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About the Commission

MEMBERS OF THE COMMISSION

Gareth Evans Gareth Evans (Australia), Co-Chair, has been President and Chief Executive of the Brussels-based International Crisis Group since January 2000. He was an Australian Senator and MP from 1978 to 1999, and a Cabinet Minister for thirteen years (1983-96). As Foreign Minister (1988-96), he played prominent roles in developing the UN peace plan for Cambodia, concluding the Chemical Weapons Convention, founding the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum and initiating the Canberra Commission on the Elimination of Nuclear Weapons. He is a Queen's Counsel (1983), and Officer of the Order of Australia (2001). His many publications include Cooperating for Peace (1993) and the article "Cooperative Security and Intrastate Conflict" (Foreign Policy, 1994), for which he won the 1995 Grawemeyer Prize for Ideas Improving World Order.

Mohamed Sahnoun Mohamed Sahnoun (Algeria), Co-Chair, is a Special Advisor to the UN Secretary-General and has previously served as Special Envoy of the Secretary-General on the Ethiopian/Eritrean conflict 1999; Joint United Nations/Organization of African Unity (OAU) Special Representative for the Great Lakes Region of Africa (1997); and Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Somalia (March-October 1992). He was also a member of the World Commission on Environment and Development (the Brundtland Commission). A senior Algerian diplomat, he served as Ambassador to Germany, France, the United States, and Morocco, and as Permanent Representative to the United Nations in New York. He also served as Deputy Secretary-General of both the Organization of African Unity and the Arab League.

Gis?le C“t‚-Harper Gisèle Côté-Harper (Canada) is a barrister and professor of law at Laval University, Québec. She has been a member, among numerous other bodies, of the UN Human Rights Committee, the Inter-American Institute of Human Rights and the Québec Human Rights Commission. She was Chair of the Board of the International Centre for Human Rights and Democratic Development (Montréal) 1990-96 and a member of the official Canadian delegation to the Fourth World Conference on Women, Beijing 1995. She was awarded the Lester B. Pearson Peace Medal in 1995, and in 1997 became an Officer of the Order of Canada, as well as receiving the Québec Bar Medal. Among her published works is Traité de droit pénal canadien (4th ed., 1998).

Lee Hamilton Lee Hamilton (United States) is Director of the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Washington DC, and Director of the Center on Congress at Indiana University. A member of the US Congress from 1965 to 1999, his distinguished record includes Chairmanships of the Committee on International Relations, the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, and the Joint Economic Committee. He has served on a number of commissions dealing with international issues, including the Task Force on Strengthening Palestinian Public Institutions, the Task Force on the Future of International Financial Architecture, and the Council of Foreign Relations Independent Task Force on US-Cuban Relations in the 21st Century, as well as numerous other panels, committees and boards.

Michael Ignatieff Michael Ignatieff (Canada) is currently Carr Professor of Human Rights Practice at the Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University. He is also a Senior Fellow of the 21st Century Trust, and served as a member of the Independent International Commission on Kosovo. Since 1984, he has worked as a free-lance writer, broadcaster, historian, moral philosopher and cultural analyst. He has written extensively on ethnic conflict, and most recently on the various conflicts in the Balkans, including Virtual War: Kosovo and Beyond. He has also authored numerous other works, including a biography of the liberal philosopher Isaiah Berlin. The Russian Album, a family memoir, won Canada's Governor General's Literary Award and the Heinemann Prize of Britain's Royal Society of Literature in 1988. His second novel, Scar Tissue, was short-listed for the Booker Prize in 1993.

Vladimir LukinVladimir Lukin (Russia) is currently Deputy Speaker of the Russian State Duma. He worked at the Institute of World Economics and International Relations, Moscow (1961-65) and the Institute of US and Canadian Studies of the USSR Academy of Sciences (1968-87). He also served from 1965-68 as an editor of the international journal Problems of the World and Socialism in Prague, but was expelled for opposing the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968. He joined the USSR Foreign Ministry in 1987 and served as Russian Ambassador to the USA (1992-93). He was elected a Deputy to the Supreme Soviet of the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic in 1990 and to the State Duma of the Russian Federation in 1993. In that year he helped found the Yabloko Faction, a party which he still represents. He served as Chair of the International Affairs Committee of the Duma (1995-99).

Klaus Naumann Klaus Naumann (Germany) served as Chairman of the North Atlantic Military Committee of NATO (1996-99) and played a central role in managing the Kosovo crisis and in developing NATO's new integrated military command structure. He joined the German Bundeswehr in 1958. As a colonel, he served on the staff of the German Military Representative to the NATO Military Committee in Brussels in 1981-82. He was promoted to Brigadier General in 1986, followed by a two star assignment as Assistant Chief of Staff of the Federal Armed Forces. He was promoted to Four Star General in 1991 and appointed at the same time Chief of Staff, a position he held until becoming Chairman of the North Atlantic Military Committee. After retirement, he served as a member of the Panel on United Nations Peace Operations.

Cyril Ramaphosa Cyril Ramaphosa (South Africa) is currently Executive Chairman of Rebserve, a major South African service and facilities management company. He was elected Secretary-General of the African National Congress in June 1991, but left politics for business in 1996. He played a major role in building the biggest and most powerful trade union in South Africa, the National Union of Mineworkers from 1982 onwards. A lawyer by training, his university years were interrupted by periods in jail for political activities. He played a crucial role in negotiations with the former South African regime to bring about a peaceful end to apartheid and steer the country towards its first democratic elections in April 1994, after which he was elected chair of the new Constitutional Assembly. He received the Olaf Palme prize in October 1987 and was invited to participate in the Northern Ireland peace process in May 2000.

Fidel Ramos Fidel Ramos (Philippines) served as President of the Republic of the Philippines from 1992-98, and has, since 1999, been Chairman of the Ramos Peace and Development Foundation which deals with Asia-Pacific security, sustainable development, democratic governance and economic diplomacy. Prior to becoming President, he had a long and distinguished military and police career, including service in both the Korean and Vietnam wars. He became Deputy Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines in 1981, and Chief of Staff in 1986, and subsequently served as Secretary of National Defense from 1988-91. He played a central role in peace negotiations with Muslim rebels in the southern Philippines, and wrote Break Not the Peace, a book about that peace process.

Cornelio Sommaruga Cornelio Sommaruga (Switzerland) is currently President of the Caux Foundation for Moral Re-Armament as well as President of the Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining. He is, in addition, a member of the Board of the Open Society Institute, Budapest and served as a member of the Panel on United Nations Peace Operations. Prior to that, he was President of the International Committee of the Red Cross (1987-1999). From 1984-1986 he served as Switzerland's State Secretary for External Economic Affairs. From 1960, he had had a long and distinguished career as a Swiss diplomat, including a period from 1973 as Deputy Secretary-General of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) in Geneva. In 1977-78 he served as President of the UN Economic Commission for Europe.

Eduardo Stein Eduardo Stein (Guatemala) is currently working with UNDP in Panama and served as Head of the OAS Observer Mission to Peru's May 2000 general elections. He was Guatemalan Foreign Minister (1996-2000), a position in which he played a key role in overseeing the Guatemalan peace negotiations, particularly in marshalling international support. He lectured in Universities in Guatemala and Panama from 1971-80 and 1985-87, and from 1982 to 1993 was based in Panama and worked on various regional development projects within the Latin American Economic System (SELA) and the Contadora Group. This involved cooperation with various Latin American countries, the European Community and the Nordic countries. From December 1993 to 1995, he was Resident Representative in Panama of the International Organization for Migration.

Ramesh Thakur Ramesh Thakur (India) has been Vice-Rector of the United Nations University, Tokyo, since 1998, in charge of the University's Peace and Governance Program. Educated in India and Canada, he was a lecturer, then Professor of International Relations at the University of Otago (New Zealand) from 1980 to 1995. He was then appointed Professor and Head of the Peace Research Centre at the Australian National University in Canberra where he was involved in the Non-Proliferation Treaty Review and Extension Conference, drafting of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and the International Campaign to Ban Landmines. He was also a consultant to the Canberra Commission on the Elimination of Nuclear Weapons. He is the author of numerous books and articles, including Past Imperfect, Future Uncertain: the United Nations at Fifty, and in 2000 co-edited Kosovo and the Challenge of Humanitarian Intervention.