's advance pay, for the Recruits, which money will be replaced as wanted -- The Names of the Officers sent upon this business, with Sums advanced them, are to be immediately returned to the Adjutant General by the Colonels -- These Officers are not to be absent longer, than the 4th of February next.

        All Recruits who shall furnish their own Arms, (provided they are good) shall be paid one Dollar, for the Use of them, shall have the Privilege of carrying them away, when their time is out, and in case they are lost (through no default of their own) shall be paid for them, at the end of the campaign.

        All Persons having business with the Adjutant General, are to apply to him at his Office, at the entrance next to the Front of the Head Quarters.


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    To GOVERNOR JONATHAN TRUMBULL Cambridge, January 21, 1776.

        Sir: In the hurry of my last dispatches to you of the 19th Inst. I forgot to Intimate, that for the Encouragement of the Regt. destined for Canada, a Month's advanced pay will be allowed Officers and Soldiers by me, in behalf of the Congress. At the same time I think it but right, that you should be apprized of the Intention of this Government, to advance their Regt another Month's pay, to enable the men to provide for so long and fatiguing a March, and in the mean time have something for their families to subsist on, during their absence.

        I have no doubt, but that this last advance will be pleasing to Congress, and that the Money will be speedily refunded; but as I have no Authority to direct it, and would not appear by any Act of mine, to put these three Regiments for Canada, upon a different footing from those, which have been raising for this Army; I only give you a hint of the Intention of this Government, if you think proper, that the Regiment from your Colony may be placed upon the same footing; as I know all kind of distinctions are considered by Troops with an evil and Jealous Eye.

        Such necessaries, as are absolutely requisite for the Men of this Regiment, you will please to have provided upon the best terms you can, and a regular Account with Vouchers thereof kept, that payment may be made. The Importance of dispatch, will I am persuaded, appear in so urgent and pressing a light to you, that I need add nothing on this head, but shall be glad to hear what progress you make in the business, being with the sincerest regard and esteem. Sir &c. 37

    [Note:The same letter was also sent to the New Hampshire Legislature. ]

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    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, January 22, 1776.

        Parole Framingham. Countersign St. Johns.

        The Majors of Brigade to be all at Head Quarters, to morrow Morning ten OClock.

    To MAJOR GENERAL CHARLES LEE Cambridge, January 23, 1776.

        Sir: I received your Favour of the 16th. Instt. and am exceedingly sorry to hear, that Congress countermanded the embarkation of the two Regiments, intended against the Tories on Long Island. 38 They, I doubt not, had their Reasons; but to me it appears, that the Period is arrived, when nothing less than the most decisive and vigorous Measures should be pursued: Our Enemies from the other Side of the Atlantic, will be sufficiently numerous. It highly concerns us to have as few internal ones as possible.

    [Note:A committee of the Continental Congress, on the State of New York, had been appointed (Dec. 28, 1775), and on its report Congress had withdrawn (January 3) all citizenship privileges from the inhabitants of Queens County who had not voted for delegates to the New York Legislature. ]

        As Congress seem to have altered their Views in this Instance, and the Men which went with you from Connecticut are upon a very different Footing from what I expected, it will be right to give Congress the earliest Notice of your Proceedings and to disband your Troops as soon as you think Circumstances will admit of it. 39

    [Note:Ford notes that an account of General Lee's proceedings in New York will be found in the Life of Gouverneur Morris, vol. 1, pp. 74 -- 88. The official proceedings, which show the opposition of the New York Congress and committee of safety to vigorous action, will be found in Force's American Archives, Fourth Series, vol. 4. The action of the Continental Congress was based upon the protests of the State authority. ]

        In Consequence of the melancholy Reverse of our Affairs in Canada, an Application was made to me for Succour, and


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    happy I should have been, if the Situation of this Army could have afforded it. All I could do was to lay the Matter before this and the Governments of Connecticut and New Hampshire, and urge the Expediency and Necessity of their sending a Reinforcement of three Regiments there immediately. Mr. Trumbull and his Council of Safety had anticipated my Request. The other two Colonies have adopted the Measure. The three Regiments are now raising, and I would willingly hope, will arrive in Time to reinstate Matters in that Quarter and give them a more agreable Aspect than they now have.

        I shall be much obliged by your pressing Colo. McDougall to forward the Shells mentioned in his Letter of the 2nd. Instr., as they are much wanted, and also to spare me some Powder if he possibly can. You know our Stock of this necessary Article is small and inconsiderable, and you know too that we have a Demand for a further Supply.

        The Progress in raising Recruits for the new Army being very slow, I have applied to this Colony, Connecticut and New Hampshire, for ten Regiments of Militia, to continue in Service 'till the 1st of April next, which they have granted me. As soon as they come in, and I can get provided with proper Means, I am determined to attempt something. Of this I would have you take no Notice.

        Within a few Days past several Persons have come out of Boston. They all agree that General Clinton is gone upon some Expedition. Some say he has between 4 and 500 Men, others, Part of two Regiments. What his Force consists of is not precisely known; but I am almost certain he is gone with some. His Destination must be south of this, and very probably for New York; I thought it necessary to give you this Information, that you may be on your Guard and prepared to receive him as well as you can.


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        I shall be glad to hear from you frequently, and to be informed of any Occurrences you may think material. I am, Dear Sir, etc.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, January 23, 1776.

        Parole Fairfax. Countersign Vernon.

        Timothy Downing, tried at a General Court martial for "Desertion," being found guilty, is sentenced to receive thirtynine Lashes upon the bare back with a Cat'o'Nine tails, and it appearing to the Court that as the Prisoner is worthless and incorrigible, they order him to be drum'd out of the army.

        A Court of enquiry, to sit upon Thursday Morning next, at General Green's on Prospect hill, to examine into a complaint exhibited against Col. Stark of the 5th Regt. of Foot by Samuel Hobert Esqr. Pay Master of the New Hampshire Forces -- All Evidences and Persons concerned to attend the Court: Brigadier Genl. Green President. Col Nixon, Col Webb, Col Hitchcock, Col Varnum, Members.

        The Judge Advocate to attend the court; which will sit precisely at Ten O'Clock.

    To JOSEPH REED Cambridge, January 23, 1776.

        Dear Sir: Real necessity compels me to ask you, whether I may entertain any hopes of your returning to my family? If you can make it convenient, and will hint the matter to Colonel Harrison, 40 I dare venture to say, that Congress will make it agreeable to you in every shape they can. My business increases very fast, and my distresses for want of you along with it. Mr. Harrison 41 is the only gentleman of my family, that can afford me the least assistance in writing. He and Mr. Moylan,

    [Note:Benjamin Harrison. ]
    [Note:Robert Hanson Harrison. ]

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    whose time must now be solely employed in his department of commissary, 42 have heretofore afforded me their aid; and I have hinted to them in consequence of what you signified in some former letter, that, (as they have really had a great deal of trouble,) each of them should receive one third of your pay, reserving the other third contrary to your desire for yourself. My distress and embarrassment are in a way of being very considerably increased by an occurrence in Virginia, which will, I fear, compel Mr. Harrison to leave me, or suffer considerably by his stay. He has wrote, however, by the last post to see if his return cannot be dispensed with. If he should go, I shall really be distressed beyond measure, as I know no persons able to supply your places, (in this part of the world,) with whom I would choose to live in unbounded confidence. In short for want of an acquaintance with the people hitherward, I know of none which appear to me qualified for the office of secretary.

    [Note:Stephen Moylan's title was Commissary General of Musters of the Continental Army, but he was usually alluded to as Mustermaster General. ]

        The business, as I hinted to you before, is considerably increased, by being more comprehensive, and at this time, (from the great changes which are happening every day) perplexed; so that you would want a good writer and a methodical man, as an assistant, or copying clerk. Such a one I have no doubt will be allowed, and the choice I leave to yourself, as he should be a person in whose integrity you can confide, and on whose capacity, care, and method you can rely. At present, my time is so much taken up at my desk, that I am obliged to neglect many other essential parts of my duty. It is absolutely necessary, therefore, for me to have persons that can think for me, as well as execute orders. This it is that pains me when I think of Mr. White's expectation of coming into my family if an opening happens. I can derive no earthly assistance from such a man, and my friend Baylor is much such another, although as good and obliging a person as any in the world.


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        As it may be essential that the pay of the under-secretary should be fixed, that you may, if you incline to return and should engage one, know what to promise him, I have wrote to Colonel Harrison and Mr. Lynch 43 on this subject.

    [Note:Thomas Lynch, Delegate from South Carolina. ]

        The interruption of the post has prevented the receipt of any letters from the southward since this day week, so that we have but little knowledge of what is passing in that quarter. The unfortunate repulse of our troops at Quebec, the death of the brave and much to be lamented General Montgomery, and wounding of Col. Arnold, will, I fear, give a very unfavorable turn to our affairs in that quarter, as I have no opinion at all of W[ooste]r's enterprising genius. 44

    [Note:"Knox tells me he is convinced from Schuyler's conversation that he wishes to be excused acting as general, anti Worcester [Wooster], it is upon all hands agreed, is too inferior for that service." -- Maj Gen. Gates to Maj. Gen. Charles Lee, Jan. 22, 1776. (See Lee Papers, vol. 1, p. 251.) ]

        Immediately upon the receipt of the unfortunate intelligence, and General Schuyler's intimation of his having no other dependence than upon me for men, I addressed Massachusetts, Connecticut, and N. Hampshire (in behalf of the Continent) for a regiment each, to be marched forthwith into Canada, and there continued, if need be, till the 1st of January, upon the same establishment as those raising for these lines. It was impossible to spare a man from hence, as we want eight or nine thousand of our establishment, and are obliged to depend upon militia for the defence of our works: equally improper did it appear to me to wait (situated as our affairs were) for a requisition from Congress, after several day's debate, perhaps, when in the meantime all might be lost. The urgency of the case, therefore, must apologize to Congress for my adoption of this measure. Governor Trumbull, indeed, anticipated my request, for he and his Council of Safety had voted a regiment before my request had reached him. The General Court here have also voted another, and I have no


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    doubt of New Hampshire's doing the like, and that the whole will soon be on their march. I have this instant received a letter from New Hampshire, in answer to mine, informing me that they have fully complied with my request of a regiment, appointed the field-officers, and will have the whole in motion as soon as possible. Col. Warner, 45 and others, we are told, are already on their march, so that it is to be hoped, if these bodies have but a good head, our affairs may still be retrieved in Canada, before the king's troops can get reinforced.

    [Note:Seth Warner, of New Hampshire. ]

        They are pulling down the houses in Boston as fast as possible, and we have lately accounts from thence which it is said may be relied on, that General Clinton is actually sailed from thence with a detachment (no accounts making it more than 500) for the southward; some say Virginia, others New York, but all in conjecture. Whether this is the fleet that has been making up for some time at Nantasket, or another, I cannot with certainty say. In my last I informed you, I think, of the expedition I had sent General Lee on to New York. Should Clinton steer his course thither, I hope he will meet with a formidable and proper reception. I shall conclude with informing you that we should have had a formidable work on Letchmore's Point long ago, if it had not been for the frost, and that if Congress mean that we should do any thing this winter, no time must be lost in forwarding powder. I have ordered in militia to take advantage of circumstances, but I see no appearances as yet of a bridge. I am, &c. 46

    [Note:The text is from Ford. ]

    To THE PRESIDENT OF CONGRESS Camp, Cambridge, January 24, 1776.

        Sir: The Commissary General being at length returned from a long and painful Illness, I have it in my power to comply


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    with the requisition of Congress, in forwarding an estimate of the expence attending his office; -- as also that of the Quarter Master General's. You will please to observe, that the Commissary by his Account of the matter, has entered into no special Agreement with any of the Persons he has found occasion to employ. (as to those to whose names sums are annexed, are of their own fixing) But left it to Congress to ascertain their Wages:

        I shall say nothing therefore on this head, further than relates to the proposition of Mr. Miller 47 to be allowed ⅛ for his trouble and the safe delivery of the other ⅞ of Provisions, which to me appears exorbitant in the extreme, however conformable it may be to custom and usage. I therefore think, that reasonable stipends had better be fixed upon. Both the Quarter Master and Commissary General assure me, that they do not employ a single person uselessly, and as I have too good an opinion of them, to think they would deceive me, I believe them.

    [Note:Charles Miller, issuing storekeeper, Commissary General's department. ]

        I shall take the Liberty in this place, of recommending the expediency, indeed absolute necessity of appointing fit and proper persons to settle the Accounts of this Army. To do it with precision requires time, care and attention. The longer it is left undone, the more intricate they will be; The more liable to error, and difficult to explain and rectify, and also the Persons, in whose hands they are, if disposed to take undue advantages will be less subject to detection. I have been as attentive as the nature of my Office would admit of, in granting Warrants for Money on the paymaster; But it would be absolutely impossible for me to go into an examination of all the Accounts incident to this Army, and the vouchers appertaining to them, without devoting so large a proportion of my Time to the Business as might not only prove Injurious, but fatal to it in


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    other respects. This ought in my Humble Opinion to be the particular business of a Select Committee of Congress, or one appointed by them, which once in three months at farthest, should make a full settlement with the Officers in the different departments.

        Having met with no encouragement from the Governments of Massachusetts and New Hampshire from my application for Arms, and expecting no better from Connecticut and Rhode Island; I have as the last expedient, sent one or two Officers from each Regiment into the country with Money to try if they can buy. In what manner they succeed, Congress shall be informed, as soon as they return.

        Congress, in my last, would discover my motives for strengthing these lines with Militia. But Whether as the Weather turns out exceedingly mild (insomuch as to promise nothing favourable from Ice) and there is no appearance of Powder, I shall be able to attempt anything decisive time only can determine. No man upon Earth wishes more ardently to destroy the nest in Boston, than I do. No person would be willing to go greater lengths than I shall, to accomplish it, If it shall be thought adviseable. But if we have no Powder to Bombard with, nor Ice to pass on, we shall be in no better situation than we have been in, all the year: -- we shall be worse, as their Works are stronger.

        I have accounts from Boston, which I think may be relied on that General Clinton with about 4 or 500 Men hath left that place within these four days. Whether this is part of the Detachment which was making up as mentioned in my Letter of the fourth, and then at Nantasket, or not, is not in my power to say. If it is designed for New York, or long Island, as some think, throwing in a Body of Troops there, may prove a fortunate circumstance; If they go farther South, agreeable to the Conjectures of others, I hope there will be men to receive them. Notwithstanding the positive Assertions of the four Captains


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    from Portsmouth, noticed in my letter of the 14th, I am now convinced from several corroborating circumstances; -- the Accounts of Deserters and of Lieut: Hill of Lord Peircy's Regiment, who left Ireland the 5th of November and was taken by a Privateer from New Buryport, that the 17th. and 55th Regiments are arrived at Boston, and other Troops at Halifax, agreeable to the Information of Hutchinson and others. Lieut Hill says that the Transports of 2 Regiments only were forced into Milford Haven.

        Congress will think me a little remiss, I fear, when I inform them, that I have done nothing yet towards raising the Battalion of Marines, but I hope to stand exculpated from blame, when they hear the reason which is, that already having 26 incomplete Regiments, I thought it would be adding to an expence already too great in Officers, to sett two entire Corps of Officers on foot, when perhaps we shall not add ten Men a Week to our present numbers, by it. In this Opinion the General Officers here concurred, which induced me to suspend the matter a little longer. Our Inlistments for the two last Weeks have not amounted to 1000 men and are diminishing. The Regiment for Canada, It is thought, will be soon filled as the men are to choose all but their Field Officers, which are appointed by the court.

        On Sunday Evening 13. of the Coghnawaga Indians arrived here on a Visit. 48 I shall take care to entertain them in such a manner during their stay here, that they may return impressed

    [Note:"1776, January 24, Wednesday. Began my journey to Philadelphia. Dined at C. Mifflin's, at Cambridge, with G. Washington and Gates and their ladies, and half a dozen sachems and warriors of the French Caghnawaga tribe, with their wives and children. Williams is one who was captured in his infancy and adopted. There is a mixture of white blood, French or English, in most of them. Louis, their principal, speaks English and French, as well as Indian. It was a savage feast, carnivorous animals devouring their prey; yet they were wondrous polite. The General introduced me to them as one of the grand council fire at Philadelphia, upon which they made me many bows and a cordial reception." -- Works of John Adams (Diary), vol. 2, p. 431. ]

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    with Sentiments of Friendship for us, and also of our great strength. One of them is Colonel Louis, who Honored me with a visit once before. I have the Honor, &ca. 49

    [Note:In the writing of Robert Hanson Harrison. ]

    GENERAL ORDERS

        Head Quarters, Cambridge, January 24, 4776.

        Parole -- . Countersign -- .

        The Barracks are to be finished as speedily as possible, that the Militia Regiments, which are expected may be accommodated -- The Quarter-Master General and his Assistants, are to look out in time, for other quarters, if the Barracks are thought insufficient to entertain the troops -- The Regiments are to be brigaded in the following manner, viz:

    Brigdr: Genl: [John] Thomas's Brigade.

  •    [Ebenezer] Learneds


  •    Jos: Reeds [Read]


  •    [Asa] Whitcombs


  •    [Jonathan] Wards and


  •    [John] Baileys Regts.


  • B: Genl. [John] Sullivan's Brigade.

  •    James Reeds


  •    [John] Nixon's


  •    [John] Stark's and


  •    [Enoch] Poors. Regts.


  • B: Genl. [Joseph] Spencer's Brigade.

  •    [Saml. H.] Parson's


  •    [Jedidiah] Huntington's


  •    [Charles] Webb's and


  •    [Samuel] Wylly's Regts.


  • B: Genl: [William] Heath's Brigade.

  •    [William] Prescott's


  •    [Paul Dudley] Sergeants


  •    [Edmund] Phinneys


  •    [John] Greatons and


  •    [Loammi] Baldwin Regts.


  • B: Genl: [Nathanael] Green's Brigade.

  •    [Jas. M.] Varnums


  •    [Daniel] Hitchcocks


  •    [Moses] Littles and


  •    [William] Bond's Regts.


  • B: Genl: -- -- Brigade.

  •    [John] Glovers


  •    [John] Pattersons


  •    [Benedict] Arnolds and


  •    [Israel] Hutchinsons Regts



  • Page 276

        Whitcombs, Webbs and Hutchinsons Regiments, are to join their respective Brigades, as soon as provision is made for it; at any rate before the first of February; that they may get fixed before the Militia come in. The Brigadier and Q: Mr: General is to see that each Brigade, is as compactly quartered as the Barracks will admit of; The Barrack Master is to see that each room has its Complement of men, and the Officers placed contigious to them.

        The Custom of maning the Lines and each regiment repairing to its alarm-post at Revellie beating is to be strictly and invariably practiced, until countermanded -- The Brigadiers are to take especial care, that proper alarm posts are assign'd, to every Regiment, that no confusion may arise upon an alarm.

        Neither Provisions, nor the Value of them, are to be issued to Officers, or Soldiers when upon Furlough -- Furloughs are always consider'd as injurious to the Service, but too often granted for the gratification of Individuals -- The General was therefore not a little surprised to find, that it had contrary to custom, and common Justice, become a question, whether absentees, were not entitled to the same allowance of provisions, as if they were present and actually doing duty.

    To GOVERNOR JONATHAN TRUMBULL Cambridge, January 25, 1776.

        Sir: I received your favor of the 22d Inst., and am much obliged by your Assurance, that the three Regiments of Militia for this Camp, will be raised as fast as possible; they are much wanted. I wish it was in my power to facilitate their march, by sending a necessary supply of Money for it, but it is not, as our Treasury is exhausted, I hope in a little time it will be replenished, with a Sufficient Sum to answer every demand.


    Page 277

        I am very sorry that Arms are so scarce with you, that none can be furnished on Account of the Continent, at this critical period. I know not what will be done. Those of the three Regiments, they will be allowed to carry away when their Service is ended, unless they choose to sell them. I will gladly buy, but never had an Idea of detaining them against their consent.

        For the Arms which were detained and Appraized, I have given Warrants to the Several Colonels to whose Regiments they belonged, upon the pay Master Genl., as fast as the number and Value have been brought in, and will take care to have a return made you. I am &c.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, January 26, 1776.

        Parole Detroit. Countersign Springfield.

        The Captains, or commanding Officers of the Militia Companies, are to have their pay Abstracts ready by the first of February, in Order for payment: The General having borrowed as much Money, as will answer this purpose, rather than suffer them to return without.

        In making up the Pay Abstracts, the following method is to be observed, upon one Side of an entire Sheet of paper is to be the Roll (or names of the Officers and men of the whole company) on the other side (or back of this) is to be the Pay Abstract in the usual form, at the foot of the abstract is to be a deduction of the Money, which has been advanced to any of the Companies, and proof annexed of the Justice of the demand. This being necessary for the General's satisfaction in drawing the warrants.

        The Captains &c., are to be particularly careful, not to charge pay for any of their Men, who have inlisted into any of the


    Page 278

    Regiments, after such Inlistment took place, as the pay of those men will be drawn by the Colonel of the Regimt. they are now in, or respectively belong to. The Form of the Oath, and Warrant, (as it would take too much time to draw the whole at Head Quarters) may be had at the Adjutant General's Office, for each Captain to copy.

        The New Hampshire Militia, are to be allowed (by the Commissary) one penny a Mile coming and going in lieu of rations; as this allowance has already been made by the Massachusetts Government to their militia.

        Brigadier Genl. Thomas, with the three Colonels of his Brigade, now at Roxbury, to wit, Learnard -- Bailey -- and Ward, are to repair to Head Quarters, to morrow by Eleven OClock, to have the Commissions for those Regiments issued.

    To MAJOR GENERAL PHILIP SCHUYLER Cambridge, January 27, 1776.

        Dear Sir: Your Favour of the 22nd. Inst. inclosing Colonel Arnold's Letter of the 2nd explaining the Doubt we were in respecting his Detachment, is received. Happy would it have been for our Cause if that Party could have got out of the City of Quebec; as I am much afraid from the Complexion of the Letters from that Place, that there is little Hope of Arnold's continuing the Blockade without Assistance from Wooster, which he is determined not to give, whether with Propriety or not, I shall not at this Distance undertake to decide.

        The sad Reverse of our Affairs in that Quarter calls loudly for every Exertion in your Power, to restore them to the promising Aspect they so lately wore. For this Reason notwithstanding you think, the Necessity of Troops from hence is in some Measure superceded, I will not countermand the


    Page 279

    Order and Appointment of Officers, which are gone forth from this Government, Connecticut and New Hampshire, for raising a Regiment each 'till Congress (who are informed of it) shall have decided upon the Measure. I consider that the important Period is now arrived when the Canadians and consequently their Indians must take their Side. Should any indecisive Operations of ours, therefore, give the Bias against us, it is much easier to foresee, than to rectify the dreadful Consequences which must inevitably follow from it.

        I consider also, that the Reinforcement under the Command of Colonel Warner, and such other spirited Men as have left the western Parts of the new England Governments, is only temporary, and may fail when most wanted, as we find it next to impossible to detain Men (not fast bound) in Service, after they get a little tired of the Duties of it, and Homesick.

        These, my Dear Sir, are the great Out-Lines, which govern me in this Affair. If Congress mark them as strongly as I do, they will not wish to starve the Cause at so critical a Period. If they think differently they will direct accordingly, and I must stand corrected for the Error my zeal hath led me into.

        Colonel Porter, 50 said to be an exceeding active Man, is appointed to the Command of the Regiment from this Government, Colonel Burrell 51 to the one from Connecticut and Colonel Bedel 52 to that from New Hampshire. The two last are represented to me as Men of Spirit and Influence; so that from these Accounts, I have no Doubt of their getting into Canada in a very short Time, as I have endeavoured to excite the Spirit of Emulation. I wish most ardently that the State of your Health may permit you to meet them there. The Possession of Quebec, and entire Reduction of Canada this Winter,

    [Note:Col. Elisha Porter, of the Hampshire County, Mass., militia. ]
    [Note:Col. Charles Burrall. ]
    [Note:Col. Timothy Bedel, of the New Hampshire Rangers. ]

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    so as to have Leisure to prepare for the Defence of it in the Spring, is of such great and extensive Importance to the well being of America, that I wish to see Matters under the Direction -- But I will say no more, you will come at my Meaning.

        I am a little embarrassed to know in what Manner to conduct myself with Respect to the Caghnawaga Indians now here. They have, notwithstanding the Treaty of Neutrality which I find they entered into with you the other Day (agreably to what appears to be the Sense of Congress), signified to me a Desire of taking up Arms in Behalf of the United Colonies. The Chief of them, and whom I understand is now the first Man of the Nation, intends (as it is intimated to me) to apply to me for a Commission, with Assurances of raising four or five Hundred Men when he returns. My Embarrassment does not proceed so much from the Impropriety of incouraging these People to depart from their Neutrality (accepting their own voluntary Offer rather) as from the Expense, which probably may follow. I am sensible that if they do not desire to be idle, that they will be for or against us. I am sensible also, that no Artifices will be left unessayed to engage them against us. Their proffer'd services, therefore ought not to be rejected; but how far (under the little Knowledge I have of these People's Policy, and real Intentions and your Want of their Aid) I ought to go, is the Question that puzzles me. I will endeavour, however, to please them by yielding in Appearance to their Demands; reserving, at the same Time, the Power in you to regulate their Numbers and Movements, of which you shall be more fully informed when any Thing is fixed. 53 At present

    [Note:General Schuyler, in regard to these Indians, replied (February 14): "It is extremely difficult to determine what should be done, in what you mention respecting the offer made by the Caghnawaga Indians; but if we can get decently rid of their offer, I would prefer it to employing them. The Expence we are at in the Indian Department is now amazing; it will be more so when they consider themselves as in our Service; nor would their Intervention be of much Consequence, unless we could procure that of the other Nations. The hauteur of the Indians is much diminished since the taking of Montreal; they evidently see that they cannot get any Supplies but thro' us." This letter is in the Washington Papers.

       On January 30 the Caughnawagas, St. John, and Passamaquoddy Indians delivered a talk to Washington, in which the former offered to aid in the attack on Canada and the latter asked for a supply of powder for hunting. A copy of these talks is in the Washington Papers. ]


    Page 281

    what they have mentioned is a Kind of out Door's Talk. They expect and are waiting to see Colonel Bedel (who promised to meet them here) before they open themselves fully.

        What can you do in Compliance with Arnold's Request of Mortars &c.? If Knox disfurnished you, I am almost sorry for it, as I beleive I shall never get wherewith all to feed them here.

        I congratulate you upon the Success of your Expedition into Tryon County. 54 I hope General Lee will execute a Work of the same Kind on Long Island &c. It is high Time to begin with our internal foes when we are threatened with such Severity of Chastisement from our kind Parent without. That the supreme Dispenser of every Good, may bestow Health, Strength and Spirit to you and your Army, is the fervent Wish of, Dear Sir, etc.

    [Note:Schuyler described his march into Tryon County in a letter to Washington, dated January 22, which is in the Washington Papers. He used the militia and took about 300 Scotch Highlanders, which he sent as prisoners to Pennsylvania. He also seized some light artillery, swivels, and blunderbusses. ]

    To COLONEL BENEDICT ARNOLD Cambridge, January 27, 1776.

        Dear Sir: On the 17th. Inst. I received the melancholy Account of the unfortunate Attack on the City of Quebec, attended with the Fall of General Montgomery and other brave officers and Men, and of your being wounded. This unhappy Affair affects me in a very sensible Manner and I sincerely condole with you upon the Occasion; but in the Midst of Distress, I am


    Page 282

    happy to find, that suitable Honors were paid to the Remains of Mr. Montgomery; and our Officers and Soldiers, who have fallen into their Hands, treated with Kindness and Humanity.

        Having received no Intelligence later than the Copy of your Letter of the 2nd. to General Wooster, I would fain hope, that you are not in a worse situation, than you were; tho' I confess I have greatly feared that those Misfortunes would be succeeded by others, on Account of your unhappy Condition and the dispirited State of the Officers and Men. If they have not, I trust when you are joined by three Regiments now raising in this and the Governments of Connecticut and New Hampshire, and two others, ordered by the Congress from Pennsylvania, and the Jerseys, with the Men already sent off by Colonel Warner, that these Misfortunes will be done away, and Things resume a more favourable and promising Appearance than ever. I need not mention to you the great Importance of this Place, and the consequent Possession of all Canada, in the scale of American Affairs. You are well apprized of it. To whomsoever it belongs, in their Favour probably, will the Ballance turn. If it is in ours, Success, I think will most certainly crown our virtuous Struggles. If it is in theirs, the Contest at best, will be doubtful, hazardous and bloody. The glorious Work must be accomplished in the Course of this Winter, otherwise it will become difficult; most probably, impracticable: for Administration knowing that it will be impossible ever to reduce us to a State of Slavery and arbitrary Rule without it, will certainly send a large Reinforcement there in the Spring. I am fully convinced that your Exertions will be invariably directed to this grand Object, and I already view the approaching Day, when you and your brave Followers will enter this important Fortress with every Honor and Triumph, attendant on Victory, and Conquest. Then will you have added the only Link


    Page 283

    wanting in the great Chain of continental Union, and render the Freedom of your Country secure.

        Wishing you a speedy Recovery, and the Possession of those Laurels, which your Bravery and Perseverance justly merit, I am. etc. 55

    [Note:Practically the same letter was sent this same day to Brig. Gen. David Wooster. Washington, in this, added the following: "I must therefore entreat you, in case General Schuyler's Indisposition should not permit him to act, to exert yourself upon the Occasion, as much as you possibly can and to give every Assistance in your Power for Compleating our Conquest in that Quarter. Three Regiments are raising in this and the Governments of Connecticut and New Hampshire, with all possible Expedition, and two from Pennsylvania and the Jerseys, have been ordered by Congress for this Purpose, besides a Number of Men under the Command of Colonel Warner. When these arrive and join the Troops already there, I confidently hope, that should the Command devolve upon you, you will not only reinstate our Affairs in their former pleasing Situation, but will be the happy means of adding the only Link wanting in the Grand Chain of continental Union. You will then have an Opportunity of employing your Abilities for your Country's Weal and rendering her Services never to be forgotton." This letter is in the Washington Papers. ]

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, January 28, 1776.

        Parole Cleavland. Countersign Lowther.

        As the General is consenting to, and desirous of the Militia drawing the same pay, as the Continental Troops The Officers of those Companies are hereby inform'd, that since the first of January, their pay will be the same as those Officers (of equal Rank), upon the new establishment; but before that date, no more than what was drawn under the old establishment, can be allow'd them, of this they are to take particular notice, that no mistake may happen.

        When the Militia are discharged the Colonels or commanding Officers of the Regiments with whom they have done duty, are to take especial care that every Ounce of Ammunition is received from them (belonging to the public) as also such Men as Joined their Regiments for a Month -- If any Man attempts to carry off a single Grain of Ammunition not known to be his own, he will be pursued, brought back and severely punished.


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        The Colonels, or commanding Officers of Regiments, are requested to buy any good Arms, which the Militia may voluntarily incline to sell; They are also to make out Pay Abstracts, for those Men who joined their Regiments for the Month of January; confining it to that Month, that Warrants may issue accordingly.

        Brigadier Genl. Heath, with the Colonels of his Brigade, to attend at Head Quarters to morrow for Commissions to be filled up.

    To COMMODORE JOHN MANLEY Cambridge, January 28, 1776.

        Sir: I received your agreable Letter of the 26th. Instt, giving an Account of your having taken and carried into Plymouth, two of the Enemy's Transports. Your Conduct in engaging the eighth Gun Schooner, with so few Hands as you went out with, your Attention in securing your Prizes, and your general good Behaviour since you first engaged in the Service, merits mine, and your Country's Thanks. 56

    [Note:"Captain Manley took two prizes last week and to save himself was obliged to run his vessel ashore at North River and left her; the enemy boarded her, but Manley gave them such heavy fire that they were obliged to quit her, taking nothing, save one swivel gun, which gun he sometime before borrowed of them." -- Gen. Artemas Ward to Congress, Feb. 3, 1776. ]

        You may be assured that every Attention will be paid to any reasonable Request of yours, and that you shall have the Command of a stronger Vessel of War; but as it will take up some Time before such a one can be fitted out, my Desire is, that you continue in the Hancock, untill the End of the Cruize. When that is out you will come to Head Quarters, and we will confer together on the Subject of the other Ship. I wish you could engage Men at Plymouth to make your Complement at least 40 strong. It would enable you to encounter the small Tenders that may fall in your Way; tho' I would rather have you avoid


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    an Engagement, until you have a Ship that will place you upon a more equal Footing with your Enemy. I need not recommend to you to proceed again and pursue your good Fortune. I wish you could inspire the Captains of the other armed Schooners under your Command with some of your Activity and Industry. Cannot you appoint such Stations for them, where they may have the best Chance of intercepting Supplies going to the Enemy? They dare not disobey your Orders as it is mentioned in the Instructions I have given to each of them, that they are to be under your Command as Commodore, and as such I desire that you will give them such Instructions in Writing, as to you will appear proper for the good of the Service. I am, Sir, wishing you a Continuance of Success. Your's &c.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, January 29, 1776.

        Parole Manly. Countersign Salem.

        Some doubts having arisen amongst the militia Companies, whether the two Subalterns, are to be paid as Lieutenants, or as Lieutenant and Ensign -- The General informs them, that he cannot (where there are only two Subalterns to a Company) consider the youngest of them, as entitled to more than Ensigns pay, as they were all the last Campaign, notwithstanding they are denominated Second Lieutenants; and desires the Rolls may be made out accordingly.

        The Colonel, or commanding Officer of each Regiment, is to make out pay-Abstracts for the Month of January, and lodge them with the Adjutant General, that proper Settlements may be made: In doing this they are to be exceedingly careful (by causing proper enquiry to be made into the matter, of the militia Captains) to prevent any mistakes, happening with


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    respect to the Men, who have been inlisted by any of their Officers out of the Militia Companies, that in the first place they may have their pay secured to them, and in the next, that it may not be doubly drawn.

        Brigadier Genl. Spencer is to attend at Head Quarters to morrow, with the Colonels or commanding Officers of the Regiments of his Brigade in order to obtain the Commissions for their Officers.

    To THE PRESIDENT OF CONGRESS Cambridge, January 30, 1776.

        Sir: Your favours of the 6th. and 20th. Instant, I received Yesterday, with the several Resolves of Congress alluded to, for which I return you my thanks.

        Knowing the great Importance Canada will be of to us, in the present Interesting Contest, and the relief our Friends there stand in need of, I should be happy, were It in my Power, to detach a Battalion from this Camp, But It cannot be done. On the 19th. instant, I had the Honor to write and inclose you the Resolution of a Council of War, and the Sentiments of the General Officers here as to the propriety of sending Troops from these Lines (for the defence of which we have been and now are obliged to call in the Militia) to which I beg leave to refer you. You may rest assured, that my endeavours and exertions shall not be wanting to stimulate the Governments of Connecticut and New Hampshire, to raise and forward reinforcements, as fast as possible, nor in any other Instance that will promote the expedition.

        I shall in Obedience to the Order of Congress, tho' Interdicted by General Howe, propose an Exchange of Governor


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    Skeene 57 for Mr. Lovell and family, and shall be happy to have an Opportunity of puting this deserving Man (who has distinguished his fidelity and regard to his Country to be too great for persecution and cruelty to overcome) in any post agreeable to his wishes and Inclination.

    [Note:Philip Skene entered the British Army in 1736 and served in European wars until he came to America in 1756. He became a captain in the Twenty-seventh Regiment in 1757, major of brigade in 1759, and commanded at Crown Point in October of the same year. In 1762 he participated in the West Indian expedition and was one of the first to enter the breach at the storming of Habana. In 1763 he returned to New York, where, in 1765, he obtained a patent for the township of Skenesboro (now Whitehall), and resided there after 1770, running a line between Canada and the Colonies, and superintending the settlement of the then uninhabited border country. In 1773 he applied to Lord Dartmouth to recommend him to the King for the appointment of governor of that region. The appointment was given, and he was empowered to raise a regiment in America. Activities in this connection brought him to the attention of the Continental Congress and led to his arrest in Philadelphia in June, 1775. In October, 1776, he was exchanged, joined Burgoyne as commander of a loyal American regiment, and was again captured at Saratoga. His property was confiscated by New York in 1779. -- Ford. ]

        I do not know that there is any particular Rank annexed to the Office of Aid de Camp; Generally they are Captains and Rank as such. But higher Rank is often given on account of particular merit and in particular circumstances. Aids to the King have the Rank of Colonels.

        Whether any distinction should be made between those of your Commander in Chief and the other Generals, I really know not; [I think there ought].

        You may rely, that Connolly had Instructions concealed in his Saddle. Mr. Eustice who was one of Lord Dunmores family, and another Gentleman who wishes his name not to be mentioned, saw them cased in Tin, put in the Tree, and covered over; -- he probably has exchanged his Saddle, or with drew the papers when it was mended as you conjecture; those that have been discovered are sufficiently bad, but I doubt not of the others being worse and containing more diabolical and extensive plans.


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        I hope he will be taken proper care of and meet with rewards equal to his merits.

        I shall appoint officers in the place of those which are in Canada, as I am fully persuaded they will wish to continue there for making our conquest complete in that Quarter. I wish their bravery and valor may be attended with the smiles of Fortune.

        It gives me great Pleasure to hear of the measures Congress are taking for manufacturing of Powder; I hope their endeavours will be crowned with success; I too well know and regret the want of it. It is scarcely possible to describe the disadvantages an Army must labour under, when not provided with a sufficient supply of this necessary.

        It may seem strange, that after having received about [11] Tons added to about [five] Tons which I found here and no General Action has happened, that we should be deficient in this Article and require more. But you will be pleased to consider, besides its being of a Wasteful nature and whilst the Men lay in bad Tents, was unavoidably damaged by severe and heavy rains (which could not have been prevented, unless it had been entirely withdrawn from them and an Attack hazarded against us without ammunition in their hands); That the Armed Vessels; our own occasional fireings, and some small supplies I have been Obliged to afford the Sea ports Towns threatned with immediate destruction, to which may be added the Supply to the Militia, and going off of the old Troops, have occasioned and ever will, a large consumption of it, [and waste, in spite of all the care in the World.] The Kings Troops never have less than 60 rounds a Man in their possession [Independant of their Stores.] To supply an Army of 20,000 in this manner, would take near 400 Barrels, allowing nothing for Stores Artillery &ca. I have been always afraid to place more than 12 or 15 Rounds at a time in the Hands of our Men, least any Accident happening


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    to it; we should be left destitute and be undone. I have been thus particular, not only to shew our Poverty, but to exculpate myself from even a suspicion of unnecessary Waste.

        I shall inform the Pay Master General of the Resolution of Congress, respecting his Drafts, and the mode and amount of them.

        The companies at Chelsea and Malden are and always have been Regimented. It was not my intention to replace with Continental Troops, the Independent Companies at Hingham, Weymouth and Braintree; These places are exposed but not more so than Cape Ann, Beverly, Salem, Marblehead, &ca. &ca. &ca.

        Is it the Intention of Congress, that the Officers of the Army should pay postage? they are not exempted by the Resolve of the 9n Instant. 58

    [Note:The resolve of January 9 permitted the private soldiers in active service to send their letters free of postage, provided they were franked by some one in authority. The officers were not mentioned in the resolve. ]

        The Congress will be pleased, I have no doubt to recollect, that the 500,000 Dollars which are now coming, are but little more than enough to bring us up to the beginning of this month, that to morrow is the last day of it, and by their own resolves the Troops are to be paid monthly.

        I wish it was in my power to furnish Congress with such a General, as they desire to send to Canada; since the unhappy reverse of our Affairs in that Quarter, General Schuyler has Informed me, that tho' he had thought of declining the service before, he would now Act. My letter of the 11th. will inform them of General Lee's being at New York; -- he will be ready to obey their Orders should they incline to send him; But, If I am not greatly deceived, he or some other spirited able Officer will be wanted there in the Spring, if not sooner, as we have undoubted Intelligence that General Clinton has sailed with some Troops: the Reports of their Number are various, from


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    between 4 and 500 to nineteen companies [of Grenadiers and light Infantry.] It is also Imagined, that the Regiments which were to sail the 1st. of December, are intended for that place or Virginia. General Putnam is a most valuable man and a fine executive Officer, but I do not know how he would conduct in a seperate department; he is a younger Major General than Mr. Schuyler, who as I have observed, having determined to continue in service, will I expect repair into Canada. A copy of my Letter to him, on this and other Subjects, I inclose you, as it will explain my motives for stoping the Regiments from these Governments.

        When Captain Cockran arrives, I will give him every Assistance in my power; but I fear It will be the means of laying up our own Vessels, as these people will not bear the distinction. 59 Should this be the consequence, It will be highly prejudicial to us, as we some times pick up their Provision Vessels, and may continue to destroy them in this way. Last Week Captain Manly took a Ship and Brig from Whitehaven bound to Boston, with coals chiefly and some potatoes for the Army. I have for his great Vigilance and Industry appointed him Commodore of our little Squadron, and he now hoists his Flagg on board the Schooner Hancock.

    [Note:Capt. Robert Cochran had come to Philadelphia from South Carolina to recruit seamen for that colony. Congress, by its resolve (January 19), referred him to Washington. ]

        I congratulate you on the recovery of Smith, 60 and am exceedingly glad to hear of the measures Congress are taking for the general Defence of the Continent. The Clouds gather fast, where they will burst, I know not, but we should be armed at all points.

    [Note:Smith was one of Dr. John Connolly's companions; he had escaped and been recaptured. ]

        I have not succeeded in my applications to these Governments for Arms; they have returned for Answer that they can


    Page 291

    not furnish any. Whether I shall be more lucky in the last resource left me in this Quarter, I cannot determine, having not received returns from the Officers sent out to purchase of the People. I greatly fear, that but very few will be procured in this way, as they are exceedingly scarce and but a small part of what there are fit for service; -- when they make their report, you shall be informed.

        The Quarter Master General has just received from General Schuyler, about 1700£ (York currency) worth of Clothing, for the Soldiery, It has come very seasonably as they are in great want, and will contribute a little to their relief.

        Since writing the above I saw Mr. Eustice 61 and mentioning that nothing had been found in the Tree of Connolly's Saddle, he told me that there had been a mistake in the matter: That the Instructions were artfully concealled in the two pieces of Wood which are on the mail pelion of his portmanteau Saddle; That by order of Lord Dunmore he saw them contrived for the purpose, the papers put in, and first covered with Tin and over that with a waxed canvass Cloth. He is so exceedingly pointed and clear in his Information, that I have no doubt of its being true. 62 I could wish 'em to be discovered, as I think they contain some curious and extraordinary plans.

    [Note:John Eustace. Dunmore wrote to Sir William Howe concerning him (Dec. 2, 1775): "The only fault I know in him (if fault it can be called in a boy) is that he is a little too volatile." ]
    [Note:Ford quotes from Connolly's Narrative : "My instructions and commission were concealed in the sticks of my servant's mail pillion, artfully contrived for the purpose…My servant, who was a man of great fidelity and adroitness, was not confined; and as he had gathered some slight intimation that matters of importance were in the pillion sticks. and observing the saddle and its appendages suspended in an adjoining shed, after having undergone a severe but fruitless scrutiny by the committee, he seized a favorable moment in the dead of night, opened the sticks, examined their contents by the light of a fire, and finding of what importance they were, destroyed them all, except my commission. This he sealed up, and conveyed to me, with a note informing me of what he had done, by means of a negro girl. that had before been proved to be faithful."

       Smith's published Tour gives practically the same account and mentions that Samuel Chase, of Maryland, "one of the most illiberal, inveterate and violent Rebels," presided over their examination. ]


    Page 292

        In my Letter of the 24th. Instant, I mentioned the arrival of thirteen of our Caghnawaga Friends; They honored me with a Talk to-day as did three of the Tribes of St. Johns and Pasmiquoddi Indians; Copies of which I beg leave to inclose you. I shall write General Schuyler respecting the Tender of Service made by the former, and not to call for their Assistance, unless he shall at any time want it, or be under the necessity of doing it to prevent their taking the side of our Enemies.

        I had the Honor of writing you on the 19th of November and then Informed you of having engaged two persons to go to Nova Scotia on the business recommended in your Letter of the 10th. and also that the State of the Army would not then admit of a sufficient force being sent for carrying into Execution the Views of Congress respecting the Dock Yards &ca.

        I would now beg leave to mention, that if the persons sent for Information should report favourably of the expediency and practicability of the Measure, that it will not be in my Power to detach any Men from these lines, the situation of our Affairs will not allow on it. I think it would be advisable to raise them in the Eastern parts of this Government.

        If it is attempted, It must be by people from the country. A Col: Thompson a Member of the General Court, from the Province of Main, and who is well spoken of by the Court, and a Captain Obrien have been with me. They think the Men necessary, may be easily engaged there and the measure practicable; provided there are not more than 200 British Troops at Halifax. They are willing and ready to embark in the matter, upon the Terms mentioned in their plan, which I enclose you. I would wish you to advert to the considerations inducing them to the Expedition as I am not without apprehension, should it be undertaking on their plan, that the Innocent and Guilty will be involved in one common Ruin. I presume they do not


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    expect to receive more from the Continent, than the 5 or 10,000£ mentioned in their Scheme, and to be at every expence. If we had men to spare It might be undertaken for less than either, I conceive. Perhaps If Congress do not adopt their proposition, they will undertake to raise men for that particular purpose, which may be disbanded, as soon as it is effected and upon the same Terms allowed the Continental Troops in general. Whatever may be the determination of Congress upon the Subject, you will please to communicate to me immediately, for the Season most favorable for the Enterprize is advancing fast and we may expect in the Spring, that there will be more Troops there and the measure be more difficult to execute. I am etc. 63

    [Note:In the writing of Robert Hanson Harrison. The words in brackets were inserted by Washington in the letter sent to Congress. This letter is now in the Papers of the Continental Congress. ]

    To MAJOR GENERAL CHARLES LEE Cambridge, January 30, 1776.

        Dear Sir: I wrote you the 23rd. Inst. and then informed you that General Clinton had gone upon some Expedition with 4 or 500 Men. There is good Reason to believe that Tryon has applied for some Troops, and that he would join them with a great Number of Inhabitants; so that you will see the Necessity of your being decisive and expeditious in your Operations in that Quarter. The Tories should be disarmed immediately tho' it is probable, that they may have secured their Arms on Board the King's Ships, untill called upon to use them against us. However you can seize upon the Persons of the Principals. They must be so notoriously known, that there will be little Danger of your committing Mistakes, and happy should I be if the Governour could be one of them.

        Since writing the above, your Favour of the 24th came to Hand with the sundry Inclosures, which I have with Attention


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    perused, and very much approve of your Conduct. I sincerely wish that the Letter you expect to receive from Congress, may empower you to act conformable to your own and my Sentiments on this Occasion: It they should order differently we must submit, as they doubtless will have good Reasons for what they may determine on. 64 The Congress desire I should send an active General to Canada. I fancy when they made the Demand, that they did not think General Schuyler would continue in that Station, which he has given me to understand by some late Letters from him that he would. Should they not approve of the New York Expedition, and think another General necessary for the northern Department, it is probable they will fix on you to take the Command there.

    [Note:General Lee was at Stamford, in Connecticut, where he was preparing to enter New York with such troops as he had collected. In his letter to Congress he had strongly urged the expediency of disarming the Tories, requiring an oath of them to act offensively and defensively in support of the common rights, and a pledge of one-half of their property as a security for their good behavior. -- Sparks. (See notes to Washington's letter to Maj. Gen. Charles Lee, Jan. 23, 1776, ante. ) ]

        I should be sorry to have you removed so far from this Scene; but if the Service there requires your Presence it will be a fine Field for the Exertion of your admirable Talents. There is nothing new here. Let me hear often from you, and believe me, &c. 65

    [Note:Lee arrived in New York February 4 "almost at the same instant" with Clinton. "He [Clinton] has brought no Troops with him, and pledges his Honour that none are coming. He says it is merely a visit to his Friend Tryon. If it is really so, it is the most whimsical piece of civility I ever heard of. He informs us that his intention is for N. Carolina, where He expects Five regiments from England; that He only brought two companies of Light Infantry from Boston This is certainly a droll way of proceeding; to communicate his full plan to the Enemy is too novel to be credited." -- Lee to Washington, Feb. 5, 1776. Clinton did, however, go southward. Lee's letter is in the Washington Papers. ]

    To SIR WILLIAM HOWE Head Quarters, Cambridge, January 30, 1776.

        Sir: I have it in Command from the Honorable Continental Congress, to propose an Exchange of Governor Skeene for Mr.


    Page 295

    James Lovell and Family. If the proposition is agreeable, you will please to signify as much to me, and Mr. Lovell, that he may prepare for his removal, whilst I cause Mr. Skeene to be brought to this place. I am Sir Your etc. 66

    [Note:Howe's answer (February 2) was to the effect that he had intended to liberate Lovell, but discovered that he had carried on a prohibited correspondence, and for that reason declined to release him. Howe's letter is in the Washington Papers. ]

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, January 31, 1776.

        Parole Belhaven. Countersign Lancaster.

        Richd. Thompson of Capt. Nuting's Company, in Col. Prescot's Regiment, tried at a late General Court Martial for "Theft and Desertion," is found guilty of both those Crimes, and sentenced to receive thirty-nine Lashes for each, and mulcted Twenty-four Shillings and eight pence out of his pay -- Twelve Shillings thereof to be paid to the prosecutor Samuel Keys, and the rest to the persons who brought the prisoner back to camp.

        The General approves the above Sentence, and orders it to be executed, at such time, and place, as the Commanding Officer of the Regiment shall think proper.

    To THE MASSACHUSETTS LEGISLATURE Cambridge, January 31, 1776.

        Sir: Mr. Glover called upon the General this day informing him, that the Legislative Power of this Province, were about making some Alterations or Amendment in the Act relative to Captures made by Armed Vessels, fitted out of this Colony, so as to make that Act conformable to the resolutions of Congress. He also mentioned that some difficulties may arrise after Condemnation, respecting the Sale of Prizes made by the Continental Vessels, as it seems the deputy Sherrif is ordered to


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    take charge of, and Sell the Prizes made by Vessels, fitted out by individuals, or otherwise. That will certainly militate with the agreement entered into by his Excellency with the Agents appointed by him, who are to have a Certain Commission and no more, for transacting that business. Now Sir, I am ordered by the General to lay the Matter before you, requesting that no future impediments may arise, after Condemnation of these Vessels, to interrupt the Sale of them and Cargoes. A clause in this particular, enacting that all Vessels taken by the Cruizers fitted out at the Continental expence, shall be given up to the Agents appointed for negotiating that business, immediately after Condemnation, will answer every purpose of this application to you.

        I have the Honor to inclose you a Resolve of Congress, empowering the paymaster General of this Army to draw Bills on the President, with an extract, from his Letter to his Excellency on the same subject. I am Sir, etc. 67

    [Note:This letter in the "Letter Book," Washington Papers, is in the writing of George Lewis, but the Varick Transcripts give the signature as Washington's. Lacking the letter sent, it is difficult to determine who signed it. The resolve of Congress referred to is that of January 16. ]

    To JOSEPH REED Cambridge, January 31, 1776.

        Dear Sir: In my last, (date not recollected) by Mr. John Adams, I communicated my distresses to you on account of my want of your assistance. Since this I have been under some concern at doing of it, lest it should precipitate your return before you were ripe for it, or bring on a final resignation which I am unwilling to think of, if your return can be made convenient and agreeable. True it is, that from a variety of causes my business has been, and now is, multiplied and perplexed; whilst the means of execution is greatly contracted.


    Page 297

    This may be a cause for my wishing you here, but no inducement to your coming, if you hesitated before.

        I have now to thank you for your favors of the 15th, 16th, and 20th inst., and for the several articles of intelligence, which they convey. The account given of your navy, at the same time that it is exceedingly unfavorable to our wishes, is a little provoking to me, inasmuch as it has deprived us of a necessary article 68 which otherwise would have been sent hither; but which a kind of fatality, I fear, will for ever deprive us of. In the instance of New York, we are not to receive a particle of what you expected would be sent from thence; the time and season passing away, as I believe the troops in Boston also will, before the season for taking the field arrives. I dare say they are preparing for it now, as we have undoubted intelligence of Clinton's leaving Boston with a number of troops, (by differrent accounts, from four or five hundred to ten companies of grenadiers, and nine of light infantry), believed to be designed for Long Island, or New York, in consequence of assurances from Governor Tryon of powerful aid from the Tories there.

    [Note:Powder. ]

        I hope my countrymen (of Virginia) will rise superior to any losses the whole navy of Great Britain can bring on them, and that the destruction of Norfolk, and the threatened devastation of other places, will have no other effect, than to unite the whole country in one indissoluble band against a nation which seems to be lost to every sense of virtue, and those feelings which distinguish a civilized people from the most barbarous savages. A few more of such flaming arguments, as were exhibited at Falmouth and Norfolk, 69 added to the sound doctrine and unanswerable reasoning contained in the pamphlet " Common Sense, " will not leave numbers at a loss to decide upon the propriety of a separation.

    [Note:The town of Norfolk, in Virginia, had been bombarded and burned by Lord Dunmore on January 1. -- Sparks. ]

    Page 298

        By a letter of the 21st instant from Wooster, I find, that Arnold was continuing the blockade of Quebec on the 19th, which, under tile heaviness of our loss there, is a most favorable circumstance, and exhibits a fresh proof of Arnold's ability and perseverance in the midst of difficulties. The reinforcements ordered to him will, I hope, complete the entire conquest of Canada this winter; and but for the loss of the gallant chief, and his brave followers, I should think the rebuff rather favorable than otherwise; for had the country been subdued by such a handful of men, it is more than probable, that it would have been left to the defence of a few, and rescued from us in the spring. Our eyes will now be open not only to the importance of holding it, but to the numbers which are requisite to that end. In return for your two beef and poultry vessels from New York, I can acquaint you that our Commodore Manly has just taken two ships from White Haven to Boston, with coal and potatoes, and sent them into Plymouth, and fought a tender (close by the light house where the vessels were taken), long enough to give his prizes time to get off, in short, till she thought it best to quit the combat, and he to move off from the men-of-war, which were spectators of this scene.

        In my last I think I informed you of my sending General Lee to New York, with the intention of securing the Tories of Long Island, &c. and to prevent, if possible, the King's troops from making a lodgment there; but I fear the Congress will be duped by the representations from that government, or yield to them in such a manner as to become marplots to the expedition.

        The city seems to be entirely under the government of Tryon and the captain of the man-of-war.

        Mrs. Washington desires I will thank you for the picture sent her. Mr. Campbell, whom I never saw to my knowledge,


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    has made a very formidable figure of the Commander-in-chief, giving him a sufficient portion of terror in his countenance. 70 Mrs. Washington also desires her compliments to Mrs. Reed, as I do, and, with the sincerest regard and affection, I remain, dear Sir, your most obedient servant.

    [Note:This mezzotinto is described by Baker in his Engraved Portraits of Washington, and represents Washington in "full figure in uniform and cocked hat, on horseback, advancing to the right. A drawn sword in the right hand is held across the body, a battle in the right distance." Mr. Baker concludes that "in every sense they [the Campbell portraits of Washington] may be classed among the fictitious portraits.…The presumption is that the portrait of portraits.…were manufactured at the beginning of the Revolutionary War, for some enterprising publisher either in London or on the Continent, for the express purpose of being engraved, in anticipation of a demand which is was felt must arise." -- Ford. ]

    To JOSEPH REED Cambridge, February 1, 1776.

        My Dear Sir: I had wrote the letter herewith enclosed before your favor of the 21st came to hand. The account given of the behavior of the men under General Montgomery, is exactly consonant to the opinion I have formed of these people, and such as they will exhibit abundant proofs of, in similar cases whenever called upon. Place them behind a parapet, a breastwork, stone wall, or any thing that will afford them shelter, and, from their knowledge of a firelock, they will give a good account of their enemy; but I am as well convinced, as if I had seen it, that they will not march boldly up to a work, nor stand exposed in a plain; and yet, if we are furnished with the means, and the weather will afford us a passage, and we can get in men, (for these three things are necessary,) something must be attempted. 71 The men must be brought to face danger; they

    [Note:Ford here notes Maj. Gen. Charles Lee's letter to Benjamin Rush (September 19): "I think then we might have attacked 'era long before this and with success, were our troops differently constituted; but the fatal persuasion has taken deep root in the minds of file Americans from the highest to the lowest order that they are no match for the Regulars, but when covered by a wall or breast work. This notion is still further strengthened by the endless works we are throwing up. In short unless we can remove the idea (and it must be done by degrees) no spirited action can be ventured on without the greatest risk." ]

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    cannot always have an intrenchment or a stone wall as a safeguard or shield; and it is of essential importance, that the troops in Boston should be destroyed if possible before they can be reinforced or removed. This is clearly my opinion. Whether circumstances will admit of the trial, and, if tried, what will be the event, the all-wise Disposer of them alone can tell.

        The evils arising from short, or even any limited enlistment of the troops, are greater, and more extensively hurtful than any person (not an eye-witness to them) can form any idea of. It takes you two or three months to bring new men in any tolerable degree acquainted with their duty; it takes a longer time to bring a people of the temper and genius of these into such a subordinate way of thinking as is necessary for a soldier, before this is accomplished, the time approaches for their dismissal, and you are beginning to make interest for their continuance for another limited period; in the doing of which you are obliged to relax in your discipline, in order as it were to curry favour with them, by which means the latter part of your time is employed in undoing what the first was accomplishing, and instead of having men always ready to take advantage of circumstances, you must govern your movements by the circumstances of your enlistment. This is not all; by the time you have got men armed and equipped, the difficulty of doing which is beyond description, and with every new set you have the same trouble to encounter, without the means of doing it. -- in short, the disadvantages are so great and apparent to me, that I am convinced, uncertain as the continuance of the war is, that Congress had better determine to give a bounty of 20, 30, or even 40 Dollars to every man who will Inlist for the whole time, be it long or short. I intend to write my sentiments fully on this subject to Congress the first leisure time I have.


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        I am exceeding sorry to hear that Arnold's wound is in an unfavourable way; his letter to me of the 14th ulto. says nothing of this. I fancy Congress have given particular direction respecting General Prescott. I think they ought for more reasons than one. I am, &c.

        Be so good as to send the enclosed letter of Randolph's to the post-office. 72

    [Note:From Reed's Life and Correspondence of Joseph Reed. ]

    To MAJOR GENERAL PHILIP SCHUYLER Cambridge, February 1, 1776.

        Dear Sir: On the 27th. Ulto. I had the Pleasure of writing you, and then mentioned my being under some Embarrasment respecting the Application, which I expected from our Caghnawaga Friends. I have now the Pleasure to inform you, that in a Talk they honoured me with Yesterday, they put the Matter upon the Footing I wished; that is, to join the Forces in Canada, whenever you shall call for their Assistance. They requested me to certify my Approbation of the Treaty they had concluded with you, which I did. Upon the Occasion they expressed much Satisfaction, and said that they were now happy, that a firm Peace was made between them and their Brothers, and that they were now free like the New England People. I heartily wish that this Union may be lasting, and that nothing may cast up to interrupt it. The Expediency of calling upon them, I shall leave to you. Circumstances and Policy will suggest the Occasion.

        I promised them to write you by Colonel Bedel, of what they had done, and shall submit it to your Discretion to communicate to them such Parts of this as you may think necessary.


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        I have advanced one Hundred Pounds lawful Money to Colonel Bedel, for the Expences attending their Return Home. This he will account with you for. I am, Dear Sir, etc.

    *To COLONEL TIMOTHY BEDEL Cambridge, February 1, 1776.

        Sir: The Continental Congress having called upon the Government of New Hampshire to raise a Regiment for the Service of the United Colonies, which they have accordingly complied with and appointed you to the Command of; I have to desire that you will use the utmost deligence and dispatch possible, to raise the said Regiment, and march it into Canada by the way of No. 4, and Onion River, on which Communication a supply of Provisions will be laid, by Order of Major General Schuyler.

        This Regiment is to be rais'd upon the Continental Establishment, and agreeable to the terms and requisition of the Congress, as transmitted to New Hampshire. As the Necessity of reinforcing our Troops Posted before, and forming the Blockade of Quebec, is too apparent to need description, I would have you order each Company to March as fast as they are rais'd, the whole putting themselves under the Command of the Genl. or Commanding Officer in Canada, as fast as they arrive there.

        Such Necessaries as are indispensably necessary for the use of your Regiment will, I expect, be provided for you by your Colony, in the doing of which, and on your March, I recommend the utmost Oeconomy, that can be used consistent with dispatch.

        You will take under your care, Jean Baptist, together with the other Indians (now at this place) of the Caghnawaga Tribe, and conduct them in the safest, and most agreeable manner to themselves, into Canada. You will receive a Warrant upon the Pay master, for the Sum of £100 Lawful with which


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    you are to bear their Expences, rendering an Acct. of the just expenditure thereof, for their use to the Commissary of the Northern department when you get there; who will be advertized of this Matter and directed to settle with you.

        These, Sir, are my Instructions, to which I doubt not, you will pay a proper Attention. I must again recommend your making all possible dispatch; and that you may have a Share in the Glory of expelling the Instruments of ministerial Tyranny, from that fair Province, is the sincere Wish, of, Sir, etc. 73

    [Note:The last paragraph is in the handwriting of Stephen Moylan. ]

    To CAPTAIN WILLIAM BURKE Cambridge, February 1, 1776.

        By Virtue of the Powers and Authorities to me given by the honourable Continental Congress, I do hereby constitute and appoint you Captain and Commander of the Schooner Warren, now lying at Beverly Port, in the service of the United Colonies of North America; to have, hold, exercise, and enjoy the said Office of Captain and Commander of the said Vessel, and to perform and execute all Matters and Things which to your said Office do, or may of Right belong, or appertain, untill further Order shall be given herein by the honourable Continental Congress, myself, or any future Commander in Chief of said Army, Willing and commanding all Officers, Soldiers, and Persons whatsoever, any way concerned, to be obedient and assisting to you in the due execution of this Commission.

        Given under my hand and seal etc. 74

    [Note:Instructions issued were the same as those to Capt. Charles Dyar, Jan. 20, 1776, q. v. ]

    To CAPTAIN JOHN AYRES Cambridge, February 1, 1776.

        Sir: You being appointed Captain and Commander of the armed schooner Lynch in the service of the United Colonies


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    are to pay all Attention and Obedience to the following instructions: 75

    [Note:Instructions issued were the same as those to Capt. Charles Dyar, January 20. q. v. ]

    OFFICERS OF THE ARMED VESSELS, FITTED OUT BY
    ORDER OF GENERAL WASHINGTON, ON THE 1ST OF
    FEBRUARY, 1776

    HANCOCK

  •    John Manly, captain and commodore, Jan. 1, 1776.


  •    Richard Stiles, first lieutenant, Jan. 1, 1776.


  •    Nicholas Ogilby, second lieutenant, Jan. 1, 1776.


  • LEE

  •    Daniel Waters, captain, Jan. 20, 1776.


  •    William Kissick, first lieutenant, Jan. 20, 1776.


  •    John Gill, second lieutenant, Jan. 20, 1776.


  •    John Diamond, master, Jan. 20, 1776.


  • FRANKLIN

  •    Samuel Tucker, captain, Jan. 20, 1776.


  •    Edward Phittiplace, first lieutenant, Jan. 20, 1776.


  •    Francis Salter, second lieutenant, Jan. 20, 1776.


  • HARRISON

  •    Charles Dyar, captain, Jan. 20, 1776.


  •    Thomas Dote, first lieutenant, Jan. 23, 1776.


  •    John Wigglesworth, second lieutenant, Jan. 20, 1776.


  • LYNCH

  •    John Ayres, captain, Feb. 1, 1776.


  •    John Roche, first lieutenant, Feb. 1, 1776.


  •    John Tiley, second lieutenant, Feb. 1, 1776.


  • WARREN

  •    William Burke, captain, Feb. 1, 1776.


  • To TIMOTHY PICKERING, JUNIOR Cambridge, February 1, 1776.

        Sir: Your favor of yesterday I received and am sorry to hear, that the Quota of Militia, which the Town of Salem was to


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    furnish by Resolve of the Honorable General Court, cannot be had. The generous tender of Services made by you, Sir, and the rest of the Volunteers claims a return of my sincere thanks; -- should I have occasion to call upon them, I shall do it; at present I wish them to continue at Salem and to hold themselves in readiness. I am, Sir, etc.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, February 3, 1776.

        Parole Chelsea. Countersign Cork.

        Lieut. Dustin 76 of Capt. Farrington's Company, in the 16th. Regiment of Foot, tried at a General Court Martial whereof Col. Patterson was President for "Cowardice on the 7th of Jany last, when on Command with a Detachment sent towards Bunkers hill" -- is unanimously acquitted with Honor by the Court -- The General approves of the proceedings and orders Lieut. Dustin to be released from his arrest.

    [Note:Lieut. Woody Dustin. ]

        The General Court Martial where of Col. Patterson was President is dissolved.

        All Arms purchased by the Officers sent upon that duty, are to be first delivered to Mr. Commissary Cheever for Inspection, who is to report their number, find Goodness, to the General, before they are delivered out of his store.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, February 4, 1776.

        Parole Cumberland. Countersign York.

        The Colonel of each Regiment, to make a return on Tuesday, at Orderly time, of the number of Arms wanting to compleat the men, now in his Regiment, and to signify the Method, which appears to him most likely to procure them.


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        Genl. Putnam, Genl. Sullivan and Genl. Green, with the Colonels of their Brigades, to attend at Head Quarters to morrow, in the forenoon, to receive Commissions for their Officers.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, February 5, 1776.

        Parole Newport. Countersign Cooke.

        The Colonels upon the old establishment, will this day and to morrow, receive the Warrants for their Pay-Abstracts, for the Months of November and December, of which all persons concern'd are to take notice, and govern themselves accordingly.

        For the future, when a Warrant is granted, and pay'd for any Sum upon account of pay, of the Regiments, or Corps, to any of the Commanding Officers thereof, there will be no allowance afterwards, for any Neglect, or supposed Mistake; it is the duty of every Colonel, and Captain, to be exact in their Abstracts and Returns, and the Consequences of being otherwise, must fall upon themselves:

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, February 6, 1776.

        Parole Greenwich. Countersign Kent.

        The Court of enquiry whereof Genl. Green was president, appointed to enquire into the Complaint of Col. Hubbart 77 Pay Master General of the New Hampshire Forces against Col Stark 78 -- The Court have reported the State of the Evidence given in before them, by which it appears that Col Hubbarts Complaints were well founded -- All further proceedings are suspended, Col Stark having made such Acknowledgments to the injured parties as will in all probability be accepted as satisfactory.

    [Note:Col. Samuel Hobart. ]
    [Note:Col. John Stark. ]

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        The Colonel, or Officer commanding each Regiment, is to examine minutely into the quantity, and condition of their ammunition, and make report of the Average Number of Rounds, they are possessed of, to their respective Brigadiers, without delay, and immediately thereupon the Brigadiers are to lay this report before the General.

        The Armourers are required to be very exact and diligent, at their business; if they are known to do work for any others, than those of the army, they will be brought to the severest punishment, or if they presume to charge a Soldier for any repair done to his Arms, they will also be called to as strict account.

        An exact report to be made of all the Cartridges in the different Magazines -- Those now employed in making Cartridges are to be constant and diligent at their work.

        The Arms which have been delivered out of the public Stores, are not to be put in the hands of Commissioned Officers. The Colonels of the several Regiments are to be answerable that this Order is duly attended to.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, February 7, 1776.

        Parole Coventry. Countersign Beverly.

        The Continental Congress having been pleased to order, and direct, that there shall be one Chaplain to two Regiments, and that the pay of each Chaplain shall be Thirty-three dollars and one third, pr Kalendar Month -- The Revd. Abiel Leonard is appointed Chaplain to the Regiment of Artillery, under the command of Col Knox, and to the 20th. Regiment, at present commanded by Lt. Col Durkee. 79

    [Note:Lieut. Col. John Durkee. ]

        As there can be but fourteen Chaplains under this establishment, to the 28 Regiments (including the Artillery, and


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    Riffle Regiments) and as preference will be given to those Chaplains who served last Year, provided their conduct, and attendance, have been unexceptionable: The Brigadiers are to enquire into this matter and with the Colonels, and commanding Officers of the several Regiments, arrange them agreeable to the above direction, and make report thereof that orders, may issue accordingly.

        The Commanding Officers of the Regiments upon the new establishment, are each of them to apply to Commissary Cheever, to morrow Morning; for One Barrel of powder, with a proportionable quantity of Ball and Cartridge-paper; which they are to order to be immediately made up in Cartridges, and put up in a proper manner, according to the directions Commissary Cheever will give. -- This Ammunition, the commanding Officers are to keep in a safe place, under their immediate Care, to be ready to be delivered, when occasion may call for its being distributed.

        A General Court Martial to sit to morrow Morning, in Cambridge, to try such prisoners as shall be brought before them; All Evidences and persons concerned to attend the Court. The Court to assemble at Mr. Pomroys at ten in the forenoon.

    To GOVERNOR JONATHAN TRUMBULL Cambridge, February 8, 1776.

        Sir: I last night received Intelligence of the arrival of some Powder in your Colony by the Sloop Macaroni, and the report is that she brought Arms too. As my last Letters from Philadelphia, do not Promise me an Immediate supply of these necessaries, and as the exigency of this Army at this particular crisis, calls for much more than what we have, I beg the favor of you to Interest yourself, that they may be sent to this Camp,


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    as expeditiously as possible. If they belong to the Colony, I will take them on the Continents Account, and pay for them, or replace the Powder, If that shall be thought more advisable, as soon as I have an opportunity of doing it, which I hope will not be long. If to private Gentlemen, I shall be much obliged by your friendly exertions that I may have it. I should have made this application, did not the state of our affairs at this time require all that can be collected, not doubting of your last endeavours that my requisition may be complied with, I am Sir, etc.

    To GOVERNOR JONATHAN TRUMBULL Cambridge, February 9, 1776.

        Sir: I received your favors of the 2d. and 5th Inst., and agreeable to your request have ordered payment for the Ballance of the Expences attending the Journey of the two French Gentlemen to Philadelphia to be made to William Bacon, Postrider, for your use, which I hope will come safe to hand.

        I am happy to hear of your having received 12,500 dolls. from Congress for the Troops going upon the Canada expedition and heartily wish, that no other difficulties may occur to impede their march and prevent their giving early and timely succour to our friends there, which they certainly stand in great need of.

        As to replacing the Money advanced by your Colony to the Regiments which served the last Campaign; It is not in my power. It is what I did not expect and therefore have made no provision for it. I should have paid them in the same manner I did others, had I not been prevented by the Colonels, who expressed their Inclination to receive the whole at one time, after the expiration of the Service and on their return home. -- This being the case, I always imagined, that the sum advanced


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    by you, would be taken in, when Congress came to form a General Account against the Colonies, and be applied to your Credit, which I presume they will shortly do, as I have wrote to them and pointed out the Necessity of having all the Accounts respecting this Army, adjusted and liquidated at proper periods. -- Had I conceived, that this application for Repayment would have been made to me, I should certainly have included the sum advanced by you in my estimates and taken care to have had a sufficiency of Money to discharge it. But as I did not, I am unprovided and have not more than will answer the Claims I was apprized of, antecedent to the last day of December. They are large and numerous, and in a few days, will drain our Treasury of every shilling now in it. I am exceedingly sorry that Matters should be so circumstanced, as to give you the least disappointment or trouble, But I doubt not Congress upon your application, will refund what you have advanced, or settle it in such a way, as shall be perfectly agreeable to you.

        I shall take care, to have the three Battallions of Militia paid, which are coming here for the defence of our Lines in the same Manner, that the rest are when the time of their engagement expires. They certainly might have come thus far without the advance you have been obliged to give.

        Having lately examined into the State of our Powder and finding the deficiency to be much greater than what I had any Idea of, and hearing that the Militia from your Colony, and I fear from the others too, are coming without any, or with but very little, I cannot but confess my anxiety and concern to be very great; I therefore again repeat the request I made this Morning, and beg and intreat your most strenuous and friendly exertions, to procure what we are told is Imported, or such part as you possibly can, and send it to me with the utmost expedition. I am already much alarmed on account of the scarcity,


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    and the Militia coming in without a proper supply, fills me with apprehensions of the most disagreeable nature. this I would mention in confidence, as it might give great uneasiness if it was generally known, and trusting that nothing in your honor will be wanting to relieve us at this alarming and Important crisis. I am &ca.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, February 9, 1776.

        Parole Stirling. Countersign Jersey.

        The Colonel of a Regiment is on no pretence to licence more than one Sutler within the limits of the camp: As the Quarter Master General has his Excellency's possitive Orders to punish with severity any person who is unlicenced, or licenced contrary to the above order.

        If any of the Militia, who are ordered into Camp, should incline to enter into the Continental Army; they are immediately to join the Regiment, they inlist into and are from that day to be struck off the Militia-rolls, that their pay may from thence forward commence in the Regimt. they engage in, and cease in the Militia: It is expected that proper attention be paid to this Order, as no plea of Ignorance will be admitted.

    To THE PRESIDENT OF CONGRESS Cambridge, February 9, 1776.

        Sir: I beg leave to Inform you at the request of the Committee of Pay Table of the Colony of Connecticut, that I have not advanced to any of the Regiments from that Government any money, except the sum of seven thousand one hundred and seventy-two and one ninth Dollars, on the 20th November last to Major General Putnam for the 34th Regt. under his


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    command. I should have paid them in the same manner I did the rest of the Army, had I not been prevented by the Colonels, who expressed their Inclination to receive the whole at once, upon their return home at the expiration of service, as was customary in their Colony, for this reason I never included them in my Estimates of money and have made no provision for their payment. Always Imagining that what ever payments the Colony made them, Congress would apply to their Credit in the General Account against the United Colonies, or refund upon application. I have, etc. 80

    [Note:In the writing of Robert Hanson Harrison. ]

    To THE PRESIDENT OF CONGRESS Cambridge, February 9, 1776.

        Sir: In compliance with the resolves of Congress I have applied to General Howe for the Exchange of Mr. Lovell; a Copy of my Letter and his answer thereto, you have inclosed. -- Capt. Watters and Capt. Tucker who command two of the Armed Schooners, have taken and sent into Gloster, a large Brigantine, laden with firewood 150 Butts for Water and 40 Suits of Bedding bound from La Have in Nova Scotia to Boston; She is one of the Transports in the Ministerial Service, the Captain says that he was at Halifax the 17th. January and that General Massey was arrived there with two Regiments from Ireland.

        The different prizes were all Libeled, immediately on receipt of the resolves of Congress, pointing out the mode; 81 but none of them yet brought to trial, owing to a difference between the Law past in this Province and the Resolution of Congress. The General Court are making an Amendment to their Law, by which the difficulties that now occur will be removed, as I understand it is to be made conformable to your resolves, the unavoidable delay attending the bringing the Captures to trial

    [Note:See Journals of the Continental Congress, Dec. 20, 1775. ]

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    is greviously complained of by the Masters of these Vessels, as well as the Captors, many of the former have applied for Liberty to go away without waiting the decision, which I have granted them.

        I beg leave to recall the attention of Congress to their appointing a Commissary in these parts to attend the providing of necessaries for the Prisoners who are dispersed in these Provinces. Complaints are made by some of them, that they are in want of bedding and many other things. As I understand that Mr. Franks 82 has undertaken that business, I wish he was ordered to send a Deputy immediately, to see that the Prisoners get what is allowed them by Congress, also to supply the Officers with Money, as they may have occasion; it will save me much Time and much trouble. There are yet but few Companies of Militia come in; this delay I am much affraid, will frustrate the intention of their being called upon. As the Season is slipping fast away when they maybe of service. The demands of the Army were so very pressing before your last remittence came to hand, that I was under the necessity of borowing £25,000 Lawful, from this Province; they very chearfully lent it, and passed a vote for as much more if required.

    [Note:David Franks acted as British commissary of prisoners. ]

        I have not repaid the sum borrowed, as I may stand in need of it, before the arrival of another supply, which the Demands of the Commissary General, Quarter Master General, and paying off the arrearages, will very soon require.

        Your esteemed favor of the 29th. Ulto. is just now come to hand, it makes me very happy to find my conduct hath met the approbation of Congress.

        I am entirely of your Opinion, that should an accommodation take place, the Terms will be severe, or favorable, in proportion to our ability to resist, and that we ought to be on a respectable footing to receive their Armaments in the Spring: --


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    but how far we shall be provided with the means is a matter I profess not to know under my present unhappy want of Arms, Ammunition, and I may add men, as our Regiments are very incomplete, the recruiting goes on very slow and will I apprehend be more so, if for other services the men receive a bounty and none is given here.

        I have tried every method I can think of to procure Arms for our Men; they really are not to be had in these Governments [belonging to the Public] 83 and if some method is not fallen upon in the Southern Governments, to supply us, we shall be in a distressed situation for want of them; there are near 2000 men now in Camp without Firelocks. I have wrote to the Committee of New York, this day, requesting them to send me those Arms which were taken from the disaffected in that Government, the Congress interesting themselves in this request, will doubtless have a good effect. I have sent Officers into the Country with Money to purchase Arms in the different Towns, some have returned and brought in a few, many are still out, what their success will be I cannot determine.

    [Note:The words in brackets are in the writing of Washington. ]

        I was in great hopes, that the expresses, resolved to be established between this place and Philadelphia, would ere now have been fixt. It would in my Opinion, rather save, than increase the expence, as many Horses, are destroyed by one Man coming the whole way, it will certainly be more expeditious, and safer than writing by the Post, or private hands, which I am often under the necessity of doing. 84 I have the Honor etc. 85

    [Note:This letter was read in Congress on February 22; considered in Committee of the Whole on February 23; and committees appointed to contract for arms and encourage their manufacture, Another committee was appointed to encourage the manufacture of powder. On March 14 a general resolution was adopted recommending the disarming of the "notoriously disaffected to the cause of America" throughout the Colonies; the arms taken to be paid for. ]
    [Note:In the writing of Stephen Moylan. ]

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    *To THE PRESIDENT OF CONGRESS Cambridge, February 9, 1776.

        Sir: The purport of this Letter, will be directed to a single Object; through you I mean to lay it before Congress, and at the same time that I beg their serious attention to the subject, to ask pardon for intruding an opinion, not only unasked, but in some measure repugnant to their Resolves.

        The disadvantages attending the limited, Inlistment of Troops, is too apparent to those who are eye witnesses of them, to render any animadversions necessary; but to Gentlemen at a Distance, whose attention is engross'd by a thousand important objects, the case may be otherwise.

        That this cause precipitated the fate of the brave and much to be lamented Genl. Montgomery, and brought on the defeat which followed thereupon, I have not the most distant doubt of, for had he not been apprehensive of the Troops leaving him at so important a crisis, but continued the Blockade of Quebec, a capitulation, from the best account I have been able to collect, must inevitably have followed, and, that we were not obliged at one time to dispute these Lines under disadvantageous Circumstances (proceeding from the same cause, to wit, The Troops disbanding of themselves, before the Militia could be got in) is to me a matter of wonder and astonishment; and proves, that General Howe was either unacquainted with our Situation, or restrained by his Instructions from putting any thing to a hazard 'till his reinforcements should arrive.

        The Instance of General Montgomery I mention it because it is a striking one; for a number of others might be adduced; proves, that instead of having Men to take advantage of Circumstances, you are in manner compell'd, Right or Wrong, to make Circumstances, yield to a Secondary consideration. Since


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    the first of December I have been devising every means in my power to secure these Incampments, and though I am sensible that we never have, since that Period, been able to act upon the Offensive, and at times not in a condition to defend, yet the cost of marching home one set of Men; bringing in another, the havock and waste occasioned by the first; the repairs necessary for the Second, with a thousand incidental charges and Inconveniencies which have arisen, and which it is scarce possible either to recollect or describe, amounts to near as much as the keeping up a respectable body of Troops the whole time, ready for any emergency, would have done. To this may be added that you never can have a well Disciplined Army.

        To bring Men well acquainted with the Duties of a Soldier, requires time; to bring them under proper discipline and Subordination, not only requires time, but is a Work of great difficulty; and in this Army, where there is so little distinction between the Officers and Soldiers, requires an uncommon degree of attention. To expect then the same Service from Raw, and undisciplined Recruits as from Veteran Soldiers, is to expect what never did, and perhaps never will happen. Men who are familiarized to danger, meet it without shrinking, whereas those who have never seen Service often apprehend danger where no danger is. Three things prompt Men to a regular discharge of their Duty in time of Action: natural bravery, hope of reward, and fear of punishment. The two first are common to the untutor'd, and the Disciplin'd Soldiers; but the latter, most obviously distinguishes the one from the other. A Coward, when taught to believe, that if he breaks his Ranks, and abandons his Colours, will be punished with Death by his own party, will take his chance against the Enemy; but the Man who thinks little of the one, and is fearful of the other, Acts from present feelings regardless of consequences.


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        Again, Men of a days standing will not look forward, and from experience we find, that as the time approaches for their discharge they grow careless of their Arms, Ammunition, Camp utensils &ca. nay even the Barracks themselves have felt uncommon marks of Wanton depredation, and lays us under fresh trouble, and additional expence, in providing for every fresh sett; when we find it next to impossible to procure such Articles, as are absolutely necessary in the first Instance. To this may be added the Seasoning which new Recruits must have to a Camp, and the loss, consequent therefrom. But this is not all, Men engaged for a short, limited time only, have the Officers too much in their power; for to obtain a degree of popularity, in order to induce a second Inlistment, a kind of familiarity takes place which brings on a relaxation of Discipline, unlicensed furloughs, and other Indulgences, incompatable with order and good Government, by which means, the latter part of the time for which the Soldier was engaged, is spent in undoing what you were aiming to inculcate in the first.

        To go into an enumeration of all the Evils we have experienced in this late great change of the Army, and the expence incidental to it, to say nothing of the hazard we have run, and must run, between the discharging of one Army and Inlistment of another (unless an Inormous expence of Militia is incurred) would greatly exceed the bounds of a Letter; what I have already taken the liberty of saying, will serve to convey a general Idea of the matter, and, therefore I shall with all due deference, take the freedom to give it as my opinion, that if the Congress have any reason to believe, that there will be occasion for Troops another year, and consequently of another inlistment, they would save money, and have infinitely better Troops if they were, even at the bounty of twenty, thirty or more Dollars to engage the Men already Inlisted ('till January


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    next) and such others as may be wanted to compleat to the Establishment, for and during the War. -- I will not undertake to say that the Men may be had upon these terms, but I am satisfied that it will never do to let the matter alone as it was last year, till the time of service was near expiring. The hazard is too great in the first place. In the next the trouble and perplexity of disbanding one Army and raising another at the same Instant, and in such a critical situation as the last was, is scarcely in the power of Words to describe, and such as no man, who has experienced it once, will ever undergo again. 86

    [Note:Ford quotes from the Works of John Adams, vol. 3, P-48: "The truth is I never opposed the raising of men during the war.…But I contended that I knew the number to be obtained in this manner would be very small in New England, from whence almost the whole army was derived. A regiment might possibly be obtained, of the meanest, idlest, most intemperate and worthless, but no more. A regiment was no army to defend this country. We must have tradesmen's sons, and farmers' sons, or we should be without defence, and such men certainly would not enlist during the war, or for long periods, as yet, The service was too new; they had not yet become attached to it by habit. Was it credible that men who could get at home better living, more comfortable lodgings, more than double the wages, in safety, not exposed to the sickness of the camp, would bind themselves during the war? I knew it to be impossible. In the Middle States, where they imported from Ireland and Germany, so many transported convicts and redemptioners, it was possible they might obtain some. Let them try. …But I warned them against depending on so improbable a resource for the defence of the country. Congress confessed the unanswerable force of this reasoning." ]

        If Congress should differ from me in Sentiment upon this point, I have only to beg that they will do me the justice to believe, that I have nothing more in view than what to me appears necessary to advance the public weal, although in the first Instance it will be attended with a capital expence; and, that I have the Honor to be etc. 87

    [Note:In the writing of Stephen Moylan. ]

    To JOSEPH REED Cambridge, February 10, 1776.

        Dear Sir: Your obliging favors of the 28th ult. and 1st inst. are now before me, and claim my particular thanks for the polite attention you pay to my wishes in an early and regular communication of what is passing in your quarter.


    Page 319

        If my dear sir, you conceive, that I took any thing wrong or amiss, that was conveyed in any of your former letters, you are really mistaken. I only meant to convince you, that nothing would give more real satisfaction, than to know the sentiments, which are entertained of me by the public, whether they be favorable or otherwise; and I urged as a reason, that the man, who wished to steer clear of shelves and rocks, must know where they lay I know -- but to declare it, unless to a friend, may be an argument of vanity -- the integrity of my own heart. I know the unhappy predicament I stand in; I know that much is expected of me; I know, that without men, without arms, without ammunition, without any thing fit for the accommodation of a soldier, little is to be done; and, which is mortifying, I know, that I cannot stand justified to the world without exposing my own weakness, and injuring the cause, by declaring my wants, which I am determined not to do, further than unavoidable necessity brings every man acquainted with them.

        If, under these disadvantages, I am able to keep above water, (as it were) in the esteem of mankind, I shall feel myself happy; but if, from the unknown peculiarity of my circumstances, I suffer in the opinion of the world, I shall not think you take the freedom of a friend, if you conceal the reflections that may be cast upon my conduct. My own situation feels so irksome to me at times, that, if I did not consult the public good, more than my own tranquillity, I should long ere this have put every thing to the cast of a Dye. So far from my having an army of twenty thousand men well armed &c., I have been here with less than one half of it, including sick, furloughed, and on command, and those neither armed nor clothed, as they should be. In short, my situation has been such, that I have been obliged to use art to conceal it from my own officers. The Congress, as you observe, expect, I believe, that I should do


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    more than others,…for whilst they compel me to enlist men without a bounty, they give 40 dollars to others, which will, I expect, put a stand to our enlistments; for notwithstanding all the publick virtue which is ascrib'd to these people, there is no nation under the sun, (that I ever came across) pay greater adoration to money than they do…I am pleas'd to find that your Battalions are cloathed and look well, and that they are filing off for Canada. I wish I could say that the troops here had altered much in Dress or appearance. Our regiments are little more than half compleat, and recruiting nearly at a stand…In all my letters I fail not the mention of Tents, and now perceive that notice is taken of yr. application. I have been convinced, by General Howe's conduct, that he has either been very ignorant of our situation (which I do not believe) or that he has received positive orders (which, I think, is natural to conclude) not to put anything to the hazard till his reinforcements arrive; otherwise there has [not] been a time since the first of December, that we must have fought like men to have maintained these Lines, so great in their extent.

        The party to Bunker's Hill had some good and some bad men engaged in it. One or two courts have been held on the conduct of part of it. To be plain, these people -- among friends -- are not to be depended upon if exposed; and any man will fight well if he thinks himself in no danger. I do not apply this to these people only. I suppose it to be the case with all raw and undisciplined troops. You may rely upon it, that transports left Boston six weeks ago with troops; where they are gone, unless driven to the West Indies, I know not. You may also rely upon General Clinton's sailing from Boston about three weeks ago, with about four or five hundred men; his destination I am also a stranger to. I am sorry to hear of the failures you speak of from France. But why will not Congress


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    forward part of the powder made in your province? They seem to look upon this as the season for action, but will not furnish the means. But I will not blame them. I dare say the demands upon them are greater than they can supply. The cause must be starved till our resources are greater, or more certain within ourselves.

        With respect to myself, I have never entertained an idea of an accommodation, since I heard of the measures, which were adopted in consequence of the Bunker's Hill fight. The king's speech has confirmed the sentiments I entertained upon the news of that affair; and if every man was of my mind, the ministers of Great Britain should know, in a few words, upon what issue the cause should be put. I would not be deceived by artful declarations, nor specious pretences; nor would I be amused by unmeaning propositions; but in open, undisguised, and manly terms proclaim our wrongs, and our resolution to be redressed. I would tell them, that we had borne much, that we had long and ardently sought for reconciliation upon honorable terms, that it had been denied us, that all our attempts after peace had proved abortive, and had been grossly misrepresented, that we had done every thing which could be expected from the best of subjects, that the spirit of freedom beat too high in us to submit to slavery, and that, if nothing else could satisfy a tyrant and his diabolical ministry, we are determined to shake off all connexions with a state so unjust and unnatural. This I would tell them, not under covert, but in words as clear as the sun in its meridian brightness.

        I observe what you say, in respect to the ardor of the chimney-corner heroes. I am glad their zeal is in some measure abated, because if circumstances will not permit us to make an attempt upon B[oston], or if it should be made and fail, we shall not appear altogether so culpable. I entertain the same opinion of


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    the attempt now, which I have ever done. I believe an assault would be attended with considerable loss, and I believe it would succeed, if the men should behave well. As to an attack upon B[unker's] Hill, (unless it could be carried by surprise,) the loss, I conceive, would be greater in proportion than at Boston; and, if a defeat should follow, it would be discouraging to the men, but highly animating if crowned with success. Great good, or great evil, would consequently result from it. It is quite a different thing to what you left, being by odds the strongest fortress they possess, both in rear and front.

        The Congress have ordered all captures to be tried in the courts of admiralty of the different governments to which they are sent, and some irreconcilable difference arising between the resolves of Congress, and the law of this colony, respecting the proceedings, or something or another which always happens to procrastinate business here, has put a total stop to the trials, to the no small injury of the public, as well as the great grievance of individuals. Whenever a condemnation shall take place, I shall not be unmindful of your advice respecting the hulls, &c. Would to heaven the plan you speak of for obtaining arms may succeed. The acquisition would be great, and give fresh life and vigor to our measures, as would the arrival you speak of; our expectations are kept alive, and if we can keep ourselves so, and spirits up another summer, I have no fears of wanting the needful after that. As the number of our Inlisted men were too small to undertake any offensive operation, if the circumstances of weather, &c, should favor, I ordered in (by application to this Govt., Connecticut and New Hampshire) as many regiments of militia as would enable us to attempt something in some manner or other. -- they were to have been here by the first of the month, but only a few straggling


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    companies are yet come in. The Bay towards Roxbury has been froze up once or twice pretty hard, and yesterday single persons might have crossed, I believe, from Letchmore's Point, by picking their way; -- a thaw, I fear, is again approaching.

        We have had the most laborious piece of work at Lechmore's Point, on account of the frost, that ever you saw. We hope to get it finished on Sunday. It is within as commanding a distance of Boston as Dorchester Hill, though of a different part Our vessels now and then pick up a prize or two. Our Commodore (Manly) was very near being catched about eight days ago but happily escaped with vessel and crew after running ashore, scuttling, and defending her.

        I recollect nothing else worth giving you the trouble of, unless you can be amused by reading a letter and poem addressed to me by Mrs. or Miss Phillis Wheatley. In searching over a parcel of papers the other day, in order to destroy such as were useless, I brought it to light again. At first, with a view of doing justice to her great poetical genius, I had a great mind to publish the poem; but not knowing whether it might not be considered rather as a mark of my own vanity, than as a compliment to her, I laid is aside, till I came across it again in the manner just mentioned. I congratulate you upon your election, although I consider it as the coup de grace to my expectation of ever seeing you resident in this camp again. 88 I have only to regret the want of you, if that should be the case; and I shall do it the more feelingly, as I have experienced the good effects of your aid. I am, with Mrs. Washington's compliments to Mrs. Reed, and my best respects, added, dear Sir, your most obedient and affectionate servant. 89

    [Note:At a special election held on January 26, Reed, then chairman of the committee of safety) was elected a member of the Pennsylvania Assembly. -- Ford ]
    [Note:The text is from Ford. ]

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    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, February 10, 1776.

        Parole Suffolk. Countersign Albany.

        General Green's Brigade to furnish one Field Officer, two Captains, four Subalterns, four Serjeants, four Corporals, two drums and one hundred and twenty privates, to relieve the Guard to morrow morning upon Cobble-hill. -- Genl. Sullivan's Brigade to furnish the same Number of Officers, and Men, to relieve that Guard on Monday Morning, and so alternately by each Brigade, until further orders.

        Robt. McKnight, of Capt. Gleason's Company, in Col Nixons Regiment, tried at a General Court Martial, whereof Col Huchinson was president, for "Desertion and inlisting in different regiments" -- is found guilty by the Court, and adjudged to receive thirty-nine Lashes upon the bare back and be stopped Five Pounds, four Shillings out of his pay, to repay those Officers, whom the Prisoner has defrauded.

        The General approves the Sentence, and orders it to be put in execution at such time and place as the Commanding Officer of the regiment shall appoint.

    INSTRUCTIONS TO COLONEL ELISHA PORTER Cambridge, February 10, 1776.

        Sir: The Continental Congress having confirmed my Application to this Government, to raise a Regiment for the service of the United Colonies, which is now complied with and you are appointed to the Command thereof; I have to desire, that you will use the utmost Diligence and Dispatch possible, to compleat the said Regiment, and march it into Canada, by the shortest and best Way; that, from your own Knowledge of the Country and from the best Information you can get, you think will be the most expeditious.


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        I have to acquaint you, that if you take your Rout by No. 4 and Onion River, there will be a Supply of Provisions ready for you, laid in by Order of General Schuyler.

        As this Regiment is to be upon the continental Establishment, agreeable to the Terms and Requisition of Congress, transmitted to the legislative Power of this Province, and the Necessity of reinforcing our Troops posted and forming the Blockade of Quebec is too apparent, to need dwelling on, I would have you order each Company to march as fast as they are raised; the whole putting themselves under the Command of the General, or Commanding Officer in Canada, as fast as they arrive there.

        Such Necessaries as you will think really proper, and that you cannot do without, will be provided for you, by the Commissary General, and Quarter Master General, and I shall depend upon you that the strictest Oeconomy is used, consistent with the Dispatch necessary upon this Occasion.

        These, Sir, are my Instructions to you, and from the Character you bear, I doubt not, you will pay due Attention to them.

        I must again recommend your making all possible Dispatch, and that you may share in the Glory of expelling the Instruments of ministerial Tyranny, from that fair Province, is the sincere Wish of, Sir, etc. 90

    [Note:In the writing of George Lewis. ]

    To THE COMMITTEE OF SAFETY OF NEW YORK Cambridge, February 10, 1776.

        Sir: Being in the greatest want of Arms at this alarming and important Crisis, for the Army under my Command, without the most distant prospect or hope of getting more from these Governments, than what I already have; I beg leave to solicit the favors of your Committee of Safety in this Instance, and earnestly request, that they will use their exertions to get


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    and send to me, in the most expeditious Manner, all that they can possibly procure. I imagine that there are several belonging to the Colony, and have been informed of many Tories being disarmed, and therefore expect, that it will be in their power to obtain me a considerable supply; Whatever Quantity is sent me, I will take on the Continental Account and make payment for, with the Expences Incident to their transportation. This application being founded in necessity and arising from the exigency of our affairs, I make no doubt will meet your most ready and early attention, and that nothing will be wanting on your Part, to give me the most speedy relief. I am Sir, etc.

        P.S. I wish to have only such Arms as are good and serviceable, and shall be glad to have Bayonets with them.

    To THE MASSACHUSETTS LEGISLATURE Cambridge, February 10, 1776.

        Gentn: Notwithstanding I have taken every method my Judgment could Suggest, to procure a sufficient number of Firelocks for the Soldiers of this Army, by applications to the Assemblies and Conventions of these Governments, as well as by sending Officers out with Money to Purchase; I am constrained by necessity to Inform you, that the deficiency is amazingly great, and that there are not nigh enough to Arm the Troops already here. It is true, that all the Officers gone upon the business, are not yet returned, but from the small success of those who have made report, I cannot promise myself many more; I must therefore beg leave to Sollicit your kind attention to this Interesting and Important concern, and would submit it to your Consideration whether if your Honorable Court were to depute some of their Members to make application to the different Towns, they might not procure a Considerable Quantity. I will most chearfully furnish them with Money for the purpose, or pay for them on their delivery here, as you shall think


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    most advisable. I shall only add, that I hope the Exigency of our affairs at this critical crisis, will excuse this request and my confidence of your readiness and zeal, to do every thing in your power for promoting the public good; and am Gentln. etc.

        P S I have heard that there are several King's Muskets in the Country, for every good one with a Bayonet, that have not been abused, I will give 12 Dollars, -- and in proportion for other Guns fit for Service.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, February 11, 1776.

        Parole Bristol. Countersign Hadley.

        Benj. Woodman of Capt. Darby's Company, in Col Prescot's Regiment, tried at a late General Court Martial whereof Col Huchinson was President for "Desertion" -- is found guilty by the Court and sentenced to receive Twenty Lashes upon his bare back -- The General approves the Sentence, and orders it to be executed, at such time and place as Col Prescot shall think proper.

        James McCormick of Capt. Farrington's Company in Col Serjeants Regt. tried at the above Court Martial for "assaulting, beating and robbing, Samuel Marston Serjt. in Col Poor's Regiment" -- is found guilty by the Court, and sentenced to receive thirty-nine Lashes, and order Four pounds to be stopped out of his pay, to reimburse Serjeant Marston, what the prisoner robb'd him of.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, February 12, 1776.

        Parole Plymouth. Countersign Portsmouth.

        The General being informed that several of the Militia are coming in without arms, orders that the Brigadiers, to whose


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    Brigades they are joined, do examine into this matter, and discharge every Man who has not Arms as they come in, keeping an Accompt thereof, to deliver when called for.

        It is with no small degree of astonishment, that the General observes by the Returns of last week, that seventeen men have been dismissed the service, out of which number Col Whitcomb alone has discharged seven: he is therefore called upon, to be at Head Quarters to morrow morning, at ten OClock, to account for his conduct in this Instance; at the same time it is declared and particular Attention will be paid to it, that if any Colonel, or Commanding Officer of a Regiment, presume in future to discharge a man without proper Authority, for so doing, he will be put in Arrest and tried for disobedience of orders -- To have Men inlisted one day, and discharged as it were the next, without any Action, or apparent cause, to disqualify men for service, must have a bad appearance in the Returns sent to Congress, especially when the list of Deserters, comes to be added to it.

        To remedy these evils, as far as possible, it is directed, in cases where discharges are really necessary, that the Commanding Officer of the regiment do produce the man, (solliciting the discharge) to the Brigadier Genl. of his brigade, who is to examine accurately into the matter, and not to give a discharge for Sickness of a temporary duration -- In case of desertion, the Commanding Officer of the Regiment or Corps, is immediately to report the Desertion, or Deserters, to his Brigadier General, giving an exact description of the man -- the town he comes from &c -- who is to cause proper Steps to be taken for apprehending them -- A Reward of Five Dollars, will be paid to any person, or persons, who shall apprehend and bring a Deserter into the Camp, upon obtaining a Certificate from the Brigadier of the service performed.


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    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, February 13, 1776.

        Parole Litchfield. Countersign Coventry.

        The Regiments of Militia lately arrived at Roxbury and Cambridge are immediately to be furnished with Fifteen Rounds of Powder and Ball pr. Man; The Adjutant General will, upon application give Orders upon the Commissary for that quantity. The Regiments now at Roxbury may apply to Major Genl. Ward, who will give Orders accordingly.

        Capt. Peleg Wadworth, is appointed Aid-de-Camp to Major Genl. Ward, during the absence of Samuel Osgood Esqr.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, February 14, 1776.

        Parole Richmond. Countersign Lincoln.

        The General Court Martial of which Colonel Huchinson 91 is President is dissolved.

    [Note:Col. Israel Hutchinson, of the Twenty-seventh Continental Infantry. ]

        Benjamin Mumford, in Col Bonds 92 Regt. tried at the above Court Martial for "Theft" -- is acquitted by the Court -- The General orders the prisoner to be released.

    [Note:Col. William Bond, of the Twenty-fifth Continental Infantry. ]

        The Provost Marshal is by his Instructions ordered to suppress all Riots, to be particularly attentive to the behaviour of all the Sutlers in, and about Cambridge, and see that they shut up their houses at Taptoo beating, and do not offer, upon any Account, to sell a drop of Liquor after that hour; All Officers are strictly enjoined to be aiding and assisting to the Provost, in the due execution of his Office, which the late Shocking proceeding of some of the Sutlers makes absolutely necessary.


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    To THE PRESIDENT OF CONGRESS Cambridge, February 14, 1776.

        Sir: Through you, I beg leave to lay before Congress the Inclosed Letter from Lord Drummond to General Robertson, which came to my hands a few days ago in order to be sent into Boston.

        As I never heard of his Lordship being vested with power to treat with Congress upon the Subject of our Grievances, nor of his having laid any propositions before them for an Accommodation; I confess It surprized me much and led me to form various conjectures of his Motives and Intended application to General Howe and Admiral Shuldam, for a passport for the safe conduct of such Deputies as Congress might appoint for negotiating Terms of reconciliation between Great Britain and us.

        Whatever his Intentions are, however benevolent his designs may be, I confess that his Letter has Embarrassed me much, and I am not without suspicion of its meaning more than the generous purposes it professes. 93 I should suppose, that if the mode for negotiation which he points out, should be adopted, which I hope will never be thought of, that it ought to have been fixed and settled, previous to any application of this Sort, and at

    [Note:James, Lord Drummond (Earl of Perth), an officious enthusiast, made two attempts to propose a plan of reconciliation between Great Britain and the Colonies. His letter to Brig. Gen. James Robertson is in the Papers of the Continental Congress.

       The first notice of the matter is contained in a letter from Thomas Lynch to Washington, dated at Philadelphia, Jan. 16, 1776, in which he says: "A gentleman well known in Maryland, Lord Drummond, just from England, tells me, that he has had many conversations with the ministry.…and showed me a paper approved by each of them, and which he is sure will be supported in both Houses. The substance of it is, -- America to be declared free in point of Taxation and internal Police; Judges to be approved by the Judges of England, and commissioned during good behaviour, upon stated and sufficient support to be statedly assigned them by the colonies; all charters to be held sacred; that of Boston to be restored; Britain to regulate trade sub modo ; all duties laid for file purpose of regulation to be paid into the colony treasury where they arise, applicable to its uses by its own legislature, in lieu of which, America shall by duties on such articles as will probably keep pace in its consumption with the rise or declension of the colony, laid by each legislature by permanent act of Assembly, grant towards the general support of the empire annual sums in proportion to five thousand pounds sterling for this colony. As this sum is little more than half of what did arise by duties heretofore paid in this place, I doubted his information. but was assured that ministry wanted nothing but a shew of revenue to hold up to Parliament, as they are afraid to propose reconciliation without saving what the stiff old Englishmen call the honor of the nation. His Lordship came hither through Halifax, Boston. and New York, where I fancy he saw what induced him to hint once or twice at beginning with a suspension of arms, to which I turned a very deaf ear, well knowing that the season of winter is ours, and that much may be done by April next. I sincerely wish I had your sentiments on those heads. I shall propose them to the consideration of Congress as soon as the most urgent affairs are over. I think they merit it." The original of Lynch's letter is in the Washington Papers.

       On February 5 Drummond again wrote to Robertson and sent his letter to Lynch, Lynch forwarded it to Washington, who forwarded it to Congress. This caused John Adams to comment caustically on the need of so doing in his Works (vol. 3, pp. 31 -- 33), written years later. The original letter is in the Washington Papers.

       An account of the attempted negotiations is in Sparks's Writings of Washington, vol. 3, P. 525. ]


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    best, his conduct in this Instance is premature, and Officious, and leading to consequences of a fatal and Injurious nature to the rights of this Country. His Zeal and desire perhaps of an amicable and constitutional adjustment's taking place, may have suggested and precipitated the measure; Be that as It may, I thought it of too much Importance to suffer It to go in, without having the express direction of Congress for that purpose, and that It was my Indispensable duty to transmit them the Original, to make such Interpretations and Inferences as they may think right.

        Messrs. Willard and Child, who were sent to Nova Scotia, in pursuance of the resolve of Congress, have just returned and made their report, which I do myself the honor to inclose you. They have not answered the purposes of their commission by any means, as they only went but a little way into that country, and found their Intelligence, upon the Information of others. You will see the reasons they Assign in excuse or Justification of their conduct, in the report itself.

        Last night a party of Regulars, said to be about 500, landed on Dorchester Neck and burnt some of the Houses there, which were of no value to us, nor would they have been, unless we take post there, they then might have been of some service. A Detachment went after them, as soon as the fire was discovered,


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    but before it could arrive, they had executed their plan and made their retreat. 94

    [Note:In describing this adventure, General Howe wrote to Lord Dartmouth that it being understood the enemy intended to take possession of Dorchester Point, or Neck, a detachment was ordered from Castle William under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Leslie, and another of grenadiers and light infantry commanded by Major Musgrave, with directions to pass over the ice and destroy every house and every kind of cover on the peninsula. This was done, and six of the guards taken prisoners. -- Sparks. ]

        Inclosed is a Letter for David Franks Esq. from Mr. Chainier in Boston, upon the Subject of Victualling such of the Kings Troops, as may be prisoners within the limits of his contract, which I beg the favor of you to deliver him, and that proper Agents may be appointed by him to see that It is done. I could wish too, that Congress would fall upon some mode for supplying the Officers with such Money as they may really stand in need of, and depute proper persons for that purpose, and furnishing the privates with such clothing as may be absolutely necessary; I am applied to and wearied by their repeated requests. In some Instances I have desired the Committees to give the prisoners within their Appointments what they should Judge absolutely necessary for their support, as the only means in my power of relieving their distress. But I imagine that If there were persons to superintend this Business, that their wants would be better attended to, and many exorbitant charges prevented and saved to the Continent and the whole would be then brought into a proper account. I am, Sir, etc.

        P.S. I send a Return of the Strength of the Regiments. 95

    [Note:In the writing of Robert Hanson Harrison, but the postscript has been added by Washington. ]

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, February 25, 1776.

        Parole Fitzwilliams. Countersign Archer.

        The Regiments upon the New Establishment, and the Regiments of Militia, lately arrived at Cambridge and Roxbury; to


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    deliver to the Brigade Majors they respectively belong to, at Orderly time on Saturday, an exact Return of their members, according to the form the Adjutant General has this day given to each of the Brigade Majors.

        Such of the Regiments as are in want of Leather Shot-bags with Straps, to hold Ball and Buck-Shot, may have them by applying to the Adjutant-General; it is intended that every Non-Commissioned Officer and Soldier be supplied.

    To GOVERNOR JONATHAN TRUMBULL Cambridge, February 15, 1776.

        Sir: Your favor of the 12th Instant I received, and beg leave to inform you, that I should have most certainly contrived, to have spared you some Money for the Troops going to Canada, pressing as the demands against me were, had I not been advised of the supply sent you by Congress for that purpose.

        I shall be glad to know, whether, when I pay the Militia from your Government, I am to give Warrants only for the ballance, after deducting the three Dollars pr Man advanced by your Committee of pay Table, and whether I am to refund what they paid, after the Militia have served the time they are engaged for. the whole of them are not yet come in, but I imagine it will not belong first.

        I am much obliged and return you my sincere thanks, for ordering the Powder from Providence to this Camp, in this Time of necessity, and will most chearfully pay for it, or replace it, when in my power, as shall be most agreeable to you; And also for the Arms you are good enough to promise to send me as they are exceedingly wanted. I wish you could have added a Cypher or two to the Number.

        I had received almost a Similar Letter from General Lee, to the one you have favored me with, before yours came to hand;


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    and also heard of the arrival of Powder, Salt Petre and Arms at Philadelphia. My Accounts, only make the Powder 15 Tons, be that as it may, It is an event of much Importance to us, and I hope will be soon followed by more. I am &c.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, February 16, 1776.

        Parole Cholmondly. Countersign King.

        The Congress have been pleased to appoint Joseph Fry Esqr. a Brigadier General in the Continental Army; he is to be obeyed as such and his Excellency the General orders that he shall take the command of the vacant Brigade commonly called the Cambridge Brigade.

        All the Regiments are immediately to be compleated, to Twenty-four rounds of Ammunition a man, the Colonel, or commanding Officer of each, is to pass his receipt to the Commissary for the Cartridges, or Powder and Lead necessary, to do this; and to take receipts from their several Captains, for the total quantity in each company. The Captains are to do the like from each of their Men, who are to account satisfactorily, for every load they have passed their receipt for, or pay Four-pence for each difficient. The Colonels, or Commanding Officer of Regiments are to take especial Care that this Order is strictly complied with, that those Fines are charged without fail to the delinquent Soldiers, and credit given for them in making out the pay-Abstracts. This Order is to be read to, and impress'd upon the minds of every man by their Officers.

        The General is surprised to find the Militia applying for Cartouch Boxes and other Accoutrements, when he had not a doubt, but they would have come compleatly equipt -- As the ease however is otherwise, he directs that they should be served with Powder-horns and Shot pouches, in lieu of Cartouch


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    Boxes, and that every thing which is delivered to them be charged to the Regiment that received it, that it may be redelivered, or paid for at the expiration of the term for which they stand engaged, and to this the Qr. Mr. Genl. and Commissary of Stores, are to give particular Attention, without further direction upon this head.

        The intrenching Tools of every kind, are to be carefully look'd up, and put in good order: The Qr. Mr. Genl. is to give proper directions upon this head, no time is to be lost in the doing of it.

        To prevent any mistakes, or impositions, in the purchasing of Arms; the Colonels are immediately to have the several Arms belonging to their respective Regiments, branded with the number of the Regiment, or stamp'd and mark'd in such a manner, as they may be known.

        Col Knox is to report the exact Number of Cannon Cartridges which are filled and ready for use, specifying the Sorts and sizes.

    *To THE PRESIDENT OF CONGRESS Cambridge, February 18, 1776.

        Sir: The late freezing Weather having formed some pretty strong Ice from Dorchester point to Boston neck, and from Roxbury to the Common, thereby affording a more expanded and consequently a less dangerous Approach to the Town, I could not help thinking, notwithstanding the Militia were not all come In, and we had little or no Powder to begin our Operation by a regular Cannonade and Bombardment, that a bold and resolute assault upon the Troops in Boston with such Men as we had (for it could not take many Men to guard our own Lines, at a time when the Enemy were attacked in all Quarters) might be crowned with success; and therefore, seeing


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    no certain prospect of a supply of Powder on the one hand, and a certain dissolution of the Ice on the other, I called the General Officers together for their opinion (agreeable to the Resolve of Congress of the 22d of December).

        The Result will appear in the Inclosed Council of War, 96 and being almost unanimous, I must suppose to be right although, from a thorough conviction of the necessity of attempting something against the Ministerial Troops, before a Reinforcement should arrive and while we were favour'd with the Ice, I was not only ready, but willing and desirous of making the Assault; under a firm hope, if the Men would have stood by me, of a favourable Issue, notwithstanding the Enemy's advantage of Ground Artillery, &ca.

    [Note:In the council of war (February 16) Washington advanced his reasons for an assault on Boston: That the American force fit for duty was 8,797; that 1,405 additional troops on command could join at once; that the British force fit for duty was not above 5,000; that there was not enough powder for cannon, so small arms must be relied upon; that merely to bombard would only damage the town and not injure the British, who could withdraw to their ships; "that a stroke well aim'd at this critical juncture might put a final end to the War and restore Peace and tranquility so much to be wished for;" and that as the bay and rivers being frozen an easy entry into Boston was possible. The council judged an assault improper. ]

        Perhaps the Irksomeness of my situation, may have given different Ideas to me, than those which Influenced the Gentlemen I consulted, and might have inclin'd me to put more to the hazard than was consistent with prudence. If it had, I am not sensible of it, as I endeavourd to give it all the consideration that a matter of such Importance required. -- True it is, and I cannot help acknowledging, that I have many disagreeable Sensations, on Acct. of my Situation; for to have the Eyes of the whole Continent fixed, with anxious expectation of hearing of some great event, and to be restrain'd in every Military Operation for want of the necessary means of carrying it on, is not very pleasing; especially, as the means used to conceal my weakness from the Enemy conceals it also from our friends and adds to their Wonder.


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        I do not utter this by way of Complaint. I am sensible that all that the Congress could do, they have done, and I should feel, most powerfully, the weight of conscious Ingratitude were I not to acknowledge this; but as we have Accounts of the arrival of Powder in Capt'n. Mason, I would beg to have it sent on in the most expeditious manner, otherwise we not only loose all chance of the Benefits resulting from the Season, but of the Militia which are brought in at a most Inormous expence, upon a presumption that we should long e're this have been amply supplied with Powder under the contracts enter'd into with the Committee of Congress.

        The Militia, contrary to an express requisition, are come, and coming in without ammunition; to supply them alone, with 24 Rounds, which is less by ⅗th than the Regulars are served with, will take between fifty and 60 Barrels of Powder; and to compleat the other Troops to the like quantity will take near as much more, and leave in store not more than about 60 Barrels, besides a few rounds of Cannon Cartridges ready filled for use.

        This Sir, Congress may be assured is a true state of Powder and will I hope bear some Testimony of my Incapacity for Action, in such away as may do any essential Service.

        February 25th.

        When I began this Letter I proposed to have sent it by Express, but recollecting that all my late Letters have been as expressive of my want of Powder and Arms as I could paint them, and that Mr. Hooper was to set of in a day or two, I thought it unnecessary to run the Continent to the expence of an Express merely to repeat what I had so often done, before when I am certain that Congress knowing our necessities will delay no time, that can possibly be avoided, in supplying them.


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        My Duty is offered to Congress and with great respect and esteem, I have the honour etc.

        P.S. hearing of the arrival of a small parcel of Powder in Connecticut I have been able to obtain 3000 Weight of it, which is in addition to the 60 Barls before mentioned.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, February 19, 1776.

        Parole Ponsonby. Countersign Abington.

        A General Court Martial to sit to morrow morning at eleven, at Pomeroys Tavern, in Cambridge to try such prisoners as shall be brought before them, all Evidences and Persons concern'd to attend the court.

    To GOVERNOR JONATHAN TRUMBULL Cambridge, February 19, 1776.

        Sir: I am grieved to find, that instead of Six or eight thousand weight of Powder, which I fondly expected to receive from Providence (agreeable to your Letter), that I am likely to get only 4217 lb, Including the 3000 Weight belonging to this Province (If to be had). My situation in respect to this Article, is really distressing, and while common prudence obliges me to keep my want of it concealed, to avoid a discovery thereof to the Enemy; I feel the bad effect of that concealment from our friends, For not believing our distress equal to what it really is they withhold such small supplies as are in their power to give; I am so restrained in all my Military movements, for want of these necessary supplies, that it is impossible to undertake anything effectual; and whilst I am fretting, at my own disagreeable situation, the World I suppose is not behind hand in censuring my inactivity. A Golden Opportunity has been


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    lost, perhaps not to be acquired again, this year. The late freezing weather had formed some pretty strong Ice from Dorchester to Boston Neck, and from Roxbury to the Common; which would have afforded a less dangerous approach to the Town, than through the Lines, or by water. The advantage of this, added to a thorough conviction of the Importance of destroying the Ministerial Troops in Boston, before they can be reinforced, and to a belief that a bold and resolute Assault, aided in some small degree by Artillery and Mortars, might be crowned with Success; I proposed the Attempt a day or two ago to the General Officers, but they thought, and perhaps rightly, that' such an Enterprize in our present weak State of Men (for the Militia are not yet all arrived) and deficiency of Powder, would be attended with too much hazard, and therefore that we had better wait the arrival of the last, and then to begin a Bombardment in earnest.

        This matter is mentioned to you in confidence; -- your zeal, activity and Attachment to the cause, renders it unnecessary to conceal it from you, or our real stock of Powder; which after furnishing the Militia (unfortunately coming in without, and will require upwards of 50 Barrels and compleating our other Troops to 24 Rounds a Man; which are less by one half than the Regulars have, and having a few Rounds of Cannon Cartridges fitted for immediate use, will leave us not more than 100 Barrels in store, for the greatest emergency, Inclusive of the 4217 lb from Providence, If we get it.

        This my Dear Sir, is Melancholy! But it is a truth, and at the same time, that it may serve to convey, some Idea of my disagreeable feelings under a knowledge of It, will evince the necessity of Vigorous exertions, to throw without delay, every ounce that can be procured, into this Camp; otherwise the great expence of sending in the Militia will be intirely sunk,


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    without any possible good resulting from it, but much evil, as they will contribute not a little to the consumption of our Amunition &c &c.

        For want perhaps of better Information, I cannot help giving it as my opinion, that at a time when our Military Operations are intirely at a stand, for want of Powder principally and Arms; It is inconsistent with good policy, to hoard up Town Stocks of either; better it is, to fight an Enemy at a distance, than at one's door. Prudence indeed points out the expediency of providing for private as well as Public Exigencies; But if both are not to be done, I should think there can be no hesitation in the Choice; as the Army now raised and supported at a Considerable expence, can be of little use, if it is not sufficient to prevent an Enemy from disturbing the quiet of the interior Towns of these Governments. I am &c.

    *To BRIGADIER GENERAL JOHN SULLIVAN Cambridge, February 19, 1776.

        Dr. Sir: I am a little surprizd, and concern'd to hear of your Moving to Colo. Royals House. I thought you knew, that I had made a point of bringing General Lee from thence on Acct. of the distance from his Line of Command, at least that he should not Sleep there. The same reasons holding good with respect to yourself, I should be glad if you could get some place nearer, as I think it too hazardous to trust the left Wing of our Army without a General Officer upon the spot in cases of immergency. I do not wish you to return to your old House, any other tolerably convenient will satisfy me, and I am sure be pleasing to yourself, as I know you would not easily forgive yourself if anything wrong shd. happen for want of your presence on any sudden call. I am etc.


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    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, February 20, 1776.

        Parole Manchester. Countersign Boyle.

        As it is necessary that every Regiment should be furnished with Colours, and that those Colours should, if it can be done, bear some kind of similitude to the Uniform of the regiment to which they belong, the Colonels with their respective Brigadiers and the Qt. Mr. Genl. may fix upon such as are proper, and can be procured. -- There must be to each Regiment, the Standard (or Regimental Colours) and Colours for each Grand Division, the whole to be small and light -- The Number of the Regiment is to be mark'd on the Colours, and such a Motto, as the Colonel may choose, in fixing upon which, the General advises a Consultation amongst them.

        The Colonels are to delay no time, in getting this matter fix'd, that the Qr. Mr. Genl. may provide the Colours as soon as possible; they are also to consider what Camp Equipage may be further necessary, that no time may be lost in providing it, as the season is fast approaching for taking the field.

        The Genl. cannot again help urging it in the strongest terms to the Colonels the necessity of the strictest attention to the discipline of their Men -- learning them to march and perform all the different Evolutions and Manoevures; which is of more essential service, than dwelling too long upon the Manual Exercise -- He also recommends to the Colonels a proper attention to the Cloathing of their Officers and Men, that they may appear in a soldierlike manner.

        The General desires that the Brigadiers, who have not complied with the Orders of the 6th Instant concerning the Ammunition; and that of the 7th respecting the Arrangement of Chaplains; may be informed, that he expects an immediate report from them.


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    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, February 21, 1776.

        Parole Devonshire. Countersign Grafton.

        The General being anxious to have the established Regiments, compleated, with all possible expedition, desires the Colonels, and commanding Officers, forthwith to send an Officer from each incompleat Company, into the Country, upon the recruiting service; who are expressly forbid enlisting any Boys -- Old Men -- or Slaves: -- These Officers are also to use their best endeavour, to get what good Arms they can -- The Recruiting in Camp, is also to be continued --

        The Colonels, and Commanding Officers of Regiments; are to send to the Qr. Mr. General, to morrow Morning, the names of the Sutlers licensed by them, to supply their respective Corps.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, February 22, 1776.

        Parole Scarborough. Countersign Exeter.

        John English of Capt. Watermans Company, in Col Arnolds Regiment, tried at a late Genl. Court Martial for "absenting himself from his Regiment, and inlisting in Col Varnums Regiment" -- The Court were unanimously of opinion that the prisoner is guilty of the crimes whereof he was accused, and adjudge him to receive Ten Lashes on the bare back, and order the advance pay due to him in Col Arnolds Regiment, to be paid the Officer, who gave him the advance pay, in Col Varnums Regiment.

        The General approves the sentence, and orders it to be put in execution, at Guard-mounting, to morrow.

        The Brigadiers Genl., with their Majors of Brigade, the Colonel of Artillery -- The Qr. Master General, with the Barrack


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    Master, of the four Brigades in the Cambridge Department, to be at Head Quarters to morrow morning, at Ten O'Clock.

    To GOVERNOR JONATHAN TRUMBULL Cambridge, February 22, 1776. 97

    [Note:On this day Washington wrote a short note to Maj. Gen. Charles Lee advising him of the nonreceipt of any letter, and that "I need not mention my Impatience to hear from you, and beg that you will write me by every Opportunity." The "Letter Book" copy is in the Washington Papers. ]

        Sir: In my Letter to you of the 19th Inst., I mentioned that I was sorry to find, that there would come but 4217 lb. of Powder instead of 6 or 8000. I had expectations of. I had taken my Information from Governor Cooke's Letter, which upon a reperusal, I find mentions that weight including the Casks. I have since had it weighed by the Commissary an exact return of which you have inclosed, by which you will see that the Neat weight is 3577 pounds. 577 Pounds thereof will be placed to the Credit of your Colony, and the whole settled for in whatever Manner will be most agreeable.

        I have just received a Letter from John Huntington Esq, with the agreeable account, of his having forwarded two Tons of Powder to this Camp, by your order. Accept Sir, of my thanks for this seasonable supply; when it arrives I shall send you an Account of it, and when you point out the Mode, it shall be paid for or replaced in the Manner you and the rest of your Legislature shall think proper. I have nothing now at present to communicate to you from hence, but you may be assured that, I am etc.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, February 23, 1776.

        Parole Canterbury. Countersign St. Asaph.

        Lieut. Thos. Cummings tried at a Genl. Court Martial for "behaving in a scandalous and infamous manner, unbecoming


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    the Character of an Officer and Gentleman" -- is sentenced to be cashiered -- The General approves the sentence and orders it to take place immediately --

        The General also confirms the sentence upon James McCormick of Capt. Farrington's Company, in Col. Sergeants Regiment, and commands the execution of it, at the discretion of his Colonel.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, February 24, 1776.

        Parole Hopkins. Countersign Alfred.

        The General having the Credit of this Army, much at heart, and anxious that it should not only behave well, but look well; recommends it to, and does expect that, every Officer from the highest to the lowest, doth exert himself to accomplish those ends; to attain which, the Brigadiers are desired to be attentive to every matter, and thing, relative to their Brigades, and when Orders are not, or cannot be complied with, immediately to report the reason thereof.

        >From henceforward it is expected, that the Weekly Returns of every Regiment will, before they are brought in to the Commander in Chief, be examined and certified by the Brigadier, to whose brigade they respectively belong, who is also to direct his Major of Brigade, to keep a Book, and have them regularly enter'd, always comparing the Return to be made, with the one preceding, and enquiring minutely into the Cause of every Change, or Alteration from the last. -- The Colonel, or Commanding Officer of every Regiment is to observe the same Conduct with respect to the Returns of his Companies, and keep a Book for the regular entry thereof -- These precautions are taken to prevent the many Blunders and Mistakes, which have heretofore happen'd in making out the Pay Abstracts, all of which, for the future, are to be inspected by the Brigadiers,


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    compared with their books, and certified by them; before a Warrant will be granted -- A very strict attention will be expected to this Order, for if these books are called for, and do not correspond with this order, the Officer neglecting will meet with no favour.

        The Commanding Officer of each Regiment, may apply for a Warrant for Five-hundred Dollars, to put into the hands of such Officers, as they send into the Country, On the recruiting Service, to buy Arms; these Officers are in an especial manner charged to purchase no Arms, but such as are good, and fit for immediate Use -- Kings Musquets, or Guns as near that quality as can be had, should be got, and with Bayonets, if possible -- As there is a Committee in each of the Counties, of the Massachusetts-Bay, appointed by the General Court, to purchase Arms for this Army, the Officers are to take care, not to raise the price, by bidding against each other.

        Mark Noble of Capt. Noble's Company in Col. Patterson's Regiment tried by a late General Court Martial, whereof Col Phinney was President for "Desertion" is found guilty and sentenced to receive Fifteen Lashes upon his bare back and mulcted one Month's pay, to defray the expence of apprehending and bringing the Prisoner to Camp -- The General approves the Sentence, and commands the execution of it, at such time and place, as the Colonel of the Regiment shall direct.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, February 25, 1776.

        Parole Virginia. Countersign Norfolk.

        It being a matter of too much importance, to intrust the Wounds and Lives of Officers, and Soldiers, to unskilful Surgeons; The General requests the Director General, and the Surgeons of the Hospital, taking also to their assistance, such


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    Regimental Surgeons, as upon examination they approve of; will sit and examine, the Surgeons, and Mates, of the whole Army, and give Certificates to those who are found qualified to discharge the Duties of their Office, in Order that they may receive Commissions -- Gentlemen of candour, and knowledge, in their profession, will see the utility of this measure, and approve of it; none but those who are conscious of their inability will decline the examination. --

        The Surgeon of every Regiment, is immediately to report, to the Director General of the Hospital, in what manner he, and his mate, are at present furnished with Instruments, Medicines, Bandages &c. That the true State and Condition, may be known. -- The first Court of examination will sit on Tuesday next, at the convalescent Hospital, in Cambridge, at eleven in the forenoon, at which all the Surgeons and their Mates, of Genl. Sullivans Brigade are to attend.

    To MAJOR GENERAL PHILIP SCHUYLER Cambridge, February 25, 1776.

        Dear Sir: Notwithstanding I have adopted every Measure which my Judgement directed for procuring Arms in these Governments for the Army under my Command, as well by Applications to the several Assemblies and Conventions, as by sending Officers to the several Towns to purchase; I am under the disagreeable and melancholy Necessity of informing you that there is at this important Crisis, a very great Deficiency, and that there is now a considerable Number of Men at these Encampments without any in their Hands; nor do I know that there is any Prospect or Probability of providing them. Can you, my dear Sir, assist me with any from your Parts? If you can procure or purchase any in the Towns fit for Use, I beg that you will do it and have them forwarded with all possible Expedition to me. I will pay for them immediately on Delivery


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    and the Charges of bringing them. I am told that a Major Duncan at Schenectady has about 300 Kings Arms. These, or such of them as are good and serviceable, will be of great Use, and I doubt not may be readily procured. If they can, I request that they may, and be forwarded with any others that you may get, with the Price. I would not be thus pressing, and thus importunate were it not for my situation, which is truly alarming and distressing: to be within Musquet Shot of a formidable Army, well provided with every Necessary, without having the Means on my Part of Maintaining even a defensive War.

        Relying on your Friendship, and that every Thing in your Power will be done to serve me, I shall only add, that I am, Dear Sir etc.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, February 26, 1776.

        Parole New York. Countersign Lee.

        The Commanding Officers of Regiments are immediately to order all the Axes -- Pick-axes -- Spades -- Shovels, and other intrenching Tools, now in their possession, to be forthwith sent to the Qr. Master General's Store in Cambridge.

        All Officers, non-commissioned Officers and Soldiers are positively forbid playing at Cards, and other Games of Chance. At this time of public distress, men may find enough to do in the service of their God, and their Country, without abandoning themselves to vice and immorality.

    To JOSEPH REED Cambridge, February 26, 1776.

        Dear Sir: A line or two from you by Colonal Bull, 98 which came to hand last evening, is the only letter I have received from you since the 21st January; this, added to my getting none

    [Note:Col. John Bull had recently resigned the colonelcy of the First Pennsylvania Battalion. He, later, became colonel of a Pennsylvania State regiment and was adjutant general of the State from 1777 to the close of the war. ]

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    from any other correspondent southward, leads me to apprehend some miscarriage. I am to observe, though, that the Saturday's post is not yet arrived, by that I may possibly get letters. We have, under as many difficulties, perhaps, (on account of hard frozen ground,) as ever working parties engaged, completed our work on Letchmore's Point; we have got some heavy pieces of ordinance placed there, two platforms fixed for mortars, and everything but the thing ready for any offensive operation. Strong guards are now mounted there, and at Cobble Hill. About ten days ago, the severe freezing weather formed some pretty strong ice from Dorchester to Boston Neck, and from Roxbury to the Common. This I thought (knowing the ice could not last) a favourable opportunity to make an assault upon the troops in town. I proposed it in council; but, behold! though we had been waiting all the year for this favourable event, the enterprise was thought too dangerous! Perhaps it was, perhaps the irksomeness of my situation led me to undertake more than could be warranted by prudence. I did not think so, and am sure yet that the enterprise, if it had been undertaken with resolution, must have succeeded; without it any would fail: but it is now at an end, and I am preparing to take post on Dorchester, to try if the enemy will be so kind as to come out to us. Ten regiments of militia, you must know, had come in to strengthen my hands for offensive measures; but what I have here said respecting the determination in council, and possessing of Dorchester Point, is spoken under the rose. 99

    [Note:From Reed's Life and Correspondence of Joseph Reed. ]

    To THE PRESIDENT OF CONGRESS Cambridge, February 26, 1776.

        Sir: I had the honor of addressing you on the 18th. and 25th. Instant, by Mr. Hooper, since which nothing material has occurred.


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        We are making every necessary preparation for taking possession of Dorchester Heights, as soon as possible, with a view of drawing the Enemy out. How far our expectations may be answered, Time can only determine: But I should think, If any thing will induce them to hazard an engagement, It will be our attempting to fortify these Heights, as on that Event's taking place, we shall be able to command a great part of the Town and almost the whole Harbour and to make them rather disagreeable than otherwise, provided we can get a sufficient supply of what we greatly want.

        Within three or four days, I have received sundry Accounts from Boston of such movements there, such as taking the Mortars from Bunker's Hill, the putting them with several pieces of heavy Ordinance on board of Ships, with a quantity of Bedding: the Ships all taking in Water, the baking a large Quantity of Biscuits &ca, as to indicate an embarkation of the Troops from thence. A Mr. Ides, who came out yesterday, says that the Inhabitants of the Town generally believe that they are about to remove either to New York or Virginia, and that every Vessel in the Harbour on Tuesday last was taken up for Government Service, and two month's pay advanced to them. Whether they really intend to embark, or whether the whole is a feint, is impossible for me to tell: However I have thought it expedient to send an express to General Lee to Inform him of it, in order that he may not be taken by surprize, If their destination should be against New York, and continued him on to you.

        If they do embark, I think the possessing themselves of that place and the North River, is the Object they have in view, thereby securing the communication with Canada, and rendering the Intercourse between the northern and Southern United Colonies exceedingly precarious and diffcult. To prevent them from effecting their plan is a Matter of the highest Importance,


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    and will require a large and respectable Army, and the most vigilant and judicious exertions.

        Since I wrote by Mr. Hooper, 1 some small parcels of Powder have arrived from Connecticut, which will give us a little assistance.

    [Note:William Hooper, Delegate from North Carolina to the Continental Congress. ]

        On Thursday night, a party of our Men at Roxbury made the Enemy's out Sentries, consisting of a Corporal and two Privates, Prisoners, without firing a Gun or giving the least Alarm.

        I shall be as attentive to the Enemies motions as I can, and obtain all the Intelligence in my power, and if I find 'em embark, shall in the most expeditious manner detach a part of the light Troops to New York and repair thither myself, If circumstances shall require It. I shall be better able to Judge what to do, when the Matter happens; at present I can only say, that I will do every thing that shall appear proper and necessary.

        Your Letter of the 12th. Instant, by Col. Bull came to hand Yesterday evening, and shall agreeable to your recommendation pay proper Notice to him. The supply of cash came very seasonably, as our Treasure was just exhausted, and nothing can be done here without it. I have the Honor etc.

        P.S. This Letter was intended to have been sent by Express but meeting with a private Conveyance the Express was Countermanded. 2

    [Note:In the writing of Robert Hanson Harrison. Unsigned. ]

    To THE MASSACHUSETTS LEGISLATURE Cambridge, February 26, 1776.

        Genl: As I am making all possible preparation to take possession of the Heights of Dorchester (which I expect I shall be able to accomplish by the latter end of this Week). It is


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    expected that this, if any thing can, will bring the Enemy out of Boston to oppose, as at Charlestown, our Erecting any Works there. -- To weaken our Lines on the North side of Cambridge River, to strengthen those of Dorchester, before any movement is made that way by the Enemy, may neither be consistent with prudence or good policy, and to delay it till after an Attack is begun would be too late, as the Contest will soon be decided for or against us after this happens.

        Under this state of the Matter and to avoid putting an affair of so much Importance to a doubtful Issue, when under Providence, it may be reduced to a certainty; I submit it to the Wisdom of your Board; whether it might not be best to direct the Militia of certain Towns most contigeous to Dorchester and Roxbury, to repair to the Lines at those places with their Arms, Ammunition and Accourtrements instantly upon a Signal given.

        If you approve of this, you will please to fix with General Thomas (who waits on you for that purpose) upon the Signal to be given and Issue your Notices Accordingly. I have the honor etc.

    To MAJOR GENERAL CHARLES LEE Cambridge, February 26, 1776.

        Dear Sir: I received your esteem'd Favour of the 14th. Inst., which gave me great Pleasure, being impatient to hear from you. I rejoice to find, that you are getting better, and could not avoid laughing at Captain Parker's Reasons for not putting his repeated Threats into Execution. 3

    [Note:General Lee had written (February 14): "The Governor, and the Captain of [a] Man of War, had threatened perdition to the Town, if the Cannon was removed from the Batteries and wharfs; but I ever considered their threats as a Brutum fulmen, and even perswaded the Town to be of the same way of thanking. We accordingly conveyd them to a place of safety in the middle of the day, and no cannonade ensued. Capt. Parker publishes a pleasant reason for his passive conduct. He says that it was manifestly nay intention, and that of the N. England men under my command, to bring destruction on this Town, so hated for their loyal principles, but that He was determin'd not to indulge us; so remained quiet out of spite. The people here laugh at his nonsenses, and begin to despise the menaces, which formerly us'd to throw 'em into convulsions. To do 'em justice, the whole shew a wonderful alacrity; and, in removing the Cannon, Men and Boys of all ages work'd with the greatest zeal and pleasure. I really believe that the generallity are as well affected as any on the Continent." This letter is in the Washington Papers.

       Governor Tryon, however, explained to Lord George Germain (April 6) that on account of the ice Capt. [Hyde] Parker could not bring his ships' guns to bear on the places where the artillery and stores lay and if he opened fire he could only destroy the town. "The destruction, therefore, of the city where there were so many friends to government, with the loss of all their property and the consideration of preserving the town for the king's army, were thought to be too great sacrifices to make for only retarding the removal of the artillery and stores." ]


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        I take Notice of your intended Dispositions for Defence, which I request you will loose no Time in putting into Execution as, from many corroborating Accounts I have received, the Enemy seem to prepare for their Departure from Boston. They have removed the two Mortars from Bunker's Hill, and carried them, with a great Part of their heavy brass Cannon on Board their Ships. They have taken all the Topsail Vessels in the Harbour, into the Service. They are ready watered, and their Sails bent. All this Shew, may be but a Feint, but if real, and they should come your Way, I wish you may be prepared to receive them. If I find that they are in Earnest and do go off, I will immediately send you a Reinforcement from this Camp, and if necessary, march the main Body to your Assistance, as Circumstances may require. I shall keep a good Watch on their Motions, and give you the speediest Information possible.

        Leechmore's Point is now very strong; I am sending some heavy Cannon thither; The Platform for a Mortar is preparing to be placed in the Works there; another at Lambsdam, and we are making the necessary Dispositions to possess ourselves of Dorchester Hill, which must bring them on, if any Thing will. If they do not interrupt us in that Work, I shall be confirmed in my Opinion, that they mean to leave the Town. A little Time must now determine whether they are resolved


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    to maintain their present Ground, or look out for another Post. I will now return to your Letter.

        The Account you give of our New York Brethren is very satisfactory. I should be glad to know how many Men you are likely to have, that you can depend upon remaining with you. I very much fear, that the Sailing of Clinton, will keep back those you expected from Pensylvania. Let me hear from you upon this and every Thing else that concerns you, as soon and as often as you possibly can.

        I shall pay due Attention to your Recommendations of Captain Smith and Captain Badlain. 4

    [Note:Probably Capt. Robert Smith, of the New York Militia, and Capt. Ezra Badlain, of the Artillery. ]

        With Respect to the Canada Expedition, I assure you, that it was not my Intention, to propose your going there; I only meant, what I thought would happen, that the Congress would make you that Proposal. I am now of Opinion, that you will have Work enough upon your Hands where you are; and I make no Doubt but your Presence will be as necessary there, as it would be in Canada. 5 I am glad that Colonel Ritzema 6 is gone to Congress and hope they will expedite an Army thither, not only to preserve what we have already got; but also to possess ourselves of Quebec before it can be reinforced from Europe or elsewhere. It is an Object of such vast Importance, that

    [Note:By a resolve of Congress (February 17), General Lee was ordered to take command in Canada, and General Schuyler to take his place in New York. But "from an undoubted authority that it [the south] will be a principal scene of action," this arrangement was changed before it was carried into effect. On February 27 Congress formed what were called the middle and southern military departments, the former consisting of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Maryland, and the latter of Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. General Lee was directed (March 1) to take command of the Southern Department, and left New York on the 7th, in compliance with that order. Six brigadiers -- John Armstrong, William Thompson, Andrew Lewis, Robert Howe, Lord Stirling, and James Moore -- were appointed the same day, of whom four -- Armstrong, Lewis, Howe, and Moore -- were likewise ordered to that department. -- Ford. ]
    [Note:Col. Rudolphus Ritzema, of New York. ]

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    it will be Madness not to strain every Sinew, for effecting that Purpose.

        I am in some Pain for our little Fleet, as I am informed that the Asia and Phoenix have sailed in Quest of them. You doubtless had good Reasons for the Appointment you mention to have made; 7 As it is temporary, it can have no bad Effect. I am etc.

    [Note:In General Lee's letter (February 14) he had said: "You must pardon me for a liberty I have taken. You know that [Isaac] Sears was to collect our volunteers in Connecticut, but he thought he could not succeed, unless he had some nominal office and rank. I accordingly most impudently, by virtue of the power deputed by you to me (which power you never deputed), appointed him adjutant general, with the rank of lieutenant colonel, for the expedition. It can have no bad consequences. The man was much tickled, and it added spurs to his hat. He is a creature of much spirit and public virtue, and ought to have his back clapped." ]

    *To MAJOR GENERAL ARTEMAS WARD Cambridge, February 27, 1776.

        Sir: We were falsely alarmed a while ago with an Acct. of the Regulars coming over from the Castle to Dorchester. Mr. Baylor 8 whom I immediately sent of is just returnd with a contradiction of it. But as a rascally Riffle man went in last Night and will no doubt give all the Intelligence he can, wd. it not be prudent to keep Six or Eight trusty men by way of Look outs or Patrols tonight on the point next the Castle as well as on Nuke Hill. 9 At the same time ordering particular Regimts to be ready to March at a Moments warning to the Heights of Dorchester; For should the Enemy get Possession of those Hills before us they would render it a difficult task to dispossess them; better it is therefore to prevent than to remedy an evil. I am, etc. 10

    [Note:George Baylor, He was lieutenant colonel and aide-de-camp to Washington. As colonel of the Third Continental Dragoons (Jan. 9, 1777) his command was surprised and he was taken prisoner at Tappan, N. Y., Sept. 17, 1778; colonel First Continental Dragoons, November, 1782; brevet brigadier general at close of war. ]
    [Note:Nooks Hill. ]
    [Note:The text was obtained through Dr. Charles Moore from Mrs. A. B. White, of Parkersburg, W. Va. ]

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    GENERAL ORDER Head Quarters, Cambridge, February 27, 1776.

        Parole Hancock. Countersign Adams.

        As the Season is now fast approaching, when every man must expect to be drawn into the Field of action, it is highly necessary that he should prepare his mind, as well as every thing necessary for it. It is a noble Cause we are engaged in, it is the Cause of virtue, and mankind, every temporal advantage and comfort to us, and our posterity, depends upon the Vigour of our exertions; in short, Freedom, or Slavery must be the result of our conduct, there can therefore be no greater Inducement to men to behave well: -- But it may not be amiss for the Troops to know, that if any Man in action shall presume to skulk, hide himself, or retreat from the enemy, without the orders of his commanding Officer; he will be instantly shot down, as an example of cowardice; -- Cowards having too frequently disconcerted the best form'd Troops, by their dastardly behaviour.

        Next to the favour of divine providence, nothing is more essentially necessary to give this Army the victory over all its enemies, than Exactness of discipline, Alertness when on duty, and Cleanliness in their arms and persons; unless the Arms are kept clean, and in good firing Order, it is impossible to vanquish the enemy; and Cleanliness of the person gives health, and soldier-like appearance. -- That no confusion may ensue when the troops are called to action, the General has order'd all the posts, and guards of the lines, and redoubts, to be so fix'd and regulated, as every Officer, and Soldier, may know his place, and his duty; and to confirm the order and discipline, the General orders, that the Officers and men, who are to mount guard, do parade every morning at eight O'Clock, upon


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    their regimental parades, where they are to be reviewed by the Adjutant, in the presence of a Field Officer, who is to see that their arms, ammunition and accoutrements are compleat, and the men dress'd in a soldier-like manner -- The Adjutant is then to march them to the parade of the brigade, and deliver them over to the Major of brigade, who is very minutely to inspect the whole, and then march them to the Grand-Parade, where the Brigadier, with the Field Officers of the day, will attend, to see all the Guards paraded and march to their several destinations. With the Brigadier, will constantly mount, his Major of brigade, who is always to make up the Guards upon the grand parade, and report all extraordinaries to his Brigadier General. -- The Brigadier of the day, will give his orders to the Field Officers of the day, at what time he would have them to go the visiting, and grand Rounds; and half an hour before day, order all the guards to be under arms, and properly posted -- visit the out-posts -- see that the guards are properly placed, and that every thing is in good order, for defence, in case of an attack. All Officers commanding Guards, are to report to the Brigadier of the day, who is to report to the Commander in Chief. The Guards to be made up on the grand-parade are, Letchmore's point, Cobble-hill, plough'd-Hill, White-house, Main Guard on Prospect-hill, the South, North and middle Redoubts, Letchmore's point bridge, and the Main Guard for Cambridge, and Winter-hill -- All other Guards are to be sent from the Brigade-parades, (the Quarter Guard of the Regiments excepted) who are paraded on their regimental parades.

    To MAJOR GENERAL PHILIP SCHUYLER Cambridge, February 27, 1776.

        Dear Sir: Last Night I received your Favour of the 14th. Inst. by Mr. Bennett, including a general Return of the Artillery and military Stores in our Possession in Canada.


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        It gives me great Pleasure to hear you are improving in your Health; Before long, I most sincerely hope, you will be so recovered as to be able to go to the Army in Canada, where I am convinced you are much wanted, and would be of the highest Service at this important Crisis. I doubt not of there being a good Deal of Disorder and Confusion in that Quarter which, I flatter myself, would in a great Measure subside and be composed by your Presence. It is natural enough that Mr. Walker's 11 Resentment should be up for the Wrongs he has suffered. It is incident to Humanity; but yet the Passions of Individuals ought never to prevail so far as to injure the State.

    [Note:Thomas Walker. He had lent General Wooster money for the use of the army in Canada. ]

        I am sorry to find that the Quantity of Artillery and military Stores is so small and inconsiderable as appears by the Return. I had hoped that you were better provided with the former and also with much more Ammunition that you have; particularly Powder, and that the Distresses no where else were equal to mine, for Want of this capital Necessary. Would Fortune but give you Possession of Quebec, there would our Wants be mostly supplied. May she smile propitious, and your virtuous Struggles be crowned with Success. The Reduction of this Fortress would be attended with Consequences of the most happy and salutary Nature to our great Cause: and as General Arnold with a handful of Men has been able to maintain the Blockade I look forward with a pleasing Confidence, to the Day when you, being properly reinforced, will oblige it to surrender.

        We have just compleated a large and strong Work on Leechmores Point, opposite to New Boston, and are about to take Post on the Heights of Dorchester, with a View of drawing the Enemy out. These Heights will command a large Part of the Town, and almost the whole Harbour, and give us an


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    Opportunity of distressing the Enemy whenever we may be properly provided with Necessaries for carrying on a Cannonade and Bombardment. If any Thing will induce General Howe to risque an Engagement, it will be this. I am determined to do every Thing in my Power to bring on one, and that as soon as possible. How far my Views may be answered, Time must determine.

        When I sent Colonel Knox in Pursuit of Artillery I did not design that you should have been disfurnished. I only meant that he should have brought from Canada, such Ordinance as you could conveniently spare; but, from your Letter and the Return, I am led to think that you are in Want.

        I have been informed, that General Lee hath lately secured a large Number of heavy Cannon and Shot that were at New York; from whence, I imagine, you may get a Supply of what you want, which you cannot be supplied with elsewhere.

        If you will acquaint me, I will most readily give you every Assistance in my Power, and deem myself happy if I can contribute to releive your Necessities in any Manner. I am, Dear Sir, etc.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, February 28, 1776.

        Parole Harrison. Countersign Lynch.

        The commanding General at Roxbury, will as soon as possible, establish a detail of duty at that post, as similar to that in Yesterdays Orders, as the circumstances of his command will admit; which, when fix'd, is to be transmitted to the Commander in Chief, for his inspection and approbation.

        The Brigadier General to take special care, that all the regiments belonging to their respective brigades know their Alarm posts, that they may instantly repair to them in case of alarm.


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        As the guards are most of them increased, the Sentries are to be increased in proportion.

        A Communication must be made, and kept up, between post and post, that the rounds and patroles may pass conveniently in the night.

        As the roads are so extremely dirty, and the ground so unsettled, his Excellency orders the Guards, until further orders, to be paraded in the same manner, and upon the same parade, as they were this morning.

    To BURWELL BASSETT Cambridge, February 28, 1776.

        Dear Sir: It is with great pleasure I received your favor of the 27th. ult. thereby learning that all our friends at Eltham are well.

        I thank you heartily for the attention you have kindly paid to my landed affairs on the Ohio, my interest in which I shall be more careful of, as in the worst event they will Serve for an asylum.

        Few things of importance have occured here of late, and to trouble you with my own difficulties and the distresses which occur for want of such articles as are necessary in military operations, can answer no good purpose, and therefore I shall decline it.

        We are preparing to take possession of a post (which I hope to do in a few days if we can get provided with the means) which will, it is generally thought, bring on a rumpus between us and the enemy; but whether it will or not, time only can show. It is believed by many, that the troops are preparing for a removal from Boston; it being certain that they are watering and fitting up their vessels, for the reception of the crews and


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    have actually put some of their heavy ordnance on board; but whether this is for deception or to prepare against orders that may arrive, I know not.

        Mrs. Washington says that she has wrote all the news she could get (and ladies you know are never at a loss) to Mrs. Bassett, to her letter therefore I refer you, and with sincere regard for her, the children, Mr. and Mrs. Dandridge &c., I remain, etc. 12

    [Note:The text is from the Toner Transcripts in the Library of Congress. ]

    To PHILLIS WHEATLEY 13 Cambridge, February 28, 1776.

    [Note:Phillis Wheatley was born in Africa and brought to Boston in a slave ship in the year 1761, then between 7 and 8 years of age. She was purchased by Mr. Wheatley, but she soon developed qualities so interesting and peculiar that she was treated more as an inmate of the family than as a slave. She made extraordinary progress in acquiring the English language, and, without any advantage from schools, learned reading and writing and manifested the greatest eagerness for gleaning knowledge. Her taste inclined to poetry; she read and relished the best authors, and soon began to compose verses. Meantime the attention of the community was turned to so singular a phenomenon, and she was visited arid noticed by people of the first character. Her correspondence was sought, and it extended to persons of distinction even in England, among whom may be named the Countess of Huntingdon, Whitefield, and the Earl of Dartmouth. In 1773, when she was 19 years of age, a volume of her poems was published in London, some of which had been written five or six years. This volume is dedicated to the Countess of Huntingdon, and in the preface are the names of the Governor of Massachusetts and several other eminent gentlemen bearing testimony to their belief of her having been the genuine writer of the poems. In 1778 she married John Peters, a man of her own color, whom tradition reports to have been little qualified for conferring happiness on so gifted a companion. She died at Boston, Dec. 5, 1784, aged 31 years. Her poem to Washington was forwarded Oct. 26, 1775. A few lines are quoted to show the style:

       "Celestial choir! enthron'd in realms of light,
    Columbia's scenes of glorious toils I write.
    While freedom's cause her anxious breast alarms,
    She flashes dreadful in refulgent arms.

       * * * * *

       Muse! bow propitious while my pen relates
    How pour her armies through a thousand gates;
    And when Eolus heaven's fair face deforms,
    Enwrapp'd in tempest and a night of storms;
    Astonish'd ocean feels the wild uproar,
    The refluent surges beat the sounding shore;
    Or thick as leaves in autumn's golden reign,
    Such, and so many, moves the warrior's train.
    In bright array they seek the work of war,
    Shall I to Washington their praise recite?
    Enough thou know'st them in the field of fight,

       * * * * *

       Fix'd are the eyes of nations on the scales,
    For in their hopes Columbia's arm prevails.
    Anon Britannia droops the pensive head,
    While round increase the rising hills of dead.
    Ah! cruel blindness to Columbia's state!
    Lament thy thirst of boundless power too late.
    Proceed, great chief, with virtue on thy side,
    Thy ev'ry action let the goddess guide.
    A crown, a mansion, and a throne that shine,
    With gold unfading, Washington be thine."

        -- Pennsylvania Magazine, April, 1776. ]

        Mrs. Phillis: 14 Your favour of the 26th of October did not reach my hands 'till the middle of December. Time enough, you will say, to have given an answer ere this. Granted. But a variety of important occurrences, continually interposing to distract the mind and withdraw the attention, I hope will apologize for the delay, and plead my excuse for the seeming, but not real neglect.

    [Note:The text from which this letter is taken was copied in 1781, by which date it was known that Phillis had married. ]

        I thank you most sincerely for your polite notice of me, in the elegant Lines you enclosed; and however undeserving I may be of such encomium and panegyrick, the style and manner exhibit a striking proof of your great poetical Talents. In honour of which, and as a tribute justly due to you, I would have published the Poem, had I not been apprehensive, that, while I only meant to give the World this new instance of your


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    genius, I might have incurred the imputation of Vanity. This and nothing else, determined me not to give it place in the public Prints.

        If you should ever come to Cambridge, or near Head Quarters, I shall be happy to see a person so favoured by the Muses, and to whom Nature has been so liberal and beneficent in her dispensations. I am, with great Respect, etc.


    Page 362

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, February 29, 1776.

        Parole Franklin. Countersign Carrol.

        The commanding Officers of brigades are to order all the Spears, in the several posts, and redoubts, to be examined, clean'd and collected in the proper places, and make a Return of the number fit for service in each brigade, and where deposited.

        Ensign Andrew Brown of the 7th Regiment of Foot, tried at a late General Court Martial whereof Col. Phinney was President for "insulting and challenging his commanding Officer, Lieut. Col. Moulton" -- The Court were of Opinion, that the Prisoner was not guilty of the whole of the charge, but only of insulting Colonel Moulton; therefore adjudge him publicly to ask pardon of Lieut. Col. Moulton, for the affront -- The General approves the sentence, and orders the execution of it to be as soon as possible, and the prisoner then to be released from his arrest.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, March 2, 1776.

        Parole Neilson. Countersign Adams.

        Upon any Alarm Col Patterson's regiment, is immediately to repair to Letchmoore's point, leaving one Capt. two Subs., two Serjeants and fifty Rank and File, in the work leading to the bridge.

        Col Bond's Regiment is instantly to march to Cobble-hill; and Col Sergeants Regiment to the north, middle, and south redoubts -- This is to be considered as a standing order, until countermanded.

        Genl. Heath's, Sullivan's, Green's and Fry's brigades are in rotation, to march a Regiment, an hour before day, every morning


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    into the works on Letchmores point and Cobble hill -- Five Companies of which to go to the former, and three to the latter, they are to remain in the works until sun-rise.

        The Field Officers for the Guards at Letchmores point, Cobble and plough'd Hill, are to consist of Lt. Colonels and Majors, as those for the day are Colonels.

        The commanding Officers of Regiments, who have neglected to see their men supplied with Fascines, are immediately to order every Non-commission'd Officer and Soldier, to provide one good Fascine, which is to be put under a Sentry of the Quarter Guard of the regiment.

    *To MAJOR GENERAL ARTEMAS WARD Cambridge, March 2, 1776.

        Sir: After weighing all Circumstances of Tide, &c., and considering the hazard of having the Posts on Dorchester Neck taken by the Enemy, and the evil consequences which would result from it, the Gentlemen here are of Opinion that we should go on there Monday Night. I give you this Early notice of it, that you may delay no time in preparing for it, as everything here will be got in readiness to co-operate. In haste I am, Sir, etc. 15

    [Note:From a facsimile. On the outside of the letter is written: "Remember the Barrels." These were for forming the breastworks. The original of this letter appears to have been sold in Cincinnati in 1849. ]

        Saturday evening. Remember -- Barrels.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, March 3, 1776.

        Parole -- . Countersign -- .

        No Officer, or Soldier, under any pretence, is to be absent from his post, without leave in writing from his Brigadier


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    General, who is not to grant liberty of running backwards and forwards, from hence to Roxbury, but in very especial cases.

        As it is not unlikely but a contest may soon be brought on, between the ministerial Troops, and this Army; The General flatters himself, that every Officer, and Soldier, will endeavour to give, such distinguish'd proofs of his conduct, and good behaviour, as becomes men, fighting for every thing that is dear, and valuable to Freemen, remembering at the same time what disgraceful punishment will attend a contrary behaviour -- Every man's conduct will be mark'd and rewarded, or punished accordingly, and Cowardice in a most exemplary manner. -- The Colonels, or commanding Officers of regiments are to see that their several Regiments are properly told off, and the supernumerary Officers so posted as to keep the men to their duty; particular care is to be taken to prevent their firing at too great a distance, as one Fire well aim'd does more execution than a dozen at long-shot.

        All wood cutting parties &c, are to join their respective Regiments until further orders -- The Qr. M. General may draw the Carbines out of the Commissary's Stores, and put them into the hands of the Carpenters, or such others, as he shall think will use them to the best advantage, taking care to return them when called for -- All Arms in store, fit for use, may be deliver'd out to the Adjutant General's order.

        The Brigadiers are to see, that the Arms in their several Brigades, are disposed of to the best advantage, placing them in the hands only of such men; as are fitest for duty, and that the Spears are used, as occasion shall require, to supply the defect of arms.

        As it has been suggested to the General that many of the towns-people &c. influenced by a zeal for the cause of their country, are inclined to throw aid, in case the Army should be


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    called to action -- The General desires that they will, (to prevent any kind of confusion, or disorder) join different Companies, in the several regiments, as they shall choose; or form themselves into a distinct Corps, under Officers of their own choosing, and put themselves under the immediate command of some Brigadier, that they may not be considered, or act, as an independent company.

        Two Companies of Col Thompsons Riffle Regiment, are to march to morrow-evening, to Roxbury with their Blankets, Arms and three days provisions ready dressed; The Officer commanding the party will receive his orders from the Adjutant General.

        Colonel Huchinson's and Col French's Regiments, are to march to Roxbury by sun-rise, on Tuesday morning, with their Blankets, Arms, and three days provisions ready dress'd.

    To JOSEPH REED Cambridge, March 3, 1776.

        Dear Sir: The foregoing 16 was intended for another conveyance, but being hurried with some other matters, and not able to complete it, is was delayed; since which your favours of the 28th of January, and 1st and 8th of February, are come to hand. For the agreeable accounts, contained in one of them, of your progress in the manufacture of powder, and prospect of getting arms, I am obliged to you; as there is some consolation in knowing, that these useful articles will supply the wants of some part of the Continental troops, although I feel too sensibly the mortification of having them withheld from me; Congress not even thinking it necessary to take the least notice of my application for these things.

    [Note:Washington's letter to Congress, Feb. 26, 1776. ]

    Page 366

        I hope in a few nights to be in readiness to take post on Dorchester, as we are using every means in our power to provide materials for this purpose; the ground being so hard froze yet, that we cannot intrench, and therefore are obliged to depend entirely upon chandeliers, fascines, and screwed hay for our redoubts. It is expected that this work will bring on an action between the King's troops and ours.

        General Lee's expedition to New York was founded upon indubitable evidence of General Clinton's being on the point of sailing. No place so likely for his destination as New York, nor no place where a more capital blow could be given to the interests of America than there. Common prudence, therefore, dictated the necessity of preventing an evil, which might have proved irremediable, had it happened. But I confess to you honestly, I had no idea of running the Continent to the expense, which was incurred, or that such a body of troops would go from Connecticut as did, or be raised upon the terms they were. You must know, my good Sir, that Captain Sears was here, with some other gentlemen of Connecticut, when the intelligence of Clinton's embarkation (at least the embarkation of the troops) came to hand. The situation of these lines would not afford a detachment. New York could not be depended upon; and of the troops in Jersey we had no certain information, either of their numbers or destination. What then was to be done? Why, Sears and these other gentlemen assured me, that if the necessity of the case was signified by me, and that General Lee should be sent, one thousand volunteers, (requiring no pay, but supplied with provisions only,) would march immediately to New York, and defend the place, till Congress could determine what should be done, and that a line from me to Governor Trumbull to obtain his sanction would facilitate the measure. This I accordingly wrote in precise


    Page 367

    terms, intending that these volunteers, and such of the Jersey regiments as could be speedily assembled, should be thrown into the city for its defence, and for disarming the Tories upon Long Island, who, I understood, had become extremely insolent and daring. When, behold, instead of volunteers, consisting of gentlemen without pay, the Governor directed men to be voluntarily enlisted for this service upon Continental pay and allowance. This, you will observe, was contrary to my expectation and plan. Yet, as I thought it a matter of the last importance to secure the command of the North River, I did not think it expedient to countermand the raising of the Connecticut regiments on account of the pay. If I have done wrong, those members of Congress, who think the matter ought to have been left to them, must consider my proceedings as an error of judgment, and that a measure is not always to be judged of by the event.

        It is moreover worthy of consideration, that in cases of extreme necessity (as the present), nothing but decision can ensure success; and certain I am that Clinton had something more in view by peeping into New York than to gratify his curiosity, or make a friendly visit to his friend Mr. Tryon. However, I am not fond of stretching my powers; and if the Congress will say, "Thus far and no farther you shall go," I will promise not to offend whilst I continue in their service.

        I observe what you say in respect to my wagon, &c. I wanted nothing more, than a light travelling-wagon, (such as those of New Jersey) with a secure cover, which might be under lock and key, the hinges being on one side, the lock on the other. I have no copy of the memorandum of the articles I desired you to provide for me, but think one dozen and a half of camp stools, a folding table, rather two, plates, and dishes, were among them. What I meant, therefore, was, that the bed


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    of this wagon should be constructed in such a manner, as to stow these things to the best advantage. If you cannot get them with you, I shall despair of providing them here, as workmen are scarce, and most exorbitantly high in their charges. What I should aim at is, when the wagon and things are ready (which ought to be very soon, as I do not know how soon we may beat a march), to buy a pair of clever horses, of the same color, hire a careful driver, and let the whole come off at once; and then they are ready for immediate service. I have no doubt but that the treasury, by application to Mr. Hancock, will direct payment thereof, without any kind of difficulty, as Congress must be sensible, that I cannot take the field without equipage, and after I have once got into a tent I shall not soon quit it. I am, &c.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, March 4, 1776.

        Parole Hooper. Countersign Allen.

        The Flag on Prospect-hill, and that at the Laboratory, on Cambridge Common, are ordered to be hoisted only upon a General Alarm; of this the whole Army is to take particular notice, and immediately upon those Colours being displayed, every Officer and Soldier, must repair to his alarm post -- This is to remain a standing order, until the Commander in Chief shall please to direct otherwise.

        The several Surgeons, of the Hospitals at Cambridge, and every regimental Surgeon in the left, and centre divisions of the army, are directed to meet at five O'Clock this evening, at Browns Tavern in Cambridge, to take directions from the Director General of the hospital, relative to the immediate disposition of their sick, and in what manner they, and their Mates are to be posted.


    Page 369

        The Cottage to be forthwith appropriated to the Reception of the regimental sick, and such as may be wounded -- That suitable Barracks at Prospect-hill, or any other part of the Camp, which the Director General of the hospital shall advise, be got in immediate readiness for the reception of at least, one hundred wounded, in case of need, and such a number of men, as he may think sufficient, be ordered to assist in carrying wounded men to the hospital. -- Hand-barrows, and other proper means to be provided for their removal.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, March 6, 1776.

        Parole Letchmore. Countersign Putnam.

        Stephen Moylan and William Palfrey Esqrs. are appointed Aids-De-Camp, to his Excellency the Commander in Chief; they are to be obeyed as such.

        Thursday the seventh Instant, being set apart by the Honourable the Legislature of this province, as a day of fasting, prayer, and humiliation, "to implore the Lord, and Giver of all victory, to pardon our manifold sins and wickedness's, and that it would please him to bless the Continental Arms, with his divine favour and protection" -- All Officers, and Soldiers, are strictly enjoined to pay all due reverance, and attention on that day, to the sacred duties due to the Lord of hosts, for his mercies already received, and for those blessings, which our Holiness and Uprightness of life can alone encourage us to hope through his mercy to obtain.

        The Brigadiers General Heath and Frye, to send for their respective Colonels immediately, and with them appoint the Officers, and Soldiers, from each of their brigades, to be selected for the command under the Brigadier General Sullivan and


    Page 370

    Green, to direct that they be the best and most approved Soldiers; that their Arms, Ammunition and Accoutrements, are compleat and in proper order, and the whole to be ready to turn out upon the shortest notice. Genl. Heath to report the names of the Colonels and Field Officers, who are appointed for this service, to His Excellency, as soon as possible.

    To THE PRESIDENT OF CONGRESS Cambridge, March 7, 1776.

        Sir: On the 26th Ulto, I had the Honor of addressing you, and then mentioned, that we were making preparations for taking possession of Dorchester Heights. I now beg leave to Inform you, that a Council of General Officers having determined a previous Bombardment and Cannonade expedient and proper, in order to harrass the Enemy and divert their attention from that Quarter, on Saturday, Sunday and Monday nights last, we carried them on from our posts at Cobble Hill, Leechmore's point and Lam's Dam. 17 Whether they did the Enemy any considerable and what Injury, I have not yet heard, but have the pleasure to acquaint you, that they greatly facilitated our schemes, and would have been attended with success equal to our most sanguine expectations, had it not been for the unlucky bursting of two thirteen and Three Ten Inch Mortars, among which was the Brass one, taken in the ordinance Brig. To what cause to attribute this Misfortune I

    [Note:Ford quotes from Centennial Evacuation, p. 12: "On the 23 Augt. 1775, the work of fortifying Lamb's Dam was begun, and upon the completion of that work, the line of fortification was advanced to a point a little south of the present Northampton Street. Lamb's Dam extended from about the junction of Hampden and Albany Sts. to a point near the present Walnut place. It was originally built to keep the tide from overflowing the marshes, and followed very nearly the present line of Northampton Street, diverging slightly to the southward as it neared the highway. At the termination of the Dam, on the upland, a strong breastwork was constructed, and from that the intrenchments extended across the highway. The works were completed Sept. 10, 1775." ]

    Page 371

    know not, whether to any defect in them, or to the inexperience of the Bombardiers. But to return, on Monday Evening as soon as our firing commenced, a considerable detachment of our men, under the command of Brigadier General Thomas, crossed the Neck and took possession of the two Hills, without the least Interruption or annoyance from the Enemy, and by their great Activity and Industry before the morning advanced the Works so far, as to be secure against their Shot. They are now going on with such expedition that in a little time I hope they will be complete, and enable our Troops stationed there, to make a vigorous and obstinate stand. during the whole Canonade, which was incessant the two last Nights we were fortunate enough to lose but two Men, one a Lieutenant by a cannon Bali's taking off his Thigh, the other a private by the explosion of a Shell which also slightly wounded four or five more.

        Our taking possession of Dorchester Heights is only preparatory to taking post on Nuke Hill and the points opposite the south end of Boston. It was absolutely necessary that they should be previously fortifyed, in order to cover and command them. As soon as the works on the former are finished and complete, measures will be immediately adopted for securing the latter and making them as strong and defensible as we can. Their contiguity to the Enemy, will make them of much Importance and of great service to us.

        As mortars are essential and indespensibly necessary for carrying on our Operations and the prosecution of our plans, I have applied to two Furnaces to have some thirteen Inch ones cast with all expedition imaginable, and am encouraged to hope from the accounts I have had, that they will be able to do it; when they are done, and a proper supply of Powder obtained, I flatter myself from the posts we have just taken, and


    Page 372

    are about to take, that it will be in our power to force the Ministerial Troops to an attack, or to dispose of 'em in some way that will be of advantage to us. I think from these posts, they will be so galled and annoyed, that they must either give us battle, or quit their present possessions. I am resolved that nothing on my part stall be wanting to effect the one or the other.

        It having been the general Opinion, that the Enemy would attempt to dislodge our People from the Hills, and force their Works, as soon as they were discovered, which probably might have brought on a general Engagement, It was thought advisable that the Honorable Council 18 should be applied to, to order in the Militia from the neighbouring and adjacent Towns, I wrote them on the Subject, which they most readily complied with; and in justice to the Militia, I cannot but inform you, that they came in at the appointed time, and manifested the greatest alertness and determined resolution to have acted like men engaged in the cause of Freedom.

    [Note:The council of the Massachusetts Legislature. ]

        When the Enemy first discovered our works in the morning, they seemed to be in great confusion, and from their movements to have intended an attack.

        It is much to be wished, that it had been made. The event I think must have been fortunate, and nothing less than success and victory on our side, as our Officers and men appeared Impatient for the appeal, and to have possessed the most animated Sentiments and determined Spirit.

        On Tuesday evening a considerable number of their Troops embarked on board their Transports and fell down to the Castle, where part of them landed before dark; one or two of the Vessels got a ground and were fired at by our People with a Field piece, but without any Damage. What was the design


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    of this embarkation and landing, I have not been able to learn; It would seem as if they meant an attack, for it is most probable, that if they make one on our Works at Dorchester at this time, that they will first go to the Castle and come from thence. If such was their design, a violent storm that night and which lasted 'till Eight O'Clock the next day, rendered the execution of it impracticable. It carried one or two of their Vessels a shore, which have since got off. 19

    [Note:Ford quotes Sir William Howe's account of the evacuation, in a letter to the Earl of Dartmouth (March 21): "On the 2d inst. at night they began a cannonade upon the town; the same was repeated on the evening of the 3d and 4th. On the 5th in the morning it was discovered that the enemy had thrown up three very extensive works with strong abatties on the commanding hills on Dorchester Neck, which must have been the employment of at least 12,000 men. In a situation so critical I determined upon immediate attack; the ardour of the troops encouraged me in this hazardous enterprise, and regiments were expeditiously embarked on board transports to fall down the harbour; but the wind unfortunately coming contrary and blowing very hard the ships were not able to get to their destination.…The weather continuing boisterous the next day and night gave the enemy time to improve their works, to bring up their cannon, and to put themselves into such a state of defense that I could promise myself little success by attacking them under such disadvantages; wherefore I judged it most advisable to prepare for the evacuation of the town.…This operation was effected on the 17th, and all the rear guard embarked at 9 o'clock in the morning, without the least loss, irregularity or accident." ]

        In case the Ministerial Troops had made an Attempt to dislodge our Men from Dorchester Hills, and the number detached upon the occasion, had been so great as to have afforded a probability of a successful attack's being made upon Boston, on a signal given from Roxbury for that purpose, agreeable to a settled and concerted plan; Four thousand chosen men who were held in readiness, were to ford have embarked at the mouth of Cambridge River in two divisions; The first under the command of Brig. Genl. Sullivan, the second under Brig. Genl. Greene, the whole to have been commanded by Major General Putnam. The first division was to land at the Powder House and gain possession of Bacon Hill and Mount Horam. The second at Barton's Point or a little South of it, and after securing that post, to join the other division and force the Enemy's Works and Gates for letting in the Roxbury Troops. Three


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    floating batteries were to have proceeded and gone in Front of the other Boats, and kept up a heavy fire on that part of the Town where our men where to land. How far our views would have succeeded, had an Opportunity offered for attempting the Execution, is impossible for me to say. Nothing but experiment could determine with precision. The Plan was thought to be well digested and as far as I could judge from the cheerfulness and alacrity which distinguished the Officers and men who were to engage in the enterprize, I had reason to hope for a favourable and happy Issue.

        The Militia which were ordered in, from the Adjacent Towns, brought with them three days Provisions. They were only called upon to Act under the Idea of an Attack's being immediately made, and were all discharged this Afternoon.

        I beg leave to remind Congress that three Major Generals are essential and necessary for this Army, and that by General Lee's being called from hence to the command in Canada, the left Division is without one. I hope they will fill up the Vacancy by the Appointment of another. General Thomas is the first Brigadier, stands fair in point of Reputation and is esteemed a brave and good Officer. If he is promoted, there will be a vacancy in the Brigadier Generals, which it will be necessary to supply by the appointment of some other Gentleman, that shall be agreeable to Congress. But justice requires me to mention that William Thompson Esquire of the Rifle Regiment is the first Colonel of this department, and as far as I have had an Opportunity of Judging, is a good Officer and a man of Courage. What I have said of these two Gentlemen, I conceive to be my duty, at the same time acknowledging whatever promotions are made will be satisfactory to me.

        March 9th. Yesterday evening a Captain Irvine, who escaped from Boston the night before, with Six of his crew, came to


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    Head Quarters and gave the following Intelligence "That our Bombardment and Cannonade caused much surprize in Town, as many of the Soldiery said they never heard or thought we had Mortars or Shells"

        "That several of the Officers acknowledged they were well and properly directed. That they occasioned much distress and confusion; that the Cannon Shot, for the greatest part went thro' the Houses and he was told, that one took of the Legs and Arms of 6 men lying in the Barracks on the Neck; That a Soldier who came from the Lines there on Tuesday Morning Informed him, that: 20 men had been wounded the night before; It was also reported that others had been hurt, and one of the Light Horse torn to pieces by the explosion of a Shell, this was afterwards contradicted; That early on Tuesday Morning -- Admiral Shuldam discovering the Works our People were throwing up on Dorchester Heights, immediately sent an Express to General Howe to inform him, that it was necessary that they should be attacked and dislodged from thence, or he would be under the necessity of withdrawing the Ships from the Harbour under his command; That preparations were directly made for that purpose as it was said, and from twelve to two OClock, about 3000 men embarked on board the Transports which fell down to the Castle, with a design of Landing on that part of Dorchester next to it, and attacking the Works at 5 O'Clock next morning; That Lord Piercy was appointed to command, and that it was generally believed the attempt would have been made, had it not been for the Violent Storm which happened that night, as I have mentioned before; That he heard several of the privates and one or two Serjeants say, as they were embarking that it would be another Bunker Hill affair. He further Informs that the Army is preparing to leave Boston, and that they will do it in a day or two; That


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    Transports necessary for their embarkation were getting ready with the utmost expedition; That there had been great movements and confusion amongst the Troops the night and day preceeding his coming out, in hurrying down their Cannon, Artillery and other Stores to the Wharfs with the utmost precipitation, and were putting them on board the Ships in such haste that no account or memorandum was taken of them; That more of their cannon were removed from their works and embarked and embarking. That he heard a Woman say, which he took to be an Officer's wife, that she had seen Men go under ground at their Lines on the neck without returning; That the Ship he commanded was taken up, places fitted and fitting for Officers to lodge and several Shot, Shells and Cannon already on board. That the Tories were to have the Liberty of going where they pleased, If they could get Seamen to man the Vessels, of which there was great scarcity. On that account many Vessels could not be carried away, and would be burnt. That many of the Inhabitants apprehended the Town would be destroyed, and that their destination is Halifax.

        The Account given by Capt. Irvine as to the embarkation and their being about to leave the Town I believe true, there are other corroborating circumstances and it seems fully confirmed by a paper, -- signed by four of of the Select Men of the Town, (a Copy of which I have the honor to enclose you) which was brought out Yesterday evening by a Flag and delivered Colonel Learned by Major Bassett of the 10th Regiment, who desired it might be given me as soon as possible: I advised with such of the General Officers upon the Occasion as I could immediately Assemble and we determined it right, as it was not addressed to me, or any one else, nor authenticated by the signature of General Howe or any other Act Obliging him to a performance of the promise mentioned on his part, that I


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    should give it no Answer, at the same time, that a Letter should be returned as going from Col. Learned signifying his having laid it before me with the reasons assigned for not answering it. -- A Copy of this is also sent you. 20

    [Note:"Boston, 8 March, 1776.

       "As his Excellency General Howe is determined to leave the Town with the Troops Under his Command, a Number of the Respectable Inhabitants, being very Anxious for its preservation and safety, have applied to General Robertson for this purpose, who at their request has communicated the same to his Excellency Genl. Howe, who has assured him, that he has no intention of destroying the Town, unless the Troops under his command are molested during their Embarkation or at their departure, by the Armed force without, which declaration he gave Genl. Robertson leave to communicate to the Inhabitants; If such an Opposition should take place, we have the greatest reason to expect the Town will be exposed to Intire destruction. As our fears are quieted with regard to Genl. Howe's Intentions, we beg we may have some assurances that so dreadful a Calamity may not be brought on by any measures without. As a Testimony of the truth of the Above, we have signed our Names to this paper, carried out by Messrs. Thomas and Jonathan Amory and Peter Johonnot, who have at the earnest Intreaties of the Inhabitants, through the Lt. Governor, Sollicited a flag of Truce for this purpose,

       "John Scollay, Timothy Newell, Thomas Marshall, Samuel Austin."

       The original is in the Washington Papers. It was drawn up by Newell, taken to the lines at Roxbury, and given to Colonel Learned, who carried it to headquarters. He returned, and handed the bearers of it the following letter:

       "Roxbury, 9 March, 1776.

       "Sir: Agreeably to a promise made to you at the Lines yesterday, I waited upon His Excellency General Washington, and presented to Him the Paper (handed to me by you) from the Select Men of Boston. The Answer I received from Him was to this effect: 'That, as it was an unauthenticated Paper; without an Address, and not Obligatory Upon General Howe; He would take no Notice of it.' I am, with esteem and respect, Gentlemen, your most obedt. Servt, "Ebenezer Learned."

       "To Messrs. Amorys and Johonnot."

       A copy of this letter, in the writing of Horatio Gates, is in the Washington Papers.

       Washington had no wish to injure the town unnecessarily, and despite his uncompromising reply the British were permitted to withdraw without molestation. ]

        To night I shall have a Battery thrown up on Nuke Hill (Dorchester point) with a design of acting as circumstances may require. It being judged adviseable to prosecute our plans of Fortification, as we intended before this Information from the Select Men came.

        It being agreed on all hands that there is no probability of stopping them, if they determine to go, I shall order look outs to be kept upon all the Headlands, to discover their Movements and course, and moreover direct Commodore Manly


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    and his little Squadron to dog them, as well for the same purpose, as for picking up any of their Vessels that may chance to depart their Convoy; from their loading with such precipitancy, It's presumable they'l not be in the best condition for Sea.

        If the Ministerial Troops evacuate the Town and leave it standing, I have thoughts of taking measures for fortifying the entrance into the harbour, If it shall be thought proper and the situation of Affairs will admit of it.

        Notwithstanding the report from Boston that Hallifax is the place of their Destination, I have no doubt but that they are going to the Southward of this, and I apprehend to New York. Many reasons lead me to this Opinion, 21 It is in some measure corroborated by their sending an express Ship there which on Wednesday Week got on shore and bilged at Cape Cod. The Dispatches if written were destroyed when she was boarded; she had a parcel of Coal and about 4000 Cannon Shot, six Carriage Guns, 1 or 2 Swevils and three Barrels of Powder. I shall hold the Riflemen and other parts of our Troops in readiness to march at a Moments warning and Govern my movements by the events that happen, or such Orders as I may receive from Congress, which I beg may be ample and forwarded with all possible expedition.

    [Note:This was the first, but by no means the last, of the many occasions during the war when the British puzzled Washington by their illogical and unreasonable movements. ]

        On the 6th. Instant a Ship bound from London with Stores for the Ministerial Army, consisting of coal, porter and Krout, fell in with our Armed Vessels, four of them in Company and was carried into Portsmouth. She had a long passage and of course brought no papers of a late date. The only Letters of Importance or the least interesting that were found I have enclosed.

        I beg leave to mention to Congress that Money is much wanted. The Militia from these Governments engaged 'till the


    Page 379

    1st of April are then to be paid, and if we march from hence, the Expence will be considerable must be defrayed and cannot be accomplished without it. the necessity of making the earliest remittance for these purposes is too obvious for me to add more.

        When I wrote that part of this Letter which is anteceedent to this date, I fully expected It would have gone before now by Col. Bull; not deeming it of sufficient importance to send a special Messenger, but he deferred his return from time to time and never set off 'till to day.

        These reasons I hope will excuse the delay and be received as a proper apology for not transmitting it sooner. I have the honor etc. 22

    [Note:In the writing of Robert Hanson Harrison. ]

    To JOSEPH REED Cambridge, March 7, 1776.

        Dear Sir: The Rumpus which every body expected to see between the Ministerialists in Boston, and our troops, has detained the bearer till this time. On Monday night I took possession of the Heights of Dorchester with two thousand men under the command of General Thomas. Previous to this, and in order to divert the enemy's attention from the real object, and to harass, we began on Saturday night a cannonade and bombardment, which with intervals was continued through the night -- the same on Sunday and on Monday, a continued roar from seven o'clock till daylight was kept up between the enemy and us. In this time we had an officer and one private killed, and four or five wounded; and through the ignorance, I suppose, of our artillerymen, burst five mortars (two thirteen inch and three ten inch) the "Congress," 23 one of them. What damage the enemy has sustained is not known, as there has

    [Note:Known by the British as "the old sow." Putnam named it the "Congress" when it had been brought to Boston from Ticonderoga. -- Ford. ]

    Page 380

    not been a creature out of Boston since. The cannonade, &c., except in the destruction of the mortars, answered our expectations fully; for although we had upwards of 300 teams in motion at the same instant, carrying on our fascines, and other materials to the Neck, and the moon shining in its full lustre, we were not discovered till daylight on Tuesday morning.

        So soon as we were discovered, every thing seemed to be prepared for an attack, but the tide failing before they were ready, about one thousand only were able to embark in six transports in the afternoon, and these falling down towards the Castle, were drove on shore by a violent storm, which arose in the afternoon of that day, and continued through the night; since that they have been seen returning to Boston, and whether from an apprehension that our works are now too formidable to make any impression on, or from what other causes I know not, but their hostile appearances have subsided, and they are removing their ammunition out of their magazine, whether with a view to move bag and baggage or not I cannot undertake to say, but if we had powder, (and our mortars replaced, which I am about to do by new cast ones as soon as possible) I would, so soon as we were sufficiently strengthened on the heights to take possession of the point just opposite to Boston Neck, give them a dose they would not well like.

        We had prepared boats, a detachment of 4000 men, &c., &c., for pushing to the west part of Boston, if they had made any formidable attack upon Dorchester. I will not lament or repine at any act of Providence because I am in a great measure a convert to Mr. Pope's opinion, that whatever is, is right, but I think everything had the appearance of a successful issue, if we had come to an engagement on that day. It was the 5th of March, which I recalled to their remembrance as a day never


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    to be forgotton; an engagement was fully expected, and I never saw spirits higher, or more prevailing. 24

    [Note:The anniversary of the so-called Boston Massacre. -- Ford. ]

        Your favor of the 18th ultimo came to my hands by post last night, and gives me much pleasure, as I am led to hope I shall see you of my family again. The terms upon which you come will be perfectly agreeable to me, and I should think you neither candid nor friendly, if your communications on this subject had not been free, unreserved, and divested of that false kind of modesty, which too often prevents the elucidation of points important to be known. Mr. Baylor seeming to have an inclination to go into the artillery, and Colonel Knox desirous of it, I have appointed Mr. Moylan and Mr. Palfrey 25 my aids-de-camp, so that I shall, if you come, have a good many writers about me.

    [Note:William Palfrey. Congress (April 27) elected him Paymaster General of the Continental Army and (July 9) gave him the rank of lieutenant colonel. Elected United States consul to France in 1780, the ship on which he sailed for that country disappeared, and he was never heard from. ]

        I think my countrymen made a capital mistake, when they took Henry 26 out of the senate to place him in the field; and pity it is, that he does not see this, and remove every difficulty by a voluntary resignation. I am of opinion, that Colonel Armstrong, if he retains his health, spirits, and vigor, would be as fit a person as any they could send to Virginia, as he is senior officer to any now there, and I should think could give no offence; but to place Colonel Thompson there, in the first

    [Note:On Aug. 5, 1775, the Convention of Virginia had elected Henry colonel of the First Regiment of Regulars and commander in chief of all the Virginia forces raised for the defense of that colony, but he was expressly enjoined to obey the orders of the convention and the committees of safety. When the first occasion for fighting occurred -- the march against Dunmore -- this latter body, distrusting Henry's military capacity, passed him over and appointed a subordinate, Colonel Woodford, to the command. This slight, resented by Henry, was followed by others, such as the refusal of Woodford to give attention to his orders, the transfer of the command to Robert Howe, of North Carolina, and finally, when the regiments were turned over to the Continental Congress, the issue of a colonel's commission, and not, as he had hoped, that of a brigadier general. He resigned his military offices Feb. 28, 1776. -- Ford. ]

    Page 382

    command, would throw everything into the utmost confusion; for it was by mere chance that he became a colonel upon this expedition, and by greater chance that he became first colonel in this army. To take him then from another colony, place him over the heads of several gentlemen, under or with whom he has served in a low and subordinate character, would never answer any other purpose, than that of introducing endless confusion. Such a thing surely cannot be in contemplation; and, knowing the mischiefs it would produce, surely Colonel Thompson would have more sense, and a greater regard for the cause he is engaged in, than to accept of it, unless some uncommon abilities or exertions had given him a superior claim. He must know, that nothing more than being a captain of horse in the year 1759 (I think it was) did very extraordinarily give him the start he now has, when the rank was settled here. At the same time, he must know another fact, that several officers now in the Virginia service were much his superiors in point of rank, and will not I am sure serve under him. He stands first colonel here, and may, I presume, put in a very good and proper claim to the first brigade that falls vacant; but I hope more regard will be paid to the service, than to send him to Virginia.

        The bringing of Colonel Armstrong into this army as major-general, however great his merit, would introduce much confusion. Thomas, if no more, would surely quit, and I believe him to be a good man. If Thomas supplies the place of Lee, there will be a vacancy for either Armstrong or Thompson; for I have heard of on other valiant son of New England waiting promotion, since the advancement of Frye, who has not, and I doubt will not, do much service to the cause; at present he keeps his room, and talks learnedly of emetics, cathartics, &c. For my own part, I see nothing but a declining life that matters him.


    Page 383

        I am sorry to hear of your ill-fated fleet. We had it, I suppose because we wished it, that Hopkins had taken Clinton, and his transports. How glorious would this have been! We have the proverb on our side, however, that "a bad beginning will end well." This applies to land and sea service. The account given of the business of the commissioners from England seems to be of a piece with Lord North's conciliatory motion last year, built upon the same foundation, and, if true that they are to be divided among the colonies to offer terms of pardon, it is as insulting as that motion; 27 and only designed, after stopping all intercourse with us, to set us up to view in Great Britain, as a people that will not hearken to any propositions of peace. Was there ever any thing more absurd, than to repeal the very acts, which have introduced all this confusion and bloodshed, and at the same time enact a law to restrain all intercourse with the colonies for opposing them? The drift and design are obvious; but is it possible that any sensible nation upon earth can be imposed upon by such a cobweb scheme, or gauze covering? But enough, or else upon a subject so copious I should enter upon my fifth sheet of paper. I have, if length of letter will do it, already made you ample amend for the silence which my hurry in preparing for what I hoped would be a decisive stroke, obliged me to keep. My best respects to Mrs. Reed, in which Mrs. Washington joins, concludes me, dear sir, &c.

    [Note:It was at first reported that it was the design of the British Government to send over a large number of commissioners to America and that they were to make advances to the Colomes separately. -- Sparks. ]

        March 9th. -- Colonel Bull's still waiting to see a little further into the event of things gives me an opportunity of adding, that from a gentleman out of Boston, confirmed by a paper from the selectmen there, we have undoubted information of General Howe's preparing with great precipitancy to embark his troops; for what place we know not; Halifax, it is said. The


    Page 384

    selectmen, being under dreadful apprehensions for the town, applied to General Robertson to apply to General Howe, who through General Robertson has informed them, that it is not his intention to destroy the town, unless his Majesty's troops should be molested during their embarkation, or at their departure. This paper seems so much under covert, unauthenticated, and addressed to nobody, that I sent word to the selectmen, that I could take no notice of it; but I shall go on with my preparations as intended. The gentlemen above mentioned out of Boston say, that they seem to be in great consternation there, that one of our shot from Lamb's Dam disabled six men in their beds, and that the Admiral upon discovering our works next morning informed the General that, unless we were dispossessed of them, he could not keep the King's ships in the harbor; and that three thousand men, commanded by Lord Percy, were actually embarked for that purpose. Of the issue of it you have been informed before. I am, &c. 28

    [Note:From Reed's Life and Correspondence of Joseph Reed. This letter appears to be a continuation of Washington's letter to Reed of February 26, finally concluded March 9. Lacking the original, it is not possible to decide this. ]

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, March 8, 1776.

        Parole Henry. Countersign Loyal.

        The General Court Martial, of which Colo. Phinney was president, to assemble to morrow Morning, at eleven O'Clock, at Pomeroy's Tavern in Cambridge.

        His Excellency the General, returns his thanks to the Militia of the surrounding districts, for their spirited and alert march to Roxbury, last Saturday and Sunday, and for the noble ardour they discovered in defence of the cause of Liberty, and their Country.


    Page 385

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, March 9, 1776.

        Parole Morris. Countersign Allen.

        The General earnestly expects every Officer and Soldier of this Army will shew the utmost alertness, as well upon duty, as off duty, as by that means, not only the utmost power, but the utmost artifice of the enemy will be defeated.

        The Regiments who have not drawn their cloathing from the Qt. Mr. General, are commanded to do it immediately.

        The Regiment and Companies of Riflemen, are to hold themselves in readiness, to march at an hours warning.

        The whole Army to prepare to be ready to march when commanded.

    To GOVERNOR JONATHAN TRUMBULL Head Quarters, Cambridge, March 9, 1776.

        Sir: The important Post of Dorchester Hill, which has long been the object of our particular attention, and which for various weighty reasons I had hitherto delayed taking possession of, I have the pleasure to inform you is now so well secured, that I flatter myself it will not be in the power of the Enemy to disposess us. A detachment of twenty-five hundred Men, under Command of Brigr General Thomas on Monday Evening last, begun the Works there, which they have carried on ever since without the least molestation from the Enemy. For two or three nights previous to this, I thought it necessary to draw off their Attention from the grand object, and accordingly ordered a brisk Cannonade and bombardment of the Town, which (as I have been since informed) had the desired Effect for they had no suspicion of our real design, 'till Tuesday Morning, when they discovered our Troops in possession


    Page 386

    of the Hill. A Captain of a Transport, who made his escape from Boston the Night before last, informs me that three thousand Men under Command of Lord Piercy, were ordered to disposess us, but the Weather being very tempestuous (or perhaps for some better reason) the expedition was laid aside; He also informs me that they were making every preparation to evacuate the Town. They have indeed been observed for several days past, to be very busily employed in removing their Cannon and Ammunition, and yesterday in the Afternoon the Captain's intelligence was confirmed by a Flagg of Truce sent out, with a Message from the Selectmen of the Town; a Copy of which I have the honor to inclose you. It seems very evident that they can no longer keep possession of the Town, and are determined to take post, or attack in some other Quarter; where that may be is at present altogether uncertain, but I thought it my duty to give you the earliest information of this important movement, that you might take proper measures for the Security of your Colony. I have ordered their motions to be very narrowly watched, and if any thing material should occur you may rely on my giving you speedy Notice.

        I have also the pleasure to acquaint you that Capt Manly and others, have taken another Transport Ship laden with Coals, Porter &c. for the use of the Ministerial Troops at Boston, She brings papers to the 2d December, but they afford no material News.

        An Armed Transport is also stranded on the back of Cape Codd; The most of her cargo consisting principally of a few military stores, has been secured by the Inhabitants the Master, two Midshipmen, and a number of Seaman made prisoners. She was bound from Boston to New York. I have the Honor to be with great respect, Sir, etc. 29

    [Note:Letters of the same import were sent to Governor Cooke and the New Hampshire Legislature. ]

    Page 387

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, March 10, 1776.

        Parole Tighlman. Countersign Mercer.

        There was a mistake in the Orders of the Sixth Instant -- Genl. Heath being ordered for the command therein mentioned, instead of Genl. Green, who is appointed for that command.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, March 11, 1776.

        Parole Niagara. Countersign Thompson.

        That there may not be the least pretext for delay (as the General is determined to march the whole, or any part of this Army, the Instant occasion shall require) His Excellency desires that not a moments time may be lost in preparing for the march -- The Colonels will pay particular attention to the cloathing of their men -- To prevent any unnecessary preparations, the General informs the Officers, and Soldiers, that it is his desire and expectation, that they encumber themselves with as little baggage as possible, as apart from the enormous expence to the Continent -- Teams cannot be procured for superfluous Articles, it will be well if sufficient can be found to answer all requisite services -- The Nature of the service we are engaged in, is such as require light Troops, ready at all times, and upon all occasions, for forced marches, the less baggage therefore, Officers and Men are encumber'd with, the better.

        The recruiting Service is to be continued, but the recruits, and all the men upon Furlough, are to join their respective regiments immediately.

        The General being desirous of selecting a particular number of men, as a Guard for himself, and baggage, The Colonel, or commanding Officer, of each of the established Regiments,


    Page 388

    (the Artillery and Rifflemen excepted) will furnish him with four, that the number wanted may be chosen out of them. His Excellency depends upon the Colonels for good Men, such as they can recommend for their sobriety, honesty, and good behaviour; he wishes them to be from five feet, eight Inches high, to five feet, ten Inches; handsomely and well made, and as there is nothing in his eyes more desireable, than Cleanliness in a Soldier, he desires that particular attention may be made, in the choice of such men, as are neat, and spruce. They are all to be at Head Quarters to morrow precisely at twelve, at noon, when the Number wanted will be fixed upon. The General neither wants men with uniforms, or arms, nor does he desire any man to be sent to him, that is not perfectly willing, and desirous, of being of this guard. They should be drill'd men. 30

    [Note:The organization was known as the Commander in Chief's Guard. C. E. Godfrey's work of this title contains the best group of facts concerning the guard. ]

        The General desires that those Colonels, who have not furnish'd the Arrangement of their Officers, will do it forthwith under the Inspection of the Brigadiers, who are to certify the same; he also requires the Brigadiers to see that the Returns are made, that the Commissions may issue.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, March 12, 1776.

        Parole Niagara. Countersign Thompson.

        An Abstract of the pay of the commissioned Officers of each of the established Regiments, for January, to be deliver'd, as soon as possible to the Adjutant General, signed by the Colonel, or Officer commanding each regiment.

        The Director General and Surgeons of the hospital, to proceed in the examination of the Regimental Surgeons and Mates, who are required to attend for that purpose, at such time, and


    Page 389

    place, as may be appointed; of which they will receive timely notice; When the examination is finished, Report it to be made of the same, that Commissions may be made out for those, who are approv'd of as duly qualified.

        The Colonels in making out the pay Abstracts for their Officers, for January, are to be careful to see that each Officer is charged only from the day of his being appointed.

        The General Court Martial of which Col Phinney was president is dissolved.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, March 13, 1776.

        Parole Fairfax. Countersign Kent.

        A General Court Martial to sit to morrow morning at ten OClock, All Evidences and persons concerned, to attend the court.

        The Riffle Regiment under the command of Lieut. Col. Hand, 31 and the three riffle Companies under the command of Capt. Stephenson, 32 : are to be ready to march to morrow morning at ten O'Clock -- A Copy of their Route, with their orders, will be deliver'd to Lt. Col Hand and Capt. Stephenson, this afternoon.

    [Note:Lieut, Col. Edward Hand. He was afterwards Adjutant General of the Continental Army. ]
    [Note:Capt. Hugh Stephenson. ]

        As the Ministerial Troops in Boston, both from information and appearance, are preparing to evacuate that town: The General expressly orders, that neither Officer, nor Soldier, presume to go into Boston, without leave from the General in Chief at Cambridge, or the commanding General at Roxbury; As the enemy with a malicious assiduity, have spread the infection of the smallpox through all parts of the town, nothing but the utmost caution on our part, can prevent that fatal disease


    Page 390

    from spreading thro' the army, and country, to the infinite detriment of both -- His Excellency expressly commands every Officer, to pay the exactist obedience to this order.

        If upon the retreat of the enemy any person whatsoever, is detected in pillaging, he may be assured the severest punishment will be his lot -- The unhappy Inhabitants of that distress'd town, have already suffer'd too heavily from the Iron hand of Oppression! -- their Countrymen surely will not be base enough to add to their misfortunes.

    AFTER ORDERS

        His Excellency the Commander in Chief orders, that the Rifle Battalion, with Stark's, Webb's, Pattersons, Greatons, and Bond's Regiments, be immediately relieved from duty, and hold themselves in readiness to march, on Friday Morning next, except the Rifle Battalion, which marches to morrow.

    To THE PRESIDENT OF CONGRESS Cambridge, March 13, 1776.

        Sir: In my letter of the 7th. and 9th. Instant, which I had the honor of Addressing you, I mentioned the Intelligence I had received respecting the embarkation of the Troops from Boston and fully expected before this, that the Town would have been entirely evacuated. Altho' I have been deceived and was rather premature in the Opinion I had then formed I have little reason to doubt but the event will take place in a very short time, as other Accounts which have come to hand since, the sailing of a great number of Transports from the Harbour to Nantasket Road and many circumstances corresponding therewith seem to confirm & render it unquestionable.

        Whether the Town will be destroyed is a matter of much uncertainty, but it would seem from the destruction they are


    Page 391

    making of sundry pieces of furniture, of many of their Waggons, Carts &ca. which they cannot take with 'em, as it is said, that it will not; For if they intended it, the whole might be involved in one general ruin.

        Holding it of the last importance in the present contest, that we should secure New York and prevent the Enemy from possessing it, and conjecturing they have views of that sort and their embarkation to be for that purpose, I judged it necessary under the situation of things here, to call a Council of General Officers to consult of such measures as are expedient to be taken at this interesting conjuncture of Affairs. A copy of the proceedings I have the honor to inclose you. 33

    [Note:The proceedings of this council are in the Washington Papers. ]

        Agreeable to the Opinion of the Council, I shall detach the Rifle Regiment to morrow under the Command of Brigadier General Sullivan with orders to repair to New York, with all possible expedition, which will be succeeded the day after by the other five in one Brigade, they being all that it was thought advisable to send from hence until the Enemy shall have quitted the Town. Immediately upon their departure, I shall send forward Major General Putnam and will follow myself with the remainder of the Army as soon as I have it in my power; leaving here only such a number of men as circumstances may seem to require.

        As the badness of the roads at this Season will greatly retard the March of our men, I have by advice of the General Officers wrote to Governor Trumbull by this express to use his utmost exertions for throwing a reinforcement of two Thousand Men into New York from the Western parts of Connecticut, and to the Commanding Officer there, to apply to the Provincial Convention or Committee of Safety of New Jersey, for a thousand more, for the same purpose, to oppose the Enemy and


    Page 392

    prevent their getting possession, in case they arrive before our Troops get there, of which there's a probability unless they are impeded by Contrary Winds. This Measure, tho it will be attended with considerable expence, I flatter myself will meet the Approbation of Congress. The Lines in Boston and on Boston Neck point out the propriety and suggest the necessity of keeping them from gaining possession and making a Lodgement. Should their destination be further southward or for Halifax for the purpose of going into Canada, the March of our Troops to New York, will place them nearer the scene of Action and more convenient for affording succours.

        We have not taken post on Nuke [Nook's] Hill and fortified it, as mentioned we should in my last. On hearing that the Enemy were about to retreat and leave the Town, It was thought imprudent and unadvisable to force them with too much precipitation, that we might gain a little time and prepare for a March. To morrow Evening we shall take possession of it unless they are gone. As New York is of such importance; prudence and policy require, that every precaution that can be devised, should be adopted to frustrate the designs which the Enemy may have of obtaining possession of it. To this End I have ordered Vessels to be provided and held ready at Norwich for the embarkation and Transportation of our Troops thither. This I have done with a view not only of expediting their arrival, as it will save several days marching but also that they may be fresh and fit for intrenching and throwing up Works of defence, as soon as they got there, If they do meet the Enemy to contend with, for neither of which would they be in a proper condition after a long and fatiguing March in bad roads. If Wallace with his Ships should be apprized of the measure and attempt to prevent it by stopping up the Harbour at New London, they can but pursue their March by Land.


    Page 393

        You will be pleased to observe, that it is the Opinion of the General Officers, If the Enemy abandon the Town, that it will be unnecessary to employ or keep any of this Army for its defence, and that I have mentioned on, that event's happening, I shall immediately repair to New York with the remainder of the Army not now detached, leaving only such a Number of Men here as circumstances may seem to require. What I partly allude to is, that as it will take a considerable time for the removal of such a large body of men, as the Divisions must precede each other in such order as to allow intermediate time sufficient for 'era to be covered and provided for on the route, and many things done previous to the march of the whole for securing and forwarding such necessaries, as can not be carried Immediately, (if proper to be carried at all) That some directions might be received from Congress, as to the number which they may judge necessary to be kept here for these or any other purposes. I could wish to have their commands upon the Subject and in time, as I may be under some degree of embarrassment as to their views.

        Congress having been pleased to appoint Col. Thompson a Brigadier General, there is a Vacancy for a Colonel in the Regiment he commanded, to which I would beg leave to recommend the Lieut. Col. Hand? 34 I shall also take the Liberty of recommending Captain Hugh Stevenson of the Virginia Riflemen to succeed Col. Hand & to be appointed in his place as Lieut. Col. (there being no Major, Magaw 35 the late one being appointed Lt. Col. of one of the Pennsylvania Battalions and gone from hence) He is in my Opinion the fittest person in this Army for it, as well as the oldest Captain in the service, having distinguished himself at the Head of a Rifle Company

    [Note:Lieut. Col. Edward Hand. ]
    [Note:Robert Magaw, of Thompson's rifle regiment. ]

    Page 394

    all the last War and highly merited the approbation of his superior officers.

        Col. Mifflin Informed me to day, of his having received Tent Cloths from Mr. Barrett of Philadelphia to the amount of 7,500 £ of Pennsylvania Currency and applied for a Warrant for Payment of it. But our Fund being low & many demands against it, which must be satisfied and our calls for Money will be exceedingly great, I could not grant it, thinking it might be convenient for payment to be made in Philadelphia by your order, on the Treasury there. 36 I have the Honor &ca.

    [Note:In the writing of Robert Hanson Harrison. ]

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, March 14, 1776.

        Parole -- . Countersign -- .

        Stark's, Patterson's, Webb's, Greaton's and Bonds regiments, together with two Companies of the Artillery, are to march to morrow morning at Nine O'Clock, under the Command of Brigadier General Heath, who will receive his orders from the Adjutant General this evening, at Head Quarters -- The Qr. M. General will furnish them with Waggons, and the Route by which they are to march -- The Men are to be supplied with Five days provisions, good part of which, they will do well to cook, before they leave Cambridge, as there may be difficulty in doing it upon the road.

        The General again reminds the Officers and Soldiers of the other Regiments, of the necessity of being ready for a march, as they may not have more than an hours notice. The General was informed Yesterday evening, by a person just out of Boston, that our Enemies in that place, had laid several Schemes for communicating the infection of the small-pox, to the Continental


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    Army, when they get into the town -- This shews the propriety of Yesterdays Orders, and the absolute necessity of paying the strictest obedience thereto. All Officers, and others possessed of any of the Continental Horses, are to return them immediately to the Q: M: General, in Cambridge.

        The General Court Martial of which Col. Huchinson was president, is dissolved.

    To THE OFFICER COMMANDING
    AT NEW YORK 37 Head Quarters, Cambridge, March 14, 1776.

    [Note:Brig. Gen. William Alexander (Lord Stirling) was in command at New York at this date, Maj. Gen. Charles Lee having left to take command of the Southern Department on March 7. ]

        Sir: I have stronger Reasons since I wrote to you last, to confirm me in my Opinion that the Army under General Howe is on it's Departure. All their Movements pronounce it, but least it may be but a Feint, I must continue on my Guard, and not weaken my Lines too much, until I have a Certainty of their Departure. It is given out that they are bound to Hallifax; but I am of Opinion that New York is their Place of Destination. It is the Object worthy their Attention; and it is the Place that we must use every Endeavour to keep from them. For should they get that Town, and the Command of the North River, they can stop the Intercourse between the northern and southern Colonies, upon which depends the Safety of America. My Feelings upon this Subject are so strong, that I would not wish to give the Enemy a Chance of succeeding at your Place. I shall, therefore, dispatch a Regiment and some independant Companies of Rifle Men this Day, and To-Morrow, or as soon as it conveniently can be done, five more Regiments will set out from this Camp. I cannot part with more, while the Enemy


    Page 396

    remain in Sight; but I have wrote to Governor Trumbull to send you 2000 Men, as soon as he possibly can. If you can get 1000 from New Jersey, with the Militia of the Country called in, if not repugnant to the Will of Congress, I think you can make a sufficient Stand, untill I can with the main Body of this Army join you; which you depend upon will be as soon as possible after I can with any Degree of Certainty, tell their Rout.

        The Plan of Defence, formed by General Lee, is, from what little I know of the Place, a very judicious one. I hope, nay I dare say, it is carrying into Execution, with Spirit and Industry. You may judge from the Enemys keeping so long Possession of the Town of Boston against an Army superior in Numbers and animated with the noble Spirit of Liberty: I say, you may judge by that how much easier it is, to keep an Enemy from forming a Lodgement in a Place, than it will be to dispossess them when they get themselves fortified. As I have in my last told you, that the Fate of this Campaign, of Course, the Fate of America, depends upon you and the Army under your Command, should the Enemy attempt your Quarter; I will dwell no more thereon, though the last Importance of the Subject, would make an Apology for Repetition, needless. I am, Sir, etc.

    To MAJOR GENERAL CHARLES LEE Head Quarters, Cambridge, March 14, 1776.

        Dear Sir: I am indebted to you for your three several Favors of the 19th and 29th of Febr. and 3rd March, which I should have acknowledged sooner, had not the great Hurry and Bustle we have been in for several Days past, prevented.

        You have doubtless heard before this Time of our being in Possession of Dorchester Hill, which important Business was executed in one Night without any Loss. The Enemy were thrown into utmost Consternation when they perceived, the


    Page 397

    next morning, what had been effected the preceding Night, and made Preparations to dislodge us. Three Thousand Men under Command of Lord Piercy were draughted for this Service; but a very heavy Storm of Wind and Rain frustrated their Design. In my Opinion, the most fortunate Circumstance for them and unfortunate for us, that could have happened; as we had every Thing so well prepared for their Reception, that, I am confident we should have given a very good Account of them. Failing in this Attempt, they have thought it most prudent to quit the Town, and have been for several Days past very busily employed in embarking their Troops, and Stores, on Board Transports, most of which are now in Nantasket Road, waiting for a fair Wind to sail somewhere. It is most probable their Destination is for New York. The vast Importance of that Place is doubtless a capital Object with them. It is most certainly so to us; and in Consequence of their shameful Retreat I shall begin to march Part of this Army immediately and follow with the Remainder, as soon as their Accommodations on the Road, will permit.

        I am informed by two very intelligent Men, who made their Escape from Boston, that they embark in great Confusion, are obliged to destroy many of their Carriages and Waggons, for Want of Room to transport them; that they are greatly distress'd for Seamen to man their Transports and that the few they have, are put on half Allowance, Provisions being so scarce that they have not more than sufficient for four Weeks.

        I was just about to congratulate you on your Appointment to the Command in Canada, when I receiv'd the Account that your Destination was altered. As a Virginian, I must rejoice at the Change; but, as an American, I think you would have done more essential Service to the common Cause, in Canada. For, besides the Advantage of speaking and thinking in French, an Officer who is acquainted with their Manners and Customs


    Page 398

    and has travell'd in their Country, must certainly take the strongest Hold of their Affection and Confidence.

        You mention nothing of the Guard that went with you from hence. Mr. Palfrey tells me you intend to carry them with you. As it will create great Confusion in the regimental Accounts, and they can be of no great service to you, I must beg you will let them remain at New York, where they will be soon joined by their respective Regiments.

        The recruiting Business here has gone on but very slowly indeed.

        I am much pleased with your Plans for the Defence and Security of New York. What you may leave unfinished, I shall order the Commanding Officer to compleat as soon as possible.

        Least the Enemy should meet with favourable Winds in their Passage, and get there before our Army, I have wrote to Governor Trumbull desiring him immediately to forward two Thousand Men, and have also requested one Thousand from the Jersies. This, with the Force already there, I hope will be able to keep the ministerial Army at Bay, untill I can arrive with the main Body.

        I most sincerely wish you Increase of Health and every Blessing & am, etc.

        P.S. The Ladies are well and desire their Compts. I am obliged to you for sending Mr. Palfrey, and shall endeavour to serve him, whenever it is in my Power.

    To GOVERNOR JONATHAN TRUMBULL Headquarters, Cambridge, March 14, 1776.

        Sir: Since I did myself the honor to write you last, the enemy have embarked their troops on board a number of transports, and are now making a shameful retreat from Boston. Various


    Page 399

    are the conjectures of their destination, though most agree it is either for Halifax or New York.

        The latter place seems by much the most probable. Be that as it may, New York is a post of infinite importance both to them and us, and much depends on priority of possession. I therefore entreat you, sir, immediately to throw two thousand men into that city, from the frontiers of Connecticut, to maintain the place till I can arrive there with the army under my command. The rifle regiment will march this day. Tomorrow a brigade will follow, and be succeeded by others as quick as possible.

        You are sensible, sir, of the great importance of a strenuous exertion at this critical period, a period which may in its consequences determine the fate of America. The zeal and activity heretofore shown by the good people of your Government in defence of the liberties of America leaves me no room to doubt their readiness on the present occasion. I have the honor to be, etc. 38

    [Note:The text is from the Toner Transcripts in the Library of Congress. ]

    To THE NEW HAMPSHIRE LEGISLATURE Cambridge, March 14, 1776.

        Sir: Your favor of the 12th Instant I just now received and beg leave to assure you that the approbation which your Honbl. Council are pleased to express of my Conduct respecting the Operations against the Town of Boston, affords me the highest satisfaction.

        I am exceedingly sorry that it is not in my power at this time to comply with your requisition for powder and to make a return of what was generously lent for the Continental use, the low state of our store of that necessary Article, will not allow me to spare the smallest quantity, but hoping that I may


    Page 400

    get a further supply before long to enable me to do It, I shall be much obliged, If you will favor me with an account of what you furnished, that it may be repaid as soon as circumstances will admit of It. I am Sir, &c.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, March 15, 1776.

        Parole Augustine. Countersign Bristol.

        The Regiments and Companies of Artillery, mentioned in Yesterdays Orders, are not to march before Sun-rise to morrow morning, when every thing belonging to them is to be ready to move off -- The Men are not to put their packs in the Carts; their provisions being carried for them, the General expects the whole to carry their own packs. Any Officer, or Soldier, who is known to commit any waste, or destruction to any of the barracks, or barrack-utensils, upon their removing, will be punished with the utmost severity. The Qr. Mr. General to order his Assistants, to see every Article taken proper care of, when the troops march.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, March 166, 1776.

        Parole Pensacola. Countersign Havanah.

        As the weather is so bad, and the roads so mirey, the Regiments and Companies of Artillery, ordered to march this morning, are to halt until to morrow morning.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, March 17, 1776.

        Parole Boston. Countersign St. Patrick.

        The Regiments under marching orders, to march to morrow morning at sun-rise.


    Page 401

    To GOVERNOR NICHOLAS COOKE Cambridge, March 17, 1776.

        Sir: I have the Pleasure to inform you, that this morning the Ministerial Troops evacuated the Town of Boston, without destroying it. 39 and that we are now in the full possession; upon which event, I beg leave to Congratulate you, and sincerely wish, if the Ministry persevere in the same unconstitutional and despotic measures, which too long have marked their conduct, that our opposition and resistance, in every Quarter, may be crowned with the success they have been here.

    [Note:An account of the evacuation, in the Boston Gazette, states that the enemy was seen to march from Bunker Hill about 9 a. m., and at the same time a great many boats. filled with troops, put off from Boston for the fleet, which lay below Castle William. Part of the Continentals came down the river from Cambridge by boats and landed at Sewells Point. General Ward's troops advanced from Roxbury and entered Boston from that direction. The command of the town was entrusted to General Putnam. ]

        Where their destination is, or what plans they have in view, is altogether unknown; most probably the next attempt will be against New York, or some more Southern Colony. However, I should think, tho' I do not believe they have any design against Rhode Island, that it will be adviseable to keep a strict look out; and submit it to you, whether it may not be proper against the time you apprehend they might arrive, to call in a number of the Militia and have them posted in proper places. I do not mean to direct the Measure, but only to mention It for your Consideration; to me it appears worthy of attention. I am &c.

        N. B. March 19th, the Fleet is still in King and Nantasket Roads.

    To LORD STIRLING Cambridge, March 17, 1776.

        My Lord: I crave your refference to my last to you of the 24th instant, since which I am honor'd with your Lordship's


    Page 402

    favour of the 20th. It gives me much pleasure to find that you are making such good preparations for the reception of the enemy, who have this day entirely quitted this harbour. A brigade under General Sullivan will set off on the morrow to your assistance. I will not be long after, with the main body of this army. I observe that Brigadier Genl. Thompson was arrived. He is a gentleman of liberal sentiments, who I dare say your Lordship will be happy with, and I have not the least doubt, but you will give him every assistance in your power. 40 I have the honor to be, etc.

    [Note:Thompson ranked Stirling by seniority. ]

        P.S. General Putnam will set out tomorrow or next day. If General Schuyler is not with you, he will take command of the troops. 41

    [Note:In private hands. It was sold at auction in 1929. ]

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, March 19, 1776.

        Parole Philadelphia. Countersign Sydney.

        Brigade Major Henly, 42 being ordered to attend Genl. Heath, Brigade Major Cary 43 is to take the duty of both those Brigades until further orders, and is therefore upon no account to be absent from Cambridge.

    [Note:David Henly, brigade major to General Heath. He was, later, a colonel of one of the 16 Additional Continental regiments. ]
    [Note:Richard Cary. ]

        All Officers, Soldiers and others, are positiely forbid going into the Town of Boston without a pass, or being sent expressly upon duty; As soon as the Select Men report the Town to be cleansed from Infection, liberty will be given to those who have business there, to go in. The Inhabitants belonging to the Town may be permitted to return to their habitations, proper persons being appointed at the Neck and at Charles-Townferry, to grant them passes.


    Page 403

    To THE PRESIDENT OF CONGRESS Head Quarters, Cambridge, March 19, 1776.

        Sir: It is with the greatest pleasure I inform you that on Sunday last the 17th. Instant, about 9th O'Clock in the forenoon the Ministerial Army evacuated the Town of Boston, and that the Forces of the United Colonies are now in actual Possession thereof. I beg leave to congratulate you Sir, and the Honorable Congress on this happy event, and particularly as it was effected without endangering the Lives and property of the remaining unhappy Inhabitants. 44

    [Note:"We saw the ships under way about 8 in the morning and the River full of boats armed with soldiers. This gave an alarm and some suspected they were about to land at Dorchester, but having a full view of them with a glass from Plowed Hill, I found they were going on board the ships. 1 then took my horse, and rode down to Charlestown Neck, where I had a clear view of Bunker's Hill. I saw the sentrys standing as usual with their firelocks shouldered, but finding they never moved, I soon suspected what regiment they belonged to; and upon taking a clear view with my glass, found they were only effigies set there by the flying enemy. This convinced me that they were actually fled, for if they meant to decoy us, they would have taken away every appearance of man. By this time, I was joined by Colo. Mifflin, who, with my Brigade Major agreed to go up, sending two persons round the works to examine whether there was any of them in the rear of the works, while we went up in the front. I at the same time sent for a strong party to follow us on to the hill to assist us in running away (if necessary). We found no person there and bravely took the fortress defended by lifeless sentries. I then brought on a party to secure what we had so bravely won, and went down to the other works where we found all abandoned, but the works not injured in any part. We hailed the ferry boat, which came over and informed us that they had abandoned the town. We then gave information to the general, who ordered me with the troops under my command to take possession of Charlestown, and General Putnam with 2000 men to take possession of the works in Boston; and on Monday Morning his Excellency made his entry into Boston, and repaired to Mr. Hancock's house, where we found his furniture left without injury or diminution." -- Brigadier General Sullivan to John Adams, Mar. 19, 1776.

       The fleet of the British consisted of 78 vessels, and carried all of Howe's army, about 8,900 men, and more than 1,1000 refugees. -- Ford. ]

        I have great reason to imagine their flight was precipitated by the appearance of a Work which I had ordered to be thrown up last Saturday night, on an eminence at Dorchester, which lay nearest to Boston Neck called Newks Hill. The Town although it has suffered greatly, is not in so bad a state as I expected to find it, and I have a particular pleasure in being able


    Page 404

    to inform you Sir, that your House has received no damage worth mentioning, your furniture is in tolerable Order and the family pictures are all left entire and untouched. Captn. Cazneau takes charge of the whole until he receives further Orders from you.

        As soon as the Ministerial Troops had quited the Town, I ordered a Thousand men (who had had the small pox) under command of General Putnam, to take possession of the Heights, which I shall fortify in such a manner, as to prevent their return, should they attempt it; but as they are still in the Harbour, I thought it not prudent to march off with the main body of the Army, until I should be fully satisfied they had quited the Coast. I have therefore only detached five Regiments besides the Rifle Battalion to New York, and shall keep the remainder here 'till all suspicion of their return ceases.

        The situation in which I found their Works, evidently discovered that their retreat was made with the greatest precipitation. They have left their Barracks and other works of wood at Bunkers Hill &ca. all standing, and have destroyed but a small part of their Lines. They have also left a number of fine pieces of Cannon, which they first spiked up, also a very large Iron Mortar; and (as I am informed) they have thrown another over the end of your Wharf -- I have employed proper Persons to drill the Cannon, and doubt not I shall save the most of them.

        I am not yet able to procure an exact List of all the Stores they have left. As soon as it can be done I shall take care to transmit it to you. From an estimate already made, by the Quarter Master General, of what he has discovered, they will amount to 25 or 30,000£.

        Part of the Powder mentioned in yours of the 6th Instant has already arrived; The remainder I have ordered to be stop'd on


    Page 405

    the Road as we shall have no occasion for it here. The Letter to General Thomas I immediately sent to him; he desired leave for three or four days to settle some of his private affairs after which he will set out for his Command in Canada. 45 I am happy that my Conduct in intercepting Lord Dunmore's Letter is approved of by Congress. I am etc. 46

    [Note:On March 6 Brig. Gen. John Thomas was promoted to major general and assigned to the command in Canada. (See Journals of the Continental Congress. ) ]
    [Note:In the writing of William Palfrey. Through inadvertence Washington did not sign this letter. ]

    To JOSEPH REED Cambridge, March 19, 1776.

        My dear Sir: We have at length got the ministerial troops in this quarter on shipboard. Our possessing Dorchester Heights, as mentioned in my last, put them (after they had given over the design of attacking us) into a most violent hurry to embark, which was still further percipitated on Sunday morning by our breaking ground on Nukes' Hill, (the point nearest the town,) the night before. The whole fleet is now in Nantasket and King's Roads, waiting for I know not what, unless to give us a parting blow, for which I shall endeavour to be prepared.

        The hurry in which they have embarked is inconceivable; they have not, from a rough estimate, left less than £30,000 worth of his majesty's property behind them, in provisions and stores, vessels, rugs, blankets, &c.: near thirty pieces of fine heavy cannon are left spiked, which we are now drilling, a mortar or two, the H. shells, &c. in abundance, all their artillery-carts, powder-wagons, &c., &c., which they have been twelve months about, are left with such abuse as their hurry would permit them to bestow; whilst others, after a little cutting and hacking, were thrown in the harbour, and now


    Page 406

    are visiting every shore. In short, you can scarce form an idea of the matter. Valuable vessels are left with only a mast or bowsprit cut down, some of them loaded; their works all standing, upon examination of which, especially that at Bunker's Hill, we find amazingly strong: twenty thousand men could not have carried it against one thousand, had that work been well defended. The town of Boston was almost impregnable; every avenue fortified. I have already marched the riflemen and five regiments for New York; I cannot spare more, whilst the fleet hover in our harbour. So soon as they are fairly gone, more will follow with all expedition, as I shall do myself, as I suppose New York to be the object in view. I write you in much haste, and therefore can only add that I am, etc.

        P.S. I impatiently wish to see you. 47

    [Note:The text is from Reed's Life and Correspondence of Joseph Reed. ]

    To MAJOR GENERAL PHILIP SCHUYLER Cambridge, March 19, 1776.

        Dear Sir: The 17th. Instt. Mr. Bennet handed me your Favor of the 9th. It mortifies me beyond Expression to find the Troops going to Canada, so badly provided with Arms. I have so often mentioned the Situation we are in from the same Cause, that I shall not trouble you more thereon. Indeed, your Letters and mine seem Echoes to each other, enumerating our mutual Difficulties. Should Success crown our Labours, the Reflection will not be disagreeable.

        A short Detail of what has happen'd here since I wrote you last, will, I dare say, afford you Pleasure.

        The night of the 4th. Inst. we possessed ourselves of Dorchester Heights, which alarmed the Enemy so much that they made


    Page 407

    their Dispositions to engage us, which was what I most earnestly wished for; but a violent storm coming on the Evening of the 5th. gave us Time to strengthen our Works, and cool'd the Enemy's Ardor. From that Moment they made all possible Diligence in preparing to move off. -- Our advancing still closer to them; on the 15th. by taking Post on an Eminence, called Nooks Hill which commands their Works on the Neck of Land, which separates the Town from Roxbury, also commands the South Part of Boston, has obliged the Enemy to take to their Ships, which, rather precipitately, they effected the 17th. in the morning, leaving behind them about 30 Pieces of excellent Cannon, and two Mortars, spiked, a Number of Ball, some Shells, the chief Part of their Light Horse Forrage, 20,000 Bushells of Wheat, 2500 Chaldron of Coal, Salt, Rugs, Blankets, with many other Articles too tedious to mention.

        The Ships now lie below the Castle, extending themselves to Nantasket Road, about nine Miles. I do not expect that they will pay us another Visit; tho' as a Number of Transports have appeared this Morning to have joined them, they may be tempted, which will prevent my sending off any more Troops, untill they quit the Harbour. It is uncertain where they may go from hence. Long Island or New York is, in my Opinion, the Place of their Destination. I have sent off a Rifle Regiment, and five Battalions to New York and when I can be certain of their having fairly left these Parts, I shall remove the Rest of the Army there, where I shall have great Pleasure to meet you in tolerable Health.

        The Return of the Troops with General Arnold, is received, also the Depositions respecting Colonel Allen's Usage, which has been very cruel.

        I am in Hopes we shall be able to collect some hard Money from the Inhabitants of Boston. If we do, you shall soon be informed thereof.


    Page 408

        Application has been made to the Commissary Mr. Chamier, relative to the Subsistence of the Prisoners in our Possession, which, I believe is settled with David Franks of Philadelphia. I remain, etc.

    INSTRUCTIONS AND ORDERS TO
    BRIGADIER GENERAL WILLIAM HEATH Head Quarters, Cambridge, March 19, 1776.

        As you are forthwith to take upon you the Command of the Brigade, now upon their March to Norwich in Connecticut, consisting of the 5th, 16th, 19th, 24 and 25th Regiments, you will without Delay proceed to Norwich, where you will confer with the Persons appointed to provide Vessels for the Transportation of the Troops to New York. Dispatch and secrecy are necessary in embraking and sailing with this Brigade from thence to the Place of their Destination in doing which, you must be intirely governed by the Information you will receive at Norwich, and such Intelligence of the Motions of the Enemy's Ships of War, and armed Vessels, as you will be able to procure at Norwich, and from the Mouth of that River. As you have your own Coast aboard, there will be no Risque in transporting the Troops by Water unless the Enemy's Ships are in Possession of the Mouth of the River previous to your Arrival there. In that Case, you will disembark the Troops, and march the Brigade by Land to New York.

        Perceiving that several of the Baggage Carts carried from hence, Tables, and other Articles of Household Furniture you are strictly enjoined to ease the Carriages of all such Trumpery, and positively not to suffer the March of the Brigade to be retarded, by any unnecessary Luggage being put into the Baggage Carts.


    Page 409

        By the Order of March, delivered to the commanding Officers of the several Divisions of the Brigade, now upon their March to Norwich, it is forcibly recommended to them to exert their utmost Diligence, and authority, to prevent all pillaging, and marauding; and every Species of Abuse or ill Treatment of the Inhabitants of the Country. This Order you will continue to enforce, and command to be strictly observed.

        Upon your Arrival with the Brigade at New York, you will wait upon the commanding General there, and receive and obey such Orders and Instructions, as he shall think necessary to give but you are not upon any Account to go before your Brigade into that City, nor be at any Time absent from them more than ten Miles, taking particular Care to acquaint the Colonels commanding the Divisions, where you lay of Nights, that they may know where to send upon any Emergency for your Orders and Directions.

        If, when you arrive at New York, there is no General of superior Rank, nor no senior Officer to yourself, you will take the Command of the Army there, and with all possible Diligence proceed in executing Major General Lee's Plan for fortifying that Post, and the entrench'd Camp proposed. 48

    [Note:The draft is in the writing of Horatio Gates. ]

    To LORD STIRLING Cambridge, March 19, 1776.

        My Lord: I am now to acknowledge the Receipt of your Favour of the 11th. Inst., and to give you my Congratulations upon your late Appointment by the honourable Congress. 49

    [Note:Stirling, on March 1, had been appointed brigadier general. ]

        If the Intelligence is true and to be depended on, which was brought by the Gentleman to New York, I think with you, that we shall have an Opportunity of securing and putting the


    Page 410

    Continent in a tolerable Posture of Defence and that the Operations of the Summer's Campaign will not be so terrible, as we were taught to expect from the Accounts and Denunciations which the Ministry held forth to the Public. 50

    [Note:The news brought by these gentlemen was to the effect that Great Britain bad engaged 10,000 Hanovarians and Hessians for service in America, and was endeavoring to obtain 10,000 Russians. Seven regiments (about 4,000 men) were to sail from Cork for the southern colonies and "That the french Ambassador at London had declared to the English Ministry that His Master did not mean to Meddle with the Quarrel between G. Britain and her Colonies which [while?] it was Carried on with its own force. But that he Could not be an Idle Spectator if any foreign Aid was made use of. (It was not then known in London that the french had any Troops in the West India Islands)." Stirling's letter is in the Washington Papers. ]

        I have the Pleasure to inform you, that on the Morning of the 17th Inst. General Howe with his Army abandoned the Town of Boston without destroying it, an Event of much Importance, and which must be heard with great Satisfaction; and that we are now in full Possession of it. Their Embarkation and Retreat were hurried and precipitate and they have left behind them Stores of one Kind and another to a pretty considerable Amount, among which are several Pieces of heavy Cannon and one or two Mortars, which are spiked.

        The Town is in a much better Situation, and less injured than I expected, from the Reports I had received; tho' it is much damaged, and many Houses despoil'd of their valuable Furniture.

        The Fleet is still in King and Nantasket Roads; and where they intend to make a Descent next is altogether unknown; but supposing New York to be an Object of much Importance and to be in their View, I must recommend your most strenuous and active Exertions in preparing to prevent any Designs or Attempts, they may have against it. I have detached the Rifle Men and five Battalions from hence to your Assistance, which will be followed by others as Circumstances will allow. These, with what Forces are there, and can be assembled if there should be an Occasion, I trust, will be sufficient to hinder


    Page 411

    the Enemy from possessing the City or making a Lodgment 'till the main Body of this Army can arrive. I am, My Lord, &c.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, March 20, 1776.

        Parole Dorchester. Countersign Salem.

        Whitcombs, Phinneys, and Huchinsons Regiments are to march into Boston this day, and remain there until further orders, they are to guard the Town, and public Stores there, and do all such fatigue, and other duties, as the General commanding there, thinks proper to order -- Every possible precaution will be taken to destroy the Infection of the small-pox. The Troops now in Boston are to march out, and join their respective Regiments, upon being relieved by the Regiments that are to march in. -- The Posts on Bunkers-hill, Breed's-hill, and Charles-Town Ferry, are to be garrison'd by Col Waldron's 51 Regt., who is to take special care that the Abbaties, picketting &c. are preserved entire -- The Qt. Mr. Genl. is to see that Fire Wood, or Coals, is immediately laid in for the supply of those posts. The Commissary Genl. has Orders, immediately to lay in a proper supply of provisions, for the Garrisons of Boston, Bunkers-hill & Dorchester Heights.

    [Note:Col. John Waldron, of the New Hampshire Militia. ]

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, March 21, 1776.

        Parole New York. Countersign Hallifax.

        Learnards and Cary's 52 Regiments, are to march this Afternoon and relieve the Troops upon Dorchester Heights, where

    [Note:Col. Ebenezer Learned's Third Continental Infantry, and Col. Simeon Cary's Massachusetts Militia regiment. ]

    Page 412

    those Regiments are to remain in Garrison, until further orders. -- The Dep. Qr. Mr. Genl. will provide Carriages from Roxbury, and provisions are order'd by the Commissary General to be stored upon the heights.

        The Details for the Roxbury, and Cambridge Departments, will be deliver'd to the Majors of brigade, with this days orders.

        PROCLAMATION 53

    [Note:Ford, in his Writings of Washington, prints from a facsimile taken from Winsor's History of Boston, vol. 2, p. 181. Sparks also prints the text. The capitalization being that of Benjamin Eries, of Waltertown. N. Y., who published the broadside, it has not been here followed. ]

        Whereas the ministerial army has abandoned the town of Boston, and the forces of the United Colonies under my command are in possession of the same; I have therefore thought it necessary for the preservation of peace, good order, and discipline, to publish the following orders, that no person offending therein may plead ignorance as an excuse for their misconduct.

        All officers and soldiers are hereby ordered to live in the strictest peace and amity with the inhabitants; and no inhabitant, or other person, employed in his lawful business in the town is to be molested in his person or property, on any pretence whatever.

        If any officer or soldier shall presume to strike, imprison, or otherwise ill-treat any of the inhabitants, he may depend on being punished with the utmost severity; and if any officer or soldier shall receive any insult from any of the inhabitants, he is to seek redress in a legal way, and no other.

        Any non-commissioned officer or soldier, or others under my command, who shall be guilty of robbing or plundering in the town, are to be immediately confined, and will be most rigidly punished. All officers are therefore ordered to be very


    Page 413

    vigilant in the discovery of such offenders, and report their names and crime to the commanding officer in the town, as soon as may be.

        The inhabitants and others are called upon to make known to the Quartermaster-general, or any of his deputies, all stores belonging to the ministerial army, that may be remaining or secreted in the town; any person or persons whatsoever, that shall be known to conceal any of the said stores, or appropriate them to his or their own use, will be considered as an enemy to America, and treated accordingly.

        The selectmen and other magistrates of the town are desired to return to the Commander-in-chief the names of all or any person or persons, they may suspect of being employed as spies upon the Continental army, that they may be dealt with accordingly.

        All officers of the Continental army are enjoined to assist the civil magistrates in the execution of their duty, and to promote peace and good order. They are to prevent, as much as possible, the soldiers from frequenting tippling-houses, and strolling from their posts. Particular notice will be taken of such officers as are inattentive and remiss in their duty; and, on the contrary, such only as are active and vigilant will be entitled to future favor and promotion.

        Given under my hand etc.

    To GOVERNOR NICHOLAS COOKE Cambridge, March 21, 1776.

        Sir: Your favors of the 18th and 19th Insts. I received, and am extremely sorry to hear that your Militia are so deficient in Arms. I fear the misfortune is too common, nor do I know how it will be remedied. In this Army, altho' I have pursued


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    every mode I could devise for procuring them, there is still a great deficiency and a considerable number of Men without any in their hands. The peculiar situation of Rhode Island and its extensive Sea Coast, had not escaped my mind; I well know the Enemy have it in their Power to do it considerable damage, unless there is a Sufficient force to repel their Attempts: But it is the opinion of the General Officers here, that their destination is against New York, the Importance of which, as it secures the free and only Communication between the Northern and Southern Colonies, which will be intirely cut off by their possessing it, and give them the Command of Hudson's River and an easy pass into Canada; makes it absolutely and indispensably necessary, for the whole of this Army, which is but inconsiderable, (except that part of It which will be left here to secure the Stores, Barracks and other Public property), to be marched from hence for its defence with all possible expedition. It is an object that should Command our first attention, and if lost, will be of the most fatal consequence to us in the present unhappy and Interesting struggle. Least any Attempts should be made against you, I shall give orders to the Officers Commanding Brigades, If they have intelligence of an Invasion, upon their March, that they forthwith return to your Succour. I shall also Order the Officer, who will be left here, to do the same with the Troops under his Command, whenever occasion may require It.

        Agreeable to the request made by you and your Honble General Assembly, I shall with chearfulness and pleasure direct some of the last divisions that go from hence, to puruse the Route you wish, If they can be accomodated with Covering and Provision, and shall be ever ready and happy to render Rhode Island or any other place any Services in my power that may be compatible with the General good. I am Sir, with sentiments of the highest regard, Your and theirs &c.


    Page 415

    To GOVERNOR JONATHAN TRUMBULL Cambridge, March 21, 1776.

        Sir: I received your favor of the 18th Inst. and concur with you in opinion, that their Women and Children with the Tory families will most probably go to Halifax; this is what I meant and alluded to, having never suspected that they (especially the latter) would go to New York.

        I am extremely obliged by your friendly hint and shall ever receive them with pleasure, But I do not think that they were apprehensive of an attack from our Side, but rather preparing to make one; However let their designs have been what they may, I have the satisfaction to inform you, that on Sunday Morning last they totally evacuated the Town, and we are now in full possession, upon which event, I beg leave to congratulate you and more so, as the Town is in a much better situation than was expected; added to this, they have left by means of their percipitate retreat, Stores of one kind and another, to a pretty considerable amount, a particular detail of which or estimate of their value, I have not yet got. Notwithstanding they have abandoned the Town, and there have been favorable winds for their departure, they are still lying with their fleet in Nantasket Road, but for what purpose, is a matter of much conjecture; some supposing their Vessels to have been loaded with such hurry and confusion, as to be unfit for Sea and to require sundry things and arrangements to be settled previous to their going out; But for my own part, I cannot but suspect they are waiting for some opportunity to give us a Stroke, at a moment when they conceive us to be off guard, in order to retrieve the honor they have lost by their shameful and scandalous retreat, diminishing from that Lustre and renown which British Armies were wont to boast and justly claimed as their right. Suspecting them of such motives, I shall not detach any


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    more of the Army, than what is gone already; until they have taken their departure and quitted the Coast.

        I heartily thank you for your kind attention to my last requisition, and am glad that the Companies you have ordered are of the Militia, the trouble and Inconveniences occasioned by them, being far less than what generally attend Volunteers. Nothing but Necessity and the Importance of New York to us in the present contest, could have induced the application and therefore as soon as they can be spared, by the arrival of our Army, they will be at Liberty to return home to their common and necessary employments, except such as choose to Inlist and continue in Service.

        In compliance with your request, I shall direct the Troops or some of them, that go from hence, after the Ministerial Fleet are gone, to pursue their rout on or near the Sea Coast, If they can be accomodated with Covering and Provision; that they may be ready to oppose the Enemy, in case they make any attempt upon your Colony, about the time of their going, tho' that is what I do not apprehend, I rather suppose when they once set out, that they will repair to New York or where ever bound with all possible despatch, to secure the place they are destined for, by surprize, lest preparations should be made to receive and prevent them. I am etc.

    To THE MASSACHUSETTS LEGISLATURE Cambridge, March 21, 1776.

        Gentn.: Er'e now, I was in hopes of congratulating you on the departure of the Ministerial Troops, not only from your Capital, but Country. That they still remain in the Harbour, after having been five days embarked, affords matter for speculation, and, collected as their force is now, of apprehension.


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    This Circumstance, the Security of Boston by a work on Fort Hill & demolition of the Lines on the Neck, and preservation of the Stores, for Continental use, belonging to the King, by a proper search after them, rendered it indispensably necessary for me to throw some Troops into the Town immediately (It coming within the line of my duty); but notwithstanding all the precaution, which I have endeavoured to use, to restrain and limit the Intercourse between the Town and Army and Country for a few days, I greatly fear that the Small Pox will be communicated to both.

        So soon as the fleet sets Sail, my attention must be turned to another Quarter, and most of the Continental Regiments now here march'd off. It may be necessary therefore, for you, Gentn., to consider the state of your Harbour, and think of such works as shall be found necessary for the defence of it, and the Town, in case another Armed Force (which I by no means expect) should be sent hither. I shall leave three or four Regiments, as circumstances may require, for security of the Stores, and throwing up such works as shall be deemed necessary for the purposes above mentioned; and shall direct the Officer Commanding them, to receive such Instructions, in respect to the latter, as you may think proper to give.

        It has been suggested to me, that, in the Town of Boston &c., there is a good deal of property belonging to Refugees and such other Inimical persons, as from the first of the present dispute, have manifested the most unfriendly disposition to the American Cause; and, that part of this Property is in such kind of effects, as can be easily transported, concealed, or changed. I submit to you, therefore, Gentlemen, the expediency of having an Enquiry made into this Matter, before it is too late for redress, leaving the decision thereupon (after the Quantum, or Value, is ascertained, and held in state of durance) to the


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    consideration of a future day. I have ordered that no violence be offered by the Soldiery, either to the Persons, or property of those people; wishing that the matter may be taken into consideration by your Honorable body, and in such a way as you shall judge most advisable. 54

    [Note:The number of refugees who left Boston with the British Army was more than 1,000. The following statement is taken from the official return made to the government and now deposited in the public offices in London: "Members of the council, commissioners, customhouse officers, and other persons who had been in some official station, 182; clergy, 18; persons from the country, 105; merchants and other inhabitants of Boston, 213; farmers, traders, and mechanics, 382; total, 924." All these returned their names on their arrival in Halifax. About 200 others did not return their names.

       General Howe wrote from Halifax to Lord George Germain (April 25): "Many of the principal inhabitants of Boston under the protection of the army, having no means of subsistence here, apply to me to find them a passage to Europe, which they cannot otherwise get than at a most exorbitant rate. They have my assurance, that the first transport that can be spared shall be given up for this purpose. I am sorry to inform your Lordship, that there is an absolute necessity of issuing provisions to the whole of them, about eleven hundred, from the King's stores, without any prospect of stopping it. It must be confessed, that many, having quitted the whole of their property and estates, some of them very considerable in value, are real objects of his Majesty's most gracious attention." By the army returns the British force amounted to about 8,900, officers and men. They sailed in 78 ships and transports. -- Sparks. ]

        The inclosed came to me a few days ago, and I beg leave to recommend the purport of it to the consideration of the Court. I shall take the Liberty to add, as my opinion, that the Congress expect nothing else, than that the Field Officers of the Massachusetts Regiments, should receive the same pay as those of the other Colonies have done; and that they expected, at the time the pay was fixed, that £15 to a Colonel, £12 to Lieut. Colonel and £10 to a Major, was the actual establishment of this Government. I could wish, therefore, they were allowed it, to remove the Jealousies and uneasiness which have arisen. I am etc.

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, March 22, 1176.

        Parole Grafton. Countersign -- .

        The Colonel of Artillery, Quarter Master General, Commissary General and Commissary of Ordnance Stores, to make out


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    exact Returns of all military Stores, Provisions &c. &c. now in Boston, Cambridge, Roxbury, Dorchester Heights, and Forts &c. adjacent -- This must be done in the correctest manner, and when finish'd and sign'd, delivered by the proper Officer of each department, to the Commander in Chief.

        The Provost Marshal is forthwith to remove with his prisoners, to Boston -- The prisoners of war, and John Stevens, are by his Excellency's order, to be put into Boston goal.

        The Majors of Brigade, to order the Adjutants to be punctual in delivering their weekly returns at orderly time to morrow.

    To SAMUEL ADAMS Cambridge, March 22, 1776.

        Dear Sir: Amidst a multiplicity of Business Smaller matters are apt to be overlook'd, this I conceive to be the case with respect to the proposition of a Colo. Baillie 55 for opening a Road, and which I laid before Congress for their direction some months ago. The matter again occurs upon a Second application, from Mr. Weatherspoon (the bearer, at as I understand, the Instance of Colo. Baillie) whom I have desired to obtain such useful Information as he can get, and wait upon Congress with it.

    [Note:Colonel Baillie was Jacob Bayley, brigadier general of New Hampshire Militia and, later, deputy quartermaster general at Coos, N. H. ]

        If a safe and easy communication can be opened with Canada through the channel above spoken of many advantages undoubtedly will result from it; but as I am unacquainted with the Country through which this road is to pass; as I know nothing of the Gentlemen advising and can form no other opinion of the matter than from the Maps, the only design of my giving you the trouble of this letter is just to reach the attention of Congress to the subject matter so far as to say yea or nay.


    Page 420

        For the Occurences of this camp I shall beg leave to refer you to my Letter to Congress, and to assure you that I am, etc. 56

    [Note:The text is from the Toner Transcripts in the Library of Congress. ]

    To DOCTOR JOHN MORGAN [Cambridge], Friday Morning, March 22, 1776.

        The General presents his best respects to Doctr Morgan. Upon enquiry of Colonel Mifflin, concerning the Horse (the Doctr very kindly made a tender of to him) he is given to understand, that this Horse did not belong to the King or any of his officers; but was the property of a Doctr Loyd, an avow'd Enemy to the American Cause.

        As the Genl. does not know under what predicament the property of these kind of People may fall; In short, if there was no kind of doubt in the case, as the Horse is of too much value for the General to think of robbing the Doctr of, he begs leave to return him; accompanied with sincere thanks for the politeness with which he was presented, and this request, that the Doctr will not think the General meant to slight his favors.

        He is sorry to hear of Mrs. Morgan's Indisposition, and hopes she is better to day. 57

    [Note:The text is from the Toner Transcripts in the Library of Congress. ]

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, March 23, 1776.

        Parole Cape-Fear. Countersign Moore.

        Col James Reed's, Nixon's, Poor's, Prescot's, Arnold's, and Baldwins Regiments, are the first to march, under Brigadier Genl. Sullivan; they are to be ready at a moment's warning. The General flatters himself that the commanding Officer of each of these, and the other Corps, will exert themselves (as


    Page 421

    they are going to join the Troops of other Colonies) in sprucing up their men, that they may look as Soldierlike, and reputable, as possible -- This, and a proper Attention to the good and orderly behaviour of the men, and the proper care of their Arms, Ammunition and Accoutrements, are qualifications essentially necessary to every commanding Officer, therefore, for their own Honor, and the Honor of the New England Colonies, it is hoped they will diligently exert themselves at this time.

        Two Companies of Artillery, with such light brass Ordnance, and Stores, as the Commanding Officer of the Artillery shall direct, are to march with Genl. Sullivan.

        Col Gridley is to apply to Genl. Ward for such men, as are necessary for the Demolition of the Lines, on Boston neck, who is to see the work executed as fast as possible. -- The Pickets, and other useful Materials, to be preserved, and placed so as to be ready when called for, under the care of Sentries, such parts of these works as may be of Service for our defence, are to be preserved.

        Col. Knox will immediately lay out a Battery upon Charles-Town point, to be executed under the direction of Lieut. Col. Mason 58 of the Artillery -- A Field Officer, with all the men off duty, of Col Robinsons 59 Regiment, to march at Sun-rise to morrow Morning to Charles-Town point as a working party.

    [Note:Lieut. Col. David Mason, of Knox's Continental artillery. ]
    [Note:Col. John(?) Robinson, of the Massachusetts Militia. ]

    To JOSIAH QUINCY Cambridge, March 24, 1776.

        Sir: I am favoured with your letter of the 21st instant. It came to hand this afternoon, and I thank you for the many kind and flattering expressions it contains. To obtain the applause of


    Page 422

    deserving men is a heartfelt satisfaction, to merit it is my highest wish. If my conduct, therefore, as an instrument in the late signal interposition of Providence, hath merited the approbation of this great country, I shall esteem it one of the most fortunate and happy events of my life. I acknowledge myself your debtor for the share you have bestowed on me of it. The continuance of the fleet in Nantasket Road affords matter for speculation; it surpasses my comprehension, and awakens all my suspicions. I have taken every step in my power to guard against surprises; but the temper of your people seems to me to be apprehensive of no danger till it stares them in the face. I do not think there is cause to apprehend such marauding parties as you dread; if any stroke is aimed, it will be a capital one; for which reason I wish to be much upon my guard, and, therefore, have appointed guard boats, look outs, &c. There is one evil I dread, and that is, their spies. I could wish, therefore, that the most attentive watch was kept to prevent any intercourse with the ships and the main land for this purpose; and to prevent suspected persons (for I have no doubt but that trusty soldiers, sergeants, and even commissioned officers in disguise, will be sent out) from travelling about. I wish a dozen or more of honest, sensible, and diligent men, were employed to haunt the communication between Roxbury and the different landing places nearest the shipping, in order to question, cross-question, &c., all such persons as are unknown, and cannot give an account of themselves in a straight and satisfactory line. If you could hire men for this purpose, whilst the shipping continue where they now are, I would pay the wages you agree upon, and thank you for the trouble, as I think it a matter of some importance to prevent them from obtaining intelligence of our situation. The earliest information should also be communicated of any movements which may be discovered, and whether any of the shipping are getting out as it were by stealth.


    Page 423

        I am exceedingly sorry to hear of your indisposition, and heartily wish you a perfect restoration to health. I should be very happy to take you by the hand before I bid adieu to the Colony; but as my motions are regulated by those of the enemy, I cannot say when or where it can happen.

        In sincerity and truth, I remain, etc. 60

    [Note:The text is from the Toner Transcripts in the Library of Congress. ]

    GENERAL ORDERS Head Quarters, Cambridge, March 24, 1776.

        Parole Philadelphia. Countersign Lynch.

        The Enemy still continuing in the harbour, without any apparent cause for it, after Winds and Weather have favoured their sailing, leaves abundant reason to suspect, that they may have some design of aiming a blow at us before they depart -- The General therefore in the strongest terms imaginable, recommends to the commanding Officer of every Corps, to prevent his men that are off duty, from straggling, but to have them ready to turn out at a moments warning, with their Arms, & Ammunition in good order -- For this purpose a strict attention is to be paid to Roll-calling, and all delinquents severely punished.

        The General Officers in their several departments, are to take care that proper Alarm posts are assign'd every Corps, that no confusion, or disorder may ensue, in case we should be called out: In a particular manner General's Putnam and Sullivan, are to attend to those of the Centre, and Left Division: As the Enemy's evacuation of Boston, will render a new disposition proper, they are to meet and consult on this point without delay. Genl. Green will dispose of the Regiments in Boston, to the best advantage.


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        The floating Batteries to be man'd (if they have Guns on board) and sent down to Charlestown point, for the purpose of defence in case of need.

        The Guard Boats are to patrole constantly, and be very attentive to every movement of the enemy, and good look outs kept at, and from, the posts from Chelsea, round Squantum, and the earliest information given of a hostile appearance. All the flat-bottom, and whale boats, not in imediate, and necessary use, are to be brought from Boston, and Charlestown, where they are beating against the wharves, and secured in Cambridge River. Mr. Sylvanus Drew is appointed to take charge of the boats, and to make a return thereof to the Commander in Chief. Such hands as he shall find necessary to get these Boats together, Genl. Putnam will order him.

        The public Horses, and some other Articles, will be sold on the Common in Cambridge, to morrow at eleven o'Clock.

    To THE PRESIDENT OF CONGRESS Cambridge, March 24, 1776.

        Sir: When I had the Honor to address you the 19th Instant, upon the evacuation of the Town of Boston by the Ministerial Army, I fully expected, as their retreat and embarkation were hurried and precipitate, that before now they would have departed the Harbour, and been far in their passage to the place of Destination. But to my surprize and disappointment the Fleet is still in Nantasket road. The purpose induceing their stay is altogether unknown; nor can I suggest any satisfactory reason for it. On Wednesday night last, the whole Fleet fell down to Nantasker, they demolished the Castle and Houses belonging to it, by burning them down, and the several Fortifications. They left a great Number of the Cannon, but have


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    rendered all of them, except a very few, entirely useless by breaking off the Trunnions, and those they spiked up, but may be made serviceable again; some are already done.

        There are several