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Language peer sets for DYNAMO:
United States
United States/1959
Designed 1959
1950s languages
Second generation
Early Cold War
Genus Expression oriented
Specialised Languages
Expression oriented
Expression oriented/1959
Expression oriented/United States
Continuous/United States
Simulating/United States
Specialised Languages
Specialised Languages/1959
Specialised Languages/us


DYNAmic MOdels simulation  

alternate simple view
Country: United States
Designed 1959
Published: 1959
Genus: Expression oriented
Sammet category: Specialised Languages

DYNAmic MOdels simulation

Phyllis Fox & A.L. Pugh, Industrial Dynamics Group, MIT 1959

Continuous simulation including economic, industrial and social systems.

"These shortcomings were corrected by DYNAMO (DYNAmic MOdels), written by Phyllis Fox (Mrs. George Sternlieb) and Alexander L. Pugh, III, and completed in the spring of 1959. Mr. Roberts
modified and improved the plotting routine, and Grace Duren and David J. Howard assisted with other phases of the program. The program was rewritten the following summer by the same team. Following this effort the maintenance of DYNAMO became the responsibility of Mr. Pugh. When M.I.T. replaced the 704 with the 709, DYNAMO was converted to run on the new machine. In 1962, Jay W. Forrester of M.I.T. suggested a relaxation of the requirements on initial values, which was implemented. When C.T.S.S. (Compatible Time Sharing System) became generally available, DYNAMO was modified to operate under it. This facility made it possible to create, debug, and run a model in a matter of hours, the output returning directly back to the console"

Related languages
SIMPLEDYNAMO   Evolution of
  DYNAMODYNAMO II Extension of



  • Bemer, R (1962) Bemer, R "ISO TC97/SC5/WGA(1) Survey of Programming Languages and Processors" December 1962
          in [ACM] (1963) [ACM] CACM 6(03) (Mar 1963)




  • Crisman, P. (1965) Crisman, P. A. (Ed.) The time-sharing system: a programmer's guide. (2nd ed.) M.I.T. Press, Cambridge,Mass., 1966 Extract: LAnguages and Subsystems available
  • Gear, C. (1965) Gear, C. W. review of Pugh 1963 Abstract
          in (1965) ACM Computing Reviews 6(05) September-October 1965
  • Hutchinson, G. (1965) Hutchinson, G. K. review of Krasnow et al 1964
          in (1965) ACM Computing Reviews 6(06) November-December 1965





  • PUGH, Alexander L., III: (1970) PUGH, Alexander L., III: "DYNAMO II user's manual". Cambridge, Mass.; London: MIT Press 1970. X,73 S. ISBN 0-262-66012-1 Extract: PREFACE Extract: BRIEF HISTORY OF DYNAMO Extract: BRIEF HISTORY OF DYNAMO


  • Stock (1971) Stock, Karl F. "A listing of some programming languages and their users" in RZ-Informationen. Graz: Rechenzentrum Graz 1971 76 Abstract


  • Sammet (1972) Sammet, Jean E., "Roster of Programming Languages 1972" 86
          in (1972) Computers & Automation 21(6B), 30 Aug 1972


  • Stock and Stock (1973) Stock, Marylene and Stock, Karl F. "Bibliography of Programming Languages: Books, User Manuals and Articles from PLANKALKUL to PL/I" Verlag Dokumentation, Pullach/Munchen 1973 194 Abstract


  • Nance, Richard E. (1995) Nance, Richard E. "Simulation programming languages: an abridged history"
          in [Proceedings] (1995) The 27th Winter Simulation Conference 3-6 December 1995 Hyatt Regency Crystal City, Arlington, VA
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