Governorates of Yemen

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Updates: 

Newsletter II-2, an update to the ISO 3166-2 standard, is dated 2010-06-30. It assigns an ISO code to Raymah governorate, which was created in 2004.

The latest version of the FIPS standard is called "Geopolitical Entities and Codes", published in 2010-04. It provides codes for two subdivisions that were missing them. The new set of codes is shown in the main table below.

ISO 3166-2 has come out in a second edition, dated 2007-12-15. It gives a code for San`a' city, as shown below.

ISO 3166-2 Newsletter number I-4, dated 2002-12-10, lists the new governorates Al Dali' and Amran. FIPS Publication Change Notice No. 9, affecting FIPS PUB 10-4, dated 2004-10-01, assigns FIPS codes to the two new governorates. It also changes the FIPS codes of the old governorates from which the new ones were formed.

Country overview: 

Short nameYEMEN
ISO codeYE
FIPS codeYM
LanguageArabic (ar)
Time zone+3
CapitalSanaa

 

In 1900, modern Yemen consisted of the Turkish vilayet of Yemen along the Red Sea, and a collection of territories on the Gulf of Aden and Arabian Sea which were in the British sphere. The border between them was delimited starting in 1902. This border remained in place through several changes in government, until 1990, when the two countries merged.

Other names of country: 

  1. Arabic: al-Jamhuriya al-Yamaniya (formal)
  2. Danish: Yemen
  3. Dutch: Jemen, Republiek Jemen (formal)
  4. English: Republic of Yemen (formal)
  5. Finnish: Jemen
  6. French: Yémen m
  7. German: Jemen m
  8. Icelandic: Jemen
  9. Italian: Yemen m
  10. Norwegian: Jemen, Republikken Jemen (formal)
  11. Portuguese: Iémen, Iémene, Iêmen m (Brazil), Yémen, República f do Iémen m (formal)
  12. Spanish: Yemen, República f Árabe del Yemen m (formal)
  13. Swedish: Jemen, Yemen

Origin of name: 

from Arabic for right-hand, its position relative to Mecca as seen from Africa

Primary subdivisions: 

Yemen is divided into twenty governorates and one municipality.

GovernorateHASCISOFIPSCdPopulationArea(km.²)Area(mi.²)Capital
AbyanYE.ABABYM0112433,81916,4506,350Zinjibar
`AdanYE.ADADYM0224589,419760290Aden
Al Bayda'YE.BABAYM2014577,3699,2703,580Al Bayda
Al Dali'YE.DLDAYM1830470,5644,0001,540Al Dali'
Al HudaydahYE.HUHUYM08182,157,55213,2505,120Al Hudaydah
Al JawfYE.JAJAYM2116443,79739,50015,250Al Hazm Al Jawf
Al MahrahYE.MRMRYM032888,59467,31025,990Al Ghaydah
Al MahwitYE.MWMWYM1027494,5572,330900Al Mahwit
AmranYE.AMAMYM1929877,7867,9003,050Amran
DhamarYE.DHDHYM11201,330,1087,5902,930Dhamar
HadramawtYE.HDHDYM04191,028,556167,28064,590Al Mukalla
HajjahYE.HJHJYM22171,479,5688,3003,200Hajjah
IbbYE.IBIBYM23112,131,8615,3502,070Ibb
LahijYE.LALAYM2425722,69212,6504,880Lahij
Ma'ribYE.MAMAYM1426238,52217,4506,740Ma'rib
RaymahYE.RMRAYM2731394,448Jabin
Sa`dahYE.SDSDYM1522695,03312,3704,780Sa`dah
San`a'YE.NASNYM1623919,21513,8505,350San`a'
San`a' [City]YE.SASAYM26131,747,834380150San`a'
ShabwahYE.SHSHYM0521470,63539,00015,060`Ataq
Ta`izzYE.TATAYM25152,393,42510,0103,860Ta`izz
21 divisions19,684,603455,000175,680
  • Governorate: except for San`a' [City], which is a municipality.
  • HASC: Hierarchical administrative subdivision codes.
  • ISO: Codes from ISO 3166-2.
  • FIPS: "Geopolitical Entities and Codes."
  • Cd: Governorate code from MOPHP.
  • Population: 2004-12 census, final results (source [2]).
  • Area: Area of Raymah is included in San`a'.

Further subdivisions:

See the Districts of Yemen page.

The governorates are subdivided into 333 districts, which are subdivided into 2,210 sub-districts, and then into 38,284 villages (as of 2001).

Territorial extent: 

Yemen includes the islands of Socotra in the Arabian Sea, along with its neighbors, `Abd al Kuri and The Brothers (Samha and Darsa); in the Red Sea, Kamaran, the Hanish Islands, and others; and Perim in the strait of Bab el Mandeb. The Arabian Sea islands are in Hadramawt governorate. Kamaran is in Al Hudaydah. When there were two Yemens, Kamaran and Perim belonged to South Yemen, but they have apparently been reassigned since then.

Origins of names: 

  1. Aden: probably from Akkadian edinnu: plain
  2. Hadramaut: possibly from Hebrew Hatsarmawet, Biblical person (Genesis 10:26)

Change history: 

In 1900, North Yemen was the vilayet of Yemen in the Ottoman Empire. Aden was a British possession, administered from Bombay. The rest of South Yemen, including Socotra, Perim, and Kamaran islands, was loosely under British protection in various forms.

  1. 1918-11: Yemen vilayet became independent as the Imamate of Yemen.
  2. 1932: Aden province split from Bombay presidency of India.
  3. 1934: Yemen and Saudi Arabia concluded Treaty of Taif, delimiting some of Yemen's northern boundary and assigning some disputed territory to Asir in Saudi Arabia.
  4. 1937-04-01: Aden split from India as a crown colony. The crown colony itself was only about 195 sq. km. Socotra, Perim, and Karaman were administered from Aden. The rest of the mainland was divided into the Eastern Aden Protectorate and the Western Aden Protectorate.
  5. 1958-03-08: Imamate of Yemen joined a loose federation with Egypt and Syria, which had recently merged as the United Arab Republic. The federation was called the United Arab States. Yemen pulled out in 1961.
  6. 1959-02-11: Federation of Arab Amirates formed from some of the sheikhdoms of Aden Protectorate.
  7. 1962: Following a coup, Imamate of Yemen became Yemen Arab Republic. At about this time, its divisions were Al Hudaydah, Hajjah, Ibb, Rida', Sa`dah, San`a', and Ta`izz governorates.
  8. 1963-01: Name of Federation of Arab Amirates, now including more sheikhdoms (mostly from the Western Aden Protectorate) and Aden itself, changed to Federation of South Arabia. The remaining part of the Aden Protectorate became the South Arabian Protectorate.
  9. 1967-11-30: Britain pulled out of Aden. Kuriya Muriya Islands were transferred to Oman. People's Republic of Southern Yemen formed by merging Aden State and Protectorate of South Arabia. Its capital was Madinat ash Sha'b. It was divided into six governorates, identified by Roman numerals from I to VI, increasing from west to east. Roughly, governorate I corresponded to present-day `Adan and part of Lahij; governorate II to the rest of Lahij; III to Abyan; IV to Shabwah; V to Hadramawt; and VI to Al Mahrah. According to the book cited below (at 1980-03), there was also a governorate named Thamud, adjacent to Hadramawt.
  10. ~1968: Capital of Southern Yemen moved from Madinat ash Sha'b to Aden. 22 directorates were established as secondary subdivisions, under the six governorates.
  11. 1970-12-01: Name of People's Republic of Southern Yemen changed to People's Democratic Republic of Yemen. To avoid confusion, this was commonly known as South Yemen, and the Yemen Arab Republic as North Yemen.
  12. ~1980: In North Yemen, Rida' governorate split into Al Bayda' and Dhamar. At about this stage, North Yemen was divided into eight liwa (provinces), as follows (source: Encyclopædia Britannica, 1984 edition).
ProvincePopulationArea(km.²)
Al-Bayda'191,00015,000
Al-Hudaydah764,00035,000
Hajjah573,00017,000
Ibb859,00013,000
Rida'286,00010,000
Sa`dah477,00018,000
San`a'1,910,00080,000
Ta`izz668,00012,000
8 provinces5,728,000200,000
  • Population: 1970 estimate
  1. 1980-03: In South Yemen, Thamud governorate merged with Hadhramawt. The divisions of South Yemen as a result were as follows, according to source [1].
GovernorateNumPopulationArea(km.²)Capital
AbyanIII311,00021,489Zinjibar
AdenI291,0006,980Aden
al-MahraVI61,00066,350Ghaydah
HadhramawtV492,000155,376Mukalla
LahejII273,00012,766Hawatah
ShibwahIV162,00073,908Ataq
6 governorates1,590,000336,869
  • Num: official designator for governorate.
  • Population: 1973-05-14 census.
  • Area: approximate (desert borders undefined).
  1. ~1984: In North Yemen, Al Jawf, Al Mahwit, and Ma'rib governorates split from other governorates.
  2. 1990-05-22: The two Yemens merged to form Republic of Yemen.
  3. ~1994: San`a' city split from San`a' governorate.
  4. 1998-07-29: Amran governorate (HASC code YE.AM, ISO code YE-AM) was formed from parts of Al Mahwit, Hajjah, and San`a' governorates (sources [7]-[9]). Al-Dali' governorate (HASC code YE.DL, ISO code YE-DA) was formed from parts of Ibb, Lahij, and Ta`izz governorates. However, the corresponding update to the FIPS standard implies that the governorates that ceded territory were Al Bayda' (former FIPS code YM07), Al Jawf (YM09), Hajjah (YM12), Ibb (YM13), Lahij (YM06), and Ta`izz (YM17). The table below shows the subdivisions at that time.
GovernorateHASCISOFIPSOldPopulationArea(km.²)Area(mi.²)Capital
AbyanYE.ABABYM01YS03416,27116,4506,350Zinjibar
`AdanYE.ADADYM02YS01564,335760290Aden
Al Bayda'YE.BABAYM20YE01505,7519,2703,580Al Bayda
Al Dali'YE.DLDAYM184,0001,540Al Dali'
Al HudaydahYE.HUHUYM08YE021,754,49313,2505,120Al Hudaydah
Al JawfYE.JAJAYM21YE11169,44039,50015,250Al Hazm Al Jawf
Al MahrahYE.MRMRYM03YS06112,61567,31025,990Al Ghaydah
Al MahwitYE.MWMWYM10YE08402,9922,330900Al Mahwit
AmranYE.AMAMYM197,9003,050Amran
DhamarYE.DHDHYM11YE091,049,1207,5902,930Dhamar
HadramawtYE.HDHDYM04YS05871,202167,28064,590Al Mukalla
HajjahYE.HJHJYM22YE031,265,8458,3003,200Hajjah
IbbYE.IBIBYM23YE041,963,9755,3502,070Ibb
LahijYE.LALAYM24YS02632,67412,6504,880Lahij
Ma'ribYE.MAMAYM14YE10183,05317,4506,740Ma'rib
Sa`dahYE.SDSDYM15YE05484,06312,3704,780Sa`dah
San`a'YE.SNSNYM16YE061,907,96813,8505,350San`a'
San`a' [City]YE.SASA973,548380150San`a'
ShabwahYE.SHSHYM05YS04375,54139,00015,060`Ataq
Ta`izzYE.TATAYM25YE072,198,87110,0103,860Ta`izz
20 divisions15,831,757455,000175,680
  • Governorate: except for San`a' [City], which is a municipality.
  • HASC: Hierarchical administrative subdivision codes.
  • ISO: Codes from ISO 3166-2.
  • FIPS: Codes from FIPS PUB 10-4.
  • Old: FIPS codes used before the union of North and South Yemen.
  • Population: 1994-12-16 census
  1. ~2000: Socotra and neighboring islands transferred from `Adan to Hadramawt.
  2. 2004-02: Raymah governorate split from San`a' (former HASC code YE.SN; sources [3-5]).

Other names of subdivisions: 

The Arabic definite article Al is sometimes omitted at the beginning of a name.

  1. `Adan: Aden (variant)
  2. Al Bayda': Albaidah, Al Baidha, Al-Baydha, Al Beida, Baidaa (variant)
  3. Al Dali': Ad Dali', Aldalee, Al Dhale’, al-Dhalea, Al-Dhaleh, Al-Dhalia, Dala'a, Dhala, Dhali' (variant)
  4. Al Hudaydah: Al Hodeida, Al-Hodeidah, Al Hudaidah, Hodiedah, Hudaidah (variant)
  5. Al Jawf: Al Jouf, Aljowf, Jawf (variant)
  6. Al Mahrah: Al Ghaydah (obsolete); Al-Mahara, Almaharah, al-Mahra, Mahra (variant)
  7. Al Mahwit: Almahweet, Mahweet (variant)
  8. Amran: 'Amran (variant)
  9. Hadramawt: Hadhramaut, Hadhramawt, Hadhramout, Hadramaut, Hadramawt, Hadramout (variant)
  10. Hajjah: Hajja (variant)
  11. Lahij: Laheg, Lahej, Lahj (variant); Tuban (obsolete)
  12. Ma'rib: Mareb (variant)
  13. Raymah: Raima, Raimah (variant)
  14. Sa`dah: Sa'ada, Saadah, Sa'da, Saidah (variant)
  15. San`a': Sana'a (variant)
  16. San`a' [City]: Saná (Spanish); Amanat al Asimah (variant)
  17. Shabwah: 'Shabwa, Shibwah (variant)
  18. Ta`izz: Taez, Taiz (variant)

Sources: 

  1. [1] Ismael, Tareq Y., and Jacqueline S. Ismael, The People's Democratic Republic of Yemen: Politics, Economics and Society. Frances Pinter, London, 1986.
  2. [2] Final Results  of the 2004 census.
  3. [3] Preliminary report of the 2004 census  shows a new governorate named Raymah.
  4. [4] Yemen Ministry of Public Health and Population  had a shapefile that showed that Raymah had been split from San`a'.
  5. [5] The Spring 2004 issue of the Yemen Economic Update, from the World Bank, said, "the Cabinet approved in January 2004, a draft law on setting up a new governorate at Al-Raima to be composed of five districts." (http://lnweb18.worldbank.org/mna/mena.nsf/Attachments/Yemen+Update-Spring2004/$File/YE-Spring2004.pdf: dead link). Other sources implied that the capital would be Jebin.
  6. [6] World Bank  source for the areas of the governorates says that they were measured from topographic maps using a GIS.
  7. [7] Yemen Gateway , an independent organization devoted to the study of Yemen, reported that a presidential decree was issued on 1998-07-29, creating two new governorates: Amran and Al-Dali'. The decree required the approval of parliament to take effect.
  8. [8] Yemen Times Press Review 1998-08-09 .
  9. [9] Yemen Times Press Review 1998-08-16 .
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